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1

The Space Science Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Science Group is part of the Division of Mathematics and Sciences at Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, La. The mission of The Space Science Group is to provide activities that encourage participation in math and science, build knowledge of basic concepts, teach basic science skill, and positively influence attitudes. The mission of The Space Science Group is to develop and implement programs which use aspects of the space program to motivate students to study mathematics and science. Many Space Science Group programs are described at the URL below.

1997-01-01

2

Space Group Symmetry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, students are given space group symmetry diagrams for primitive (P) orthorhombic space groups. For each diagram they must write down the symmetry axis (either 2 or 21) that is parallel to each major axis, and give the symmetry plane (a, b, c, n, or m) that is normal (perpendicular)to each. They must also give the simplified Hermann-Mauguin symbol for the space group.

3

Revised Distances, Kinematics, and Classifications of the Nearest Stellar Groups within 100 pc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the recent interest in assigning membership of low-mass or substellar field objects to clusters of "known" age, a modern analysis of the distances, kinematics, memberships, and physicality of purported nearby young stellar groups is needed. Van Leeuwen (2007) recently published a new astrometric analysis of data from the Hipparcos mission. Here I use the revised Hipparcos astrometry to estimate updated distances and parameters for the young stellar groups with obvious nuclei previously reported to lie within 100 pc of the Sun (except for the Hyades and Coma Ber, which were reported by van Leeuwen). Among the highlights of the results reported are: (1) the revised mean distances to the nuclei of the following groups: AB Dor (20.1+-1.5 pc), Ursa Major (25.2+-0.3 pc), Carina-Near (32.7+-1.2 pc), Tucana (43.0+-1.0 pc), TW Hya (52.7+-3.0 pc), 32 Ori (92.9+-2.4 pc), and eta Cha (94.3+-1.2 pc), (2) the 5-Myr-old epsilon Cha group appears to be the nearest known group associated with molecular gas (117+-4 pc), (3) the 8 Myr-old eta Cha cluster is the densest cluster within 100 pc ( 36 Msun/pc3), (4) the convergent point for the AB Dor group nucleus appears to be near its geometric center, a phenomena unique among nearby kinematic groups, and (5) the intrinsic 1D velocity dispersions of the nuclei are all remarkably similar (all 1 km/s), and are larger than that predicted assuming the nuclei are virialized (typically <0.5 km/s). This discrepancy is likely to be due to stellar multiplicity affecting the projected photocentric motions of the nuclear members. I present evidence suggesting that the purported clusters Chereul 2, Chereul 3, Latyshev 2, and Polaris are probably unphysical. With refined kinematic parameters for the nearby stellar groups, one can now conduct a more refined membership analysis for others stars purported to be distant ``members'' of these groups.

Mamajek, Eric E.

2010-01-01

4

POTENTIAL MEMBERS OF STELLAR KINEMATIC GROUPS WITHIN 30 pc OF THE SUN  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the kinematic histories of stars within 30 pc of the Sun, for which three-dimensional spatial coordinates and three-dimensional velocity vectors are available. From this sample, we extract members of stellar kinematic groups (SKGs) in the following manner. First, we consider in the three-dimensional velocity space centered on the local standard of rest, a sphere with a radius of 8 km s{sup -1} centered on the mean velocity vector of a particular SKG. Around each SKG velocity center, we have found a significant excess of stars compared to background field stars. For each candidate, in the three-dimensional spatial coordinate space, its trajectory is traced back in time by the age of the relevant SKG to obtain the estimated distance from the SKG center at the time of the SKG's birth by the epicyclic approximation and harmonic vertical motion. It often happens that a star is a candidate member of multiple SKGs. Then we rank the candidacy to multiple SKGs based on the smallness of distance separations. In this manner, we have kinematically selected 238 candidates. We further impose at least one of the following qualitative criteria for being a member: spectral type A or B, variability, or EUV and X-ray emission. We have finally selected 137 candidate members of SKGs out of a sample of 966 stars.

Nakajima, Tadashi; Morino, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: tadashi.nakajima@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2012-01-15

5

POTENTIAL MEMBERS OF STELLAR KINEMATICAL GROUPS WITHIN 20 pc OF THE SUN  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the kinematical histories of stars within 20 pc of the Sun, for which three-dimensional spatial coordinates and three-dimensional velocity vectors are available. From this sample, we extract members of stellar kinematical groups (SKGs) in the following manner. First, in the three-dimensional velocity space centered on the local standard of rest, we consider a sphere with a radius of 8 km s{sup -1} centered on the mean velocity vector of a particular SKG. Around each SKG velocity center, we have found a significant excess of stars compared to background stars. For each candidate, in the three-dimensional spatial coordinate space, its trajectory is traced back in time by the age of the relevant SKG, to estimate the distance from the SKG center at the time of the SKG's birth by the epicycle approximation and vertical harmonic motion. It often happens that a star is a candidate member of multiple SKGs. Then we rank the candidacy to multiple SKGs based on the smallness of distance separations. In this manner, we have kinematically selected 74 candidate members of SKGs out of a sample of 383 stars. If we take into account stellar properties, the number is reduced to 68.

Nakajima, Tadashi; Morino, Jun-Ichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fukagawa, Misato, E-mail: tadashi.nakajima@nao.ac.j [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

2010-09-15

6

Aeritalia Space Systems Group, Turin, Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeritalia has been involved in European space programs since the early 1960's. Space activities grew to the point that in 1984 Aeritalia established a separate Space Systems Group (SSG), located in Turin. Today, SSG is involved in dozens of projects, some of them jointly with NASA and U.S. aerospace companies. Here, several of the major projects, such as the Tethered Satellite system, HIPPARCOS, Columbus Pressurized Module, Italian Research Interim Stage, and others are briefly described.

Donlan, Vincent

1989-01-01

7

Distribution of mica polytypes among space groups.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All the possible space groups for mica polytypes are deduced by making use of the characteristics of the mica unit layer and stacking mode. The algebraic properties of the vector-stacking symbol of Ross et al. (1966) are examined, and a simple algorithm for deducing the space group from this symbol is presented. A method considered for enumerating all possible stacking sequences of mica polytypes makes use of a computer.

Takeda, H.

1971-01-01

8

Fourier-Space Crystallography as Group Cohomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

David Mermin has argued persuasively that the theoretical significance of quasicrystals lies not so much in relaxing the requirement of periodicity as in replacing exact identity of a density function (e.g., electronic or mass) under symmetry operations with indistinguishability of correlation functions, as expressed in Fourier space.(N.D. Mermin, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 151), 275 (1995) and references. After reviewing the formalism of Fourier-space crystallography (phase functions and gauge transformations), we present a new formulation in the language of cohomology of groups. First we reexpress the classification of space groups in terms of a first cohomology group; we then show how recent work by König and Mermin(A. König and N.D. Mermin, Am. J. Phys. 68), 525 (2000). on band sticking in nonsymmorphic crystals derives naturally from a first homology group and discuss its connection to a second cohomology group. The new language lets us prove generally several theorems previously known only in special cases. Finally, we let the listener decide whether we're just ``speaking prose.''(N.D. Mermin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 64), 3 (1992).

Rabson, David; Fisher, Benji

2001-03-01

9

Teaching Space Group Symmetry through Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symmetry in the solid state is often neglected in chemical education. Worked examples of high symmetry structures including NaCl, CaF2, K2SiF6, hexamethylenetetramine, and cubane help the student visualize space group symmetry. The student first determines the number of molecules or formula units per cell from the density and unit-cell dimensions. The numbers of atoms of each element are then compared with the numbers of equivalent general or special positions for the space group. Atoms are then placed in positions in the unit cell consistent with the geometry expected for the molecule or ion. References are then given to 11 other compounds suitable for this type of analysis.

Hardgrove, George L., Jr.

1997-07-01

10

Teaching Space Group Symmetry through Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetry in the solid state is often neglected in chemical education. Worked examples of high symmetry structures including NaCl, CaF2, K2SiF6, hexamethylenetetramine, and cubane help the student visualize space group symmetry. The student first determines the number of molecules or formula units per cell from the density and unit-cell dimensions. The numbers of atoms of each element are then compared

George L. Hardgrove Jr.

1997-01-01

11

NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

2011-01-01

12

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and Space Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space enviro...

1973-01-01

13

The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Executive summaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of a space shuttle payload planning group session are presented. The purpose of the workshop is: (1) to provide guidance for the design and development of the space shuttle and the spacelab and (2) to plan a space science and applications program for the 1980 time period. Individual groups were organized to cover the various space sciences, applications, technologies, and life sciences. Summaries of the reports submitted by the working groups are provided.

1973-01-01

14

The latitudinal structure of Pc 5 waves in space - Magnetic and electric field observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The occurrence frequency and spatial structure of Pc 5 magnetic pulsations in the dawnside of the plasma trough have been studied using data from the Ogo 5 satellite. The wave magnetic fields were obtained from the University of California, Los Angeles, flux-gate magnetometer measurements, and one component of the wave electric field was inferred from oscillations of the ion flux measured by the Lockheed light ion mass spectrometer. During portions of seven of the 19 passes comprising the survey, Pc 5 oscillations were observed in the ion flux but not in the magnetic field, and in each case the satellite was within 10 deg of the geomagnetic equator. Above 10 deg latitude, transverse magnetic and electric oscillations were both observed. The results are consistent with the model of a standing Alfven wave along a resonant field line with the geomagnetic equator as a node of the magnetic perturbation, that is, an odd mode.

Singer, H. J.; Kivelson, M. G.

1979-01-01

15

PC Farms  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, PCs have achieved performance comparable to the high-end UNIX workstations, at a small fraction of the price. Commodity PCs have become the solution to CPU needs, even for large scale computing in high energy physics, nuclear physics, space sciences, and many other #12;elds. We report on their devel- opment and applications, and look forward to the important and exciting future of large scale PC computing.

G.P. Yeh

1998-12-01

16

Mappings of homogeneous groups and imbeddings of functional spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying the functional space ~, we obtain each time a new problem (see [2-7], where one has considered several characteristic cases of isotropic spaces of differentiab!e functions). In this paper we investigate a similar problem for functional spaces, defined on an arbitrary homogeneous group. Model examples are the fundamental anisotropic spaces of differentiable functions. The corresponding mappings have qualitative new

S. K. Vodop'yanov

1989-01-01

17

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 10: Space Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) phy...

1973-01-01

18

Computations in isometry groups of finite metric spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meaningful analysis of the structure or properties of a finite metric space requires using its isometry group. This is the group of permutations on the set of points in the space that preserves the binary relations {open_quotes}the points x and y are at a given distance from one another.{close_quotes} The theory of isometry groups of finite metric spaces is

A. G. Ganyushkin; V. I. Sushchanskii; V. V. Tsvirkunov

1995-01-01

19

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups: Executive Summaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of a space shuttle payload planning group session are presented. The purpose of the workshop is: (1) to provide guidance for the design and development of the space shuttle and the spacelab and (2) to plan a space science and applications pro...

1973-01-01

20

The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

1993-01-01

21

Actuator Grouping Optimization on Flexible Space Reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the rapid advances in deployable membrane and mesh antenna technologies, the feasibility of developing large, lightweight reflectors has greatly improved. In order to achieve the required surface accuracy, precision surface control is needed on these lightweight reflectors. For this study, an analytical model is shown which combines a flexible Kapton reflector with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuators for surface control. Surface errors are introduced that are similar to real world scenarios, and a least squares control algorithm is developed for surface control. Experimental results on a 2.4 meter reflector show that while the analytical reflector model is generally correct, due to idiosyncrasies in the reflector it cannot be used for online control. A new method called the En Mass Elimination algorithm is used to determine the optimal grouping of actuators when the number of actuators in the system exceeds the number of power supplies available.

Hill, Jeffrey R.; Wang, K. W.; Fang, Houfei; Quijano, Ubaldo

2011-01-01

22

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups: Volume 9: Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat an...

1973-01-01

23

PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

Truong, Long V.

1995-01-01

24

An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

Emanuel, E. M.

1986-01-01

25

Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

Ngendakumana, Ancille; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim; Todjihoundé, Leonard

2014-01-01

26

Epigenetic chromatin modifiers in barley: IV. The study of barley Polycomb group (PcG) genes during seed development and in response to external ABA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic phenomena have been associated with the regulation of active and silent chromatin states achieved by modifications of chromatin structure through DNA methylation, and histone post-translational modifications. The latter is accomplished, in part, through the action of PcG (Polycomb group) protein complexes which methylate nucleosomal histone tails at specific sites, ultimately leading to chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Different

Aliki Kapazoglou; Alessandro Tondelli; Dimitra Papaefthimiou; Helen Ampatzidou; Enrico Francia; Michele A Stanca; Konstantinos Bladenopoulos; Athanasios S Tsaftaris

2010-01-01

27

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and space physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space environment of the earth, (2) to perform plasma physics investigations not feasible in ground-based laboratories, and (3) to conduct investigations which are important in understanding planetary and cometary phenomena. The core instrumentation and laboratory configurations for conducting the investigations are defined.

1973-01-01

28

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 10: Space technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) physics and chemistry laboratory, (4) contamination experiments, and (5) laser information/data transmission technology. The space technology mission model is presented in tabular form. The proposed experiments to be conducted by each test facility are described. Recommended approaches for user community interfacing are included.

1973-01-01

29

Double antisymmetry and the rotation-reversal space groups.  

PubMed

Rotation-reversal symmetry was recently introduced to generalize the symmetry classification of rigid static rotations in crystals such as tilted octahedra in perovskite structures and tilted tetrahedra in silica structures. This operation has important implications for crystallographic group theory, namely that new symmetry groups are necessary to properly describe observations of rotation-reversal symmetry in crystals. When both rotation-reversal symmetry and time-reversal symmetry are considered in conjunction with space-group symmetry, it is found that there are 17,803 types of symmetry which a crystal structure can exhibit. These symmetry groups have the potential to advance understanding of polyhedral rotations in crystals, the magnetic structure of crystals and the coupling thereof. The full listing of the double antisymmetry space groups can be found in the supplementary materials of the present work and at http://sites.psu.edu/gopalan/research/symmetry/. PMID:24419168

VanLeeuwen, Brian K; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Litvin, Daniel B

2014-01-01

30

Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

1992-01-01

31

The origin of space group violations in a lunar orthopyroxene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space group of an orthopyroxene (En86) from a deep crustal lunar rock (sample 76535) that was previously reported as having space group P21 ca has been re-examined on an automated X-ray diffractometer. In addition to diffractions violating the b-glide of the conventional space group, Pbca (0kl,k-odd) reported in the earlier study, diffractions violating the a-glide of Pbca are also present. Careful examination of both the a-glide- and b-glide-violations shows them to be sharp, with no evidence of diffuse streaks parallel to a *, and with consistent intensities at several rotations about ?. Diffractions violating the b-glide are in registry with the host, however, those violating the a-glide appear to be out of registry and result from a cell with a slightly longer a of about 18.4 Å, consistent with previous electron diffraction studies. The most reasonable explanation for the observed space group violations is that both the a- and b-glide violations result from ordering of Ca into (100) Guinier-Preston (G-P) zones that possess orthopyroxene topology, but have space group P21/c and a cell of a=18.4 Å, b=8.83 Å, c=5.18 Å, and ?=90.0°; whereas the Cadepleted host has space group Pbca and a cell of a= 18.230(6) Å, b = 8.828(2) Å, and c=5.1946(9) Å. In addition to the G-P zones which may compose 12% or more of the sample, the crystal contains (100) lamellae of pigeonite, and other samples from the same rock contain lamellae of augite.

Smyth, Joseph R.; Swope, R. Jeffrey

1990-12-01

32

Radiological Protection in Space: Indication from the ICRP Task Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established a Task Group (Radiation Protection in Space) dealing with the problems of radiation protection of astronauts in space missions. Its first task is a report on "Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space". When the ICRP published its general recommendations for radiological protection in 2007 (ICRP Publication 103 following ICRP Publication 60 (1991)) it was obvious that these recommendations do not really consider the special situation of astronauts in space. The radiation field with its high content of charged particles of very high energies strongly differs from usual radiation fields on ground. For example, this has consequences for the assessment of doses in the body of astronauts. The ICRP Task Group has discussed this situation and the presentation will deal with some consequences for the concept of radiation dosimetry and radiological protection in space. This includes e. g. the assessment of organ doses and the application of the effective dose concept with its definition of radiation weighting factors. Radiation quality of high energy heavy ions may be defined different than usually performed on ground. An approach of using the quality factor concept in the definition of an "effective dose" is favored for application in space missions similar to the method proposed in NCRP Report 142. New data calculated on the basis of the reference anthropomorphic voxel phantoms recommended by ICRP support this procedure. Individual dosimetry is a further subject of discussion in the Task Group. While the operational dose equivalent quantities generally in use in radiation protection on ground are not helpful for applications in space, different procedures of the assessment of organ and effective doses are applied. The Task Group is dealing with this situation.

Dietze, Günther

33

SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CENTRAL 14 pc OF NGC 3998: EVIDENCE FOR AN INFLOW  

SciTech Connect

Prior imaging of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 3998, with the Hubble Space Telescope revealed a small, highly inclined, nuclear ionized gas disk, the kinematics of which indicate the presence of a 270 million solar mass black hole. Plausible kinematic models are used to constrain the size of the broad emission line region (BELR) in NGC 3998 by modeling the shape of the broad H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} emission line profiles. The analysis indicates that the BELR is large with an outer radius {approx}7 pc, regardless of whether the kinematic model is represented by an accretion disk or a spherically symmetric inflow. The electron temperature in the BELR is {<=} 28,800 K consistent with photoionization by the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Indeed, the AGN is able to sustain the ionization of the BELR, albeit with a high covering factor ranging between 20% and 100% depending on the spectral energy distribution adopted for the AGN. The high covering factor favors a spherical distribution for the gas as opposed to a thin disk. If the gas density is {>=}7 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} as indicated by the broad forbidden [S II] emission line ratio, then interpreting the broad H{alpha} emission line in terms of a steady state spherically symmetric inflow leads to a rate {<=} 6.5 x 10{sup -2} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of a radiatively inefficient inflow by a factor of {<=}18.

Devereux, Nick, E-mail: devereux@erau.edu [Department of Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301 (United States)

2011-02-01

34

The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

1973-01-01

35

Real-space parallel density matrix renormalization group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate how to parallelize the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm in real space through a straightforward modification of serial DMRG. This makes it possible to apply at least an order of magnitude more computational power to challenging simulations, greatly accelerating investigations of two-dimensional systems and large parameter spaces. We discuss details of the algorithm and present benchmark results including a study of valence-bond-solid order within the square-lattice Q2 model and Néel order within the triangular lattice Heisenberg model. The parallel DMRG algorithm also motivates an alternative canonical form for matrix product states.

Stoudenmire, E. M.; White, Steven R.

2013-04-01

36

System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.

Brockett, R. W.

1972-01-01

37

Dynamical real space renormalization group applied to sandpile models.  

PubMed

A general framework for the renormalization group analysis of self-organized critical sandpile models is formulated. The usual real space renormalization scheme for lattice models when applied to nonequilibrium dynamical models must be supplemented by feedback relations coming from the stationarity conditions. On the basis of these ideas the dynamically driven renormalization group is applied to describe the boundary and bulk critical behavior of sandpile models. A detailed description of the branching nature of sandpile avalanches is given in terms of the generating functions of the underlying branching process. PMID:11969882

Ivashkevich, E V; Povolotsky, A M; Vespignani, A; Zapperi, S

1999-08-01

38

Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

1987-01-01

39

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 1: Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The space astronomy missions to be accomplished by the space shuttle are discussed. The principal instrument is the Large Space Telescope optimized for the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, but usable also in the infrared. Two infrared tele...

1973-01-01

40

Report of the Working Group on Space/Lunar Tradeoffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The group discussed the advantages and disadvantages of five locations for an optical/infrared array: low-Earth orbit (LEO), Sun-synchronous Earth-orbit, geosynchronous orbit (GEO), Lagrangian points (L4 and L5), and the lunar surface. The factors affecting an array and our assessments of them are given and briefly discussed. In the discussions, two axioms are assumed: (1) Human expansion into space and to the Moon will occur; and (2) The Space Station will be constructed and operational. The major conclusion reached is that baselines of moderate size (greater than 300 m) are best done on the Moon and that large baselines (greater than 10 km) can be done only on the Moon. Three areas needing additional research were identified as follows. (1) Studies are needed on methods to steer long-baseline systems in orbit. This involves learning how to control free-flyers. It is not clear how the difficulty of control varies with orbital elevation. (2) More work is needed on the internal metrology of array systems, both orbital and lunar-surface systems.(3) We need to understand the radiation effects on detectors and electronics and learn how to mitigate them.

1992-01-01

41

Antiferrodistortive phase transition in Pb(Ti0.48Zr0.52)O3: Space group of the lowest temperature monoclinic phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ranjan et al. [Phys. Rev. B 65, 060102(R) (2002)] have recently presented results of a powder neutron-diffraction study of the high-temperature monoclinic (FHTM) to low-temperature monoclinic (FLTM) phase transition in Pb(Ti1-xZrx)O3 discovered by Ragini et al. [Phys. Rev. B 64, 054101 (2001)]. They attribute the presence of superlattice reflections in the diffraction data to tilting of oxygen octahedra and propose a monoclinic space group Pc for the FLTM phase. It is shown that for the model proposed by Ranjan et al., the correct space group of the FLTM phase should be Cc. This has also been corroborated by a group-theoretical approach to the problem. A different set of refined structural parameters for the Cc space group obtained from the Rietveld analysis of the powder neutron-diffraction data of Ranjan et al. is also presented.

Hatch, D. M.; Stokes, H. T.; Ranjan, Rajeev; Ragini; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, Dhananjai; Kennedy, Brendan J.

2002-06-01

42

Ducting Characteristics of Pc 1-2 Waves at High Latitudes on the Ground and in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-defined Pc 1-2 type geomagnetic pulsations and poleward ducting have been observed from a ground array of search-coil magnetometers in the morning sector of Antarctica. With extensive coverage from geomagnetic latitudes of 62° to 87° and good alignment along the magnetic meridian, the five search-coil magnetometers operating aboard American Automated Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) and British Antarctic Survey (BAS) showed very clear poleward ducting with spectral power attenuation of the ULF waves. Halley Station, located at the lowest latitude, observed the highest spectral wave power and well-defined band-limited signatures with the same wave event, showing less wave power, found at the other four remote stations at higher latitudes. This is a clear implication of the poleward ducting of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the ionospheric waveguide, which are generated from the equatorial magnetosphere along the geomagnetic field lines and transmitted to the ionosphere. Since the wave event was observed over a very wide range in latitude, the observation of the wave propagation will provide significant information on the ULF wave ducting in the waveguide and the source region. This study focuses on the ducting event by comparing the attenuation in the spectral power, the time-delays, and the polarization of the waves recorded from the ground stations. In addition, CHAMP satellite data analysis is also presented to validate the wave ducting.

Kim, H.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M.

2008-05-01

43

Metricization of Thermodynamic State Space and the Renormalization Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After introducing a suitable Riemannian metric in thermodynamic state space, with a simple statistical thermodynamic interpretation, the authors suggest that the existence of scaling must imply the existence of a conformal Killing vector field in the neig...

L. Diosi G. Forgacs B. Lukacs H. L. Frisch

1983-01-01

44

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 8: Earth and Ocean Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings and recommendations of the Earth and Ocean Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The requirements for the space shuttle mission are defined as: (1) precision measurement for earth and ocean physic...

1973-01-01

45

Working Group 2 Summary:. Space Charge Effects in Bending Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants in Working Group 2 included: Y. Batygin, C. Bohn, B. Carlsten, J. Ellison, P. Emma, Z. Huang, A. Kabel, R. Kishek, R. Li, P. Musumeci, S. Nagaitsev, J. Qiang, M. Reiser, A. Ruggerio, R. Warnock, and M. Zeitlin.

Bohn, Courtlandt L.; Emma, Paul J.

2000-12-01

46

Group calls for space policies to transcend politics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a 22 May briefing, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) called on Congress to “establish space exploration policy goals which transcend partisan political differences.” AIAA president and former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said the “goal of establishing human capability to b e a space-faring species is not a short-term goal,” nor is it a goal that belongs to only one political party. “We will not reach long-term goals without a stable, coherent, sensible plan that transcends elections and leaders,” said Griffin, who has provided advice to Republican U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Griffin pointed to NASA's 2008 authorization as providing the kind of vision needed for NASA. The act called for human return to the Moon and preparation for the capability for permanent bases on the Moon, among other things, he said. “That's the kind of thing that we need. All of the goals espoused by the 2008 act were long-term, generational, strategic in scope,” Griffin said, adding that the act, which had bipartisan support, demonstrated “the kind of societal support, rather than political support, that I believe our space program deserves.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-06-01

47

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 6: Communications and Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of the Communications and Navigation working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The basic goals to be accomplished are to increase the use of space systems and to develop new space capabilities for providing c...

1973-01-01

48

Polyimides Containing Pendent Phosphine Oxide Groups for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an ongoing materials development activity to produce high performance polymers that are durable to the space environment, phosphine oxide containing polyimides have been under investigation. A novel dianhydride was prepared from 2,5-dihydroxyphenyldiphenylphosphine oxide in good yield. The dianhydride was reacted with commercially available diamines, and a previously reported diamine was reacted with commercially available dianhydrides to prepare isomeric polyimides. The physical and mechanical properties, particularly thermal and optical properties, of the polymers were determined. One material exhibited a high glass transition temperature, high tensile properties, and low solar absorptivity. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of these resins will be discussed.

Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Watson, K. A.; Connell, J. W.

2002-01-01

49

Invariant-theoretic method for calculating Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for space groups  

SciTech Connect

A new invariant-theoretic method to directly calculate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for space and point groups representations is proposed. The method is exemplified with the space groups O{sub h}{sup 5} and D{sub 6h}{sup 1}. 34 refs.

Aizenberg, A.Ya.; Gufan, Yu.M. [North Caucasus Research Center, Rostov-na-Donu (Russian Federation)

1995-03-01

50

Algebraic loop groups and moduli spaces of bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We study algebraic loop groups and affine Grassmannians in positive characteristic. The main results are normality of Schubert-varieties,\\u000a the construction of line-bundles on the affine Grassmannian, and the proof that they induce line-bundles on the moduli-stack\\u000a of torsors.

Gerd Faltings

2003-01-01

51

Marathons versus Spaced Groups: Skin Conductance and the Effects of Time Distribution on Encounter Group Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Randomly assigned 41 students to 2 twice-weekly groups, which met for 3 hours eight times; 2 marathons, which met continuously for 24 hours; and nontreatment control group. Treatment groups had significant positive changes on 14 of 15 measured personality variables between pre- and post-test, and positive change on all dependent measures between…

Loomis, Thomas P.

1988-01-01

52

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 6: Communications and navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of the Communications and Navigation working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The basic goals to be accomplished are to increase the use of space systems and to develop new space capabilities for providing communication and navigation services to the user community in the 1980 time period. Specific experiments to be conducted for improving space communication and navigation capabilities are defined. The characteristics of the experimental equipment required to accomplish the mission are discussed.

1973-01-01

53

Exploration of the Chemical Space of Group 4 Polymer Dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current standards for capacitive energy storage applications are polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) which have large band gap and high breakdown strength, but a small dielectric constant. The envisaged next generation dielectric should provide high dielectric constant, while still preserving the insulating characteristics of PP and PE. To meet these growing needs, we use high throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations in combination with machine learning (ML) methods to identify classes of polymers with large dielectric constant and band gap. In our work, we consider various possible local chemical modifications to polyethylene (PE). To be specific, we allow the -CH2- unit in the PE backbone segment to be replaced by -SiF2-, -SiCl2-, -GeF2-, -GeCl2-, -SnF2-, or -SnCl2- units in a systematic manner. High throughput methods were used first to accurately determine the dielectric constant and band gap of the chemically modified PE chains for a set of limited compositions and configurations. ML methods were then used to predict the properties of systems spanning a much larger part of the configurational and compositional space. A set of most promising PE modifications (with simultaneously large dielectric constant and band gap) is identified using this strategy.

Wang, Chenchen; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

2013-03-01

54

MCMC-Particle-based group tracking of space objects within Bayesian framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the intense increase in space objects, especially space debris, it is necessary to efficiently track and catalog the extensive dense clusters of space objects. As the main instrument for low earth orbit (LEO) space surveillance, ground-based radar system is usually limited by its resolution while tracking small space debris with high density. Thus, the obtained measurement information could have been seriously missed, which makes the traditional tracking method inefficient. To address this issue, we conceived the concept of group tracking. For group tracking, the overall tendency of the group objects is expected to be revealed, and the trajectories of individual objects are simultaneously reconstructed explicitly. According to model the interaction between the group center and individual trajectories using the Markov random field (MRF) within Bayesian framework, the objects' number and individual trajectory can be estimated more accurately in the condition of high miss alarm probability. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-Particle algorithm was utilized for solving the Bayesian integral problem. Furthermore, we introduced the mechanism for describing the behaviors of groups merging and splitting, which can expand the single group tracking algorithm to track variable multiple groups. Finally, simulation of the group tracking of space objects was carried out to validate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong

2014-01-01

55

Concise tables of James numbers and some homotopy of classical Lie groups and associated homogeneous spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following tables express the James numbers and homotopy groups of the homogeneous spaces involved in the Bott maps, with the exception of the Grassmann manifolds, in as concise a manner as we know, consistant with displaying the various periodicities involved. Throughout the tables of groups c~ has been used to represent the infinite cyclic group Z, and an integer

ALBERT T. LUNDELL

56

Group theoretical quantization and the example of a phase space S1×R+  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group theoretical quantization scheme is reconsidered by means of elementary systems. Already the quantization of a particle on a circle shows that the standard procedure has to be supplemented by an additional condition on the admissibility of group actions. A systematic strategy for finding admissible group actions for particular subbundles of cotangent spaces is developed, two-dimensional prototypes of which

Martin Bojowald; Thomas Strobl

2000-01-01

57

Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.  

PubMed

A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate. PMID:23893983

Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

2013-10-01

58

Space Group of Beta-Ga203, Its Morphology, and Unusual Twinning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence is presented that the space group of beta-Ga2O3 is P1, although, metrically, the lattice is strictly monoclinic. The morphology is described and examples of twinning are given, including several that are unusual. (Author)

A. B. Chase G. M. Wolten

1973-01-01

59

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 7: Earth Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of the Earth Observations working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Earth Observation experiments are: (1) establishment of quantitative relationships between observable parameters and g...

1973-01-01

60

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 5: Solar Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of the Solar Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The areas to be investigated by the solar physics experiments are: (1) the production of mechanical energy in the subphotospheric layers and its ...

1973-01-01

61

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 4: Life Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of the Life Sciences working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Life Sciences investigations are: (1) to continue the research directed at understanding the origin of life and the search ...

1973-01-01

62

Outreach of Astronomy with emphasis to the Solar System by the Space group in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have a long tradition in Space and Solar System outreach at the University of Athens (Space Group). We have contributed with many popular science articles in encyclopaedias (a total of some 200000 words), magazines and newspapers, public lectures around Greece and radio and TV programmes. We contribute in exhibitions for the public on many occasions (e.g. The British Exploration

X. Moussas; K. Dialynas; G. Babasides; G. Fasoulopoulos; V. Dimitropoulou; D. Prassopoulos; S. Kouphos; E. Spandagos; J. Strikis

2006-01-01

63

The Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups. Volume 3: High Energy Astrophysics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of the High Energy Astrophysics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives to be accomplished during space shuttle missions are defined as: (1) X-ray astronomy, (2) hard X-ray and gamma ray astr...

1973-01-01

64

Nonlinear wave and Schrödinger equations on compact Lie groups and homogeneous spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop linear and nonlinear harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups and homogeneous spaces relevant for the theory of evolutionary Hamiltonian PDEs. A basic tool is the theory of the highest weight for irreducible representations of compact Lie groups. This theory provides an accurate description of the eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator as well as the multiplication rules of its

Massimiliano Berti; Michela Procesi

2011-01-01

65

Environmental complexity and group size: Immediate effects on use of space by domestic fowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current housing conditions for domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) offer little in the way of environmental features biologically relevant to the birds. More specifically there is a notable absence of protective cover, a fundamental element that influences how domestic fowl use space. The availability of cover could be more relevant to small, as opposed to larger groups, because large groups

Erin Hoerl Leone; Inma Estevez; Mary Catherine Christman

2007-01-01

66

Space-time versus world-sheet renormalization group equation in string theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss the relation between space-time renormalization group equation for closed string field theory and world-sheet renormalization group equation for first-quantized strings. Restricting our attention to massless states we argue that there is a one-...

R. Brustein K. Roland

1991-01-01

67

Fourier multiplier theorem for atomic Hardy spaces on unbounded Vilenkin groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize atomic Hardy spaces on unbounded locally compact Vilenkin groups by means of a modified maximal function. The obtained Fourier multiplier theorem is more general than the corresponding results due to Kitada, Onneweer and Quek, Daly and Phillips that were proved under the boundedness assumption on the underlying group.

M. Avdispahi?; N. Memi?

2010-01-01

68

Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

Koskinen, H. E.

2008-12-01

69

Current Activities and Capabilities of the Terrestrial Environment Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designated Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the center of excellence for space transportation. The Aerospace Environments and Effects (AEE) team of the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch (EL23) in the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at MSFC, supports the center of excellence designation by providing near-Earth space, deep space, planetary, and terrestrial environments expertise to projects as required. The Terrestrial Environment (TE) group within the AEE team maintains an extensive TE data base. Statistics and models derived from this data are applied to the design and development of new aerospace vehicles, as well as performance enhancement of operational vehicles such as the Space Shuttle. The TE is defined as the Earth's atmospheric environment extending from the surface to orbital insertion altitudes (approximately 90 km).

Roberts, Barry C.; Batts, Wade

1997-01-01

70

Position and Orientation Distributions for Non-Reversal Random Walks using Space-Group Fourier Transforms  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an efficient group-theoretic approach for computing the statistics of non-reversal random walks (NRRW) on lattices. These framed walks evolve on proper crystallographic space groups. In a previous paper we introduced a convolution method for computing the statistics of NRRWs in which the convolution product is defined relative to the space-group operation. Here we use the corresponding concept of the fast Fourier transform for functions on crystallographic space groups together with a non-Abelian version of the convolution theorem. We develop the theory behind this technique and present numerical results for two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices (square, cubic and diamond). In order to verify our results, the statistics of the end-to-end distance and the probability of ring closure are calculated and compared with results obtained in the literature for the random walks for which closed-form expressions exist.

Skliros, Aris; Park, Wooram; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

71

Group Theoretical Quantization and the Example of a Phase Space S^1 x R^+  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group theoretical quantization scheme is reconsidered by means of\\u000aelementary systems. Already the quantization of a particle on a circle shows\\u000athat the standard procedure has to be supplemented by an additional condition\\u000aon the admissibility of group actions. A systematic strategy for finding\\u000aadmissible group actions for particular subbundles of cotangent spaces is\\u000adeveloped, two-dimensional prototypes of which

Martin Bojowald; Thomas Strobl

1999-01-01

72

Depression of excitatory transmission at PF-PC synapse by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors is provided exclusively by mGluR4 in the rodent cerebellar cortex.  

PubMed

In the rodent cerebellum, pharmacological activation of group III pre-synaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) by the broad spectrum agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, acutely depresses excitatory synaptic transmission at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses. Among the group III mGluR subtypes, cerebellar granule cells express predominantly mGluR4, but also mGluR7 and mGluR8 mRNA. Taking into account that previous functional and pharmacological studies have used group III mGluR broad spectrum agonists that do not differentiate between these various subtypes, their relative contribution to the modulation of glutamatergic transmission at PF-PC synapses remains to be elucidated. In order to clarify this issue, we applied conventional whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and pre-synaptic calcium influx measurements, combined with pharmacological manipulations to rat and mice cerebellar slices. With the use of (1S,2R)-1-amino-2-phosphonomethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, a new and selective group III mGluR agonist, N-phenyl-7-(hydroxylimino)cyclopropa[b]-chromen-1a-carboxamide, the specific positive allosteric modulator of mGluR4, (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine, a selective mGluR8 agonist, and mGluR4 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that the inhibitory control of group III mGluRs on excitatory neurotransmission at PF-PC synapses of the rodent cerebellar cortex, is totally because of the activation of pre-synaptic mGluR4 autoreceptors. PMID:18266929

Abitbol, Karine; Acher, Francine; Daniel, Hervé

2008-06-01

73

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 3: High energy astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of the High Energy Astrophysics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives to be accomplished during space shuttle missions are defined as: (1) X-ray astronomy, (2) hard X-ray and gamma ray astronomy, and (3) cosmic ray astronomy. The instruments and test equipment required to accomplish the mission are identified. Recommendations for managing the installation of the equipment and conducting the missions are included.

1973-01-01

74

On the space group of MgAl2O4 spinel  

Microsoft Academic Search

[001] electron diffraction patterns of MgAl2O4 spinel show (hk0) reflections with h + k = 4n + 2 ((200), (420), etc.) that violate the accepted Fd3m space group of this material. Since these ‘forbidden’ reflections cannot be attributed to double diffraction, non-zero Laue zones, or a second phase, this result is consistent with Grimes' recent suggestion that the correct space

L. Hwang; A. H. Heuer; T. E. Mitchell

1973-01-01

75

P-SPACE: A program for simulating spatial behavior in small groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

P-SPACE is a computer program that simulates spatial behavior in a small group of individuals. The program describes how interpersonal\\u000a distances change through time as a result of changes in microlevel features, such as the minimization of local dissatisfaction.\\u000a Agents are located in a two-dimensional lattice and can move some discrete space units at each discrete time unit within their

Vicenç Quera; Antoni Solanas; LLUíS SALAFRANCA; Francesc S. Beltran; Salvador Herrando

2000-01-01

76

Investigation of catalytic characterization of two-dimensional molecular space with regular ammonium and pyridine groups.  

PubMed

Novel two-dimensional molecular space with regular pyridine groups layered pyridine-4-amidepropylsilica (PAPS) and pyridine-4-amidephenylsilica (PAPhS) were successfully synthesized through grafting pyridine groups in the layer structure of two-dimensional molecular space with regular ammonium groups layered aminopropylsilica (ATMS-DS) and layered aminophenylsilica (APhTMS-DS). The two-dimensional structures were kept after grafting reaction of pyridine groups in PAPS and PAPhS. The catalytic potentials of two-dimensional molecular space with regular ammonium and pyridine groups were investigated. The catalytic capability of APhTMS-DS, PAPS, and PAPhS was confirmed through Knoevenagel condensation reactions. Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with malononitrile was not observed in the presence of ATMS-DS. Otherwise, the lower yield of Knoevenagel condensation of higher active 2-chlorobenzaldehyde with malononitrile in the presence of APhTMS-DS, PAPS, and PAPhS indicated the potential of the two-dimensional molecular space with regular catalyst molecules on influencing catalysis processes utilizing the chemical and geometrical limits. PMID:19296641

Chen, Jianming; Yao, Ken; Shangguan, Wenfeng; Yuan, Jian

2009-05-19

77

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command Preparations for Year 2000 Battle Group Systems Integration Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall audit objective was to evaluate whether the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command effectively prepared for the U.S.S. Constellation Battle Group Systems Integration Testing for the year 2000 impact and to make recommendations for improving f...

1999-01-01

78

On the Space Group of MgAl2O4 Spinel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(0001) electron diffraction patterns of MgAl2O4 spinel show (hk0) reflections with h + k = 4n + 2 ((200), (420), etc.) that violate the accepted Fd3m space group of this material. Since these 'forbidden' reflections cannot be attributed to double diffract...

L. Hwang A. H. Heuer T. E. Mitchell

1973-01-01

79

Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development

Albert C. Marshall; James H. Lee; William H. McCulloch; J. Charles Sawyer Jr.; Robert A. Bari; Hatice S. Cullingford; Alva C. Hardy; George F. Niederauer; Kerry Remp; John W. Rice

1993-01-01

80

Real-space renormalisation group approach for linear and branched polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-space renormalisation group (RG) approach for polymers is presented and is used to calculate the exponent v for the radius of gyration of three types of molecules on a square lattice. In all three cases the excluded volume effect is taken into account. The three cases studied are linear polymers, randomly branched polymers without loops and randomly branched polymers

F. Family

1980-01-01

81

Crystallization of dienelactone hydrolase in two space groups: structural changes caused by crystal packing.  

PubMed

Dienelactone hydrolase (DLH) is a monomeric protein with a simple ?/?-hydrolase fold structure. It readily crystallizes in space group P212121 from either a phosphate or ammonium sulfate precipitation buffer. Here, the structure of DLH at 1.85?Å resolution crystallized in space group C2 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. When crystallized in space group P212121 DLH has either phosphates or sulfates bound to the protein in crucial locations, one of which is located in the active site, preventing substrate/inhibitor binding. Another is located on the surface of the enzyme coordinated by side chains from two different molecules. Crystallization in space group C2 from a sodium citrate buffer results in new crystallographic protein-protein interfaces. The protein backbone is highly similar, but new crystal contacts cause changes in side-chain orientations and in loop positioning. In regions not involved in crystal contacts, there is little change in backbone or side-chain configuration. The flexibility of surface loops and the adaptability of side chains are important factors enabling DLH to adapt and form different crystal lattices. PMID:25005082

Porter, Joanne L; Carr, Paul D; Collyer, Charles A; Ollis, David L

2014-07-01

82

Vertically extended Frenkel-Kontorova model: A real space renormalization group study  

SciTech Connect

A modification of the Frenkel-Kontorova model is presented in which particles are allowed to move in the vertical direction. This model is used to study the formation of islands for a monolayer of 1D interfaces and the corresponding roughness transition. Both analytical and numerical approaches are employed, and the numerical algorithm is based upon real space renormalization group techniques.

Rodriguez-Laguna, Javier [Departamento Fisica Teorica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Santalla, Silvia N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes (Spain)

2005-09-15

83

INFLUENCE OF SPAWNING GROUP SIZE AND SPACE ON REPRODUCTION BY SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cripe, G.M., R.L. Hemmer and L.R. Goodman. In press. Influence of Spawning Group Size and Space on Reproduction Variability of Sheepshead Minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB...

84

Definition of spacecraft standard interfaces by the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG) is to study enabling technologies for on-orbit spacecraft maintenance and servicing. One key technology required for effective space logistics activity is the development of standard spacecraft interfaces, including the 'Basic Set' defined by NASA, the U.S. Space Command, and industry panelists to be the following: (1) navigation aids; (2) grasping, berthing, and docking; and (3) utility connections for power, data, and fluids. Draft standards have been prepared and referred to professional standards organizations, including the AIAA, EIA, and SAE space standards committee. The objective of the SASWG is to support these committees with the technical expertise required to prepare standards, guidelines, and recommended practices which will be accepted by the ANSI and international standards organizations, including the ISO, IEC, and PASC.

Radtke, Robert; Woolley, Charles; Arnold, Lana

1993-01-01

85

Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

2013-01-01

86

Algorithms for deriving crystallographic space-group information. II: Treatment of special positions  

SciTech Connect

Algorithms for the treatment of special positions in 3-dimensional crystallographic space groups are presented. These include an algorithm for the determination of the site-symmetry group given the coordinates of a point, an algorithm for the determination of the exact location of the nearest special position, an algorithm for the assignment of a Wyckoff letter given the site-symmetry group, and an alternative algorithm for the assignment of a Wyckoff letter given the coordinates of a point directly. All algorithms are implemented in ISO C++ and are integrated into the Computational Crystallography Toolbox. The source code is freely available.

Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.

2001-10-05

87

Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

1991-01-01

88

Phase-space shapes of clusters and rich groups of galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Clusters and groups of galaxies are highly aspherical, with shapes approximated by nearly prolate ellipsoids of revolution. An equally fundamental property is the shape of these objects in velocity space which is the anisotropy of the global velocity dispersion tensor. Although many studies address the problem of the shape in position space, there has been no attempt to measure shapes in velocity space. Aims: Here we make use of kinematical data comprising ~600 nearby clusters and rich groups of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to place constraints on the phase-space shapes of these objects, i.e. their shapes in both position and velocity space. Methods: We show that the line of sight velocity dispersion normalised by a mass-dependent velocity scale correlates with the apparent elongation, with circular (elongated) clusters exhibiting an excessive (decremental) normalised velocity dispersion. This correlation holds for dynamically young or old clusters and, therefore, it originates from projecting their intrinsic phase-space shapes rather than from dynamical evolution. It signifies that clusters are preferentially prolate not only in position space, but also in velocity space. This property allows us to break the degeneracy between oblate and prolate models and thus to deproject the apparent elongations and the line of sight velocity dispersions obtaining constraints on the axial ratios of the ellipsoids approximating cluster shapes in 3D position or velocity space. Results: The distribution of the axial ratios in position space is found to be well approximated by a Gaussian with a mean, ? = 0.66 ± 0.01, and a dispersion, ? = 0.07 ± 0.008. The velocity ellipsoids representing the shapes in velocity space are more spherical, with a mean axial ratio of 0.78 ± 0.03. Conclusions: The mean axial ratio of the velocity ellipsoids points to a highly anisotropic velocity distribution and, therefore, to a strong dependance of the observed velocity dispersions on the angle between the line of sight and the semi-principle axes of the clusters. This finding has important implications for mass measurements based on the line of sight velocity dispersion profiles in individual clusters. For typical axial ratios of the velocity ellipsoids in the analysed cluster sample, systematic errors on the mass estimates inferred from the line of sight velocity dispersions become comparable to statistical uncertainties for galaxy clusters with as few as 40 spectroscopic redshifts.

Wojtak, Rados?aw

2013-11-01

89

Pc-facs.  

PubMed

PC-FACS (Fast Article Critical Summaries for Clinicians in Palliative Care) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org. PMID:24657680

Zhukovsky, Donna S

2014-05-01

90

Pc-facs.  

PubMed

PC-FACS (Fast Article Critical Summaries for Clinicians in Palliative Care) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org. PMID:24892929

Zhukovsky, Donna S

2014-07-01

91

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 8: Earth and ocean physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings and recommendations of the Earth and Ocean Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The requirements for the space shuttle mission are defined as: (1) precision measurement for earth and ocean physics experiments, (2) development and demonstration of new and improved sensors and analytical techniques, (3) acquisition of surface truth data for evaluation of new measurement techniques, (4) conduct of critical experiments to validate geophysical phenomena and instrumental results, and (5) development and validation of analytical/experimental models for global ocean dynamics and solid earth dynamics/earthquake prediction. Tables of data are presented to show the flight schedule estimated costs, and the mission model.

1973-01-01

92

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 7: Earth observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of the Earth Observations working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Earth Observation experiments are: (1) establishment of quantitative relationships between observable parameters and geophysical variables, (2) development, test, calibration, and evaluation of eventual flight instruments in experimental space flight missions, (3) demonstration of the operational utility of specific observation concepts or techniques as information inputs needed for taking actions, and (4) deployment of prototype and follow-on operational Earth Observation systems. The basic payload capability, mission duration, launch sites, inclinations, and payload limitations are defined.

1973-01-01

93

Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group 88th Meeting: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Task Report, 2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supported Return-to-Flight activities by providing surface climate data from Kennedy Space Center used primarily for ice and dew formation studies, and upper air wind analysis primarily used for ascent loads analyses. The MSFC Environments Group's Terrestrial and Planetary Environments Team documented Space Shuttle day-of-launch support activities by publishing a document in support of SSP Return-to-Flight activities entitled "Space Shuttle Program Flight Operations Support". The team also formalized the Shuttle Natural Environments Technical Panel and chaired the first special session of the SSP Natural Environments Panel meeting at KSC, November 4-7,2003.58 participants from NASA, DOD and other government agencies from across the country attended the meeting.

Roberts, Barry C.

2004-01-01

94

Fredholm and spectral properties of Toeplitz operators on H{sup p} spaces over ordered groups  

SciTech Connect

We consider Toeplitz operators on the spaces H{sup p}(G), 1< p<{infinity}, associated with a compact connected Abelian group G whose character group is ordered and, in the case of total order, prove a theorem on the Fredholm index for those operators which have continuous symbols which generalizes the classical Gohberg-Krein theorem. The results thus obtained are applied to the spectral theory of Toeplitz operators and examples where the index is evaluated explicitly are considered. Bibliography: 22 titles.

Mirotin, Adolf R [Gomel State University, Gomel (Belarus)

2011-05-31

95

Realization of vector fields for quantum groups as pseudodifferential operators on quantum spaces  

SciTech Connect

The vector fields of the quantum Lie algebra are described for the quantum groups GL{sub q}(n), SL{sub q}(N) and SO{sub q}(N) as pseudodifferential operators on the linear quantum spaces covariant under the corresponding quantum group. Their expressions are simple and compact. It is pointed out that these vector fields satisfy certain characteristic polynomial identities. The real forms SU{sub q}(N) and SO{sub q}(N,R) are discussed in detail.

Chu, Chong-Sun; Zumino, B.

1995-01-24

96

Biomimicry 1: PC.  

PubMed

The surface properties of stents can be modified by coating them, for example with a polymer. Phosphorylcoline (PC) is the major component of the outer layer of the cell membrane. The haemo- and biocompatibility of a PC-containing polymer is thus based on biomimicry, and has been confirmed by several experiments showing much reduced thrombogenicity of PC-coated surfaces, and porcine coronary artery implants showing no sign of adverse effect. Clinical experience with the PC-coated BiodivYsio appears favourable. The PC coating can be tailored for take up and controlled elution of various drugs for stent-based local delivery, a property which is being actively explored. PMID:10406685

Cumberland, D C; Gunn, J; Malik, N; Holt, C M

1998-01-01

97

Toward the optimization of PC-based training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1992, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) have been co-organising the Regional Remote Sensing Seminar on Tropical Ecosystem Management (Program Chairman: Prof. Shunji Murai) every year in some country in Asia. In these seminars, the members of the ISPRS Working Group VI/2 'Computer Assisted Teaching' have been performing a PC-based hands-on-training on remote sensing and GIS for beginners. The main objective of the training was to transfer not only knowledge but also the technology of remote sensing and GIS to the beginners. The software and CD-ROM data set provided at the training were well designed not only for training but also for practical data analysis. This paper presents an outline of the training and discusses the optimisation of PC-based training for remote sensing and GIS.

Cho, Kohei; Murai, Shunji

98

The redshift-space neighborhoods of 36 loose groups of galaxies. 1: The data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have selected 36 loose groups of galaxies (RGH89) with at least five members, and with mean redshift average value of CZ is greater than 3200 km/s. These groups all lie within the first two slices of the CfA redshift survey 8(sup h) less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 17(sup h) and 26.5 deg less than or equal to delta less than or equal to 38.5 deg). For each of these groups, we define the redshift-space neighborhood as a region centered on the group coordinates and delimited by a circle of projected radius R(sub cir) = 1.5/h Mpc on the sky, and by a velocity interval delta (sub cz) = 3000 km/s. Here we give the redshifts of 334 galaxies in these redshift-space neighborhoods. For completeness, we also give the redshifts of the 232 original members. These data include 199 new redshifts. We demonstrate that these samples of fainter galaxies significantly increase the number of members.

Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Hurchra, John P.; Thorstensen, John R.

1995-01-01

99

A Perceptual Phonetic Similarity Space for Languages: Evidence from Five Native Language Listener Groups1  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to devise a means of representing languages in a perceptual similarity space based on their overall phonetic similarity. In Experiment 1, native English listeners performed a free classification task in which they grouped 17 diverse languages based on their perceived phonetic similarity. A similarity matrix of the grouping patterns was then submitted to clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses. In Experiment 2, an independent group of native English listeners sorted the group of 17 languages in terms of their distance from English. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 2 with four groups of non-native English listeners: Dutch, Mandarin, Turkish and Korean listeners. Taken together, the results of these three experiments represent a step towards establishing an approach to assessing the overall phonetic similarity of languages. This approach could potentially provide the basis for developing predictions regarding foreign-accented speech intelligibility for various listener groups, and regarding speech perception accuracy in the context of background noise in various languages.

Bradlow, Ann; Clopper, Cynthia; Smiljanic, Rajka; Walter, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

100

PC-SPES (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... English | En español Search NCI Home Cancer Topics Clinical Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI ... of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Overview PC-SPES is ...

101

Crystallization of the Focal Adhesion Kinase Targeting (FAT) Domain in a Primitive Orthorhombic Space Group  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diffraction data from the targeting (FAT) domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were collected from a single crystal that diffracted to 1.99 Angstroms resolution and reduced to the primitive orthorhombic lattice. A single molecule was predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient. The data were phased using molecular-replacement methods using an existing model of the FAK FAT domain. All structures of human focal adhesion kinase FAT domains solved to date have been solved in a C-centered orthorhombic space group.

Magis,A.; Bailey, K.; Kurenova, E.; Hernandez Prada, J.; Cance, W.; Ostrov, D.

2008-01-01

102

Finiteness of the number of arithmetic groups generated by reflections in Lobachevsky spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After results of the author (1980, 1981) and Vinberg (1981), the finiteness of the number of maximal arithmetic groups generated by reflections in Lobachevsky spaces remained unknown in dimensions 2\\le n\\le 9 only. It was proved recently (2005) in dimension 2 by Long, Maclachlan and Reid and in dimension 3 by Agol. Here we use the results in dimensions 2 and 3 to prove the finiteness in all remaining dimensions 4\\le n\\le 9. The methods of the author (1980, 1981) are more than sufficient for this using a very short and very simple argument.

Nikulin, V. V.

2007-02-01

103

A Fun and Effective Exercise for Understanding Lattices and Space Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses figures from Francois Brisse as Esher drawings to teach students about 2-dimensional symmetry, especially involving translation. This exercise is based on discovery learning. Students need little introduction to lattices and space groups. They can figure things out for themselves. For example, they will figure out what a glide plane is, and if you tell them ahead of time it takes away from the learning experience. The last question, which asks them to make their own symmetrical drawings, is difficult but often leads to some spectacular results.

Perkins, Dexter

104

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 4: Life sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of the Life Sciences working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Life Sciences investigations are: (1) to continue the research directed at understanding the origin of life and the search for extraterrestrial evidence of life, (2) biomedical research to understand mechanisms and provide criteria for support of manned flight, (3) technology development for life support, protective systems, and work aids for providing environmental control, and (4) to study basic biological functions at all levels or organization influenced by gravity, radiation, and circadian rhythms. Examples of candidate experimental schedules and the experimental package functional requirements are included.

1973-01-01

105

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 5: Solar physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of the Solar Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The areas to be investigated by the solar physics experiments are: (1) the production of mechanical energy in the subphotospheric layers and its transport and dissipation in the upper layers of the atmosphere, (2) the mass flux from the subphotospheric layers into the chromosphere and corona and beyond the solar wind, (3) solar activity and its relationship to magnetic fields, and (4) the production of solar flares. The approach to be followed in conducting the experiments and the equipment required are defined.

1973-01-01

106

Local Group and Star Cluster Dynamics from HSTPROMO: The Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has proven to be uniquely suited for the measurement of proper motions (PMs) of stars and galaxies in the nearby Universe. Here we summarize the main results and ongoing studies of the HSTPROMO collaboration, which over the past decade has executed some two dozen observational and theoretical HST projects on this topic. This is continuing to revolutionize our dynamical understanding of many objects, including: globular clusters; young star clusters; stars and stellar streams in the Milky Way halo; Local Group galaxies, including dwarf satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, and the Andromeda galaxy; and AGN black hole Jets.

van der Marel, R. P.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Besla, G.; Bianchini, P.; Boylan-Kolchin, M.; Chaname, J.; Deason, A.; Do, T.; Guhathakurta, P.; Kallivayalil, N.; Lennon, D.; Massari, D.; Meyer, E.; Platais, I.; Sabbi, E.; Sohn, S. T.; Soto, M.; Trenti, M.; Watkins, L.

2014-03-01

107

Source of Pc 3 pulsation near the cusp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground observations at high latitude show enhanced Pc 3 pulsation activity near the cusp that suggests these waves may originate in the cusp To investigate this a data segment sampled at 1Hz from 0920 to 1010UT on 01 April 2004 has been selected During this time interval typical Pc 3 pulsation events have been simultaneously observed by the Cluster-II satellites and the magnetometer at Zhongshan Station Antarctica At this time Cluster-II was located on closed field lines just equatorward of the exterior northern cusp Zhongshan Station was at local magnetic noon near the ionospheric footprint of the southern cusp Polarization properties of the Pc 3 pulsation events in space are consistent with those seen on the ground with polarized power 80 percent major axis azimuth angle 60 degrees west of north and ellipticity 0 5 with left hand polarization Assuming linear phase propagation among the four Cluster-II spacecrafts a derived wave propagation vector -0 000315 -0 000953 0 001257 km and wavelength 4790km has been determined with group velocity 120km s The angle between the wave propagation vector and the magnetic field is 89 6 degrees The Pc 3 pulsations are transverse waves over the interval However only were broadband perturbations and compressional pulsations were recorded by Cluster-II when they crossed the cusp and the magnetosheath before and after the selected time interval respectively These suggest that the Pc 3 pulsations near the cusp may originate on the closed field lines zone in the low latitude boundary of the cusp To confirm this

Liu, Y. H.; Fraser, B. J.; Able, S. T.; Dunlop, M.; Liu, R. Y.; Zhang, B. C.; Han, D.; Zong, Q.-G.; Waterman, J.; Balogh, A.

108

A new verification of Kovalev's tables of irreducible representations of the space groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the application of representation theory to physical and crystallographic problems, Kovalev's tables provide a uniquely reliable and complete source for the required irreducible representations of the space groups. A number of programs based on these tables, designed to automate the lengthy calculations involved, generate non-physical or incorrect solutions to some problems, raising questions over the validity of Kovalev's work. In this work the tables are verified to the point of homomorphism with the groups and subgroups that they represent through the use of the digitized versions of the tables used in SARAh. The results support the correctness of Kovalev's definitions, highlighting difficulties in interpreting the tables themselves and some general failings of the programs used in the application of representation theory to physical problems.

Davies, Z. L.; Wills, A. S.

2008-03-01

109

Space group symmetry applied to SCF calculations with periodic boundary conditions and Gaussian orbitals.  

PubMed

Space group symmetry is exploited and implemented in density functional calculations of extended systems with periodic boundary conditions. Our scheme for reducing the number of two-electron integrals employs the entire set of operations of the space group, including glide plains and screw axes. Speedups observed for the Fock matrix formation in simple 3D systems range from 2X to 9X for the near field Coulomb part and from 3X to 8X for the Hartree-Fock-type exchange, the slowest steps of the procedure, thus leading to a substantial reduction of the computational time. The relatively small speedup factors in special cases are attributed to the highly symmetric positions atoms occupy in crystals, including the ones tested here, as well as to the choice of the smallest possible unit cells. For quasi-1D systems with most atoms staying invariant only under identity, the speedup factors often exceed one order of magnitude reaching almost 70X (near-field Coulomb) and 57X (HFx) for the largest tested (16,7) single-walled nanotube with 278 symmetry operations. PMID:24070282

Rusakov, Alexander A; Frisch, Michael J; Scuseria, Gustavo E

2013-09-21

110

Structure of human salivary alpha-amylase crystallized in a C-centered monoclinic space group.  

PubMed

Human salivary alpha-amylase (HSA) is a major secretory protein component of saliva and has important biological functions, including the initial digestion of starch. HSA acts as a monomer and mediates the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages in oligosaccharides. To date, all published crystal structures of HSA have been crystallized as monomers in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). Here, the serendipitous purification, crystallization and ultimate structure determination of a HSA non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) dimer, while attempting to purify human carbonic anhydrase VI (HCA VI) from saliva using an affinity resin for alpha-class carbonic anhydrases, is presented. On further investigation, it was shown that HSA could only be copurified using the affinity resin in the presence of HCA VI which is glycosylated and not the non-glycosylated HCA II. The identification of the HSA crystals was carried out by peptide mapping and mass spectrometry. HSA was shown to have crystallized as an NCS dimer in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 150.9, b = 72.3, c = 91.3 A, beta = 102.8 degrees. The NCS dimer crystal structure is reported to 3.0 A resolution, with a refined Rcryst of 0.228. The structure is compared with the previously reported P2(1)2(1)2(1) monomer structures and the crystal packing and dimer interface are discussed. PMID:16511271

Fisher, S Zoë; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Tu, Chingkuang; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Silverman, David N; Rajaniemi, Hannu J; McKenna, Robert

2006-02-01

111

Real-space renormalization group method for quantum 1/2 spins on the pyrochlore lattice.  

PubMed

A simple phenomenological real-space renormalization group method for quantum Heisenberg spins with nearest and next nearest neighbour interactions on a pyrochlore lattice is presented. Assuming a scaling law for the order parameter of two clusters of different sizes, a set of coupled equations that gives the fixed points of the renormalization group transformation and, thus, the critical temperatures and ordered phases of the system is found. The particular case of spins 1/2 is studied in detail. Furthermore, to simplify the mathematical details, from all the possible phases arising from the renormalization group transformation, only those phases in which the magnetic lattice is commensurate with a subdivision of the crystal lattice into four interlocked face-centred cubic sublattices are considered. These correspond to a quantum spin liquid, ferromagnetic order, or non-collinear order in which the total magnetic moment of a tetrahedral unit is zero. The corresponding phase diagram is constructed and the differences with respect to the classical model are analysed. It is found that this method reproduces fairly well the phase diagram of the pyrochlore lattice under the aforementioned constraints. PMID:24625859

Garcia-Adeva, Angel J

2014-04-01

112

Low orthopyroxene from a lunar deep crustal rock - A new pyroxene polymorph of space group P21ca  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bronzite crystals (En86Fs11Wo3) from a slowly-cooled lunar troctolitic granulite, have space group P21ca, a postulated, but previously unreported space group. Diffractions violating the b-glide extinction conditions have been observed in long-exposure X-ray precession photographs from three of these crystals and on an automated X-ray diffractometer. P21ca is a subgroup of the common orthopyroxene space group Pbca, and its cell dimensions (a = 18.235 plus or minus 0.004 A, b = 8.831 plus or minus 0.002 A, c = 5.189 plus or minus 0.001 A) are similar to those of terrestrial bronzites. It is postulated that the lower symmetry space group has developed as a result of very slow cooling at pressures of one to two kilobars deep in the lunar crust.

Smyth, J. R.

1974-01-01

113

Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

1993-01-01

114

International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

2009-01-01

115

Fractal space-times under the microscope: a renormalization group view on Monte Carlo data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of fractal features in the microscopic structure of space-time is a common theme in many approaches to quantum gravity. In this work we carry out a detailed renormalization group study of the spectral dimension d s and walk dimension d w associated with the effective space-times of asymptotically safe Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG). We discover three scaling regimes where these generalized dimensions are approximately constant for an extended range of length scales: a classical regime where d s = d, d w = 2, a semi-classical regime where d s = 2 d/(2 + d), d w = 2 + d, and the UV-fixed point regime where d s = d/2, d w = 4. On the length scales covered by three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, the resulting spectral dimension is shown to be in very good agreement with the data. This comparison also provides a natural explanation for the apparent puzzle between the short distance behavior of the spectral dimension reported from Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT), Euclidean Dynamical Triangulations (EDT), and Asymptotic Safety.

Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

2011-12-01

116

Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space  

SciTech Connect

Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group U{sub q}(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin {ge} 1, {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of {open_quotes}pure gauges{close_quotes}, as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of U{sub q}(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of U{sub q}(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin {ge} 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard {open_quotes}truncated{close_quotes} tensor product as well as many-particle representations.

Steinacker, H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-05-23

117

"Stapled" bis(phthalocyaninato)niobium(IV), Pc2Nb: X-ray crystal structure, chemical and electrochemical behavior, and theoretical studies. Perspectives for the use of Pc2Nb (thin films) as an "optically passive electrode" in electrochromic devices.  

PubMed

Recrystallization of the previously reported monosolvated bis(phthalocyaninato)niobium(IV), [Pc2Nb].CINP (CINP = 1-chloronaphthalene), has allowed isolation of a single crystal of a new solvated form, i.e. [Pc2Nb]. 3.5CINP, whose structure has been elucidated by X-ray work: space group P2(1)/n (No. 14); a = 16.765(3), b = 23.800(4), c = 19.421(4) A; alpha = gamma = 90 degrees, beta = 92.51(2) degrees; Z = 4. The sandwiched material is a "stapled" molecule, characterized by the presence of two intramolecular interligand C-C sigma bonds and highly strained phthalocyanine units, as formerly observed by crystallographic work for its Ti(IV) analogue, [Pc2Ti], and the +1 corresponding fragment, [Pc2Nb]+, present in the species [Pc2Nb](l3)(l2)0.5.3.5CINP. [Pc2Nb] appears to be reluctant to undergo further oxidation above the +1 oxidation state. Detailed theoretical studies by DFT and TDDFT methods have been developed on [Pc2Nb] and [Pc2Nb]+, also extended for comparison to the Ti(IV) complex [Pc2Ti], and an adequate picture of the ground-state electronic structure of these species has been achieved. Moreover, the excitation energies and oscillator strengths calculated for the closed-shell systems, [Pc2Ti] and [Pc2Nb]+, provide a satisfactory interpretation of their characteristic visible optical spectra and help to rationalize the similar features observed in the visible spectrum of the open-shell "stapled" complex, [Pc2Nb]. Thin solid films (100-250 nm) of [Pc2Nb] deposited on ITO (indium-doped tin oxide) show a reversible redox process in neutral or acidic aqueous electrolytes. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the sandwiched complex, combined with impedance and UV/visible spectral measurements, are presented and discussed. The achieved electrochemical information, while substantially in keeping with the observed chemical redox behavior and theoretical predictions, qualifies [Pc2Nb] as an "optically passive" electrode and a promising material for its use in electrochromic devices. PMID:12693208

Bauer, Elvira M; Donzello, Maria Pia; Ercolani, Claudio; Masetti, Enrico; Panero, Stefania; Ricciardi, Giampaolo; Rosa, Angela; Chiesi-Villa, Angiola; Rizzoli, Corrado

2003-01-27

118

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study commercialization working group briefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The benefits for each of the following commercial areas was investigated: communications, remote sensing, materials processing in space, low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite assembly, testing, and servicing, and space tourism. In each case, where economic benefits are derived, the costs for accomplishing tasks with the Space Station are compared with the cost with the Space Transportation System only.

1983-01-01

119

On the reflection type decomposition of the adjoint reduced phase space of a compact semisimple Lie group  

SciTech Connect

We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

Hofmann, M. [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)] [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10/11, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10/11, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)

2013-08-15

120

On the reflection type decomposition of the adjoint reduced phase space of a compact semisimple Lie group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

Hofmann, M.; Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.

2013-08-01

121

Lost in Transmission: Using Study Groups to Provide Space for Creativity and Reflexivity in an Instrumentalist University Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since independent study groups can be important in providing spaces for students in creative disciplines to develop a critically reflexive approach to their creative practice, tutors in an Australian university introduced independent group learning to students studying in creative disciplines. However, student responses to the experience of…

Pearce, Jane; Crouch, Christopher

2010-01-01

122

Gas and dust in the beta Pictoris moving group as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Debris discs are thought to be formed through the collisional grinding of planetesimals, and then can be considered as the outcome of planet formation. Understanding the properties of gas and dust in debris discs can help us comprehend the architecture of extrasolar planetary systems. Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared (IR) photometry and spectroscopy have provided a valuable dataset for the study of debris discs gas and dust composition. This paper is part of a series of papers devoted to the study of Herschel-PACS observations of young stellar associations. Aims: This work aims at studying the properties of discs in the beta Pictoris moving group (BPMG) through far-IR PACS observations of dust and gas. Methods: We obtained Herschel-PACS far-IR photometric observations at 70, 100, and 160 ?m of 19 BPMG members, together with spectroscopic observations for four of them. These observations were centred at 63.18 ?m and 157 ?m, aiming to detect [OI] and [CII] emission. We incorporated the new far-IR observations in the SED of BPMG members and fitted modified blackbody models to better characterise the dust content. Results: We have detected far-IR excess emission towards nine BPMG members, including the first detection of an IR excess towards HD 29391.The star HD 172555, shows [OI] emission, while HD 181296 shows [CII] emission, expanding the short list of debris discs with a gas detection. No debris disc in BPMG is detected in both [OI] and [CII]. The discs show dust temperatures in the range 55-264 K, with low dust masses (<6.6 × 10-5 M? to 0.2 M?) and radii from blackbody models in the range 3 to ~82 AU. All the objects with a gas detection are early spectral type stars with a hot dust component. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Barrado, D.; Montesinos, B.; Duchêne, G.; Bouy, H.; Pinte, C.; Menard, F.; Donaldson, J.; Eiroa, C.; Krivov, A. V.; Kamp, I.; Mendigutía, I.; Dent, W. R. F.; Lillo-Box, J.

2014-05-01

123

PC-NETSIM: A PC Based Network Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PC-NETSIM is an IBM PC/XT/AT 386 based packet radio net work simulation with a number of interesting and innovative features. Since the target system (the packet radio) has the came CPU as the PC, the simulation is able to run the target software without ...

D. Young P. Bausbacher

1989-01-01

124

Easy PC Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

Duffett-Smith, Peter

1996-11-01

125

Visualisation of the chemical space of fragments, lead-like and drug-like molecules in PubChem.  

PubMed

The 4.5 million organic molecules with up to 20 non-hydrogen atoms in PubChem were analyzed using the MQN-system, which consists in 42 integer value descriptors of molecular structure. The 42-dimensional MQN-space was visualised by principal component analysis and representation of the (PC1, PC2), (PC1, PC3) and (PC2, PC3) planes. The molecules were organized according to ring count (PC1, 38% of variance), the molecular size (PC2, 25% of variance), and the H-bond acceptor count (PC3, 12% of variance). Compounds following Lipinski's bioavailability, Oprea's lead-likeness and Congreve's fragment-likeness criteria formed separated groups in MQN-space visible in the (PC2, PC3) plane. MQN-similarity searches of the 4.5 million molecules (see the browser available at www.gdb.unibe.ch ) gave significant enrichment factors for recovering groups of fragment-sized bioactive compounds related to ten different biological targets taken from Chembl, allowing lead-hopping relationships not seen with substructure fingerprint similarity searches. The diversity of different compound series was analyzed by MQN-distance histograms. PMID:21618008

van Deursen, Ruud; Blum, Lorenz C; Reymond, Jean-Louis

2011-07-01

126

Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

2011-01-01

127

A Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Study of Star-forming Regions in the Local Group. II. Young Stellar Populations in M31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the young stellar populations of 22 star-forming regions in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-band imaging from far-UV to I. The regions were selected from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) wide-field far-UV imaging; they sample different environments and galactocentric distances from 6 to 22 kpc. They were imaged with 30 HST fields (360 distinct images, in six bandpasses), with a pixel scale of 0.38 pc projected on the sky, at the distance of M31. This study is part of HST treasury survey program HST-GO-11079, which includes star-forming regions in eight Local Group galaxies. We provide a merged catalog of six-band stellar photometry in the 30 M31 fields, containing 118,036 sources brighter than V and B ~ 23 mag. Each HST field covers about 0.3 kpc2 in M31, and contains up to ~7000 stars, of which the number varies by a factor of >7 among the target regions; a large fraction of the sample are hot massive stars, due to our choice of filters and exposures. We derived stellar physical parameters and interstellar extinction for individual sources by spectral energy distribution analysis with model-atmosphere colors, and used the results to infer ages, massive stars content, and extinction of the star-forming regions. Reddening is up to E(B - V) <~ 0.6 mag in some OB associations, and lowest in the outermost regions (average of lsim0.12 mag in OB184 at 21.9 kpc). We examined the spatial distribution (clustering) of the hot massive stars, and defined OB associations on various spatial scales from compact to wider, more spread out ones. A hierarchical structuring is observed, with small compact groups arranged within large complexes. Their areas vary from less than 10 to 105 pc2, and masses are up to ?105 M ?, in the scales sampled by our analysis. Their cumulative mass distribution follows a power law, at least in part of the sampled regime. Hot-star counts in the young regions compare very well with integrated measurements of UV flux from GALEX.

Bianchi, Luciana; Efremova, Boryana; Hodge, Paul; Kang, Yongbeom

2012-11-01

128

Overview of the Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG) strategic planning support efforts for earth to orbit transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential requirement of a successful space program is the assurance of a safe affordable routine access to space. In view of this, a national organization known as the Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG) has been directed for the past two years toward supporting strategic planning for earth-to-orbit space transportation and propulsion systems. This paper presents a short description of the approach the SPSG followed in their space transportation and propulsion systems strategic planning support activities. The SPSG study emphasized the identification of the transportation systems users/customers and the characteristics of attributes most valued by them in earth-to-LEO payload transportation services. The study initiated the process known as Quality Function Deployment to ensure that the customer/user real requirements and needs are properly addressed and that the transportation system concepts advocated had the greatest probability of satisfying the custosmer's requirements and desired attributes.

Dankhoff, Walter F.; Hope, William P., Jr.

1993-06-01

129

Proceedings of the Space Shuttle Sortie Workshop. Volume 2: Working group reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details are presented on the mission planning progress in each of the working paper reports. The general topics covered are the following: space technology; materials processing and space manufacturing; communications and navigation; earth and ocean physics; oceanography; earth resources and surface environmental quality; meteorology and atmospheric environmental quality; life sciences; atmospheric and space physics; solar physics; high energy cosmic rays; X-ray and gamma ray astronomy; ultraviolet-optical astronomy; planetary astronomy; and infrared astronomy.

1972-01-01

130

Grouping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet models the measurement interpretation of division. A child or teacher chooses a total number of objects and a divisor representing the size of equal groups. The applet allows the user to move the objects into equal groups and links the process to jumps on a number line. The applet can be used to introduce children to remainders and to reinforce the language and notation of division. It works well on an interactive white board or projector. A teacher's guide to this collection of applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

131

PC Lube and Tune  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of PC Lube and Tune "is to supply usable introductions, tutorials, and education on technical subjects to the large audience of computer users." For example, an article added January 20, 2003, looks at the history and evolution of the graphical user interface. The author demonstrates how computers interpret items such as the mouse, toolbars, and menus. Another article explains the basics of Web standards, such as HTML and XML, and how they are used to encode information. Not all of the articles are about computer technologies, though. For instance, one deals with the Microsoft's anti-trust case and its associated technical issues and implications.

1995-01-01

132

Predicting stable stoichiometries of compounds via evolutionary global space-group optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas the Daltonian atom-to-atom ratios in ordinary molecules are well understood via the traditional theory of valence, the naturally occurring stoichiometries in intermetallic compounds ApBq , as revealed by phase-diagram compilations, are often surprising. Even equal-valence elements A and B give rise to unequal (p,q) stoichiometries, e.g., the 1:2, 2:1, and 3:1 ratios in AlpScq . Moreover, sometimes different stoichiometries are associated with different lattice types and hence rather different physical properties. Here, we extend the fixed-composition global space-group optimization (GSGO) approach used to predict, via density-functional calculations, fixed-composition lattice types [G. Trimarchi and A. Zunger, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 295212 (2008)] to identify simultaneously all the minimum-energy lattice types throughout the composition range. Starting from randomly selected lattice vectors, atomic positions and stoichiometries, we construct the T=0 “convex hull” of energy vs composition. Rather than repeat a set of GSGO searches over a fixed list of stoichiometries, we minimize the distance to the convex hull. This approach is far more efficient than the former one as a single evolutionary search sequence simultaneously identifies the lowest-energy structures at each composition and among these it selects those that are ground states. For Al-Sc we correctly identify the stable stoichiometries and relative structure types: AlSc2-B82 , AlSc-B2, and Al2Sc-C15 in the Nat=6 periodic cells, and Al2Sc6-D019 , AlSc-B2, and Al3Sc-L10 in the Nat=8 periodic cells. This extended evolutionary GSGO algorithm represents a step toward a fully ab initio materials synthesis, where compounds are predicted starting from sole knowledge of the chemical species of the constituents.

Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Freeman, Arthur J.; Zunger, Alex

2009-09-01

133

Renormgruppa v statisticheskoj fizike - impul'snoe i real'noe prostranstva. (Renormalization group in statistical physics - momentum and real spaces).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two variants of the renormalization group approach in statistical physics are considered, the renormalization group in the momentum and the renormalization group in the real spaces. Common properties of these methods and their differences are cleared up. ...

V. I. Yukalov

1988-01-01

134

Iceberg-cube computation with PC clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the approach of using low cost PC cluster to parallelize the computation of iceberg-cube queries. We concentrate on techniques directed towards online querying of large, high-dimensional datasets where it is assumed that the total cube has net been precomputed. The algorithmic space we explore considers trade-offs between parallelism, computation and I\\/0. Our main contribution is

Raymond T. Ng; Alan Wagner; Yu Yin

2001-01-01

135

Group space allowance has little effect on sow health, productivity, or welfare in a free-access stall system.  

PubMed

Free-access stalls allow sows to choose the protection of a stall or use of a shared group space. This study investigated the effect of group space width, 0.91 (SS), 2.13 (IS), and 3.05 (LS) m, on the health, production, behavior, and welfare of gestating sows. Nine replications of 21 (N = 189) gestating sows were used. At gestational d 35.4 ± 2.3, the pregnant sows were distributed into 3 pens of 7 sows, where they remained until 104.6 ± 3.5 d. Each treatment pen had 7 free-access stalls and a group space that together provided 1.93 (SS), 2.68 (IS), or 3.24 (LS) m(2)/sow. Baseline measurements were obtained before mixing. Back fat depth, BW, BCS, and lameness were measured monthly, and skin lesions were scored weekly. Blood was collected monthly for hematological, immunological, and cortisol analyses. Sow behavior was video recorded continuously during the initial 4 d of treatment and 24 h every other week thereafter. Behavior was analyzed for location, posture, pen investigation, social contact, and aggression. Skin response to the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) was tested at mean gestational d 106. Litter characteristics including size and weight were collected at birth and weaning. The data were analyzed using a mixed model. Multiple comparisons were adjusted with the Tukey-Kramer and Bejamini-Hochberg methods. Group space allowance had no effect on any measure of sow health, physiology, or production (P ? 0.10). Sows in the SS, IS, and LS pens spent 77.88% ± 3.88%, 66.02% ± 3.87%, and 63.64% ± 3.91%, respectively, of their time in the free-access stalls (P = 0.12). However, SS sows used the group space less than IS and LS sows (P = 0.01). Overall, pen investigatory behavior was not affected by group space allowance (P = 0.91). Sows in the LS pens spent more time in a social group than SS sows (P = 0.02), whereas sows in IS pens were intermediate to, but not different from, the other treatments (P ? 0.10). The size of the social groups was also affected by the group space allowance (P = 0.03), with SS sows forming smaller groups than LS sows; again, IS sows were intermediate to, but not different from, the other treatments. Although the group space allowance had no measurable impact on the health, physiology, or productivity of the sows, the lower group space use and social contact of the SS sows reduced the behavioral diversity benefits of group housing and may indicate an avoidance of social stressors or a lack of physical comfort in the smallest pens. PMID:24668955

Mack, L A; Lay, D C; Eicher, S D; Johnson, A K; Richert, B T; Pajor, E A

2014-06-01

136

Extreme value statistics from the real space renormalization group: Brownian motion, Bessel processes and continuous time random walks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the real space renormalization group (RSRG) method to study extreme value statistics for a variety of Brownian motions, free or constrained, such as the Brownian bridge, excursion, meander and reflected bridge, recovering some standard results, and extending others. We apply the same method to compute the distribution of extrema of Bessel processes. We briefly show how the continuous

Grégory Schehr; Pierre Le Doussal

2010-01-01

137

Talking ‘gender superiority’ in virtual spaces: web?based discourses of Hindu student groups in the US and UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the public assertion of gendered ethno?religious identities on the websites of Hindu student groups (HSGs) in the South Asian Diaspora in the USA and UK. HSGs are a part of a larger phenomenon of individuals and organizations engaged in creating and promoting ethnicities in virtual spaces. In this paper we focus particularly on the HSGs deployment

Anjana Narayan; Bandana Purkayastha

2011-01-01

138

PRE AND POST BREAKUP MOVEMENTS AND SPACE USE OF BLACK BEAR FAMILY GROUPS IN CHEROKEE NATIONAL FOREST, TENNESSEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movements and space use of 7 yearling black bears (Ursus americanus) (3 males, 4 females) from 3 family groups were intensively monitored concurrently with 13 adults (6 males, 7 females) in the Cherokee National Forest, Tennessee from February 1983 until December 1983. The timing of family breakup occurred in 2 families between 29 May-5 June, and 22-25 June, respectively.

ANTHONY P. CLEVENGER; MICHAEL R. PELTON

139

Local Group Populations With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. The M31 Globular Cluster G1=Mayall II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present WFPC2 photometry of the M31 globular cluster G1 and its adjacent halo field population. The cluster is one of the most luminous in the Local Group (~10^6^ L_sun_) and is at a projected distance of 39.5 kpc from the nucleus near the major axis of M31. The color of the red giant branch is similar to that of 47 Tuc, confirming previous ground- based imaging of its brightest giants. G1 has a red horizontal branch at V = 25.32 +/- 0.05 mag (M_v_ = +0.82 mag) and a small number of blue horizontal branch stars at (V - I) = 0.0 mag. We find no evidence for an extended giant branch: a deep image at 1 micron finds no red, luminous AGB stars. We conclude that the properties of the color-magnitude diagram are most consistent with those of an old globular cluster with the metallicity of 47 Tuc. The surrounding halo field has a red horizontal branch at the same color and luminosity of the cluster. The luminosity function of the field in V and I is more steep (fewer bright stars) than that of G1. While G1 is well fit by published luminosity functions of 47 Tuc and M3, these templates fail for the field luminosity function. If this difference is real, then either the outer M31 halo largely consists of stars as metal rich as 47 Tuc, or the red horizontal branch and steep giant branch luminosity function may be the product of a field population younger than the oldest Galactic globular clusters. We present a surface brightness profile for G1. We find a high central surface brightness of V = 13.5 mag arcsec^-2^. The core radius of G1 is r_c_ = 0.54 pc and its tidal radius is r_t_ = 90.0 pc.

Rich, R. Michael; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Neill, James D.

1996-02-01

140

Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives  

PubMed Central

The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes.

Vivoli, Mirella; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Johnson, Alan T.; Jiao, Guan-Sheng

2012-01-01

141

GFI - EASY PC GRAPHICS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy PC Graphics (GFI) is a graphical plot program that permits data to be easily and flexibly plotted. Data is input in a standard format which allows easy data entry and evaluation. Multiple dependent axes are also supported. The program may either be run in a stand alone mode or be embedded in the user's own software. Automatic scaling is built in for several logarithmic and decibel scales. New scales are easily incorporated into the code through the use of object-oriented programming techniques. For the autoscale routines and the actual plotting code, data is not retrieved directly from a file, but a "method" delivers the data, performing scaling as appropriate. Each object (variable) has state information which selects its own scaling. GFI is written in Turbo Pascal version 6.0 for IBM PC compatible computers running MS-DOS. The source code will only compile properly with the Turbo Pascal v. 6.0 or v. 7.0 compilers; however, an executable is provided on the distribution disk. This executable requires at least 64K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher, as well as an HP LaserJet printer to print output plots. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium in ASCII format. GFI was developed in 1993.

Katz, R. B.

1994-01-01

142

A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

2010-10-01

143

Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains M. Lewis and W. Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) on an exploration that would become an everlasting part of US national history and pride. Looking back at the events of this exploration, there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond (NASA Vision for Space Exploration, 2004): The Lewis and Clark Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean; The Expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in the early 18th century; The Expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew; Supplies brought on the mission were limited (mainly a mass/weight issue rather than cost), therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization approach, including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty) was necessary for crew survival. The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar to what Lewis and Clark's crew experienced, as environments will be hostile and unforgiving if problems arise and aren't resolved quickly. The analysis provided in this research paper is relevant because the Lewis and Clark Expedition needed to move extensively and with minimal supplies. Polar remote settings, which were analyzed extensively, were different from this expedition due to the fact that these missions did not encompass extensive movement of crew facilities and supplies and were more like space missions orbiting the Earth. Using past space station results of performance on orbit in correlation with a suggested distinguishable mission phase model, the Lewis and Clark Expedition will be analyzed for similarities to these space findings. Factors of consideration in support of this analysis involve an understanding of the leadership qualities of Lewis and Clark (and relations established and maintained with one another), the selection and diversity of their crew, and the group dynamics that were developed and maintained so carefully during the expedition. With this knowledge and understanding one can gain enormous insights useful in the planning and preparation for future long-duration space exploratory missions with high level of autonomy, mobility, minimal primary life support supply and high dependence on material re-circulation and In-Situ Resource Utilization approach.

Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.

2008-12-01

144

Holographic phase space: c-functions and black holes as renormalization group flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a mathcal{N} -function for Lovelock theories of gravity, which yields a holographic c-function in domain-wall backgrounds, and seemingly generalizes the concept for black hole geometries. A flow equation equates the monotonicity properties of mathcal{N} with the gravitational field, which has opposite signs in the domain-wall and black hole backgrounds, due to the presence of negative/positive energy in the former/latter, and accordingly mathcal{N} monotonically decreases/increases from the UV to the IR. On AdS spaces the mathcal{N} -function is related to the Euler anomaly, and at a black hole horizon it is generically proportional to the entropy. For planar black holes, mathcal{N} diverges at the horizon, which we interpret as an order N 2 increase in the number of effective degrees of freedom. We show how mathcal{N} can be written as the ratio of the Wald entropy to an effective phase space volume, and using the flow equation relate this to Verlinde's notion of gravity as an entropic force. From the effective phase space we can obtain an expression for the dual field theory momentum cut-off, matching a previous proposal in the literature by Polchinski and Heemskerk. Finally, we propose that the area in Planck units counts states, not degrees of freedom, and identify it also as a phase space volume. Written in terms of the proper radial distance ?, it takes the suggestive form of a canonical partition function at inverse temperature ?, leading to a "mean energy" which is simply the extrinsic curvature of the surface. Using this we relate this definition of holographic phase space with the effective phase space appearing in the mathcal{N} -function.

Paulos, Miguel F.

2011-05-01

145

Renormalization-group analysis of grand unified theories in curved space-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of grand unified theories (GUT's) based on the Georgi-Glashow model in curved space-time. We are particularly concerned with the coupling constants involving the curvature. These include the cosmological and gravitational constants, as well as coupling constants appearing in terms quadratic in the curvature and in terms which link the Higgs bosons to the scalar curvature. For

L. Parker; D. J. Toms

1984-01-01

146

On Four-group ML Decodable Distributed Space Time Codes for Cooperative Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A construction of a new family of distributed space time codes (DSTCs) having full diversity and low Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoding complexity is provided for the two phase based cooperative diversity protocols of Jing-Hassibi and the recently proposed Generalized Non-orthogonal Amplify and Forward (GNAF) protocol of Rajan et al. The salient feature of the proposed DSTCs is that they satisfy

G. Susinder Rajan; Anshoo Tandon; B. Sundar Rajan

2007-01-01

147

Wanted: A Solid, Reliable PC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses PC reliability, one of the most pressing issues regarding computers. Nearly a quarter century after the introduction of the first IBM PC and the outset of the personal computer revolution, PCs have largely become commodities, with little differentiating one brand from another in terms of capability and performance. Most of…

Goldsborough, Reid

2004-01-01

148

NASA PC software evaluation project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Kuan, Julie C.

1986-01-01

149

PC Magazine 1999 Utility Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PC Magazine Online has recently released its 1999 guide to the best PC utilities. Organized in fifteen categories, the reviews feature links to the companies' sites and to related sites or articles. Users can also view the Editor's Choice of top utilities and obtain demo or full share- or freeware copies for themselves in the Download Center.

150

Working group report on advanced high-voltage high-power and energy-storage space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space systems in the future will probably include high-voltage, high-power energy-storage and -production systems. Two such technologies are high-voltage ac and dc systems and high-power electrodynamic tethers. The working group identified several plasma interaction phenomena that will occur in the operation of these power systems. The working group felt that building an understanding of these critical interaction issues meant that several gaps in our knowledge had to be filled, and that certain aspects of dc power systems have become fairly well understood. Examples of these current collection are in quiescent plasmas and snap over effects. However, high-voltage dc and almost all ac phenomena are, at best, inadequately understood. In addition, there is major uncertainty in the knowledge of coupling between plasmas and large scale current flows in space plasmas. These gaps in the knowledge are addressed.

Cohen, H. A.; Cooke, D. L.; Evans, R. W.; Hastings, D.; Jongeward, G.; Laframboise, J. G.; Mahaffey, D.; Mcintyre, B.; Pfizer, K. A.; Purvis, C.

1986-01-01

151

Amplification of in-plane seismic ground motion by group cavities in layered half-space (I)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplification of in-plane seismic ground motion by underground group cavities in layered half-space is studied both in frequency domain and time domain by using indirect boundary element method (IBEM), and the effect of cavity interval and spectrum of incident waves on the amplification are studied by numerical examples. It is shown that there may be large interaction between cavities, and group cavities with certain intervals may have significant amplification to seismic ground motion. The amplification of PGA (peak ground acceleration) and its PRS (peak response spectrum) can be increased up to 45.2% and 84.4%, for an example site in Tianjin, under the excitation of Taft wave and El Centro wave; and group cavities may also affect the spectra of the seismic ground motion. It is suggested that the effect of underground group cavities on design seismic ground motion should be considered.

Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Ji; Ba, Zhenning

2012-08-01

152

Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS.

Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

2012-01-01

153

Design and implementation of a prototype PC based graphical and interactive MILSATCOM requirements database system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis develops a prototype PC based Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) Requirements Database (MRDB) application for U.S. Space Command, using Microsoft's Access relational database management system (DBMS) for Windows. It demonstrates the advantages of using the proposed database system over the existing one and shows how U.S. Space Command can save both time and money by using a PC based

William M. Major

1993-01-01

154

Alveolar Gas - PC Version  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alveolar Gas is a computer program that lets you study some of the physiological factors that affect the composition of alveolar and expired gases. Such factors include dead space, tidal volume, the frequency of breathing, and the rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. A worksheet is included.

1998-07-01

155

The redshift-space neighborhoods of 36 loose groups. 2: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We explore the kinematics of 36 rich RGH89 groups identified from the first two complete slices of the CfA redshift survey. These groups have more than five members identified by a friends-of-friends algorithm at a number density contrast delta rho/rho greater than or equal to 80. To examine the stability of the determination of the velocity dispersion for these systems, we compare results for the original 232 members with results for a larger redshift sample, including 334 fainter members in the redshift neighborhoods. On average, we double the number of group members in each system. The observed distribution of velocity dispersions is stable. In fact, the velocity dispersion based on the original members identified in the CfA redshift survey is a reliable predictor of the value for the enlarged sample in an individual group. The velocity dispersion is thus a stable physical parameter for discrimination among systems galaxies. A larger sample of groups, particularly one selected from a distance limited catalog, should provide an interesting constraint on models for the formation of large-scale structure. We take H(sub 0) = km/s/Mpc.

Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Hurchra, John P.; Thorstensen, John R.

1995-01-01

156

Two-Dimensional Space-Time Dependent Multi-group Diffusion Equation with SLOR Method  

SciTech Connect

The research of two-dimensional space-time diffusion equations with SLOR (Successive-Line Over Relaxation) has been done. SLOR method is chosen because this method is one of iterative methods that does not required to defined whole element matrix. The research is divided in two cases, homogeneous case and heterogeneous case. Homogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity. Heterogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity and ramp reactivity. In general, the results of simulations are agreement, even in some points there are differences.

Yulianti, Y. [Physics Department, University of Lampung (UNILA), Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Su'ud, Z.; Waris, A.; Khotimah, S. N. [Physics Department, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

157

European Modelling Group Solar Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The co-operative work within the European Modelling Group for Solar Heating Systems and Domestic Hot Water is undertaken as part of the CEC's research and development program on Solar Applications for Dwellings. During the last two years of operation of t...

O. Balslev-Olesen

1985-01-01

158

Creating Spaces for Critical Transformative Dialogues: Legitimising Discussion Groups as Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focussed dialogue (as lived and living practices) can have a powerful role in renewing professional practice, advancing its sustainability and development as administrative and political systems colonise the practices of teachers and teacher educators. However, participating in discussion groups for many teachers, including those in academia, is…

Edwards-Groves, Christine J.

2013-01-01

159

Assessment of various natural orbitals as the basis of large active space density-matrix renormalization group calculations.  

PubMed

It is well-known that not only the orbital ordering but also the choice of the orbitals itself as the basis may significantly influence the computational efficiency of density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In this study, for assessing the efficiency of using various natural orbitals (NOs) as the DMRG basis, we performed benchmark DMRG calculations with different bases, which included the NOs obtained by various traditional electron correlation methods, as well as NOs acquired from preliminary moderate DMRG calculations (e.g., preserved states less than 500). The tested systems included N2, transition metal Cr2 systems, as well as 1D hydrogen polyradical chain systems under equilibrium and dissociation conditions and 2D hydrogen aggregates. The results indicate that a good compromise between the requirement for low computational costs of acquiring NOs and the demand for high efficiency of NOs as the basis of DMRG calculations may be very dependent on the studied systems' diverse electron correlation characteristics and the size of the active space. It is also shown that a DMRG-complete active space configuration interaction (DMRG-CASCI) calculation in a basis of carefully chosen NOs can provide a less expensive alternative to the standard DMRG-complete active space self-consistent field (DMRG-CASSCF) calculation and avoid the convergence difficulties of orbital optimization for large active spaces. The effect of different NO ordering schemes on DMRG-CASCI calculations is also discussed. PMID:23781781

Ma, Yingjin; Ma, Haibo

2013-06-14

160

Aggression and nest spacing in single and mixed species groups of seabirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

When heterospecific seabirds are part of a nesting colony, there may be less opportunity for conspecifics to come in direct\\u000a contact with each other, resulting in lower intraspecific aggressiveness. To determine if individuals spend less time in aggressive\\u000a behavior when nesting in conspecific rather than heterospecific groups, we compared the behavior of black skimmers (Rhynchops niger) nesting with gull-billed terns

Sandra M. Pius; Paul L. Leberg

1997-01-01

161

The effects of time, space and spectrum on auditory grouping in túngara frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) produce complex calls consisting of two components, a ~350 ms FM sweep called the “whine” followed by up to seven ~40 ms\\u000a harmonic bursts called “chucks”. In order to choose and locate a calling male, females attending to choruses must group call\\u000a components into auditory streams to correctly assign calls to their sources. Previously we showed that

H. E. Farris; A. Stanley Rand; Michael J. Ryan

2005-01-01

162

THE ORIGIN OF OB CLUSTERS: FROM 10 pc TO 0.1 pc  

SciTech Connect

We observe the 1.2 mm continuum emission around the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4, using the MAMBO-2 bolometer array of the IRAM 30 m telescope and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Comparison of the Spitzer 24 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m images with our 1.2 mm continuum maps reveal an ionization front of an H II region, the photon-dominated layer, and several 5 pc scale filaments that follow the outer edge of the photon-dominated layer. The filaments, which are resolved in the MAMBO-2 observations, show regularly spaced parsec-scale molecular clumps, embedded with a cluster of dense molecular cores as shown in the SMA 0.87 mm observations. Toward the center of the G10.6-0.4 region, the combined SMA+IRAM 30 m continuum image reveals several parsec-scale protrusions. They may continue down to within 0.1 pc of the geometric center of a dense 3 pc scale structure, where a 200 M{sub Sun} OB cluster resides. The observed filaments may facilitate mass accretion onto the central cluster-forming region in the presence of strong radiative and mechanical stellar feedback. Their filamentary geometry may also facilitate fragmentation. We did not detect any significant polarized emission at 0.87 mm in the inner 1 pc region with SMA.

Liu Hauyu Baobab; Wang Ke; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Quintana-Lacaci, Guillermo [Instituto de Radioastronomia Milimetrica, Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, 18012 Granada (Spain); Li Zhiyun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zhang Zhiyu, E-mail: hlu@cfa.havard.edu, E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: quintana@iram.es, E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu, E-mail: zzhang@mpifr.de [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121, Bonn (Germany)

2012-01-20

163

Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit begins by introducing students to the historical motivation for space exploration. They learn about the International Space Station, including current and futuristic ideas that engineers are designing to propel space research. Then they learn about the physical properties of the Moon, and think about what types of products engineers would need to design in order for humans to live on the Moon. Lastly, students learn some descriptive facts about asteroids, such as their sizes and how that relates to the potential danger of an asteroid colliding with the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

164

The influence of multiple diffraction on the space group determination of orthopyroxene, spodumene, low omphacite and pigeonite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forbidden reflections of some pyroxenes described as having a lower symmetry than Pbca or C2/ c have been examined, mainly using the detailed ?-scanning method of the four-circle automated diffractometer. All reflections violating the systematic absences of Pbca orthopyroxene, C2/ c spodumene, P2/ n omphacite and P21/ c pigeonite were found to be due to the Umweganregung process of multiple diffraction; the Umweganregung peaks observed for the ? azimuth were indexed in terms of a four-circle geometry. Thus, the space groups of orthopyroxene, ? spodumene, low omphacite and low pigeonite were confirmed to be Pbca, C2/ c, P2/ n and P21/ c, respectively.

Sasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takeo; Sawada, Chikako

1981-12-01

165

Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between groups occurs, the circumstances in which social spaces are or need to be negotiated and the way divides are bridged. The study's limitations are that it is bounded by the focus of attention and the search terms used and there is yet to be developed a probabilistic, predictive model for gaps and how to connect them. Conclusions Gaps offer insights into social structures, and how real world behaviours of participants in workplaces, organisations and institutions are fragile. The paper highlights the circumstances in which network disjunctures and group divides manifest. Knowledge of these phenomenon provides opportunities for working out ways to improve health sector organisational communications, knowledge transmission and relationships.

2010-01-01

166

Sobolev metrics on diffeomorphism groups and the derived geometry of spaces of submanifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a finite-dimensional manifold N, the group \\operatorname{Diff}_{ S}(N) of diffeomorphisms diffeomorphism of N which decrease suitably rapidly to the identity, acts on the manifold B(M,N) of submanifolds of N of diffeomorphism-type M, where M is a compact manifold with \\operatorname{dim} M<\\operatorname{dim} N. Given the right-invariant weak Riemannian metric on \\operatorname{Diff}_{ S}(N) induced by a quite general operator L\\colon \\mathfrak{X}_{ S}(N)\\to \\Gamma(T^*N\\otimes\\operatorname{vol}(N)), we consider the induced weak Riemannian metric on B(M,N) and compute its geodesics and sectional curvature. To do this, we derive a covariant formula for the curvature in finite and infinite dimensions, we show how it makes O'Neill's formula very transparent, and we finally use it to compute the sectional curvature on B(M,N).

Micheli, Mario; Michor, Peter W.; Mumford, David

2013-06-01

167

The Exploration Atmospheres Working Group's Report on Space Radiation Shielding Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This part of Exploration Atmospheres Working Group analyses focuses on the potential use of nonmetallic composites as the interior walls and structural elements exposed to the atmosphere of the spacecraft or habitat. The primary drive to consider nonmetallic, polymer-based composites as an alternative to aluminum structure is due to their superior radiation shielding properties. But as is shown in this analysis, these composites can also be made to combine superior mechanical properties with superior shielding properties. In addition, these composites can be made safe; i.e., with regard to flammability and toxicity, as well as "smart"; i.e., embedded with sensors for the continuous monitoring of material health and conditions. The analysis main conclusions are that (1) smart polymer-based composites are an enabling technology for safe and reliable exploration missions, and (2) an adaptive, synergetic systems approach is required to meet the missions requirements from structure, properties, and processes to crew health and protection for exploration missions.

Barghouty, A. F.; Thibeault, S. A.

2006-01-01

168

The Exploration Atmospheres Working Group's Report on Space Radiation Shielding Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This part of Exploration Atmospheres Working Group analyses focuses on the potential use of nonmetallic composites as the interior walls and structural elements exposed to the atmosphere of the spacecraft or habitat. The primary drive to consider nonmetallic, polymer-based composites as an alternative to aluminum structure is due to their superior radiation shielding properties. But as is shown in this analysis, these composites can also be made to combine superior mechanical properties with superior shielding properties. In addition, these composites can be made safe; i.e., with regard to flammability and toxicity, as well as "smart"; i.e., embedded with sensors for the continuous monitoring of material health and conditions. The analysis main conclusions are that (1) smart polymer-based composites are an enabling technology for safe and reliable exploration missions, and (2) an adaptive, synergetic systems approach is required to meet the missions requirements from structure, properties, and processes to crew health and protection for exploration missions.

Barghouty, A. F.; Thibeault, S. A.

2006-09-01

169

75 FR 62005 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the effective date of AD 2009-18...Pilatus PC-6 Service Bulletin...the effective date of AD 2007-19-14), or within 30 days after September...the effective date of AD 2007-19-14), whichever...Pilatus PC-6 Service...

2010-10-07

170

Incorporating Space Science Content Into the Undergraduate Curriculum by the NASA Education Forums' Higher Education Working Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NASA Education Forums, the Higher Education Working Group (HEWG) strives to support undergraduate science education through a variety of activities. These activities include: providing resource that incorporate space science topics into the existing undergraduate curriculum, understanding the role that community colleges play in STEM education and preparing STEM teachers, and identifying issues in diversity related to STEM education. To assess the best way of including space science into the undergraduate curriculum, the HEWG held a series of workshops and conducted surveys of undergraduate faculty who are conducting research in space science. During this engagement, the faculty expressed a need for a centralized repository of materials that can be used as part of already existing undergraduate courses in astronomy, physics, and earth science. Such a repository has since been developed, the 'EarthSpace Higher Education Clearing House (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/) and it is still growing. Additional community tools, such as a newsletter, are provided through this website. To better understand the role and needs of community colleges, the HEWG undertook and extensive survey of community college STEM faculty. 187 faculty responded to the survey and the results show the extensive teaching load these faculty have, as well as the diverse demographics and the extent to which STEM teachers begin their preparation at 2 year institutions. Finally, the HEWG has begun to work on understanding the issues faced in increasing the diversity of the STEM work force. Progress and results of all this work will be summarized in this presentation.

Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Fraknoi, A.; Moldwin, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Low, R.; Schultz, G. R.

2013-12-01

171

Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2001

2001-01-01

172

Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman works with replacement WF/PC II for HST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anchored to the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman works with the replacement Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC II) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the third of five space walks. Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, who joined Hoffman for three of the five space walks, helps with alignment at center frame.

1993-01-01

173

The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. I. Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with ? ~ 5 Gyr (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (? ~ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 105 M ? to 30% for galaxies with M > 107 M ?) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between "ultra-faint" and "classical" dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

2014-07-01

174

Structure of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase R2 in space group P6[subscript 1]22  

SciTech Connect

A new crystal form of wild-type ribonucleotide reductase R2 from Escherichia coli was obtained. Crystals grow in space group P6{sub 1}22 with one R2 monomer in the asymmetric unit. A twofold crystallographic symmetry axis generates the physiological dimeric form of R2. Co-crystallization with CoCl{sub 2} or MnCl{sub 2} results in full occupancy of the dinuclear metal site. The structure of the Mn{sup II}-loaded form was determined to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution by molecular replacement. The crystallization conditions, backbone conformation, crystal-packing interactions and metal centers are compared with those of previously determined crystal forms.

Sommerhalter, Monika; Saleh, Lana; Bollinger Jr., J. Martin; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU); (Penn)

2010-07-20

175

Requirements for space-based observations in fire management: a report by the Wildland Fire Hazard Team, Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildland Fire Hazard Team reviewed potential requirements for space-based observations in fire management. The team produced a report, developed under the auspices of the Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG) of the G-7 Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The document was prepared by an international working group, with experience in the field of remote sensing as applied to wildland

T. J. Lynham; C. W. Dull; A. Singh

2002-01-01

176

Experimental investigation of the viscoelastic deformation of PC, ABS and PC\\/ABS alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests are carried out to investigate the viscoelastic deformation of PC, ABS and PC\\/ABS alloys with ratio of PC to ABS being 80\\/20, 60\\/40, 50\\/50, 40\\/60, respectively. Storage and loss moduli and loss angle of PC, ABS and PC\\/ABS alloys are measured from DMA tests from 30 °C in 160 °C at 1 Hz. Glassy temperature of PC\\/ABS alloys

Z. N. Yin; L. F. Fan; T. J. Wang

2008-01-01

177

Regularity properties and pathologies of position-space renormalization-group transformations: Scope and limitations of Gibbsian theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconsider the conceptual foundations of the renormalization-group (RG) formalism, and prove some rigorous theorems on the regularity properties and possible pathologies of the RG map. Our main results apply to local (in position space) RG maps acting on systems of bounded spins (compact single-spin space). Regarding regularity, we show that the RG map, defined on a suitable space of interactions (=formal Hamiltonians), is always single-valued and Lipschitz continuous on its domain of definition. This rules out a recently proposed scenario for the RG description of first-order phase transitions. On the pathological side, we make rigorous some arguments of Griffiths, Pearce, and Israel, and prove in several cases that the renormalized measure is not a Gibbs measure for any reasonable interaction. This means that the RG map is ill-defined, and that the conventional RG description of first-order phase transitions is not universally valid. For decimation or Kadanoff transformations applied to the Ising model in dimension d?3, these pathologies occur in a full neighborhood { ?> ? 0, ¦h¦< ?( ?)} of the low-temperature part of the first-order phase-transition surface. For block-averaging transformations applied to the Ising model in dimension d?2, the pathologies occur at low temperatures for arbitrary magnetic field strength. Pathologies may also occur in the critical region for Ising models in dimension d?4. We discuss the heuristic and numerical evidence on RG pathologies in the light of our rigorous theorems. In addition, we discuss critically the concept of Gibbs measure, which is at the heart of present-day classical statistical mechanics. We provide a careful, and, we hope, pedagogical, overview of the theory of Gibbsian measures as well as (the less familiar) non-Gibbsian measures, emphasizing the distinction between these two objects and the possible occurrence of the latter in different physical situations. We give a rather complete catalogue of the known examples of such occurrences. The main message of this paper is that, despite a well-established tradition, Gibbsianness should not be taken for granted.

van Enter, Aernout C. D.; Fernández, Roberto; Sokal, Alan D.

1993-09-01

178

Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman with WF/PC during third STS-61 EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman, anchored on the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, is pictured with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC I) during the third of the five STS-61 space walks. Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, stationed at the stowage area at bottom of frame, assists. WF/PC II is in place on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

1993-01-01

179

The mouse PcG gene eed is required for Hox gene repression and extraembryonic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The Polycomb group (PcG) of genes was first identified in Drosophila as maintenance factors for long-term transcriptional\\u000a repression of homeotic genes. In mice, the PcG protein Eed (Embryonic ectoderm development) is present in a distinct complex\\u000a that interacts with histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the PcG member Ezh2 (Enhancer of zeste homolog 2), but not in the larger\\u000a Polycomb repressive complex

Jianbo Wang; Jesse Mager; Elizabeth Schnedier; Terry Magnuson

2002-01-01

180

[Calibration of a PC based virtual audiometer].  

PubMed

Audiometer is an important instrument in otolaryngology clinic. Generally, the cost of an audiometer is too much and its function is not powerful. There are many advantages of using a PC as an audiometer. A way is invented to calibrate a PC based virtual audiometer. Discussion about the possibility of adapting a PC based virtual audiometer is stated. PMID:17591242

Wei, Weiqi; Zhang, Zhengguo

2007-04-01

181

Group theoretical quantization of a phase space S1×R+ and the mass spectrum of Schwarzschild black holes in D space-time dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symplectic reduction of pure spherically symmetric (Schwarzschild) classical gravity in D space-time dimensions yields a two-dimensional phase space of observables consisting of the mass M (>0) and a canonically conjugate (Killing) time variable T. Imposing (mass-dependent) periodic boundary conditions in time on the associated quantum-mechanical plane waves which represent the Schwarzschild system in the period just before or during

M. Bojowald; H. A. Kastrup; F. Schramm; T. Strobl

2000-01-01

182

Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains M. Lewis and W. Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) on an exploration that would become an everlasting part of US national history and pride. Looking back at the events of this exploration, there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we

M. Allner; V. Rygalov

2008-01-01

183

[Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP) in patients with rheumatic diseases: case report and review].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP) following therapy with methotrexate and prednisone. Although bactrim treatment was initiated and PcP was not detected by a control bronchoalveolar lavage, the patient died. The precise cause of death remains unknown. As this case illustrates, PcP must be considered as a differential diagnosis in immunocompromised patients with rheumatic disease. The typical course, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of PcP in this patient group are discussed. PMID:16421640

Bertisch, B; Ruef, C

2006-02-01

184

The Contribution of Thin PFPE Lubricants to Slider-Disk Spacing. 2. Effect of Film Thickness and Lubricant End Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of film thickness of a perfluoropolyether lubricant, Zdol 4000, on slider-disk spacing, or clearance. The major conclusion of this work is that the Zdol lubricant impacts the slider-disk spacing. A decrease in the film thickness of Zdol 4000 by ~10Å results in an increase in the effective slider-disk spacing by ~1 nm. The effect of

R. J. Waltman; A. G. Khurshudov

2002-01-01

185

Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

Ruth, Michael J.

1989-01-01

186

D-Side: A Facility and Workforce Planning Group Multi-criteria Decision Support System for Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"To understand and protect our home planet, to explore the universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers" is NASA's mission. The Systems Management Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is searching for methods to effectively manage the Center's resources to meet NASA's mission. D-Side is a group multi-criteria decision support system (GMDSS) developed to support facility decisions at JSC. D-Side uses a series of sequential and structured processes to plot facilities in a three-dimensional (3-D) graph on the basis of each facility alignment with NASA's mission and goals, the extent to which other facilities are dependent on the facility, and the dollar value of capital investments that have been postponed at the facility relative to the facility replacement value. A similarity factor rank orders facilities based on their Euclidean distance from Ideal and Nadir points. These similarity factors are then used to allocate capital improvement resources across facilities. We also present a parallel model that can be used to support decisions concerning allocation of human resources investments across workforce units. Finally, we present results from a pilot study where 12 experienced facility managers from NASA used D-Side and the organization's current approach to rank order and allocate funds for capital improvement across 20 facilities. Users evaluated D-Side favorably in terms of ease of use, the quality of the decision-making process, decision quality, and overall value-added. Their evaluations of D-Side were significantly more favorable than their evaluations of the current approach. Keywords: NASA, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Decision Support System, AHP, Euclidean Distance, 3-D Modeling, Facility Planning, Workforce Planning.

Tavana, Madjid

2005-01-01

187

On the space group of garronite. [61. 10. Bp. 3; 61. 10. Bp. 6; 07. 85. Yy; 61. 66. Va. 5; 61. 66. Rm. 1  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of the natural zeolite garronite from Goble, Oregon has been refined using high resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Garronite has the same tetrahedral aluminosilicate framework as gismondine [GIS], and earlier structural models indicated a strong tetragonal pseudosymmetry. Proposed models in the literature were based on the I[bar 4]m2 and I4[sub 1]/a space groups, on account of symmetry lowering from the topological I4[sub 1]/amd space due to partial cation/water molecule order in the zeolitic cavities. Test structure analysis has been performed in all possible space subgroups including monoclinic space groups, and the refinement has been successfully carried out in space group I2/a (C2/c). The resulting monoclinic structure model is to be preferred over the tetragonal ones on the basis of: (1) lower agreement indices of the refinement; (2) a chemically sound framework geometry; and (3) a more satisfactory interpretation of the Ca atoms coordination in the extraframework cages. [copyright] [ital 1999 International Centre for Diffraction Data.

Artioli, G.; Marchi, M. (Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Milano, via Botticelli 23, I 20133 Milano (Italy))

1999-09-01

188

Analysis of the chromogranin A post-translational cleavage product pancreastatin and the prohormone convertases PC2 and PC3 in normal and neoplastic human pituitaries.  

PubMed Central

Several members of the chromogranin/secretogranin (Cg/Sg) family are post-translationally processed in neuroendocrine cells and tumors to smaller peptides, some of which are biologically active. For example, CgA is processed to pancreastatin, parastatin, and other peptides. We analyzed the distribution of pancreastatin and CgA proteins in normal and neoplastic pituitaries as well as the prohormone convertases PC2 and PC3/1 (PC3), the putative processing enzymes for the Cg/Sg family, in 35 pituitary adenomas and 4 non-neoplastic pituitaries by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with highly specific antisera. CgA and CgB mRNAs were also examined. Pancreastatin was present in all subtypes of pituitary tumors, although prolactin-secreting adenomas expressed this peptide less frequently than did other tumor types. CgA protein and CgA mRNA expression were also restricted in prolactin adenomas and in normal prolactin cells, as shown by combined in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The prohormone convertases PC2 and PC3 were present in pituitary tumors and in non-neoplastic pituitaries. Immunoblot analysis and immunostaining showed a principal approximately 69-kd PC3 band and a approximately 68-kd PC2 band. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting adenomas expressed mainly PC3 as determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, whereas all other adenoma groups expressed predominantly PC2. These results indicate that the enzymes capable of processing CgA and other members of the Cg/Sg family to peptides with biological activity such as pancreastatin are widely expressed in human pituitary adenomas and in non-neoplastic pituitaries, with adrenocorticotrophic hormone tumors expressing predominantly PC3 and other adenomas expressing mainly PC2. The infrequent expression of CgA protein and pancreastatin peptides in normal and neoplastic prolactin cells suggests a unique role of CgA in these tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Lloyd, R. V.; Jin, L.; Qian, X.; Scheithauer, B. W.; Young, W. F.; Davis, D. H.

1995-01-01

189

PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect

Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

2009-10-01

190

Dynamical Groups SO S(3.2) and SO sub 0 (4.2) as Space-Time Groups of Elementary Particles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elementary particles are described by representations of SO sub 0 (4.2) and SO sub 0 (3.2). An S-matrix invariant under the corresponding group constrains the possible scattering channels. The simptest used representations have each one gauge freedom, the...

W. Heidenreich

1981-01-01

191

Estimated proinsulin processing activity of prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 rather than PC2 is decreased in pancreatic ?-cells of type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients exhibit fasting relative hyperproinsulinemia owing to pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction. To clarify the mechanism underlying this hyperproinsulinemic state, we evaluated the activities of the endopeptidases prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2 in T2D patients. Fasting blood levels of intact proinsulin (IPI), total proinsulin (t-PI) and C-peptide were measured simultaneously, and intravenous glucagon loading was performed to investigate the dynamics of circulating proinsulin-related molecules released from pancreatic ?-cells in 12 healthy volunteers and 18 T2D patients. Taking advantage of the 95% cross-reactivity between proinsulin and des-31,32-proinsulin (des-31,32-PI) with the human proinsulin radioimmunoassay kit used in this study, we estimated PC1/3 and PC2 activities using the following formulas: des-31,32-PI = (t-PI-IPI)/0.95; PC1/3 activity = des-31,32-PI/IPI; and PC2 activity = C-peptide/des-31,32-PI. C-peptide responses to glucagon were slightly lower among T2D patients. IPI and the IPI/C-peptide ratio were significantly higher in T2D patients (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). There was no difference in des-31,32-PI levels or PC2 activity between the two groups. However, PC1/3 activity was significantly lower in T2D patients than in the control group (p<0.01). We propose that decreased activity of PC1/3 rather than PC2 in pancreatic ?-cells is involved in the impaired proinsulin processing, resulting in elevated IPI levels in T2D patients. PMID:24705588

Ozawa, Sachihiko; Katsuta, Hidenori; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Nishida, Susumu; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Ishida, Hitoshi

2014-06-29

192

PC-Bang (Room) Culture: A Study of Korean College Students' Private and Public Use of Computers and the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how Korean college students use computers within the PC-Bangs as well as at home. Data on media usage and PC-Bang usage pat- terns was collected from 291 University of Ulsan students. Results suggest that PC-Bangs are used mainly for game playing and have become a male-dominated play space. Female students, however, tended

Kym Stewart; Hyewon Park Choi

2003-01-01

193

Large-Scale PC Management and Configuration for SNS Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project's diagnostics group has begun its implementation of more than 300 PC-based Network Attached Devices (NADs). An implementation of this size creates many challenges, such as distribution of patches and software upgrades; virus/worm potentials; and the configuration management, including interaction with the SNS relational database. As part of the initial solution, a base operating system (OS) configuration has been determined and computer management software has been implemented. Each PC requires a unique configuration, but all are based on a common OS and supporting applications. The diagnostics group has started with an implementation of an XP Embedded (XPe) OS and uses Altiris® eXpress Deployment Solution™. The use of XPe and Altiris gives the diagnostics group the ability to easily configure, distribute, and manage software on a large scale. This paper describes the initial experience and discusses plans for the future.

Murphy, Darryl J.; Purcell, J. David

2004-11-01

194

Large-Scale PC Management and Configuration for SNS Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project's diagnostics group has begun its implementation of more than 300 PC-based Network Attached Devices (NADs). An implementation of this size creates many challenges, such as distribution of patches and software upgrades; virus/worm potentials; and the configuration management, including interaction with the SNS relational database. As part of the initial solution, a base operating system (OS) configuration has been determined and computer management software has been implemented. Each PC requires a unique configuration, but all are based on a common OS and supporting applications. The diagnostics group has started with an implementation of an XP Embedded (XPe) OS and uses Altiris registered eXpress Deployment Solution{sup TM}. The use of XPe and Altiris gives the diagnostics group the ability to easily configure, distribute, and manage software on a large scale. This paper describes the initial experience and discusses plans for the future.

Murphy, Darryl J.; Purcell, J. David [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

2004-11-10

195

HDTV-PC for media convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed the ARIB-compliant HDTV-PC and used it for experimentation of unified applications by both digital broadcasting and broadband communication. With the rich viewing of HD video and synchronized interactive data services, a HDTV-PC solution is a more compelling one than each of the digital DTV and broadband PC. By combining the rich viewing by HD video and abundant information

Takashi Kan; Hironobu Abe; Toyoshi Makino; Heikan Izumi; Norio Shiratori

2002-01-01

196

AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

Schroer, B. J.

1994-01-01

197

Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir. PMID:23546826

Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

2013-07-01

198

PC EASI: Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption on an IBM PC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An IBM PC version of EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. EASI is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. PC EASI is menu driven and only min...

L. D. Chapman C. P. Harlan

1985-01-01

199

The PowerPC 603 Microprocessor: Performance Analysis and Design Trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance modeling was used in conjunction with application code traces to tune the PowerPC 603 microprocessor design. This modeling technique allowed the design space to be constrained by performance, power and size. Trade-offs were examined with high confidence of final performance. Sampled traces provided a fast turnaround for evaluation of the design space. Finally, simulation model execution of fragments of

Ali Poursepanj; Deene Ogden; Brad Burgess; Sonya Gary; Carl Dietz; David Lee; S. Surya; Mike Peters

1994-01-01

200

Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman with WF/PC during third STS-61 EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman, anchored on the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, is pictured with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC I) during the third of the five STS-61 space walks. Astronauts Hoffman and F. Story Musgrave, seen near the stowage area for the WF/PC, had earlier installed the new camera (note white rectangle) on lower portion of telescope.

1993-01-01

201

IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM PC VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

Aster, R. W.

1994-01-01

202

Talk in Blended-Space Speech Communities: An Exploration of Discursive Practices of a Professional Development Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an exploration of alternative teacher professional development. While using symbolic interactionism for a research lens, it characterizes the discursive practices commonly found in formal, informal, and blended-space speech communities based on the talk within a leadership-development program comprised of five female, church-based…

Garvin, Tabitha Ann

2011-01-01

203

Color Grouping in Space and Time: Evidence From Negative Color-Based Carryover Effects in Preview Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments addressed the role of color grouping in preview search (D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 1997). Experiment 1 used opposite color ratios of distractors in preview and second search displays, creating equal numbers of distractors in each color group in the final display. There was selective slowing for new targets carrying the majority color of the old

Jason J. Braithwaite; Glyn W. Humphreys; John Hodsoll

2003-01-01

204

The Space Density of Primordial Gas Clouds near Galaxies and Groups and their Relation to Galactic High-Velocity Clouds.  

PubMed

The Arecibo H i Strip Survey probed the halos of approximately 300 cataloged galaxies and the environments of approximately 14 groups with sensitivity to neutral hydrogen masses >/=107 M middle dot in circle. The survey detected no objects with properties resembling the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) associated with the Milky Way or Local Group. If the HVCs were typically MHi=107.5 M middle dot in circle objects distributed throughout groups and galaxy halos at distances of approximately 1 Mpc, the survey should have made approximately 70 HVC detections in groups and approximately 250 detections around galaxies. The null detection implies that HVCs are deployed at typical distances of group barycenters. If the clouds are in virial equilibrium, their average dark matter fraction must be 98% or higher. PMID:10655165

Zwaan; Briggs

2000-02-20

205

PC-based tele-audiometry.  

PubMed

A personal computer (PC)-based audiometer was developed for interactive remote audiometry. This paper describes a tele-audiometric system and evaluates the performance of the device when compared with conventional face-to-face audiometry. The tele-audiometric system is fully PC-based. A sound card featuring a high-quality digital-to-analog converter is used as a pure-tone generator. The audiometric programs were developed based on Microsoft Windows in order to maximize usability. Audiologists and their subjects can use the tele-audiometry system as one would utilize any PC application. A calibration procedure has been applied for the standardization of sound levels in the remote system. The performance of this system was evaluated by comparing PC-based audiometry with the conventional clinical audiometry system for 37 subjects. Also, performance of the PC-based system was evaluated during use at a remote site. The PC-based audiometry system estimated the audiometric threshold with an error of less than 2.3 dBSPL. Only 10.7% of the results exhibited an error greater than 5 dBSPL during use at a remote site. The PC-based tele-audiomerty showed acceptable results for use at a remote site. This PC-based system can be used effectively and easily in many locations that have Internet access but no local audiologists. PMID:17999612

Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Haet Bit; Park, Cheol Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Kwang Suk

2007-10-01

206

Planetary Version of PC-McIDAS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs on a planetary version of PC-McIDAS are presented. Topics covered include: McIDAS and PC-McIDAS; McIDAS hardware; real time data available; archived data available; McIDAS installed base; planetary McIDAS: and comparison of McIDAS and VICAR.

S. S. Limaye M. Martin R. S. Saunders L. A. Sromovsky

1991-01-01

207

A PC based frequency domain LV processor  

SciTech Connect

A PC based laser Doppler velocimeter (LV) data system was developed. The data system uses frequency domain processing for multiple component LV individual signal realization. The system is based on a standard add in board for IBM PC's which has a transient digitizer and programmable digital signal processor (DSP) on board. Custom software written for both the general purpose DSP and the PC is described. The DSP is programmed to implement the frequency domain LV signal processor and the PC is programmed to provide a user interface and data archiving capability. The resulting data system is a low cost alternative to dedicated commercial velocimeter signal processors. Furthermore, the general purpose utility of the PC is still available when LV signal acquisition and processing is not active. Typical optical signal data processing is presented to illustrate data system performance. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Layne, T.C.; Giel, T.V. Jr.; Clippard, R.L.

1991-01-01

208

OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working Group Summary. 5: Propulsion (P-1). A. Summary Statement. B. Technology Needs (Form 1). C. Priority Assessments (Form 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All themes require some form of advanced propulsion capabilities to achieve their stated objectives. Requirements cover a broad spectrum ranging from a new generation of heavy lift launch vehicles to low thrust, long lift system for on-orbit operations. The commonality extant between propulsive technologies was established and group technologies were grouped into vehicle classes by functional capability. The five classes of launch vehicles identified by the space transportation theme were augmented with a sixth class, encompassing planetary and on-orbit operations. Propulsion technologies in each class were then ranked, and assigned priority numbers. Prioritized technologies were matched to theme requirements.

1976-01-01

209

A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

1989-01-01

210

Young Stars near Earth: The Octans-Near Association and Castor Moving Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages <=100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a "good box" with dimensions ~20 km s-1 on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age "20 Myr?" and located ~140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity -3.6 km s-1 that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call "Octans-Near"; these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages <=200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg—6.2 pc from Earth with likely age <=100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ~200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor group—if it exists at all—are mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura; Song, Inseok; Schneider, Adam

2013-11-01

211

PC Lube and Tune: PC and Internet Hardware and Software Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PC Lube and Tune, provided by Howard Gilbert, a Senior Research Programmer for Yale University's Computer and Information Systems, is a no-nonsense set of tutorials pertaining to PC computing. Internet tutorials of interest include "Distributed Applications and the Web," "Learning Java," "Introduction to TCP/IP," and "The Warp Internet Connection." There is also much useful information about the PC and networking world in general. There are tutorials on operating systems, considerations when changing operating systems, and PC hardware, among others. Many of the tutorials are illustrated. The power of this site is that even for those who don't get "under the hood" very often, it explains concepts in clear, concise language. And for those contemplating buying a PC, but for whom PC-features language might as well be Sumerian, the first tutorial, "An introduction to PC Hardware," is essential.

212

Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

Wang, Qiwen [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China) [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 (China); Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China) [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China) [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

2013-08-16

213

PC floor systems for microelectronics manufacturing buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because a PC(Precast Concrete) system has to follow the transportation rules for transporting PC units and be designed to the specifications of the tools and equipment on site, designing long-span PC systems for microelectronics manufacturing facilities can be troublesome due to complications in transporting, lifting and handling the PC units. To resolve these problems that can occur in long span and heavy weight PC designs, this study proposes two types of long-span PC floor systems that practically use the traditional Gerber beam concept. In the proposed systems, long-span (17.4m) girders or beams are segmented into appropriate lengths using the Gerber system for easy delivery and lifting. Moreover, these systems provide the ability to optimally design massive units by controlling the location of hinge points. On the other hand, because continuous long-span girders or beams are segmented into the Gerber system's hinge points, these systems may generate structural stability problems during construction. Consequently, this study experimentally examines the structural performance of stress transfer mechanism in panel zones and the construction stability of PC units for columns and girders during assembly.

Hong, Kappyo; Lee, Seongsoo; Kwon, Yunhan; Chun, Homin; Cho, Kwangsu; Kim, Sijun

2009-12-01

214

Charge transfer excitations in water-soluble sulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS) donor molecules coupled to C60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a recently synthesized group of water-soluble sulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS) donor molecules coupled to C60. The ZnPcS donors (ZnPcS2, ZnPcS3, and ZnPcS4) are promising materials for achieving solar cell device production with the photoactive area prepared from aqueous solution. Experimentally, decreasing the number of sulfonate substituent groups for ZnPc increased the photocurrent and lowered the open circuit voltage VOC. Measurements show that the VOC is largest for ZnPc-S4/C60 and lowest for ZnPc-S3/C60. The degree of sulfonation and the measured device VOC does not result in the expected pattern of values based on donor-acceptor HOMO/LUMO energy differences. Variations in film morphology may account for the unexpected pattern of VOC values. Our charge transfer excited state calculations show that the lowest CT excitation energy among the group of ZnPcS/C60 donor-acceptor pairs corresponds to the disulfonated ZnPc/C60 system. The largest CT excited state energies belong to the tetrasulfonated ZnPc/C60 complex. We also examine the effect of geometrical orientation on the CT energies for the ZnPcS donor-acceptor pairs.

Zope, Rajendra; Basurto, Luis; Olguin, Marco; Baruah, Tunna

2013-03-01

215

Amplification of in-plane seismic ground motion by group cavities in layered half-space (II): with saturated poroelastic soil layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the continuation study on amplification of in-plane seismic ground motion by underground group cavities in layered half-space, this study extends to the case of poroelastic half-space with dry poroelastic and saturated poroelastic soil layers. The influence of poroelastic layers on the amplification of seismic ground motion is studied both in frequency domain and time domain using indirect boundary element method (IBEM). It is shown that for the example of a saturated poroelastic site in Tianjin under the excitation of Taft wave and El Centro wave, the amplification of seismic ground motion in poroelastic case is slightly smaller than that in the elastic case, and the amplification of PGA (peak ground acceleration) and its PRS (peak response spectrum) can be increased up to 38.8% and 64.6%; the predominant period of response spectra in poroelastic case becomes shorter to some extent compared with that in the elastic case. It is suggested that the effect of underground group cavities in poroelastic half-space on design seismic ground motion should be considered.

Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Ji; Ba, Zhenning

2012-08-01

216

AUTOPLAN: A PC-based automated mission planning tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A PC-based automated mission and resource planning tool, AUTOPLAN, is described, with application to small-scale planning and scheduling systems in the Space Station program. The input is a proposed mission profile, including mission duration, number of allowable slip periods, and requirement profiles for one or more resources as a function of time. A corresponding availability profile is also entered for each resource over the whole time interval under study. AUTOPLAN determines all integrated schedules which do not require more than the available resources.

Paterra, Frank C.; Allen, Marc S.; Lawrence, George F.

1987-01-01

217

39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section...DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to make...

2010-07-01

218

39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section...DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to make...

2009-07-01

219

39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section...DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to make...

2013-07-01

220

E-Books and the Tablet PC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the emerging technologies of e-books, electronic versions of texts, and the Tablet PC, a new hybrid laptop computer and personal digital assistant that features a writing tablet and stylus-based input/navigation. (Author/VWL)

Goodwin-Jones, Bob

2003-01-01

221

Invariant conformal vectors in space-times admitting a group of G/sub 3/ of motions acting on spacelike orbits S/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

The paper deals with four-dimensional space-times admitting locally a three-dimensional group of motions G/sub 3/ acting on two-dimensional spacelike orbits S/sub 2/. The local existence problem for conformal vectors invariant under G/sub 3/ is shown to be equivalent to the local existence problem for Killing vectors of a given two-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metric g. This problem is explicitly solved in terms of the Gaussian curvature R of g and two of its scalar differential concomitants. The results are applied to the case of dust-filled space-times, where an exhaustive list of metrics has been obtained by using the algebraic computing language Sm-smcapsp-smcaps.-smcaps The metrics are either homogeneous, self-similar, or Friedmann models.

Bona, C.

1988-11-01

222

CtBP Levels Control Intergenic Transcripts, PHO/YY1 DNA Binding, and PcG Recruitment to DNA  

PubMed Central

Carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a well-known corepressor of several DNA binding transcription factors in Drosophila as well as in mammals. CtBP is implicated in Polycomb Group (PcG) complex-mediated transcriptional repression because it can bind to some PcG proteins, and mutation of the ctbp gene in flies results in lost PcG protein recruitment to Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) and lost PcG repression. However, the mechanism of reduced PcG DNA binding in CtBP mutant backgrounds is unknown. We show here that in a Drosophila CtBP mutant background, intergenic transcripts are induced across several PRE sequences and this corresponds to reduced DNA binding by PcG proteins Pleiohomeotic (PHO) and Polycomb (Pc), and reduced trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27, a hallmark of PcG repression. Restoration of CtBP levels by expression of a CtBP transgene results in repression of intergenic transcripts, restored PcG binding, and elevated trimethylation of H3 on lysine 27. Our results support a model in which CtBP regulates expression of intergenic transcripts that controls DNA binding by PcG proteins and subsequent histone modifications and transcriptional activity.

Basu, Arindam; Atchison, Michael L.

2013-01-01

223

Structure determination of a complex tubular uranyl phenylphosphonate, (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(HO{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, from conventional x-ray powder diffraction data  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional structure of a complex tubular uranyl phosphonate, (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(HO{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, was determined ab initio from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and refined by the Rietveld method. The crystals belong to the space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with {alpha} = 17.1966(2) {Angstrom}, b = 7.2125(2) {Angstrom}, c = 27.8282(4) {Angstrom}, and Z = 4. The structure consists of three independent uranium atoms, among which two are seven-coordinated and the third is eight-coordinated. These metal atoms are connected by four different phosphonate groups to form a one-dimensional channel structure along the b axis. The phenyl groups are arranged on the outer periphery of the channels, and their stacking forces keep the channels intact in the lattice. The determination of this structure which contains 50 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit, from conventional X-ray powder data, represents significant progress in the application of powder techniques to structure of complex inorganic compounds, including organometallic compounds.

Poojary, D.M. [Texas A& M Univ. College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A& M Univ. College Station, TX (United States); Cabeza, A.; Aranda, A.G. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain)] [and others] [Universidad de Malaga (Spain); and others

1996-03-13

224

Fire retardancy mechanisms of arylphosphates in polycarbonate (PC) and PC\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of polycarbonate (PC) and PC\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC\\/ABS) with and without arylphosphates (triphenylphosphate\\u000a TPP, resorcinol-bis(diphenyl phosphate) RDP and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) BDP) is investigated by thermal analysis\\u000a as key to understanding the flame retardancy mechanisms and corresponding structure–property relationships. The correspondence\\u000a between the decomposition temperature range of arylphosphates and PC is pointed out as prerequisite for the occurrence of

Birgit Perret; Kristin H. Pawlowski; Bernhard Schartel

2009-01-01

225

Exact hairy black brane solutions in 5D anti-de Sitter space and holographic renormalization group flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a general class of exact regular black hole solutions with toroidal horizon topology in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity with a self-interacting scalar field. With these boundary conditions and due to the nontrivial backreaction of the scalar field, the no-hair theorems can be evaded so that an event horizon can be formed. The scalar field is regular everywhere outside the curvature singularity and it vanishes at the boundary where the potential is finite. We study the properties of these black holes in the context of AdS/CFT duality and comment on the dual operators, which saturate the unitarity bound. We present exact expressions for the beta function and construct a c-function that characterizes the renormalization-group flow.

Aceña, Andrés; Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

2013-06-01

226

Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

1999-01-01

227

Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

2001-01-01

228

Antitumor therapeutic efficacy of photoactivated phthalocyanines ZnS4PC and AlS2PC in tumor-bearing mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photosensitizer of choice in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the hematoporphyrin derivative (Hpd). However, Hpd has many characteristics which make it less than an ideal photosensitizer. The sulfonated phthalocyanines represent a new group of interesting compounds that have a strong absorption in the red part of the spectrum at 675 nm. In our laboratory we compare the efficacy of two phthalocyanines, the zincum tetrasulfonated (ZnS4Pc) and the aluminum disulfonated (AlS2Pc), on a murine tumor. Mice bearing MS-2 fibrosarcoma were treated with 5 or 25 mg/kg of ZnS4Pc or AlS2Pc and then the tumor mass was exposed to a laser light (100 mW for 10'). The results show that the treatment with AlS2Pc is significantly more therapeutically active in respect to the treatment with the same dose of ZnS4Pc. Moreover, resistance to rechallenge with the MS-2 tumor was evidenced by surviving animals. Studies are in progress with other murine tumors with different biological properties.

Canti, Gianfranco L.; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola; Valentini, Gianluca

1993-03-01

229

Identifying New Members of Nearby Moving Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group has assembled a sample of 14,000 stars of spectral types B9-M9 with measured UVW Galactic space velocities and lying within 125 pc of Earth. We have identified candidate members of three nearby young (less than 100 Myr) moving groups. For stars of spectral types G5 and later, we have used the Kast spectrometer on the Shane 3m telescope at Lick Observatory to measure lithium abundance in order to determine stellar ages. With the data we have obtained from this run, we will be able to establish whether our candidates are bona fide members of the moving groups in question. I will be presenting the preliminary results from this survey, including spectra of the ~50 stars observed thus far. These nearby young stars will make excellent targets for direct imaging followup surveys, since any giant planets around young stars will still be warm, and will therefore be bright enough to detect with instruments like GPI.

Holmbeck, Erika; Vican, Laura

2014-06-01

230

PC-based PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) telemetry data reduction system hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Wind Research Program is using pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry systems to study horizontal-axis wind turbines. SERI has developed a low-cost PC-based PCM data acquisition system to facilitate quick PCM data analysis in the field. The SERI PC-PCM system consists of AT-compatible hardware boards for decoding and combining PCM data streams and DOS software for control and management of data acquisition. Up to four boards can be installed in a single PC, providing the capability to combine data from four PCM streams direct to disk or memory. The SERI PC-PCM system hardware is described focusing on the practicality of PC-based PCM data reduction. A related paper highlights the comprehensive PCM data management software program which can be used in conjunction with this hardware to provide full quick-look data processing and display. The PC-PCM hardware boards support a subset of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) PCM standard, designed to synchronize and decommutate NRZ or Bi-Phase L PCM streams in the range of 1 to 800 Kbits/sec at 8 to 12 bits per word and 2 to 64 words per frame. Multiple PCM streams (at various rates) can be combined and interleaved into a contiguous digital time series. Maximum data throughput depends on characteristics of the PC hardware, such as CPU rate and disk access speed.

1990-02-01

231

PC-based PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) telemetry data reduction system hardware  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Wind Research Program is using pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry systems to study horizontal-axis wind turbines. SERI has developed a low-cost PC-based PCM data acquisition system to facilitate quick PCM data analysis in the field. The SERI PC-PCM system consists of AT-compatible hardware boards for decoding and combining PCM data streams and DOS software for control and management of data acquisition. Up to four boards can be installed in a single PC, providing the capability to combine data from four PCM streams direct to disk or memory. This paper describes the SERI PC-PCM system hardware, focusing on the practicality of PC-based PCM data reduction. A related paper highlights our comprehensive PCM data management software program which can be used in conjunction with this hardware to provide full quick-look'' data processing and display. The PC-PCM hardware boards support a subset of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) PCM standard, designed to synchronize and decommutate NRZ or Bi-Phase L PCM streams in the range of 1 to 800 Kbits/sec at 8 to 12 bits per word and 2 to 64 words per frame. Multiple PCM streams (at various rates) can be combined and interleaved into a contiguous digital time series. Maximum data throughput depends on characteristics of the PC hardware, such as CPU rate and disk access speed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Simms, D.A.; Butterfield, C.P.

1990-02-01

232

Ternary phase diagram of dipalmitoyl-PC/dilauroyl-PC/cholesterol: nanoscopic domain formation driven by cholesterol.  

PubMed Central

A ternary phase diagram is proposed for the hydrated lamellar lipid mixture dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dilauroylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (DPPC/DLPC/cholesterol) at room temperature. The entire composition space has been thoroughly mapped by complementary experimental techniques, revealing interesting phase behavior that has not been previously described. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows a regime of coexisting DPPC-rich ordered and DLPC-rich fluid lamellar phases, having an upper boundary at apparently constant cholesterol mole fraction chi(chol) approximately 0.16. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments confirm the identification and extent of this two-phase regime and, furthermore, reveal a 1-phase regime between chi(chol) approximately 0.16 and 0.25, consisting of ordered and fluid nanoscopic domains. Dipyrene-PC excimer/monomer measurements confirm the new regime between chi(chol) approximately 0.16 and 0.25 and also show that rigidly ordered phases seem to disappear around chi(chol) approximately 0.25. This study should be considered as a step toward a more complete understanding of lateral heterogeneity within biomembranes. Cholesterol may play a role in domain separation on the nanometer scale.

Feigenson, G W; Buboltz, J T

2001-01-01

233

The redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function - I. Modelling galaxy infall on to Millennium simulation clusters and SDSS groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale infall of galaxies around massive clusters provides a potentially powerful diagnostic of structure growth, dark energy and cosmological deviations from General Relativity. We develop and test a method to recover galaxy infall kinematics (GIK) from measurements of the redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function ? s_cg(r_p,r_? ). Using galaxy and halo samples from the Millennium simulation, we calibrate an analytic model of the galaxy kinematic profiles comprising a virialized component with an isotropic Gaussian velocity distribution and an infall component described by a skewed 2D t-distribution with a characteristic infall velocity vr, c and separate radial and tangential dispersions. We show that convolving the real-space cross-correlation function with this velocity distribution accurately predicts the redshift-space ? s_cg, and we show that measurements of ? s_cg can be inverted to recover the four distinct elements of the GIK profiles. These in turn provide diagnostics of cluster mass profiles, and we expect the characteristic infall velocity vr, c(r) in particular to be insensitive to galaxy formation physics that can affect velocity dispersions within haloes. As a proof of concept we measure ? s_cg for rich galaxy groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and recover GIK profiles for groups in two bins of central galaxy stellar mass. The higher mass bin has a vr, c(r) curve very similar to that of 1014 h-1 M? haloes in the Millennium simulation, and the recovered kinematics follow the expected trends with mass. GIK modelling of cluster-galaxy cross-correlations can be a valuable complement to stacked weak lensing analyses, allowing novel tests of modified gravity theories that seek to explain cosmic acceleration.

Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.

2013-06-01

234

Using OLCI/Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-5-P data synergistically for retrieving different phytoplankton groups from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are proposing the development of an algorithm, using the combination of data from OCLI (Sentinel-3) and Sentinel-5P sensors, which derives globally pyhtoplankton groups (phytoplankton functional types) biomass. The information of the total biomass will be achieved by standard processing of the Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration using satellite data from multispectral imaging instruments (firstly SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS merged within the GlobColour data set, later OLCI data). The percentage of the main phytoplankton types on the total biomass will be retrieved by the analysis of characteristic absorption features in hyperspectral satellite measurements (firstly SCIAMACHY, later Sentinel-5-P) using the PhytoDOAS method by Bracher et al. (2009) and improved by Sadeghi et al. (2011). Thus, a synergistic product from information of multi- and hyperspectral satellite instruments which complements one another will be developed. The two instruments of the Sentinel mission will enable a data product of weekly to monthly temporal and 7 km by 7 km spatial resolution. On the the SCIAMACHY/Globcolour product (starting in 2002 until today) will be limited to a monthly and 0.5° degree resolution. The application of the algorithm is for assessing the spatial and temporal variability of specific phytoplankton types' biomass on longer time scale (10 to 20 and more years) with global coverage. This will engross the understanding of the role of different phytoplankton types in the world ocean's ecosystem and improve estimates on the contribution of different phytoplankton types to the global carbon cycle. The concept of the algorithm development, including its uncertainity determined via validaton with in-situ phytoplankton data and sensitivity studies using the coupled atmospheric-oceanic radiative transfer model SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al. 2002, Blum et al. in press) and examples for its application are given in the presentation.

Bracher, A.; Dinter, T.; Altenburg Soppa, M.; Taylor, B.; Rozanov, V.

2012-04-01

235

Space Radar Laboratory photos taken at Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1) is being transferred from the payload canister transporter into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. It is to be flown on the STS-59 mission. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is KSC-94PC-323 (30392); In the south Level IV stand of the Operations and Checkout Building low bay, the SRL-1 antenna is being placed atop a pallet which holds the antenna electronics. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is KSC-93PC-1493 (30393).

1994-01-01

236

A users guide for the REBUS-PC code, version 1.4.  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program uses the REBUS-PC computer code to provide reactor physics and core design information such as neutron flux distributions in space, energy, and time, and to track isotopic changes in fuel and neutron absorbers with burnup. REBUS-PC has evolved away from the original REBUS code, which was created starting in the 1960's to study large liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. REBUS and REBUS-PC both model the external cycle, and are very general codes with 1D, 2D, and 3D neutronics capabilities, and with complete fuel shuffling capabilities. REBUS-PC has evolved to its present status over the past decade. While it incorporates the same neutronics capabilities from DIF3D 9.0 as does REBUS 9.0 created by the RAE Division of ANL, REBUS-PC has numerous changes and enhancements directed toward the needs of the thermal reactor analyst using WINDOWS or linux-based PC's.

Olson, A. P.

2002-01-30

237

Fully Automatic Identification of AC and PC Landmarks on Brain MRI Using Scene Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a method for identification of brain structures from MRI data sets. The bulk of the paper concerns an automatic system for finding the anterior and posterior commissures [(AC) and (PC)] in the midsagittal plane. These landmarks are key for the definition of the Talairach space, commonly used in stereotactic neurosurgery, in the definition of common coordinate systems for the

Libero Verard; P. Allain; J. M. Travere; J. C. Baron; D. Bloyer

1997-01-01

238

A prototype PC-based system of giving color estimation ability to monochrome security cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype PC-based system of giving color estimation ability to monochrome security cameras has been developed based on the novel concept. The novel concept can be divided into 3 stages. First, space-variant color filter is put onto the lens of the monochrome security camera. Secondly, when a crime takes place, the camera records suspected person. Finally, just after the crime,

Yoichi Sugita; Yusaku Fujii; Naoya Ohta; Hiroshi Ueda; Masayuki Yokota; Ryosuke Sakurai

2007-01-01

239

Fabrication of ZnPc/protein nanohorns for double photodynamic and hyperthermic cancer phototherapy  

PubMed Central

Multifunctionalization of carbon nanotubules is easily achieved by attaching functional molecules that provide specific advantages for microscopic applications. We fabricated a double photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photohyperthermia (PHT) cancer phototherapy system that uses a single laser. Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was loaded onto single-wall carbon nanohorns with holes opened (SWNHox), and the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was attached to the carboxyl groups of SWNHox. In this system, ZnPc was the PDT agent, SWNHox was the PHT agent, and BSA enhanced biocompatibility. The double phototherapy effect was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. When ZnPc-SWNHox-BSA was injected into tumors that were subcutaneously transplanted into mice, the tumors almost disappeared upon 670-nm laser irradiation. In contrast, the tumors continued to grow when only ZnPc or SWNHox-BSA was injected. We conclude that carbon nanotubules may be a valuable new tool for use in cancer phototherapy.

Zhang, Minfang; Murakami, Tatsuya; Ajima, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Ito, Osamu; Iijima, Sumio; Yudasaka, Masako

2008-01-01

240

Levels of the conversion endoproteases PC1 (PC3) and PC2 distinguish between insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells and non-beta cells.  

PubMed Central

PC1 (PC3) and PC2, members of the mammalian family of proprotein convertases homologous to the yeast Kex2 gene product, are both expressed in pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Recent studies have suggested that PC1 and PC2 are responsible for the conversion of proinsulin to insulin and connecting peptide (C-peptide) in the islet beta cells. However, the insulin-secreting beta cells are not the only cells present in these complex micro-organs, prompting us to evaluate the expression of PC1 and PC2 in islet beta and non-beta cells. Rat islet cells were sorted by autofluorescence-activated flow cytometry to separate beta cells from non-beta cells, and conversion endoprotease levels were analysed by Western blotting. The immunolabel ratio of PC1/PC2 in beta cells was 2.6. Non-beta cells displayed much lower levels of PC1 than beta cells, but twice as much PC2 (PC1/PC2 = 0.05). Post-translational modification of the convertases themselves was found to differ between the cell types. In particular, a 75 kDa precursor form of PC2 (pro-PC2) was found to accumulate in beta cells, whereas only the fully processed 67 kDa form was detected in the non-beta cells. Finally, the quantification of PC1 and PC2 and their precursor forms in transformed cells (insulin-producing beta-TC and glucagon-producing alpha-TC) showed that transformation appeared to be accompanied by unusually high levels of the precursors. Images Figure 1 Figure 3

Neerman-Arbez, M; Cirulli, V; Halban, P A

1994-01-01

241

POLYCOMB GROUP COMPLEXES - MANY COMBINATIONS, MANY FUNCTIONS  

PubMed Central

Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are transcription regulatory proteins that control the expression of a variety of genes from early embryogenesis through birth to adulthood. PcG proteins form several complexes that are thought to collaborate to repress gene transcription. Individual PcG proteins have unique characteristics and mutations in genes encoding different PcG proteins cause distinct phenotypes. Histone modifications have important roles in some PcG protein functions, but they are not universally required. The mechanisms of gene-specific recruitment, transcription repression, and selective derepression of genes by vertebrate PcG proteins are incompletely understood. Future studies of this enigmatic group of developmental regulators are certain to produce unanticipated discoveries.

Kerppola, Tom K

2010-01-01

242

Proinsulin processing by the subtilisin-related proprotein convertases furin, PC2, and PC3.  

PubMed Central

Experiments using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing rat proinsulin I coinfected into COS-7 cells with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing human furin, human PC2, mouse PC3 (subtilisin-related proprotein convertases 1-3, respectively), or yeast Kex2 indicate that in this system both Kex2 and furin produce mature insulin, whereas PC2 selectively cleaves proinsulin at the C-peptide-A-chain junction. This is a property consistent with its probable identity with the rat insulinoma granule type II proinsulin processing activity as described by Davidson et al. [Davidson, H. W., Rhodes, C. J. & Hutton, J. C. (1988) Nature (London) 333, 93-96]. PC3 generates mature insulin but cleaves preferentially at the proinsulin B-chain-C-peptide junction. This pattern of cleavage by PC3 is similar, but not identical, to that of the highly B-chain-C-peptide junction-selective type I activity as described by Davidson et al., perhaps due to the presence of a P4 arginine residue near the C-peptide-A-chain junction unique to the rat proinsulins. These results along with data presented on the expression of both PC2 and PC3 in islet beta cells strongly support the conclusion that these proteases are involved in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin in vivo. Images

Smeekens, S P; Montag, A G; Thomas, G; Albiges-Rizo, C; Carroll, R; Benig, M; Phillips, L A; Martin, S; Ohagi, S; Gardner, P

1992-01-01

243

Effects of oridonin nanosuspension on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effects of oridonin nanosuspension on human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line in vitro. The PC-3 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of oridonin solution and nanosuspensions for 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to measure cellular viability and investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth of PC-3. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining method was used to determine the effect of oridonin by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Nanosuspension on early apoptosis of PC-3 cells was also evaluated. Oridonin significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours of treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Compared with the same concentration of oridonin solution, oridonin nanosuspension enhanced the inhibition ratio of proliferation. The observation of propidium iodide fluorescence staining confirmed the MTT assay results. The cell proportion of PC-3 at the G2/M phase in the nanosuspension treatment group was upregulated compared with that of the control and oridonin solution groups. Both oridonin solution and nanosuspension promoted the early apoptosis of PC-3 cells. Furthermore, while improving the ratio of early apoptosis, oridonin nanosuspensions also enhanced growth suppression, and induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells. This shows great potential in the treatment of androgen-independent carcinoma of prostate by oridonin nanosuspensions.

Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xiumei; Xue, Wei; YangYang, Yuna; Xu, Derong; Zhao, Yunxue; Lou, Haiyan

2010-01-01

244

A Position-Space Renormalization-Group Approach for Driven Diffusive Systems Applied to the One-Dimensional Driven Asymmetric Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a position-space renormalization-group method for nonequilibrium systems, and illustrate its application using the one-dimensional driven asymmetric chain. The dynamics in this case are characterized by three parameters: the probability ? that a particle will enter the chain from the left boundary, the probability ? that a particle will exit the chain at the right boundary, and the probability p that a particle will jump to its right neighboring site if that site is empty. Rescaling trajectories flow in the space of these probabilities and the dynamics are implemented sequentially. The phase diagram for the steady states consists of three distinct regions, one with high current and two others distinguished by their average densities. This method yields a multicritical point at ?_c=?_c=0.5, in agreement with the exact solution.(B. Derrida, et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26), 1493 (1993); G. Schutz and E. Domany, J. Stat. Phys. 72, 277 (1993). We find the exponent ? = 2.71 associated with this fixed point, as compared with the exact value of 2.00.

Georgiev, Ivan T.; McKay, Susan R.

2001-03-01

245

Site-specific cleavage of BMP4 by furin, PC6, and PC7.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) require proteolytic activation by members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family. Pro-BMP4 is initially cleaved at a site adjacent to the mature ligand domain (S1) and then at an upstream site (S2) within the prodomain. Cleavage at the S2 site, which appears to occur in a tissue-specific fashion, regulates the activity and signaling range of mature BMP4. To test the hypothesis that tissue-specific cleavage of pro-BMP4 is regulated by differential expression of a site-specific protease, we identified the PCs that cleave each site in vivo. In Xenopus oocytes, furin and PC6 function redundantly to cleave both the S1 and S2 sites of pro-BMP4, as evidenced by the results of antisense-mediated gene knockdown and the use of the furin- and PC6-selective inhibitor alpha(1)-PDX. By contrast, alpha(1)-PDX blocked cleavage of the S2 but not the S1 site of pro-BMP4 in embryos, suggesting the existence of a developmentally regulated S1 site-specific convertase. This protease is likely to be PC7 based on knowledge of its required substrate cleavage motif and resistance to alpha(1)-PDX. Consistent with this prediction, an alpha(1)-PDX variant engineered to target PC7, in addition to furin and PC6, completely inhibited cleavage of BMP4 in oocytes and embryos. Further studies showed that pc7 transcripts are expressed and polyadenylated, and that the PC7 precursor protein undergoes efficient autocatalytic activation in both oocytes and embryos. These results suggest that PC7, or a convertase with similar substrate specificity, functions to selectively cleave the S1 site of pro-BMP4 in a developmentally regulated fashion. PMID:19651771

Nelsen, Sylvia M; Christian, Jan L

2009-10-01

246

Experience using EPICS on PC platforms  

SciTech Connect

The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft`s operating systems, and also Wind River System`s real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms.

Hill, J.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kasemire, K.U. [Univ. Osnabruck (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

1998-03-01

247

Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

2008-01-01

248

PC based precision timing without GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly accurate monitoring solution for active network measurement is provided without the need for GPS, based on an alternative software clock for PC's running Unix. With respect to clock it's performance exceeds common GPS and NTP synchronized software clock accuracy. It is based on the TSC register counting CPU cycles and offers a resolution of around 1ns, a rate

Attila Pásztor; Darryl Veitch

2002-01-01

249

Multitasking Operating Systems for the IBM PC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of a microcomputer to execute several programs at the same time is called "multitasking." The nature and use of one multitasking operating system Concurrent PC-DOS from Digital Research (the developers of the CP/M operating system) are discussed. (JN)

Owen, G. Scott

1985-01-01

250

A Graphical User Interface for PC GAMESS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GAMESS is a set of computational chemistry tools available free for several computing platforms. Using the set of tools described here along with the pcgRun tool provided allows these tools to be used on the ubiquitous Windows PC with a graphic interface preferred by many of us over the command line.

251

Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN/PC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Composites Analyzer (ICAN/PC) computer program designed to carry out comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered continuous-fiber polymer matrix composites. Performs micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analyses, taking account of hygrothermal responses of fiber composites. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Murthy, P. L. N.; Mital, S. K.

1994-01-01

252

Electroacupuncture at PC6 or ST36 Influences the Effect of Tacrine on the Motility of Esophagus  

PubMed Central

Aim. To investigate the mechanisms of gastrointestinal side effects of tacrine, and find treatment methods with electroacupuncture (EA). Methods. Twenty-five healthy cats were randomly divided into 5 groups: gastric-distention group (model group), tacrine group (cholinesterase inhibitor), tacrine + sham acupoint group (control group), tacrine + PC6 (neiguan) group, and tacrine + ST36 (zusanli) group, with 5 cats in each group. Saline 2?mL i.p. was given 30?min before gastric distention in model group. Tacrine 5.6?mg/kg i.p. was given 30 minutes before gastric distention in the other groups. Tacrine + sham acupoint group (control group), tacrine + PC6 group, and tacrine + ST36 group received EA at corresponding acupoints during gastric distention. The frequency of TLESRs and LESP were recorded by using a perfused sleeve assembly. Results. Compared with the model group, tacrine significantly increased the frequency of gastric distention-induced TLESR (P < 0.05) but did not influence the rate of common cavity during TLESR. Tacrine significantly increased the LESP, which could not remain during gastric distention. EA at PC6 could decrease the frequency of TLESR and maintain the increase of LESP, but EA at ST36 did not have these effects. Conclusion. Tacrine can significantly increase the gastric distention-induced transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs). Electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 may reverse the above side effect.

Wang, Chi; Chen, Xin; Xie, Peng-Yan

2014-01-01

253

An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start with a thorough scientific investigation of the polar region while allowing the ability to demonstrate and validate the systems needed to take humans on more ambitious lunar exploration excursions. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration serves as a model for future cooperation and is documented in a summary report and a comprehensive document that also describes the collaborative international process that led to its development. ISECG plans to continue with architecture studies such as this to examine an open transportation architecture and other destinations, with expanded participation from ISECG agencies, as it works to inform international partnerships and advance the Global Exploration Strategy.

Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

2010-01-01

254

PC-SEAPAK user's guide, version 4.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PC-SEAPAK is designed to provide a complete and affordable capability for processing and analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. Since the release of version 3.0 over a year ago, significant revisions were made to the AVHRR and CZCS programs and to the statistical data analysis module, and a number of new programs were added. This new version has 114 procedures listed in its menus. The package continues to emphasize user-friendliness and interactive data analysis. Additionally, because the scientific goals of the ocean color research being conducted have shifted to larger space and time scales, batch processing capabilities were enhanced, allowing large quantities of data to be easily ingested and analyzed. The development of PC-SEAPAK was paralled by two other activities that were influential and assistive: the global CZCS processing effort at GSFC and the continued development of VAX-SEAPAK. SEAPAK incorporates the instrument calibration and support all levels of data available from the CZCS archive.

Mcclain, Charles R.; Fu, Gary; Darzi, Michael; Firestone, James K.

1992-01-01

255

Ionospheric signatures of cusp-latitude Pc 3 pulsations  

SciTech Connect

It has been well established that many of the disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere, such as auroral substorms, are a response to variations in the solar wind that continually sweeps from the Sun past the Earth and other planets. Studies over the past several years, most recently reviewed by Odera (1986) and Arnoldy at el. (1988), have shown that Pc 3 pulsations, a class of ultra-low-frequency waves in the Earth's magnetic field with periods between 15 and 40 seconds, are also directly related to activity in the solar wind just upstream of the Earth. The authors present in this report new observations from South Pole Station, Antarctica, which during certain hours every day is located under the nominal position of the magnetospheric cleft/cusp region. There has been ample evidence that plasmas from interplanetary space can penetrate to ionospheric altitudes in the cusp region. Two earlier papers based on South Pole data noted that large-amplitude, narrowband Pc 3 magnetic pulsations occurred at South Pole Station near local magnetic noon when the interplanetary magnetic field was aligned near the Earth-Sun direction (low interplanetary magnetic field cone angle). They have now found evidence of these pulsations in data from other South Pole instruments as well.

Engebretson, M.J. (Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN (USA)); Cahill, L.J. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Arnoldy, R.L. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA))

1988-01-01

256

Hubble Space Telescope Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison image of the M100 Galactic Nucleus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera-1 (WF/PC1) and Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WF/PC2). The HST was placed in a low-Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-31 mission, in April 1990. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. During four spacewalks, the STS-61 crew replaced the solar panel with its flexing problems; the WF/PC1 with the WF/PC2, with built-in corrective optics; and the High-Speed Photometer with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), to correct the aberration for the remaining instruments. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects.

1994-01-01

257

Anchorless 23-230 PrPC interactomics for elucidation of PrPC protective role.  

PubMed

Accumulation of conformationally altered cellular proteins (i.e., prion protein) is the common feature of prions and other neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that the lack of terminal sequence of cellular prion protein (PrPC), necessary for the addition of glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor, leads to a protease-resistant conformation that resembles scrapie-associated isoform of prion protein. Moreover, mice overexpressing the truncated form of PrPC showed late-onset, amyloid deposition, and the presence of a short protease-resistant PrP fragment in the brain similar to those found in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease patients. Therefore, the physiopathological function of truncated_/anchorless 23-230 PrPC (?23-230 PrPC) has come into focus of attention. The present study aims at revealing the physiopathological function of the anchorless PrPC form by identifying its interacting proteins. The truncated_/anchorless ?23-230 PrPC along with its interacting proteins was affinity purified using STrEP-Tactin chromatography, in-gel digested, and identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis in prion protein-deficient murine hippocampus (HpL3-4) neuronal cell line. Twenty-three proteins appeared to interact with anchorless ?23-230 PrPC in HpL3-4 cells. Out of the 23 proteins, one novel protein, pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM2), exhibited a potential interaction with the anchorless ?23-230 form of PrPC. Both reverse co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser-scanning microscopic analysis confirmed an interaction of PKM2 with the anchorless ?23-230 form of PrPC. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for co-localization of PKM2 and PrPC as well as PrPC-dependent PKM2 expression regulation. In addition, given the involvement of PrPC in the regulation of apoptosis, we exposed HpL3-4 cells to staurosporine (STS)-mediated apoptotic stress. In response to STS-mediated apoptotic stress, HpL3-4 cells transiently expressing 23-230-truncated PrPC were markedly less viable, were more prone to apoptosis and exhibited significantly higher PKM2 expressional regulation as compared with HpL3-4 cells transiently expressing full-length PrPC (1-253 PrPC). The enhanced STS-induced apoptosis was shown by increased caspase-3 cleavage. Together, our data suggest that the misbalance or over expression of anchorless ?23-230 form of PrPC in association with the expressional regulation of interacting proteins could render cells more prone to cellular insults-stress response, formation of aggregates and may ultimately be linked to the cell death. PMID:24390569

Zafar, Saima; Asif, Abdul R; Ramljak, Sanja; Tahir, Waqas; Schmitz, Matthias; Zerr, Inga

2014-06-01

258

Realtidsklockor foer IBM PC/AT (Real Time Clocks for IBM PC/AT),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a computer card with three programmable real time clocks to be placed in Personal Computer IBM PC/AT, aimed to be used in rapid control system. An example of a program is also given.

B. Landkvist

1988-01-01

259

A PC-based open robot control system: PC-ORC  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open architecture manufacturing system pursues to integrate manufacturing components on a single platform. Therefore, a particular component can be easily added and\\/or replaced. In this paper, a modular and object-oriented approach for the PC-based open robot control (PC-ORC) system is investigated. A standard reference model for controlling robots, which consists of a hardware platform, an operating system module, and

Keum-Shik Hong; Kyung-Hyun Choi; Jeom-Goo Kim; Suk Lee

2001-01-01

260

Effect of cyclic loading on tensile properties of PC and PC\\/ABS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cyclic loading on tensile fracture properties of polycarbonate (PC) and the alloy of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (PC\\/ABS) are experimentally investigated in the paper. Two digital cameras are used to record simultaneously the tensile deformation of specimens and the large deformation and the necking process of these polymers are discussed. Two lateral contractions are not identical at the

Qin-Zhi Fang; T. J. Wang; H. G. Beom; H. M. Li

2008-01-01

261

PC 3,4 magnetic pulsations observed simultaneously in the magnetosphere and at multiple ground stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Periods of magnetic conjugacy between ISEE and the magnetometer array of the Institute for Geological Sciences have been examined to search for the simultaneous occurrence of Pc 3,4 magnetic pulsations. When compressional waves are seen in space, waves are also observed on the ground at the same frequency and with similar waveforms. The wave amplitude on the ground at midlatitudes is similar to that in space at ISEE but at high latitudes the amplitudes are larger than in space. The one occurrence of a purely transverse signal at ISEE was not observed on the ground. These results confirm that Pc 3,4 wave energy is most readily transported through the magnetosphere by compressional fluctuations.

Odera, T. J.; Van Swol, D.; Russell, C. T.; Green, C. A.

1991-01-01

262

Electrical characterization of the organic semiconductor Ag/CuPc/Au Schottky diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the fabrication and investigation of a surface-type organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based diode. A thin film of CuPc of thickness 100 nm was thermally sublimed onto a glass substrate with preliminary deposited metallic electrodes to form a surface-type Ag/CuPc/Au Schottky diode. The current-voltage characteristics were measured at room temperature under dark conditions. The barrier height was calculated as 1.05 eV The values of mobility and conductivity was found to be 1.74 × 10-9 cm2 (V · s) and 5.5 × 10-6 ?-1 · cm-1, respectively. At low voltages the device showed ohmic conduction and the space charge limited current conduction mechanisms were dominated at higher voltages.

Shah, Mutabar; Sayyad, M. H.; Karimov, Kh. S.

2011-04-01

263

The role of compressional Pc5 pulsations in modulating precipitation of energetic electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pc5 (1.67-6.67 mHz) magnetic pulsations and the modulation of energetic electron precipitation are often observed simultaneously in the morning auroral-latitude data. Here we have investigated a conjunction event of Cluster spacecraft and Canadian auroral-latitude ground stations to identify the role of compressional Pc5 pulsations in modulating precipitation of energetic electrons observed by ground-based riometers. On 7 December 2002 as the spacecraft moved between L = 4.0 and 6.5 in the dawn sector (0600-0700 magnetic local time (MLT)), we found a monochromatic Pc5 magnetic pulsation at ~4.0 mHz simultaneously in space and on the ground. Both Cluster and ground magnetometer data confirmed that the resonant oscillation at 4.0 mHz occurred around L = ~6.0. Simultaneously, the four Cluster spacecraft identified the compressional Pc5, which was accompanied by similar temporal variations of the fluxes of medium energy (tens to hundreds of keV) electrons and of the intensity of whistler mode chorus waves. While the compressional Pc5 was present in the magnetosphere, the riometers near the spacecraft footprint observed the coincident modulation of electron precipitation at ~4.0 mHz. Our coordinated observations indicate a convincing relationship between compressional Pc5 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere and the modulation of electron precipitation in the ionosphere, mediated by chorus waves modulated in the magnetosphere, as predicted by the theory of Coroniti and Kennell []. Around the resonant shell, however, some additional contributions to the modulation of electron precipitation might also come from the effects of the resonant Pc5 oscillation.

Motoba, T.; Takahashi, K.; Gjerloev, J.; Ohtani, S.; Milling, D. K.

2013-12-01

264

Magnetic properties of copper hexadecaphthalocyanine (F16CuPc) thin films and powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and magnetic properties of F16CuPc thin films and powder, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, and theoretical modelling of exchange interactions are reported. Analysis of XRD from films, with thickness ranging between 100 and 160 nm, deposited onto Kapton and a perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) interlayer shows that the stacking angle (defined in the text) of the film is independent of the thickness, but that the texture is modified by both film thickness and substrate chemistry. The SQUID measurements suggest that all samples are paramagnetic, a result that is confirmed by our theoretical modelling including density functional theory calculations of one-dimensional molecular chains and Green's function perturbation theory calculations for a molecular dimer. By investigating theoretically a range of different geometries, we predict that the maximum possible exchange interaction between F16CuPc molecules is twice as large as that in unfluorinated copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc). This difference arises from the smaller intermolecular spacing in F16CuPc. Our density functional theory calculation for isolated F16CuPc molecule also shows that the energy levels of Kohn-Sham orbitals are rigidly shifted ~1 eV lower in F16CuPc compared to CuPc without a significant modification of the intra-molecular spin physics, and that therefore the two molecules provide a suitable platform for independently varying magnetism and charge transport.

Wu, Wei; Rochford, L. A.; Felton, S.; Wu, Zhenlin; Yang, J. L.; Heutz, S.; Aeppli, G.; Jones, T. S.; Harrison, N. M.; Fisher, A. J.

2013-01-01

265

PC12 differentiation on biopolymer nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of nervous system regeneration and axonal outgrowth control are relevant in several research areas, like neurophysiology or biomedical engineering. Among the elements that control neuron dynamics, the host substrate topography is a key parameter in determining cell differentiation. We present time-lapse experiments to analyze the differentiation dynamics of PC12 cells on nanopatterned biocompatible substrates. 200 nm depth gratings were fabricated on tissue-culture polystyrene substrates by nanoimprint lithography; different linewidths and pitches were compared down to 500 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. PC12 cells were cultured on these substrates and, following NGF administration to the medium, body morphology, cell movement and neuritogenesis were monitored at different time periods. In addition to demonstrating guided differentiation, our studies show complex time variations in body morphology and axon length, and guided cell movement. We show unstable synaptic connections and cell-body polarization, and the competition between topographical guidance and cell-cell interactions.

Cecchini, Marco; Bumma, Giorgia; Serresi, Michela; Beltram, Fabio

2007-12-01

266

IBM PC enhances the world's future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

Cox, Jozelle

1988-01-01

267

Laser beam characterization under PC control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser products for medical or industrial use have to be evaluated both for their performances (output power/energy power/energy density, bean characteristics, etc.,) and from laser safety point of view. This paper presents an integrated setup for characterization of the laser systems, by connecting, through a dedicated software, stand alone measurement devices. In our set-up two Spiricon laser beam analyzers: LBA 100 and LBA 300-PC as well as an Orphir LaserStar power/energy meter work under a PC control. Some of the software involved was developed by using the LabVIEW 5.0 graphically programming environment, and allows the user to remotely control the measurement process by virtual instruments.

Sporea, Dan G.; Ivan, Alexandru; Visan, Tiberiu; Oane, Mihai

2001-06-01

268

SIMION for the PC in Reflection  

SciTech Connect

This article is a reflective overview of the origins, history, and capabilities of the ion optics simulation program for the PC (versions 2.0–7.0) from the author’s perspective. It provides insight into the rationale and events that contributed to the direction of the evolution and current capabilities of the program. The capabilities of version 7.0 are presented along with tests of its computational accuracy. Future developmental areas are discussed.

Dahl, David Adrian

2000-12-01

269

ZDNet Special Report: PC Expo 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PC Expo 2000 is over, but readers can still get the lowdown on the gadgets and gizmos unveiled at the Jacob Javits Center in 2000. ZDNet's special coverage includes breaking and archived news, product previews and first impressions, commentary, and press releases. CNET offers pieces on new products, top trends of the coming year, and Best of Show awards. At the official site, users will find a list of exhibitors and speakers, and information on keynote programs.

2000-01-01

270

Pc1-2 auroral pulsations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">By observations at Lovozero station (64.3 N, 114.3 E CGM coordinates), we have investigated two events of auroral pulsations of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>1-2 type with periods in the range 2.5-7 s accompanied by similar geomagnetic pulsations. Luminous variations in different parts of the sky were found by photometric measurements of the frames of all-sky camera, which was operated at the rate of one frame per second. The pulsations under study are associated with the diffuse aurora. For the event with 7 s period, a phase relationship between auroral and magnetic pulsations is as follows: the luminosity bursts are coincident with positive half periods in the Z component and negative ones in the D component, while positive peaks in the H component lag behind the luminous peaks by about ?/2. For the event with 2.5 s period, this relationship appears different. Within one of 10-min intervals, <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 pulsations observed in both magnetic field and aurora were superposed by regular <span class="hlt">Pc</span>4 pulsations of 1-min period. For these, the luminosity bursts corresponded to negative half periods in the Z component. A connection between auroral and magnetic pulsations is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roldugin, V. C.; Roldugin, A. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2182..220T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Pc</span>-based car license plate reading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based car license plate recognition system has been developed. The system recognizes Chinese characters and Japanese phonetic hiragana characters as well as six digits on Japanese license plates. The system consists of a CCD camera, vehicle sensors, a strobe unit, a monitoring center, and an i486-based <span class="hlt">PC</span>. The <span class="hlt">PC</span> includes in its extension slots: a vehicle detector board, a strobe emitter board, and an image grabber board. When a passing vehicle is detected by the vehicle sensors, the strobe emits a pulse of light. The light pulse is synchronized with the time the vehicle image is frozen on an image grabber board. The recognition process is composed of three steps: image thresholding, character region extraction, and matching-based character recognition. The recognition software can handle obscured characters. Experimental results for hundreds of outdoor images showed high recognition performance within relatively short performance times. The results confirmed that the system is applicable to a wide variety of applications such as automatic vehicle identification and travel time measurement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanabe, Katsuyoshi; Marubayashi, Eisaku; Kawashima, Harumi; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Shio, Akio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990010009&hterms=plug-in&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2522plug-in%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Virtual Reality at the <span class="hlt">PC</span> Level</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard <span class="hlt">PC</span>'s. The standard language used for virtual reality on <span class="hlt">PC</span>'s is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a <span class="hlt">PC</span>. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dean, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...109g4513L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transient photocurrent measurements of PCDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM and PCPDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM Solar Cells: Evidence for charge trapping in efficient polymer/fullerene blends</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report measurements of the turn-on and turn-off photocurrent dynamics as a function of applied voltage for efficient polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells composed of poly[N-9''-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT): [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM) and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT):<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM blends. In particular we present evidence for charge trapping that facilitates recombination in these systems. For the PCDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM system, an initial transient photocurrent peak 5-10 ?s after turn-on is observed for operating voltages between 0.5 V and open-circuit. Furthermore, a long photocurrent tail is observed in the decay dynamics of PCDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM devices with charge still being extracted hundreds of microseconds after turn-off. These features in the PCDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM device are attributed to trapping and detrapping of charge on the microsecond time scale, with charge trapping facilitating recombination either through trap-assisted recombination or <span class="hlt">space</span>-charge effects. For the PCPDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM system, evidence for charge trapping is also observed albeit on a faster time scale. No initial transient photocurrent peak is observed, however the faster PCPDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM decay dynamics show only a weak voltage dependence consistent with rapid trapping and recombination of charge. For both systems the amount of extracted charge as a function of applied voltage follows a similar form to the measured current-voltage curves providing evidence that photocurrent is hampered by the extraction, and not just the separation, of charge in these systems. The origin of charge trapping and the nature of recombination is discussed, along with the influence of additives on charge transport in the PCPDTBT:<span class="hlt">PC</span>70BM system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zhe; McNeill, Christopher R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8914986"> <span id="translatedtitle">IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/IX Operating System Evaluation Plan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An evaluation plan for the IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/IX Operating System designed for IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, netwo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. D. Dominick M. Granier P. P. Hall S. Triantafyllopoulos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7915122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oast <span class="hlt">Space</span> Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working <span class="hlt">Group</span> Summary. 3: Sensors (E-3). A. Statement. B. Technology Needs (Form 1). C. Priority Assessment (Form 2). D. Additional Assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developments required to support the <span class="hlt">space</span> power, SETI, solar system exploration and global services programs are identified. Instrumentation and calibration sensors (rather than scientific) are needed for the <span class="hlt">space</span> power system. Highly sophisticated rece...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809776"> <span id="translatedtitle">A clue towards improving the European Society of Medical Oncology risk <span class="hlt">group</span> classification in apparent early stage endometrial cancer? Impact of lymphovascular <span class="hlt">space</span> invasion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background:Lymphovascular <span class="hlt">space</span> invasion (LVSI) is one of the most important predictors of nodal involvement and recurrence in early stage endometrial cancer (EC). Despite its demonstrated prognostic value, LVSI has not been incorporated into the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) classification. The aim of this prospective multicentre database study is to investigate whether it may improve the accuracy of the ESMO classification in predicting the recurrence risk.Methods:Data of 496 patients with apparent early-stage EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2001 and December 2012 were abstracted from prospective multicentre database. A modified ESMO classification including six risk <span class="hlt">groups</span> was created after inclusion of the LVSI status in the ESMO classification. The primary end point was the recurrence accuracy comparison between the ESMO and the modified ESMO classifications with respect to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).Results:The recurrence rate in the whole population was 16.1%. The median follow-up and recurrence time were 31 (range: 1-152) and 27 (range: 1-134) months, respectively. Considering the ESMO modified classification, the recurrence rates were 8.2% (8 out of 98), 23.1% (15 out of 65), 25.9% (15 out of 58), and 45.1% (28 out of 62) for intermediate risk/LVSI-, intermediate risk/LVSI+, high risk/LVSI-, and high risk/LVSI+, respectively (P<0.001). In the low risk <span class="hlt">group</span>, LVSI status was not discriminant as only 7.0% (14 out of 213) had LVSI+. The staging accuracy according to AUC criteria for ESMO and ESMO modified classifications were of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.74) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.71-0.77), respectively.Conclusions:The current modified classification could be helpful to better define indications for nodal staging and adjuvant therapy, especially for patients with intermediate risk EC. PMID:24809776</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bendifallah, S; Canlorbe, G; Raimond, E; Hudry, D; Coutant, C; Graesslin, O; Touboul, C; Huguet, F; Cortez, A; Daraï, E; Ballester, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=156251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutational analysis of predicted interactions between the catalytic and P domains of prohormone convertase 3 (<span class="hlt">PC</span>3/<span class="hlt">PC</span>1)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The subtilisin-like prohormone convertases (PCs) contain an essential downstream domain (P domain), which has been predicted to have a ?-barrel structure that interacts with and stabilizes the catalytic domain (CAT). To assess possible sites of hydrophobic interaction, a series of mutant <span class="hlt">PC</span>3–enhanced GFP constructs were prepared in which selected nonpolar residues on the surface of CAT were substituted by the corresponding polar residues in subtilisin Carlsberg. To investigate the folding potential of the isolated P domain, signal peptide–P domain–enhanced GFP constructs with mutated and/or truncated P domains were also made. All mutants were expressed in ?TC3 cells, and their subcellular localization and secretion were determined. The mutants fell into three main <span class="hlt">groups</span>: (i) Golgi/secreted, (ii) ER/nonsecreted, and (iii) apoptosis inducing. The destabilizing CAT mutations indicate that the side chains of V292, T328, L351, Q408, H409, V412, and F441 and nonpolar fragments of the side chains of R405 and W413 form a hydrophobic patch on CAT that interacts with the P domain. We also have found that the P domain can fold independently, as indicated by its secretion. Interestingly, T594, which is near the P domain C terminus, was not essential for P domain secretion but is crucial for the stability of intact <span class="hlt">PC</span>3. T594V produced a stable enzyme, but T594D did not, which suggests that T594 participates in important hydrophobic interactions within <span class="hlt">PC</span>3. These findings support our conclusion that the catalytic and P domains contribute to the folding and thermodynamic stability of the convertases through reciprocal hydrophobic interactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ueda, Kazuya; Lipkind, Gregory M.; Zhou, An; Zhu, Xiaorong; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Philipson, Louis; Gardner, Paul; Zhang, Chunling; Steiner, Donald F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec128-1-5002-8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-07-01 false Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>). 128-1.5002-8 Section 128-1...128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>). An individual responsible for...within his jurisdiction. The designation as <span class="hlt">PC</span> may or may not correspond to the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title41-vol3-sec128-1-5002-8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 false Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>). 128-1.5002-8 Section 128-1...128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>). An individual responsible for...within his jurisdiction. The designation as <span class="hlt">PC</span> may or may not correspond to the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2009-title41-vol3-sec128-1-5002-8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-07-01 false Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>). 128-1.5002-8 Section 128-1...128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (<span class="hlt">PC</span>). An individual responsible for...within his jurisdiction. The designation as <span class="hlt">PC</span> may or may not correspond to the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890005604&hterms=NASA+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNASA%2Benvironment"> <span id="translatedtitle">The USL NASA <span class="hlt">PC</span> R and D development environment standards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the <span class="hlt">PC</span>'s are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling <span class="hlt">PC</span> resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Moreau, Dennis R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21998159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-<span class="hlt">space</span> finite-difference approach for multi-body systems: path-integral renormalization <span class="hlt">group</span> method and direct energy minimization method.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The path-integral renormalization <span class="hlt">group</span> and direct energy minimization method of practical first-principles electronic structure calculations for multi-body systems within the framework of the real-<span class="hlt">space</span> finite-difference scheme are introduced. These two methods can handle higher dimensional systems with consideration of the correlation effect. Furthermore, they can be easily extended to the multicomponent quantum systems which contain more than two kinds of quantum particles. The key to the present methods is employing linear combinations of nonorthogonal Slater determinants (SDs) as multi-body wavefunctions. As one of the noticeable results, the same accuracy as the variational Monte Carlo method is achieved with a few SDs. This enables us to study the entire ground state consisting of electrons and nuclei without the need to use the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Recent activities on methodological developments aiming towards practical calculations such as the implementation of auxiliary field for Coulombic interaction, the treatment of the kinetic operator in imaginary-time evolutions, the time-saving double-grid technique for bare-Coulomb atomic potentials and the optimization scheme for minimizing the total-energy functional are also introduced. As test examples, the total energy of the hydrogen molecule, the atomic configuration of the methylene and the electronic structures of two-dimensional quantum dots are calculated, and the accuracy, availability and possibility of the present methods are demonstrated. PMID:21998159</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sasaki, Akira; Kojo, Masashi; Hirose, Kikuji; Goto, Hidekazu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24742965"> <span id="translatedtitle">S-<span class="hlt">PC</span>: An e-treatment application for management of smoke-quitting patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main objective of this paper is to present a new program that facilitates the management of people who want to quit smoking, implemented through an e-treatment software called S-<span class="hlt">PC</span> (Smoker Patient Control). S-<span class="hlt">PC</span> is a web-based application that manages <span class="hlt">groups</span> of patients, provides a bidirectional communication through mobile text messages and e-mails between patients and clinicians and offers advice and control to keep track of the patients and their status. A total of 229 patients were enrolled in the study, randomly divided into two <span class="hlt">groups</span>, although some variables were tested to ensure that there were no significant differences between the <span class="hlt">groups</span> that could have an impact on the outcome of the treatment. There were no significant differences between the two <span class="hlt">groups</span> regarding the ratio/number of males/females, tobacco dependence, co-oximetry, average cigarette consumption, current age and age when smoking started. The first <span class="hlt">group</span> was made up of 104 patients (45.4% of the total) and followed a treatment that incorporated the S-<span class="hlt">PC</span> tool, while the second one had 125 patients without the S-<span class="hlt">PC</span> tool. S-<span class="hlt">PC</span> was evaluated for its effectiveness at assisting the patients to give up smoking, and its effect on clinician time management. 74% of the S-<span class="hlt">PC</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> completed the treatment without relapses and remained abstinent three months after the completion of the treatment, understanding abstinence as being continuous (with no relapses allowed and co-oximetry below 1ppm) from the day of stopping. In contrast only 45.6% of the No S-<span class="hlt">PC</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> completed the treatment without relapses and remained abstinent three months after completion of the treatment. The rate of admittance to the program has doubled in one year and patients went from having to wait for 3 months to be immediately admitted into the program. This therapeutic e-health program aims at maximizing the number of patients that a professional can effectively help to quit smoking. In addition, the system also detects patients who are not progressing appropriately, allowing the professional to improve their treatment parameters dynamically. PMID:24742965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vilaplana, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc; Abella, Francesc; Cuadrado, Josep; Alves, Rui; Mateo, Jordi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22240374"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein carbonyl <span class="hlt">groups</span> in trained subjects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this research was to evaluate the plasma protein carbonyl <span class="hlt">groups</span> (<span class="hlt">PC</span>) in 81 trained subjects (TS) who practiced regular, non professional physical activity. They were divided into three <span class="hlt">groups</span> according to the type of sport they practiced (endurance, mixed or power). On fasting venous blood we examined the <span class="hlt">PC</span> <span class="hlt">groups</span> employing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, in which 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine reacts with the <span class="hlt">PC</span> forming a stable hydrazone product. In the whole <span class="hlt">group</span> of TS a significant decrease in <span class="hlt">PC</span> was present, in comparison with sedentary controls (SC). Dividing TS into <span class="hlt">groups</span>, we observed a decreased <span class="hlt">PC</span> concentration in those practicing endurance and mixed sports, but not in those practicing power sports. There was no difference between men and women for <span class="hlt">PC</span> either in SC or in TS; male TS had a <span class="hlt">PC</span> concentration significantly lower than male SC. Our data show that body proteins are more protected against oxidative stress in subjects who practice endurance and mixed sports. These results give further support to the promotion of regular physical activity including aerobic exercise. PMID:22240374</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lo Presti, R; Canino, B; Montana, M; Calandrino, V; Caimi, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia-regulated neurotrophin-3 expression by multicopy hypoxia response elements reduces apoptosis in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have previously reported that 5 copies of the hypoxia response element (HRE) can conditionally regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression under hypoxic/ischemic conditions in mice. In the present study, we investigated the controlled expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) by HRE under hypoxic conditions and determined the protective effects of conditionally expressed NT-3 on hypoxia-induced apoptosis in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells. Five copies of the HRE (5HRE) and the simian virus 40 minimal promoter (SV40mp) were employed to construct a cassette, and transfer of therapeutic gene, NT-3, into <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells was achieved using a retroviral vector. Our results showed that the retroviral vector, pLNC-5HRE-NT3, was successfully constructed and transfected into <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells. Compared with normal conditions, in which NT-3 was expressed at low levels, the expression of NT-3 significantly increased under hypoxic conditions in 5HRE-NT3 transgenic <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells (P<0.05). By contrast, in NT-3 transgenic <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells without HRE, we found no significant difference in NT-3 expression between the normoxic and hypoxic <span class="hlt">groups</span>. The conditional adjustment of NT-3 expression by 5HRE significantly reduced apoptosis induced by hypoxia in 5HRE-NT3 transgenic <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells (P<0.05) but not in 5HRE-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells and <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells without gene transfer. In addition, the hypoxia-induced upregulation of both p38 and caspase-3 activities was suppressed in 5HRE-NT3 transgenic <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells under hypoxic conditions (P<0.05). Taken together, these results demonstrate that 5HRE-SV40mp regulates NT-3 gene expression in response to hypoxia in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells. The data presented in this study may prove useful in future gene therapy studies for the treatment of ischemic diseases. PMID:22960790</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Junfeng; Shi, Qindong; Chen, Xinlin; Yang, Pengbo; Qi, Cunfang; Zhang, Jianshui; Lu, Haixia; Liu, Jianxin; Jiao, Qian; Zhao, Lingyu; Zhao, Bingqiao; Zheng, Ping; Liu, Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890005615&hterms=pc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpc"> <span id="translatedtitle">IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/IX operating system evaluation plan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An evaluation plan for the IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/IX Operating System designed for IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of <span class="hlt">PC</span>/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA <span class="hlt">PC</span> Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the <span class="hlt">PC</span>/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3894402"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intracellular Distributing and Interferon-? Secretion of Human Interleukin-18 in Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To investigate the characteristics of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in vitro, explore IL-18, interferon-? (IFN-?) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretive activity in Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 line cells with interleukin-18 mutants. Methods: Human IL-18 full-length gene (hIL-18-F) and the hIL-18 presumed mature protein gene (hIL-18-M) were inserted into the expression vector pEGFP-N1, to construct recombinant plasmids as Mu0, Mu1, Mu2, Mu3, and Mu4, and the recombinant plasmids were then transferred into Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 line cells. There are significant differences between Mu1, Mu2 and the pEGFP-C1 control <span class="hlt">group</span> (P<0.05) by 3-(4,5-dimethiazol- 2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) for a proliferation assay, and the fluorescence of the Mu1 and Mu 2 appeared targeted to the membranous region in the Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells after transfected 24h by confocal laser scanning microscope (OLSM).To characterize the intracellular distribution of hIL-18, recombinant IL-18 were each fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, and expressed in Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells. Results: Results showed that the Mu1 tended to the membranous region in Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells, this indicates that the N-terminal former amino acid peptide helped ChIL-18 target to Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cellS membranes. ELISA results demonstrated that IFN-? and IL-18 secreted levels of Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells transfecting with recombinant plasmid showed an significant difference (P<0.01); refers to IL-2 expression, the two Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells <span class="hlt">groups</span> transfecting with recombinant plasmid have no significant function (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that hIL-18 and hIL-18 presumed mature protein can induce the secretion of IFN-? in Bx<span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells, and increase the expression of IL-18, but they have no effects on IL-2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Jin; Chen, Linlin; Xu, Bin; Xu, Jian; Sun, Jinquan; Shen, Wen; Zhang, Ting</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775447"> <span id="translatedtitle">CAP88 <span class="hlt">PC</span> Tritium Ingestion Model Inconsistencies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CAP88 <span class="hlt">PC</span> is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) code approved for demonstrating compliance with National Emission Standard for Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAP) 40 CFR Part 61. A detailed look at the dose methodology for tritium revealed that there are several inconsistencies in the ingestion model when compared with the ingestion model for other radionuclides within the code. The inconsistencies include use of an out-dated tritium ingestion dose conversion factor and hard coding of out-dated food consumption parameters for tritium. Correction of these values could result in approximately a 50 percent reduction in dose from tritium for certain cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simpkins, A.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JPRS...48...35G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-assisted translation of photogrammetric papers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based system for machine translation of photogrammetric papers from the English into the German language and vice versa is described. The computer-assisted translating process is not intended to create a perfect interpretation of a text but to produce a rough rendering of the content of a paper. Starting with the original text, a continuous data flow is effected into the translated version by means of hardware (scanner, personal computer, printer) and software (OCR, translation, word processing, DTP). An essential component of the system is a photogrammetric microdictionary which is being established at present. It is based on several sources, including e.g. the ISPRS Multilingual Dictionary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Güthner, Karlheinz; Peipe, Jürgen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1823..272H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-based car license plate reader</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a <span class="hlt">PC</span> with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pcmag.com/category2/0,2806,415483,00.asp"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span> Magazine: The Future of Technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This section of <span class="hlt">PC</span> Magazine's Web site highlights some of the most fascinating and potentially revolutionary technologies that could be on the verge of large scale development. Of the nineteen main technologies that are featured, some have been widely publicized, such as hydrogen fuel cells and grid computing. Others are not as well known. For example, the article on e-bombs, or "high-power microwave (HPM) weapons," touches on a US Department of Defense effort that until recently has been shrouded in secrecy. A prototype gallery is also available on this site, showing images and brief descriptions of other remarkable technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790006954&hterms=igbt+early+breakdown&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Digbt%2Bearly%2Bbreakdown"> <span id="translatedtitle">OAST <span class="hlt">Space</span> Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working <span class="hlt">group</span> summary. 6: Power (P-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Power requirements for the multipurpose <span class="hlt">space</span> power platform, for <span class="hlt">space</span> industrialization, SETI, the solar system exploration facility, and for global services are assessed for various launch dates. Priorities and initiatives for the development of elements of <span class="hlt">space</span> power systems are described for systems using light power input (solar energy source) or thermal power input, (solar, chemical, nuclear, radioisotopes, reactors). Systems for power conversion, power processing, distribution and control are likewise examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/ja0909/2009JA014162/2009JA014162.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multipoint observations of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>1-2 waves in the afternoon sector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coordinated observations from GOES-9, DMSP F-13, and Chokurdakh (CHD) have shown concurrent <span class="hlt">Pc</span>1-2 band wave activity in the late afternoon sector, close to 16 MLT. The left-hand polarization of the waves in <span class="hlt">space</span> indicates that these are electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. In the region of field line conjunction, DMSP also observed 6–30 keV energy ion precipitation. We have examined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven K. Morley; Sean T. Ables; Murray D. Sciffer; Brian J. Fraser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002964&hterms=14468&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%252214468%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">ICAN - INTEGRATED COMPOSITE ANALYZER (IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> VERSION)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) is a computer program designed to carry out a comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered fiber composites. The analysis contains the essential features required to effectively design structural components made from fiber composites. ICAN includes the micromechanical design features of the Intraply Hybrid Composite Design (INHYD) program to predict ply level hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties. The laminate analysis features of the Multilayered Filamentary Composite Analysis (MFCA) program are included to account for interply layer effects. ICAN integrates these and additional features to provide a comprehensive analysis capability for composite structures. Additional features unique to ICAN include the following: 1) ply stress-strain influence coefficients, 2) microstresses and microstrain influence coefficients, 3) concentration factors around a circular hole, 4) calculation of probable delamination locations around a circular hole, 5) Poisson's ratio mismatch details near a straight edge, 6) free-edge stresses, 7) material card input for finite element analysis using NASTRAN (available separately from COSMIC) or MARC, 8) failure loads based on maximum stress criterion, and laminate failure stresses based on first-ply failures and fiber breakage criteria, 9) transverse shear stresses, normal and interlaminar stresses, and 10) durability/fatigue type analyses for thermal as well as mechanical cyclic loads. The code can currently assess degradation due to mechanical and thermal cyclic loads with or without a defect. ICAN includes a dedicated data bank of constituent material properties, and allows the user to build a database of material properties of commonly used fibers and matrices so the user need only specify code names for constituents. Input to ICAN includes constituent material properties (or code names), factors reflecting the fabrication process, and composite geometry. ICAN performs micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analysis including the hygrothermal response of fiber composites. ICAN output includes the various ply and composite properties, composite structural response, and composite stress analysis results with details of failure. Output can be tailored to specific needs by choosing the appropriate options. Two machine versions of ICAN are available. The IBM 370 series version (LEW-14468) is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM 370 series computers running OS/TSS. The IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> version (LEW-15592) is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on the IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> series computers running MS-DOS and Microsoft FORTRAN 5.1. The IBM 370 version requires 3.5Mb of memory for execution. No sample executable is provided. For the IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> version, a sample executable, along with sample input and output data, is included on the distribution medium. Although the included executable requires a math coprocessor, the ICAN source can be recompiled into an executable which does not require a math coprocessor. The standard distribution medium for the IBM 370 version of ICAN is a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in EBCDIC CARD IMAGE format. The standard distribution medium for the IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> version is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. ICAN was developed in 1986 and the IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> version was released in 1992.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murthy, P. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890005617&hterms=Information+Systems+Design+Implementation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DInformation%2BSystems%2BDesign%2BImplementation"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-based Multiple Information System Interface (<span class="hlt">PC</span>/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (<span class="hlt">PC</span>/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Hall, Philip P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/568264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive Geostatistical Technology on <span class="hlt">PC</span> Platform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geostatistics has attracted the attention of many earth scientist and engineers who need better modeling tools for natural gas reservoirs. Two years ago Correlations Company responded to this need through the peer reviewed, DOE Small Business Innovative Research program to develop a fractal algorithm for interpolating between measurements and mapping the consequences. During the two years research period Correlations Company has combined geostatistical modeling with high quality graphics to produce Gviz. This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for <span class="hlt">PC</span> platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. Until recently geostatistical modeling was only available to the limited number of earth scientist familiar with UNIX based platforms. Gviz runs on any <span class="hlt">PC</span> with Windows 95 or Windows NT operating system. The Gviz pre- processing module reads LAS and ASCII files. The pre-processing module facilitates selection of the stratigraphic units prior to processing by a nearest neighbor, kriging and co-kriging, conditional simulation, or fractal module. A user friendly GUI simplifies the examination of the statistical data and the geostatistical analyses using isotropic and anisotropic variograms. After completing the analyses, the post-processing unit can generate ID models of well logs, 2D models such as cross-sections, or a 3D model of any petrophysical property. Post- processing includes the display of reservoir slices, multiple cross-sections, rotation along any axis, and identification of geobodies (visually inspect the effect of porosity cutoffs on connected pore volume). The post-processor includes an up-scaling module to transform a fine scale grid into a reservoir simulation grid which can then be exported in an Eclipse format. Gviz emphasizes a self-explanatory GUI and visually oriented help pages which guides even a novice through the process of generating realistic, two to five million cell, 3D reservoir models. Beta testing of Gviz will finish in April 1997 and a working version of the <span class="hlt">PC</span> software package, at one fifth of the cost of a comparable UNIX system, will be available to domestic gas and oil producers in mid-1997.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stevenson, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002971&hterms=pc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpc"> <span id="translatedtitle">METCAN-<span class="hlt">PC</span> - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN-<span class="hlt">PC</span> is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. An 80286 machine with an 80287 math co-processor is required for execution. The executable requires at least 640K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher. The package includes sample executables which were compiled under Microsoft FORTRAN v. 5.1. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. METCAN-<span class="hlt">PC</span> was developed in 1992.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murthy, P. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5312232"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bursts of <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 1-2 related to flux transfer events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instances of sporadic reconnection of geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field lines have been measured by <span class="hlt">space</span>-craft passing through the dayside magnetopause region (Russell and Elphic 1979; Rijnbeek et al. 1984). The ionospheric signature of the reconnection events (flux transfer events) is a topic of current interest in that if one is evident then ground magnetic field data can be used to monitor the rate of dayside reconnection and conditions under which it occurs in a manner not possible with rapidly moving spacecraft. The proposed ground magnetic signature of a flux transfer event (FTE) is a large amplitude one-cycle <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 (150-600 second period) pulse produced by a large vortex of ionospheric Hall current generated by the field-aligned current in the helical flux tube that has reconnected (Lee 1986). The intent of this article is to provide further data on the possible ground magnetic signatures of FTE (Lanzerotti el al. 1986) as measured by the induction antennas that the University of New Hampshire and the University of Minnesota have operated at high latitudes in the Antarctic and Greenland. With a high-frequency cut-off of 5 hertz, the induction magnetometers can measure <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 1-2 waves (0.1-5.0 hertz) which cannot be seen by fluxgate instruments. Indeed, <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 1-2 waves are frequently observed on the ground coincident with the <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 FTE signature which provides some interesting new perspectives on these events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnoldy, R.L. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA)); Cahill, L.J. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Engebretson, M.J. (Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inferring functional connectivity in MRI using Bayesian network structure learning with a modified <span class="hlt">PC</span> algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a popular technique used to gauge the functional relatedness between regions in the brain for typical and special populations. Most of the work to date determines this relationship by using Pearson's correlation on BOLD fMRI timeseries. However, it has been recognized that there are at least two key limitations to this method. First, it is not possible to resolve the direct and indirect connections/influences. Second, the direction of information flow between the regions cannot be differentiated. In the current paper, we follow-up on recent work by Smith et al (2011), and apply a Bayesian approach called the <span class="hlt">PC</span> algorithm to both simulated data and empirical data to determine whether these two factors can be discerned with <span class="hlt">group</span> average, as opposed to single subject, functional connectivity data. When applied on simulated individual subjects, the algorithm performs well determining indirect and direct connection but fails in determining directionality. However, when applied at <span class="hlt">group</span> level, <span class="hlt">PC</span> algorithm gives strong results for both indirect and direct connections and the direction of information flow. Applying the algorithm on empirical data, using a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) structural connectivity matrix as the baseline, the <span class="hlt">PC</span> algorithm outperformed the direct correlations. We conclude that, under certain conditions, the <span class="hlt">PC</span> algorithm leads to an improved estimate of brain network structure compared to the traditional connectivity analysis based on correlations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iyer, Swathi; Shafran, Izhak; Grayson, David; Gates, Kathleen; Nigg, Joel; Fair, Damien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19326061"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of free Zn(2+) enhancing inhibitory effects of EGCG on the growth of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells: interactions with mitochondria.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Green tea and its major constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are known for their chemopreventive effects including those against prostate cancer, which could be mediated by metal ions. Zn(2+) is an essential trace element that is required for human health and plays an important role in the normal function of the prostate gland. In the present study, the effect of EGCG on cell membrane and mitochondria of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 (prostate carcinoma) cells in the presence and absence of Zn(2+) was studied. These studies revealed that EGCG, Zn(2+), or EGCG + Zn(2+) affected the morphology of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells and induced apoptosis in <span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells. It was observed that effects of treatment with EGCG, Zn(2+), or EGCG + Zn(2+)on mitochondria showed EGCG + Zn(2+) > Zn(2+) > EGCG, including cytochrome C release from the intermembrane <span class="hlt">space</span> into the cytosol, inhibited the synthesis of ATP, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspase-9. However, the order of effect on depressing membrane fluidity of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells was EGCG > EGCG + Zn(2+) > Zn(2+). In summary, these findings suggest that EGCG, Zn(2+), and EGCG + Zn(2+) induce necrosis or apoptosis of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells through mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway and free Zn(2+)-enhanced effects of EGCG on <span class="hlt">PC</span>-3 cells due to its interactions with mitochondria. PMID:19326061</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Junguo; Yu, Haining; Sun, Shili; Zhang, Lancui; Das, Undurti N; Ruan, Hui; He, Guoqing; Shen, Shengrong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53473094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spitzer\\/IRAC Mid-Infrared Colors of the ISM in the Central 200 <span class="hlt">pc</span> of the Galaxy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations of the central ˜ 200 <span class="hlt">pc</span> of the Galaxy (|l| < 1.5 ° , |b| < 1° ) with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer <span class="hlt">Space</span> Telescope reveal striking detail in the structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). Coverage at four mid-IR wavelengths (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 micron ) enables study of both the emission and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. G. Arendt; S. Stolovy; S. Ramirez; C. Law; A. Cotera; J. Karr; F. Yusef-Zadeh; D. Gezari; H. Moseley; K. Sellgren; H. A. Smith; R. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57497530"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Selective Partial Oxidation of Alkanes using Zeolite Based Catalysts. Phthalocyanine (<span class="hlt">PC</span>) “Ship-in-Bottle” Species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phthalocyaninatoiron (Fe<span class="hlt">Pc</span>) complexes may be prepared inside the pore structure of large pore zeolites X or Y by a process of sequential introduction of components followed by assembly inside the void <span class="hlt">space</span> of the zeolite. Such species are capable of performing as catalysts in the oxidation of alkanes using iodosobenzene as the oxygen atom transfer reagent. The fact that such</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norman Herron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5778653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Materials accounting system for an IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have adapted the Los Alamos MASS accounting system for use on an IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>/AT at the Fuels Manufacturing Facility (FMF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-WEST) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Cost of hardware and proprietary software was less than $10,000 per station. The system consists of three stations between which accounting information is transferred using floppy disks accompanying special nuclear material shipments. The programs were implemented in dBASEIII and were compiled using the proprietary software CLIPPER. Modifications to the inventory can be posted in just a few minutes, and operator/computer interaction is nearly instantaneous. After the records are built by the user, it takes 4 to 5 seconds to post the results to the database files. A version of this system was specially adapted and is currently in use at the FMF facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls. Initial satisfaction is adequate and software and hardware problems are minimal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bearse, R.C.; Thomas, R.J.; Henslee, S.P.; Jackson, B.G.; Tracy, D.B.; Pace, D.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4921...34Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-based 3D craniofacial reconstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a technique, based on <span class="hlt">PC</span> system, of skull surface triangulation representation for coronal CT images. First, the end-user selects interactively a point within the Region of Interest (ROI), and the computer will automatically position the selected ROI. The boundary points of the ROI is extracted and ordered according to their spatial orientation. Then, the boundary points between two adjacent slices are triangulated by virtual of the optical local morphology. We briefly introduce the technique how to get the patch of skull defect in the commercial software package Surfacer. So the geometric representation using triangular patch can be produced by rapid prototyping and tooling. Finally, the experimental results show that the technique proposed is efficient for the reconstruction of broken part of skull surface and convenient to surgical repair of skull defect. Also, we have found that the technique is robust in implementation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Zonghua; Peng, Xiang; Liu, Changqing; Hu, Xiaotang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1170838"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of <span class="hlt">PC</span>4 with melted DNA inhibits transcription.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">PC</span>4 is a nuclear DNA-binding protein that stimulates activator-dependent class II gene transcription in vitro. Recent biochemical and X-ray analyses have revealed a unique structure within the C-terminal domain of <span class="hlt">PC</span>4 that binds tightly to unpaired double-stranded (ds)DNA. The cellular function of this evolutionarily conserved dimeric DNA-binding fold is unknown. Here we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">PC</span>4 represses transcription through this motif. Interaction with melted promoters is not required for activator-dependent transcription in vitro. The inhibitory activity is attenuated on bona fide promoters by (i) transcription factor TFIIH and (ii) phosphorylation of <span class="hlt">PC</span>4. <span class="hlt">PC</span>4 remains a potent inhibitor of transcription in regions containing unpaired ds DNA, in single-stranded DNA that can fold into two antiparallel strands, and on DNA ends. Our observations are consistent with a novel inhibitory function of <span class="hlt">PC</span>4.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Werten, S; Stelzer, G; Goppelt, A; Langen, F M; Gros, P; Timmers, H T; Van der Vliet, P C; Meisterernst, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10824009"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford Phase <span class="hlt">Spaces</span> with a Lower and Upper Length Scales and Clifford <span class="hlt">Group</span> Geometric Unification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We construct the Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford-Phase <span class="hlt">spaces</span> with an upperR and lower length ? scales (infrared\\/ultraviolet cutoff). The invariance symmetry leads naturally to the real Clifford algebra Cl (2, 6, R) and complexified Clifford ClC (4) algebra related to Twistors. A unified theory of all Noncommutative branes in Clifford-<span class="hlt">spaces</span> is developed based on the Moyal-Yang star product deformation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlos Castro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/551492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance Evaluation of the Power<span class="hlt">PC</span> 620 Microarchitecture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Power<span class="hlt">PC</span> 620™ microprocessor is the most recent and performance leading member of the Power<span class="hlt">PC</span>™ family. The 64-bit Power<span class="hlt">PC</span> 620 microprocessor employs a two-phase branch prediction scheme, dynamic renaming for all the register files, distributed multi-entry reservation stations, true out-of-order execution by six execution units, and a completion buffer for ensuring precise exceptions. This paper presents an instruction-level performance evaluation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trung A. Diep; Christopher Nelson; John Paul Shen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12806128"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based open robot control system: <span class="hlt">PC</span>-ORC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An open architecture manufacturing system pursues integrated manufacturing components on a single platform. Therefore, a particular component can be easily added and\\/or replaced. In this paper, a modular and object-oriented approach for the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based open robot control system is investigated. A standard reference model for controlling robots, which consists of a hardware platform, an operating system module, and various application</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keum-Shik Hong; Jeom-Goo Kim; Chang-Do Huh; Kyung-Hyun Choi; Suk Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6718160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reversible hydrocarbon activation by rhodium phthalocyanine dimer [(R[sub 8]<span class="hlt">Pc</span>)Rh][sub 2] (R[sub 8]<span class="hlt">Pc</span>[sup 2[minus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have synthesized four rhodium-phthalocyanine complexes: (R[sub 8]<span class="hlt">Pc</span>)(C[sub 6]H[sub 5]CN)CIRh, [(R[sub 8]-<span class="hlt">Pc</span>)(MeOH)[sub 2]Rh]Cl, [(R[sub 8]<span class="hlt">Pc</span>)Rh][sub 2](1), and (R[sub 8]<span class="hlt">Pc</span>H)RhRh(R[sub 8]<span class="hlt">Pc</span>)H (2). In this notation R[sub 8]<span class="hlt">Pc</span>[sup 2[minus</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phthalocyanine dimers in a blend: spectroscopic and theoretical studies of Mn<span class="hlt">Pc</span>(? +)/F(16)Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span>(? -).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have prepared mixed phthalocyanine films out of Mn<span class="hlt">Pc</span> and F(16)Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span>, which were characterized by means of photoemission spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Our data reveal the formation of Mn<span class="hlt">Pc</span>/F(16)Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span> charge transfer dimers in analogy to the related heterojunction. The electronic excitation spectrum of these blends is characterized by a new low energy excitation at 0.6 eV. Density functional theory calculations show that the new signal is caused by a strong absorption between the states of the interface induced two level system. PMID:23320713</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindner, Susi; Mahns, Benjamin; König, Andreas; Roth, Friedrich; Knupfer, Martin; Friedrich, Rico; Hahn, Torsten; Kortus, Jens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002629&hterms=photosynthetic+pigments&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dphotosynthetic%2Bpigments"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard <span class="hlt">Space</span> Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK documentation. Although <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of incompatibilities between the MVP-AT image board and ZENITH computers. Also, the MVP-AT image board is not necessarily compatible with 486-based systems; users of 486-based systems should consult with Matrox about compatibility concerns. Other <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK requirements include a Microsoft mouse (serial version), 2Mb RAM, and 100Mb hard disk <span class="hlt">space</span>. For data ingest and backup, 9-track tape, 8mm tape and optical disks are supported and recommended. <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK has been under development since 1988. Version 4.0 was updated in 1992, and is distributed without source code. It is available only as a set of 36 1.2Mb 5.25 inch IBM MS-DOS format diskettes. <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK is a copyrighted product with all copyright vested in the National Aeronautics and <span class="hlt">Space</span> Administration. Phar Lap's DOS_Extender run-time version is integrated into several of the programs; therefore, the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-SEAPAK programs may not be duplicated. Three of the distribution diskettes contain DOS_Extender files. One of the distribution diskettes contains Media Cybernetics' HALO88 font files, also licensed by NASA for dissemination but not duplication. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. HALO88 is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics, but the product was discontinued in 1991.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mcclain, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3629974"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prokineticin Receptor 1 Antagonist <span class="hlt">PC</span>-10 as a Biomarker for Imaging Inflammatory Pain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and its ligand Bv8 were shown to be expressed in inflammation-induced pain and by tumor-supporting fibroblasts. Blocking this receptor might prove useful for reducing pain and for cancer therapy. However, there is no method to quantify the levels of these receptors in vivo. Methods A nonpeptidic PKR1 antagonist, N-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine, which contains a free guanidine <span class="hlt">group</span>, was labeled with 18F by reacting the guanidine function with N-succinimidyl-4-18F-fluorobenzoate to give the guanidinyl amide N-(4-18F-fluoro-benzoyl)-N?-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine (18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10). Inflammation was induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund adjuvant in the paw. The mice were imaged with 18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10, 18F-FDG, and 64Cu-pyruvaldehyde bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-PTSM) at 24 h after complete Freund adjuvant injection using a small-animal PET device. Results 18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10 was synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 16% ± 3% (decay-corrected). 18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10 accumulated specifically in the inflamed paw 4- to 5-fold more than in the control paw. Compared with 18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10, 18F-FDG and 64Cu-PTSM displayed higher accumulation in the inflamed paw but also had higher accumulation in the control paw, demonstrating a reduced signal-to-background ratio. 18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10 also accumulated in PKR1-expressing organs, such as the salivary gland and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion 18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10 can be used to image PKR1, a biomarker of the inflammation process. However, the high uptake of 18F-<span class="hlt">PC</span>-10 in the gastrointestinal tract, due to specific uptake and the metabolic processing of this highly lipophilic molecule, would restrict its utility.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobson, Orit; Weiss, Ido D.; Niu, Gang; Balboni, Gianfranco; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Lattanzi, Roberta; Salvadori, Severo; Chen, Xiaoyuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790006950&hterms=nasal+high+flow&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dnasal%2Bhigh%2Bflow"> <span id="translatedtitle">OAST <span class="hlt">Space</span> Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working <span class="hlt">group</span> summary. 2: Data handling, communications (E-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Technologies required to support the stated OAST thrust to increase information return by X1000, while reducing costs by a factor of 10 are identified. The most significant driver is the need for an overall end-to-end data system management technology. Maximum use of LSI component technology and trade-offs between hardware and software are manifest in most all considerations of technology needs. By far, the greatest need for data handling technology was identified for the <span class="hlt">space</span> Exploration and Global Services themes. Major advances are needed in NASA's ability to provide cost effective mass reduction of <span class="hlt">space</span> data, and automated assessment of earth looking imagery, with a concomitant reduction in cost per useful bit. A combined approach embodying end-to-end system analysis, with onboard data set selection, onboard data processing, highly parallel image processing (both ground and <span class="hlt">space</span>), low cost, high capacity memories, and low cost user data distribution systems would be necessary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56557873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polycomb <span class="hlt">Group</span> Proteins Are Key Regulators of Keratinocyte Function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) proteins are epigenetic suppressors of gene expression that function through modification of histones to change chromatin structure and modulate gene expression and cell behavior. Recent studies show that <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins are expressed in epidermis, that their levels change during differentiation and in disease states, and that <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G expression is regulated by agents that influence cell proliferation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard L Eckert; Gautam Adhikary; Ellen A Rorke; Yap Ching Chew; Sivaprakasam Balasubramanian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790006957&hterms=dida&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522dida%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">OAST <span class="hlt">Space</span> Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working <span class="hlt">group</span> summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twelve aerothermodynamic <span class="hlt">space</span> technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the <span class="hlt">space</span> transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35389901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular and genetic analysis of the Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> gene Sex combs extra\\/Ring in Drosophila</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) proteins repress homeotic genes and other developmental regulatory genes in cells where these genes must remain inactive during development. In Drosophila and in vertebrates, <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins exist in two distinct multiprotein complexes, the Esc\\/Eed–E(z) complex and PRC1. Drosophila PRC1 contains Polycomb, Posterior sexcombs and Polyhomeotic, the products of three <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G genes that are critically needed for <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cornelia Fritsch; Dirk Beuchle; Jürg Müller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v2408756568j28j6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of Polycomb -<span class="hlt">group</span> genes in sustaining activities of normal and malignant stem cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycomb-<span class="hlt">group</span> genes (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G), identified by Drosophila genetics, are believed to maintain positional information by constituting a cellular memory system. Recently this system\\u000a has been proved to be supported by epigenetic transcription regulation. <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G products comprise two distinct complexes, <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G\\u000a complex 1 and 2. First <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex 2 silences chromatin and encodes a histone code by methylating histone H3 at lysine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshihiro Takihara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910016887&hterms=capm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcapm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a <span class="hlt">PC</span> computer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a <span class="hlt">PC</span> were developed for Marshall <span class="hlt">Space</span> Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the <span class="hlt">PC</span> to generate Nyquist plots.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940009911&hterms=load+forecasting&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dload%2Bforecasting"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>4CAST: A tool for DSN load forecasting and capacity planning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effectively planning the use and evolution of the Deep <span class="hlt">Space</span> Network (DSN) is a complex problem involving many parameters. The tool that models many of these complexities, yet requires simple structured inputs and provides concise easy-to-understand metrics to aid in the planning process is discussed. The tool, <span class="hlt">PC</span>4CAST, is used for both load forecasting (predicting how well planned that DSN resources meet expected demand) and as a decision support tool in the capacity-planning process (determining the relative benefits of capacity expansion options). It is now in use in the TDA Planning Office, has been used in numerous studies, and is also being used by the JPL Multimission Operations System Office (MOSO) as an integral part of Resource Allocation Team activities. Experience using the tool has helped to identify additional requirements that will further improve the planning process, which can be met by future <span class="hlt">PC</span>4CAST versions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loyola, S. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34478828"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Exocytotic Events From Single <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 Cells: Amperometric Studies in Native <span class="hlt">PC</span>12h, DA-Loaded <span class="hlt">PC</span>12h and Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exocytotic events from rat pheochromocytoma (<span class="hlt">PC</span>12) cells were characterized by amperometric analysis. For single-cell amperometric recordings, <span class="hlt">PC</span>12h cells cultured onto poly-L-lysine corted glass-base dish were incubated with 1 mM dopamine (DA) for 60 min. Amperometric recordings, with a carbon fiber microelectrode (5 ?m diameter), of catecholamine release from the individual cells were conducted under an inverted microscope at 25 ?C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nobuyuki Sasakawa; Norie Murayama; Konosuke Kumakura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13596590"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span>: A New Language-learning Tool</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) provided students with tablet PCs to facilitate language learning. Since the inception of the tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span> initiative, the school has encountered many challenges to successful implementation. The speakers will share their experience and insights regarding utilization of Table <span class="hlt">PC</span> in the language classroom and successful implementation of technology integration plans. Features of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Su-Ling Hsueh; Yan Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=power+AND+electronics+AND+projects&id=EJ936355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transforming <span class="hlt">PC</span> Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a <span class="hlt">PC</span> power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average <span class="hlt">PC</span> power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55034705"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span>'s handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span>'s symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amlan Kundu; Qian Hu; Stanley Boykin; Cheryl Clark; Randy Fish; Stephen Jones; Stephen Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50655288"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of Software Radio Based on <span class="hlt">PC</span> and FPGA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper introduces a flexible real-time software radio using a personal computer (<span class="hlt">PC</span>) and single FPGA with a solution for frequency hopping under non open-source operating systems like Windows. All parts of this hardware are easily accessible and all of the software layers can be implemented in <span class="hlt">PC</span>. Universal serial bus (USB) interfaces are used to communicate with hardware, so</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meisam Rakhshanfar; Mehdi Teimouri; Zabihollah HassanShahi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50799645"> <span id="translatedtitle">A real-time display platform based on <span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We implement a collaborative display platform called CMPLATFORM in order to display virtual outdoor complex environment in virtual display hardware based on multiple cheap <span class="hlt">PC</span>, which could be extended to provides a platform to display immersive application which can be used in the areas of urban planning\\/architecture and education. CMPLATFORM is a <span class="hlt">PC</span> cluster based system developed by C++ and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gen-Yuan Zhang; Lei Zhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5622..200M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mouse vision: <span class="hlt">PC</span> mouse control using neural networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a system to control the <span class="hlt">PC</span>'s Mouse using the ocular movement. This system allows incapacitated people use the <span class="hlt">PC</span> for many purposes; on the other hand, this system is ideal to play virtual games due to its interactivity with the user.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miranda, David; Silva, E.; Patino, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930020047&hterms=mcidas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmcidas"> <span id="translatedtitle">A planetary version of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-McIDAS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Viewgraphs on a planetary version of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-McIDAS are presented. Topics covered include: McIDAS and <span class="hlt">PC</span>-McIDAS; McIDAS hardware; real time data available; archived data available; McIDAS installed base; planetary McIDAS: and comparison of McIDAS and VICAR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Limaye, Sanjay S.; Martin, Mike; Saunders, R. S.; Sromovsky, L. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9700401&hterms=pc2&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522pc2%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hubble <span class="hlt">Space</span> Telescope Image</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a photograph of giant twisters and star wisps in the Lagoon Nebula. This superb Hubble <span class="hlt">Space</span> Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar twisters, eerie furnels and twisted rope structures (upper left), in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) that lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. This image was taken by the Hubble <span class="hlt">Space</span> Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/<span class="hlt">PC</span>2).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2654..164C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Megapixel resolution <span class="hlt">PC</span> digital still camera</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">PC</span> digital still camera based on a mega-pixel CCD area array is presented. This camera can be used as an image input device in the applications of multimedia. The system is equipped with a conventional camera lens, and an 1.5 mega-pixel progressive color CCD area array. A driving circuit is designed to control the focusing and the iris of the lens in order to perform auto/manual focus and auto/manual exposure functions. The CCD image sensor is also used as a sensor for auto focus, auto exposure and auto white balance control. This could eliminate the additional sensors. A shutter wheel is built for continuous exposure, which allows the host computer to display the entire field of view for preview without using an additional optical viewfinder. The digital signal processing is implemented in a computer software for interpolation, color reproduction, and edge enhancement, etc. A SCSI interface is used to connect to a host computer for data and command transmission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan, Wen-Hsin; Chou, Chi-Fu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6909476"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">PC</span> based computerized maintenance system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present regulatory climate in the research reactor community has made an easily manageable and auditable maintenance system a necessity. We at NRAD have developed a computer-based system that is easy to implement and use, meets all our regulatory and reporting requirements, and is extremely useful to us in our daily operations. The system, developed at the NRAD reactor facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, Idaho, uses DBASE-III coupled with C language routines, written for specific purposes. It is a menu-driven system that can be mastered in a short period of time and maintained with only a few hours of computer operation per month. It uses three computer processes: job scheduling, file updating, and report preparation, to produce schedules, work orders, and miscellaneous report forms. The heart of the system is an IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> with a 10 MB hard disk, providing adequate data storage capacity for a facility the size of NRAD. The computer is totally dedicated to the maintenance system, thus guarding against inadvertent loss of, or damage to, data files. Computer operator training time is minimized by the menu driven program. Multiple operators can share the computer operation responsibilities, and maintain the system with only 12 to 16 hours of computer operation per month. The system is adaptable to almost any facility, and can be altered and expanded to satisfy changing requirements. 7 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pruett, D.P.; Walker, G.D.; Imel, G.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3076242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of osteoprotegerin from transfection of <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1(+)/chOPG on bioactivity of chicken osteoclasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been reported to prevent bone resorption by inhibiting the formation, function, and survival of osteoclasts in a variety of animal models. However, the effects of OPG on bone metabolism in avian species have not been described. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chicken OPG (chOPG) expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) on chicken osteoclast function in vitro. Methods The chOPG sequence containing the open reading frame (ORF) was amplified from chicken embryo frontal bone and inserted into the <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1 (+) vector. <span class="hlt">Pc</span>DNA3.1 (+)/chOPG was transiently transfected into CEFs by lipofectamine 2000. Transcription of OPG mRNA and expression of chOPG recombinant protein were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence. The level of chOPG recombinant protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The suspension of osteoclasts was separated from chicken embryos and divided into three <span class="hlt">groups</span> (control <span class="hlt">group</span>, <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1 (+) <span class="hlt">group</span> and <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1 (+)/chOPG <span class="hlt">group</span>). The percentage of osteoclast apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) secreted by osteoclasts was measured by the diazol method. The resorbing activity of osteoclasts was evaluated by the area of lacunae on bone flaps and the concentration of calcium in the supernatant liquid of osteoclasts. Results 48 h after transfection, the exogenous OPG gene transcription was detected by RT-PCR. After 72 h, the CEFs transfected from <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1 (+)/chOPG displayed green fluorescence and the concentration of chOPG protein was 15.78 ± 0.22 ng/mL. After chicken osteoclasts were cultured for 5 d in a medium containing supernatant from transfected CEFs, the percentage of osteoclast apoptosis was increased significantly, the concentration of TRAP, the area of lacunae on bone flaps and calcium concentration were decreased significantly in the <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1(+)/OPG <span class="hlt">group</span> compared to the control <span class="hlt">group</span> and the <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1 (+) <span class="hlt">group</span>. Conclusion Constructed <span class="hlt">pc</span>DNA3.1 (+)/chOPG transfected into CEFs expressed bioactive OPG protein that was able to inhibit osteoclast function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2132874"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Human Polycomb <span class="hlt">Group</span> Complex Associates with Pericentromeric Heterochromatin to Form a Novel Nuclear Domain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) complex is a chromatin-associated multiprotein complex, involved in the stable repression of homeotic gene activity in Drosophila. Recently, a mammalian <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex has been identified with several <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins implicated in the regulation of Hox gene expression. Although the mammalian <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex appears analogous to the complex in Drosophila, the molecular mechanisms and functions for the mammalian <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex remain unknown. Here we describe a detailed characterization of the human <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex in terms of cellular localization and chromosomal association. By using antibodies that specifically recognize three human <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins— RING1, BMI1, and h<span class="hlt">Pc</span>2—we demonstrate in a number of human cell lines that the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex forms a unique discrete nuclear structure that we term <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies. <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies are prominent novel nuclear structures with the larger <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G foci generally localized near the centromeres, as visualized with a kinetochore antibody marker. In both normal fetal and adult fibroblasts, <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies are not randomly dispersed, but appear clustered into defined areas within the nucleus. We show in three different human cell lines that the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex can tightly associate with large pericentromeric heterochromatin regions (1q12) on chromosome 1, and with related pericentromeric sequences on different chromosomes, providing evidence for a mammalian <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G–heterochromatin association. Furthermore, these heterochromatin-bound <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complexes remain stably associated throughout mitosis, thereby allowing the potential inheritance of the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex through successive cell divisions. We discuss these results in terms of the known function of the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complex as a transcriptional repression complex.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saurin, Andrew J.; Shiels, Carol; Williamson, Jill; Satijn, David P.E.; Otte, Arie P.; Sheer, Denise; Freemont, Paul S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491057"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Dexamethasone induces <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cell apoptosis by down-regulating glucose uptake].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To observe the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on rat <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 chromaffin tumor cells and glucose uptake. Methods <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells in vitro were randomized into normal control <span class="hlt">group</span>, 10 and 100 ?mol/L DEX treated <span class="hlt">groups</span>. MTT assay was used to determined the cell viability to evaluate the optimal concentration of DEX. Cell apoptosis was measured by DAPI fluorescence staining, mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP), activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Glucose oxidase and peroxidase (GOD-POD) assay was performed to detect the glucose consumption. Expression of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT-3) was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared with the control <span class="hlt">group</span>, (10, 100) ?mol/L DEX significantly decreased cell vitality, caused apoptosis, and reduced the glucose uptake and GLUT-3 protein level (P<0.05). Conclusion DEX can induce the apoptosis of <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells, the mechanism of which may be related to inhibited GLUT-3 protein expression and glucose uptake. PMID:24491057</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yanping; Qiu, Chen; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Libin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=49566"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conservation of the prohormone convertase gene family in metazoa: analysis of cDNAs encoding a <span class="hlt">PC</span>3-like protein from hydra.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A subclass of proteolytic enzymes that correctly cleave precursor proteins at paired basic residues and are structurally related to the bacterial subtilisins has recently been identified. In yeast, a single membrane-bound proteolytic processing enzyme encoded by the kex2 gene has been found, whereas in higher vertebrates cDNAs encoding four distinct enzymes (<span class="hlt">PC</span>2, <span class="hlt">PC</span>3, furin, and PACE 4) have been identified. Like kex2, furin (also known as PACE) contains a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, but <span class="hlt">PC</span>2, <span class="hlt">PC</span>3, and PACE 4 lack this feature. All five enzymes exhibit striking similarities in their catalytic domains, and this suggests that they have arisen from a common ancestral subtilisin-like gene. We report here the identification of cDNAs encoding a protein that is similar in structure to <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 from a simple metazoan, Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). cDNAs encoding two isoforms of this <span class="hlt">PC</span>3-like enzyme were obtained that differ only in their carboxyl-terminal sequences, probably due to alternative splicing of a common pre-mRNA. Neither form contains a transmembrane domain. Predicted amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that the hydra <span class="hlt">PC</span>3-like enzyme is 55.4% and 56.7% identical in the catalytic domain to mouse <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 and human furin, respectively. RNA blot analyses revealed that the <span class="hlt">PC</span>3-like RNA is expressed predominantly in the hydra body column and not in the head region, although the hydra head contains a high density of nerve cells, which synthesize a variety of neuropeptides. For this reason, we suspect that another proprotein cleavage enzyme isoform may be expressed in head nerve cells. The isolation of a <span class="hlt">PC</span>3-like cDNA from hydra is consistent with the presence of neuroendocrine cells and indicates that the <span class="hlt">PC</span>/furin gene family has been well conserved in all metazoa. A simplified nomenclature for the <span class="hlt">group</span> of mammalian processing proteases is proposed. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan, S J; Oliva, A A; LaMendola, J; Grens, A; Bode, H; Steiner, D F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790006951&hterms=soil+sterilization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsoil%2Bsterilization"> <span id="translatedtitle">OAST <span class="hlt">Space</span> Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working <span class="hlt">group</span> summary. 3: Sensors (E-3). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developments required to support the <span class="hlt">space</span> power, SETI, solar system exploration and global services programs are identified. Instrumentation and calibration sensors (rather than scientific) are needed for the <span class="hlt">space</span> power system. Highly sophisticated receivers for narrowband detection of microwave sensors and sensors for automated stellar cataloging to provide a mapping data base for SETI are needed. Various phases of solar system exploration require large area solid state imaging arrays from UV to IR; a long focal plane telescope; high energy particle detectors; advanced spectrometers; a gravitometer; and atmospheric distanalyzer; sensors for penetrometers; in-situ sensors for surface chemical analysis, life detection, spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of surface soils, and for meteorological measurements. Active and passive multiapplication sensors, advanced multispectral scanners with improved resolution in the UV and IR ranges, and laser techniques for advanced probing and oceanographic characterization will enhance for global services.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8829380"> <span id="translatedtitle">ARGES (Atmospheric Revitalization <span class="hlt">Group</span> Expert System): An Expert System for Fault Diagnosis within <span class="hlt">Space</span>-Based ECLS (Environmental Control and Life Support) Systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ARGES (Atmospheric Revitalization <span class="hlt">Group</span> Expert System) is a demonstration prototype expert system for fault management for the Solid Amine, Water Desorbed (SAWD) CO2 removal assembly, associated with the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Syste...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. W. Pachura S. A. Suleiman A. P. Mendler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880007038&hterms=dan+brown&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528dan%2Bbrown%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Space</span> languages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in <span class="hlt">space</span> settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other <span class="hlt">groups</span> need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hays, Dan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36...83A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Group</span> Dynamics in Long -term blind endeavors on Earth as an analog for Remote <span class="hlt">Space</span> Missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1803 - 1806, Dynamic Analysis)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains newline M Lewis and W Clark L C Expedition on an exploration to learn more about the large territory of land the U S had just purchased from France Cavan 1991 Their mission was to find a direct water route to the Pacific Ocean for the purpose of commerce and further industrial development Edwards 1999 Looking back at the events of this exploration there are many similarities to the experiences future human <span class="hlt">space</span> explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond NASA Vision for <span class="hlt">Space</span> Exploration 2004 - The L C Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean newline - The expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in early 18th century newline - The expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew newline - Supplies brought on the mission were limited mainly a mass weight issue rather than cost therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources In-Situ Resource Utilization approach including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty was necessary for crew survival The environments astronauts will encounter in <span class="hlt">space</span> and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.; Reilly, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=S82-41207&hterms=cross+country&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522cross%2Bcountry%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Columbia returning to Kennedy <span class="hlt">Space</span> Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Space</span> shuttle orbiter Columbia returns to the shuttle landing facility atop NASA 905, a modified 747, following a cross country flight from the Dryden Flight Research Facility. The Kennedy <span class="hlt">Space</span> Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-82<span class="hlt">PC</span>-1328.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48618969"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms of PBT\\/<span class="hlt">PC</span>\\/IM blends: Part V Effect of PBT-<span class="hlt">PC</span> interfacial strength on the fracture and tensile properties of the PBT\\/<span class="hlt">PC</span> blends</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To investigate the effect of PBT-<span class="hlt">PC</span> interfacial strength on the fracture toughness and toughening mechanisms of the PBT\\/<span class="hlt">PC</span> system, a series of PBT\\/<span class="hlt">PC</span> blends with different content of in situ formed PBT-<span class="hlt">PC</span> copolymers were made by melt blending. The in situ copolymer was separately prepared via reactive blending of the PBT and <span class="hlt">PC</span> in the presence of a transesterification catalyst</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jingshen Wu; Ke Wang; Demei Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SSSci...7..445Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solid state coordination chemistry: temperature dependence of the crystal chemistry of the oxovanadium-phenylphosphonate-copper(II)-2,2'-bipyridine system. Crystal structures of the one-dimensional [{Cu(bpy)}VO 2(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5)(HO 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5)], [{Cu 3(bpy) 3(H 2O)}V 4O 9(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5) 4], [{Cu(bpy)} 2V 3O 6(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5) 3(HO 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5)] and [{Cu(bpy)}VO(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5) 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The temperature dependence of the hydrothermal chemistry of the oxovanadium-phenylphosphonate/copper(II)-bipyridine system has been investigated. Reactions of identical compositions of CuSO 4?5H 2O, bipyridine, C 6H 5PO 3H 2 and Na 3VO 4 in H 2O yielded [{Cu(bpy)}VO 2(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5)(HOC 6H 5)] ( 1), [{Cu 3(bpy) 3(H 2O)}V 4O 9(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5) 4]?3.9H 2O ( 2?3.9H 2O) and [{Cu(bpy)}VO(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5) 2] ( 4) at 120 °C, 150 °C and 180-230 °C, respectively. Furthermore, variations in stoichiometry at 150 °C provided yet a fourth one-dimensional phase [{Cu(bpy)} 2V 3O 6(O 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5) 3(HO 3<span class="hlt">PC</span> 6H 5)] ( 3). Substitution of a methyl substituent for the phenyl <span class="hlt">group</span> yielded another one-dimensional material [{Cu(bpy)}V 2O 4(O 3PCH 3) 2?H 2O ( 5?H 2O). The structural chemistry is discussed in terms of the polyhedral variability of vanadium oxides, the tendency of oxovanadium polyhedra to form oligomeric arrays, the variable modes of polyhedral connectivity associated with vanadium square pyramids and phosphorus tetrahedra and the steric influences of the copper(II)-bpy subunit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yucesan, Gundog; Ouellette, Wayne; Golub, Vladimir; O'Connor, Charles J.; Zubieta, Jon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6492408"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span> viruses: How do they do that</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The topic of <span class="hlt">PC</span> Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pichnarczyk, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10154457"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span> viruses: How do they do that?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The topic of <span class="hlt">PC</span> Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pichnarczyk, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176730"> <span id="translatedtitle">HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the <span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-<span class="hlt">PC</span> (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Homann, S.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/223716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis, structure, and characterization of uranium(IV) phenyl phosphonate, U(O{sub 3}<span class="hlt">PC</span>{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, and uranium(IV) pyro phosphate, UP{sub 2}O{sub 7}</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two tetravalent uranium compounds have been characterized. The structure of a new uranium(IV) phosphonate, U(O{sub 3}<span class="hlt">PC</span>{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, has been solved from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data by using ab initio methodology, U(O{sub 3}<span class="hlt">PC</span>{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2} crystallizes in the <span class="hlt">space</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> Cw/m with a = 9.4559(7) {Angstrom}, b = 5.6769(5) {Angstrom}, c = 14.9687(12) {Angstrom}, {Beta} = 96.539(5) {Angstrom}, V = 798.3(1) {Angstrom}{sup 3}, Z=2. The reliability factors were R{sub WP} = 8.0%, R{sub p} = 6.04%, and R{sub F} = 3.0%. The structure is lamellar, and the framework of the U(O{sub 3}P){sub 2} layers is similar to that of the {alpha}-Zr(HOP{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O and the phosphonate <span class="hlt">group</span> in Zr(O{sub 3}<span class="hlt">PC</span>{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}. The phenyl <span class="hlt">groups</span> are located in the interlamellar <span class="hlt">space</span>, being inclined 10{degrees} to the c-axis. The phenyl rings are tilted out 53{degrees} from the ac plane, and they are disordered. The authors have also characterized this compound by UV-VIS-IR spectroscopies and thermal analysis. The thermal decomposition product is uranium(IV) pyro phosphate. This compound was identified through its X-ray powder diffraction pattern. UP{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the Pa3 <span class="hlt">space</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> (a = 8.6311(2) {Angstrom}, V = 642.99(4) {Angstrom}{sup 3},Z=4). The structure belongs to the cubic ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7-}type structure. The reliability factors were R{sub WP} = 11.7%, R{sub p} = 8.6%, and R{sub F} = 10.4%. Disorder has been found in the oxygen that bridges the pyrophosphate <span class="hlt">groups</span>, leading to an angular P-O-P arrangement. The VIS-near-IR adsorption spectra revealed the uranium(IV) presence and the oxygen environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cabeza, A.; Aranda, M.A.G.; Cantero, F.M. [Universidade de Malaga (Spain)] [and others] [Universidade de Malaga (Spain); and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22999383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic regulation of Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> activity during plant development.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G activity in Arabidopsis. PMID:22999383</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20910306F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meet Your Local White Dwarf Neighbors: A Census of the 20 <span class="hlt">pc</span> Sample</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an updated census of the white dwarf stars within 20 <span class="hlt">pc</span> of the sun using the web-based Villanova White Dwarf Catalog (http://www.astronomy.villanova.edu/WDCatalog/). Among the sample of 119 stars within this volume, there are 64 DA (H-rich) stars, 52 non-DA (He-rich) stars, 32 DC (no spectral features) stars, 13 DQ (molecular carbon) stars, 5 DZ (He-rich with Ca II) stars, 1 peculiar DBQA star, and 11 magnetic degenerates of which four are He-rich magnetic DQ stars. We discuss our derived local <span class="hlt">space</span> density of white dwarfs, estimate the <span class="hlt">space</span> densities of each spectroscopic subclass, estimate formation rates, the binary fraction, and the <span class="hlt">space</span> motions of the sample. We discuss the implications of these formation rates for current scenarios of white dwarf progenitorship and spectral evolution. This work is supported by NSF grant 05-07797.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foran, Sean; Sion, E.; Holberg, J.; McCook, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6791153"> <span id="translatedtitle">ISTUM <span class="hlt">PC</span>: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-<span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-<span class="hlt">PC</span>) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a <span class="hlt">PC</span> has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750007236&hterms=Social+Work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522Social%2BWork%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies of social <span class="hlt">group</span> dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration <span class="hlt">space</span> flight</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term <span class="hlt">space</span> flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinograd, S. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080004540&hterms=pc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpc"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method of mounting a <span class="hlt">PC</span> board to a hybrid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system for mounting a hybrid electronic component to a <span class="hlt">PC</span> board is disclosed. The system includes a set of brackets for mutually engaging a first surface of the <span class="hlt">PC</span> board and a cover surface of the hybrid electronic component, wherein the cover surface has an arcuate shape when in a vacuum environment. The brackets are designed with legs having lengths and thicknesses for providing clearance between the cover surface of the hybrid and the first surface of the <span class="hlt">PC</span> board for use when the hybrid electronic component is in a vacuum environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Coin, James R. (Inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/646337"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span> Farms for Offline Event Reconstruction at Fermilab</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fermilab is investigating the use of <span class="hlt">PC</span>`s for HEP computing. As a first step we have built a full offline environment under Linux on a set of Pentium (P5) and Pentium Pro (P6) machines (the ``<span class="hlt">PC</span> Farm``). The Pythia simulation has been ported to run serially and in parallel (using CPS) on the <span class="hlt">PC</span> Farm. Fermilab software products and CDF offline packages have also been ported to Linux. Run 1 CDF data has been analyzed on both Linux and SGI (Irix) with essentially identical results. The performance of the system is compared to results with commercial UNIX systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beretvas, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RJMP...20..380S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quasirepresentations of amenable <span class="hlt">groups</span>: Unbounded tame quasirepresentations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Continuing the study of representations of amenable <span class="hlt">groups</span>, we discuss a model case in which a (not necessarily bounded) Banach <span class="hlt">space</span> quasirepresentation of an amenable <span class="hlt">group</span> is close to an ordinary representation of the <span class="hlt">group</span> in the same <span class="hlt">space</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shtern, A. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53167419"> <span id="translatedtitle">The study of <span class="hlt">space</span> communications spread spectrum systems. Part 1: Saw-based joint <span class="hlt">group</span> demodulation of frequency shift keyed and differential phase shift keyed signals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device based processor, capable of the joint <span class="hlt">group</span> demodulation of frequency shift keying (FSK) and differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals, and intended for use in the Canadian extremely high frequency (EHF) Satcom system is proposed. The processor is based on the ability of SAW filters to implement wideband, real time, Fourier transforms with an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter T. Traynor; Peter J. McLane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137h4705A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular layers of Zn<span class="hlt">Pc</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Pc</span> on Au(111) surface: Charge transfer and chemical interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied zinc phthalocyanine (Zn<span class="hlt">Pc</span>) and iron phthalocyanine (Fe<span class="hlt">Pc</span>) thick films and monolayers on Au(111) using photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Both molecules are adsorbed flat on the surface at monolayer. Zn<span class="hlt">Pc</span> keeps this orientation in all investigated coverages, whereas Fe<span class="hlt">Pc</span> molecules stand up in the thick film. The stronger inter-molecular interaction of Fe<span class="hlt">Pc</span> molecules leads to change of orientation, as well as higher conductivity in Fe<span class="hlt">Pc</span> layer in comparison with Zn<span class="hlt">Pc</span>, which is reflected in thickness-dependent differences in core-level shifts. Work function changes indicate that both molecules donate charge to Au; through the ?-system. However, the Fe3d derived lowest unoccupied molecular orbital receives charge from the substrate when forming an interface state at the Fermi level. Thus, the central atom plays an important role in mediating the charge, but the charge transfer as a whole is a balance between the two different charge transfer channels; ?-system and the central atom.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmadi, Sareh; Shariati, M. Nina; Yu, Shun; Göthelid, Mats</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21913210"> <span id="translatedtitle">Palytoxin causes nonoxidative necrotic damage to <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells in culture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that causies serious damage to various tissues and organs. It has been reported to affect the transport of cations across the plasma membranes, which is commonly recognized as being the principal mechanism of its highly toxic action on mammals, including humans. However, although some marine toxins have been shown to cause toxic effects on the nervous system by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses, the effect of PTX on neuronal cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the toxic action of PTX on <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells was examined as an in vitro model experiment to elucidate the neurotoxic properties of this toxin, and PTX was shown to reduce the viability of <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic action of PTX was not significantly altered by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and reduced-form glutathione in the cultures. Fluorescence staining of the cells and the electrophoretic analysis of genomic DNA showed that PTX failed to cause chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation within the cells. On the other hand, the exposure to PTX caused positive staining of the cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">space</span> of the cells with propidium iodide and the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium. Based on these observations, PTX is considered to cause cell death as a consequence of disrupting the plasma membranes, thus causing nonoxidative necrotic damage to <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells. PMID:21913210</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sagara, Takefumi; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Itoh, Mari; Morita, Kyoji; Her, Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/uw36115764gx328h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutation in the S4 segment of the adult skeletal sodium channel gene in an Italian Paramyotonia Congenita (<span class="hlt">PC</span>) family</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The periodic paralyses are a <span class="hlt">group</span> of autosomal dominant muscle diseases sharing the common feature of episodic stiffness and weakness, usually occurring with muscle cooling (as in the case of paramyotonia congenita, <span class="hlt">PC</span> pheno-type) or changes in extracellular K+ levels resulting from various precipitating factors (hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, HYPP and hypokalemic periodic paralysis, Hypo PP).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Sansone; G. Rotondo; L. J. Ptacek; G. Meola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930016617&hterms=mcidas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmcidas"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planetary data analysis and display system: A version of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-McIDAS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose to develop a system for access and analysis of planetary data from past and future <span class="hlt">space</span> missions based on an existing system, the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-McIDAS workstation. This system is now in use in the atmospheric science community for access to meteorological satellite and conventional weather data. The proposed system would be usable by not only planetary atmospheric researchers but also by the planetary geologic community. By providing the critical tools of an efficient system architecture, newer applications and customized user interfaces can be added by the end user within such a system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Limaye, Sanjay S.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Saunders, R. S.; Martin, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950027811&hterms=mcidas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmcidas"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planetary data analysis and display system: A version of <span class="hlt">PC</span>-McIDAS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose to develop a system for access and analysis of planetary data from past and future <span class="hlt">space</span> missions based on an existing system, the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-McIDAS workstation. This system is now in use in the atmospheric science community for access to meteorological satellite and conventional weather data. The proposed system would be usable not only by planetary atmospheric researchers but also by the planetary geologic community. By providing the critical tools of an efficient system architecture, newer applications and customized user interfaces can be added by the end user within such a system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Limaye, Sanjay S.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Saunders, R. S.; Martin, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Icar..173..409S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A closer look at main belt asteroids 1: WF/<span class="hlt">PC</span> images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present new reconstructions of images of main belt Asteroids 9 Metis, 18 Melpomene, 19 Fortuna, 216 Kleopatra, and 624 Hektor, made with the uncorrected Wide-Field/Planetary Camera (WF/<span class="hlt">PC</span>) on the Hubble <span class="hlt">Space</span> Telescope (HST). Deconvolution with the MISTRAL algorithm demonstrates that these asteroids are clearly resolved. We determine diameters, albedos, and lower limits to axial ratios for these bodies. We also review the process used to restore the aberrated images. No surface features or companions are found, but the rotation of 216 Kleopatra is clearly seen. The asteroidal albedos are similar to those determined by other procedures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Storrs, A. D.; Dunne, C.; Conan, J.-M.; Mugnier, L.; Weiss, B. P.; Zellner, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-06/pdf/2011-16820.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 39473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-<span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-<span class="hlt">PC</span> AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...soliciting comments concerning Form 1120-<span class="hlt">PC</span>, U.S. Property and Casualty Insurance...1545-1027. Form Number: Form 1120-<span class="hlt">PC</span>. Abstract: Property and casualty...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5882842"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hands-on program of IBM-<span class="hlt">PC</span> training at Los Alamos National Laboratory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since December 1983, the Laboratory has offered introductory courses of IBM-<span class="hlt">PC</span> training. A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted and a nine-course module of classes was designed and implemented. Forty classes were completed in the one-year period. The target <span class="hlt">group</span> includes the novice computer user in the scientific, management, administrative, and secretarial personnel <span class="hlt">groups</span>. The development, needs assessment, course implementation and design, course evaluations, and future direction of computer training will be discussed. Lab-automation, robotics, design of the lab and office and the impact of computer on society will be discussed briefly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lier, R.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930015739&hterms=marine+mammals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2522marine%2Bmammals%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">OCEAN-<span class="hlt">PC</span> and a distributed network for ocean data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) wishes to develop an integrated software package for oceanographic data entry and access in developing countries. The software, called 'OCEAN-<span class="hlt">PC</span>', would run on low cost <span class="hlt">PC</span> microcomputers and would encourage and standardize: (1) entry of local ocean observations; (2) quality control of the local data; (3) merging local data with historical data; (4) improved display and analysis of the merged data; and (5) international data exchange. OCEAN-<span class="hlt">PC</span> will link existing MS-DOS oceanographic programs and data sets with table-driven format conversions. Since many ocean data sets are now being distributed on optical discs (Compact Discs - Read Only Memory, CD-ROM, Mass et al. 1987), OCEAN-<span class="hlt">PC</span> will emphasize access to CD-ROMs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mclain, Douglas R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB91206995"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span> BEEPOP, an Ecotoxicological Simulation Model for Honey Bee Populations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">PC</span> BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony population dynamics. The model consists of a feedback system of interdependent elements, including colony condition (e.g., initial size, reproductive potential of the queen ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. J. Bromenshenk J. Doskocil G. J. Olbu G. DeGrandi-Hoffman S. A. Roth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/505195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collaboration using multiple PDAs connected to a <span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Pebbles project is creating applications to connect multiple Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to a main com- puter such as a <span class="hlt">PC</span>. We are using 3Com PalmPilots because they are starting to be ubiquitous. We created the \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brad A. Myers; Herb Stiell; Robert Gargiulo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pc-based+AND+computer+AND+software&id=EJ374027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Software Reviews. <span class="hlt">PC</span> Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Epp, Helmut; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990hst..prop.1322W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wf/<span class="hlt">pc</span> SV Observation: Absolute Flux Standards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this calibration is to obtain data on flux standards through WF/<span class="hlt">PC</span>. These stars are about 14 magnitude. This proposal replaces previous proposals ABSOLUTE UV CALIBRATION (1322) and ABSOLUTE FLUX STANDARDS (1331).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Westphal, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA298495"> <span id="translatedtitle">EM Engineering Applied to Patrol Craft (<span class="hlt">PC</span>-1).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the electromagnetic engineering analysis of an HF communication antenna system on the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-I Coastal Patrol Class ship using NAVSEA Electromagnetic Engineering (EMENG) computer tools. Shipboard antenna system modeling techniques are addr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Tam J. McGee C. Azu M. Soyka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4466364"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implementing a Student Learning Organiser on the Pocket <span class="hlt">PC</span> Platform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper describes the development of a learning organiser for students on Pocket <span class="hlt">PC</span> computers that utilises a connection to a wireless network. The methodology and design principles aimed at creating a useful and usable system are explained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver Holme; Mike Sharples</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB86103413"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">PC</span> (Pair Cross) Mill Shape Control System.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the development of roll cross type hot rolling mill (<span class="hlt">PC</span> mill), Mitsubishi developed the control system capable of setting optimum cross angles according to the rolling conditions, removing the strip shape and crown fluctuations occurring during rolling...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Hayama J. Nishizaki T. Kajiwara M. Abe K. Okura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMSM23A1583F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 Spectral Density at ULTIMA stataions and its Radial Diffusion Coefficients for REE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 magnetic pulsations with frequencies between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz, are believed to contribute to the Relativistic Electron Enhancement (REE) in the outer radiation belt during magnetic storms. Ground-based observations suggested that high-speed solar wind and large-amplitude <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 waves with a long duration during the storm recovery phase are closely associated with the production of relativistic electrons [Baker et al., 1998; Rostoker et al., 1998; Mathie and Mann, 2000; O’Brien et al., 2001, 2003]. On the other hand, many relativistic electron acceleration mechanisms have been proposed theoretically. They are separated roughly into two themes: in situ acceleration at L lower than 6.6 by wave particle interactions (as internal source acceleration mechanisms) [Liu et al., 1999; Summers et al., 1999; Summers and Ma, 2000] and acceleration by radial diffusion to transport and accelerate a source population of electrons from the outer to the inner magnetosphere (as external source acceleration mechanisms) [Elkington et al., 1999, 2003; Hudson et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2001]. One possible external source acceleration mechanism is the resonant interaction with ULF toroidal and poloidal waves. In order to verify which of the two mechanisms is more effective for the REE, we have to examine the time variation of electron phase <span class="hlt">space</span> density. Electron phase <span class="hlt">space</span> density is not directly measured, but we can estimate radial diffusion coefficients using observational electric and magnetic data. The goal of this paper is to get more reliable radial diffusion coefficient from ground-based observational magnetic field and to show reasonability of it for radial diffusion model. We use the global magnetometer data obtained from ULTIMA (Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array, see http://www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ultima/ultima.html) stations, to precisely define the radial diffusion timescales. The ULTIMA includes McMAC, CARISAM, 210MM and MAGDAS/CPMN magnetometer arrays. The radial diffusion coefficient can be given from the magnetic field power spectral density as a function of L, frequency (f) and m-number (m) in the <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 frequency range during the REE related magnetic storms [see Brautigam et al., 2005]. We can fit <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 power spectral density (L, f, m) using the ULTIMA data. The m-number of global <span class="hlt">Pc</span> 5 pulsation on the ground is found to be almost less than 5. This is consistent with m-number required in the radial diffusion theory by Elkington et al. [1999, 2003]. We will compare the observationally estimated diffusion coefficient with theoretical diffusion coefficient [e.g. Elkington et al., 2006], and discuss adequacy of our diffusion coefficient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujimoto, A.; Tokunaga, T.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Mann, I. R.; Chi, P. J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Yumoto, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21079956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abundance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) affects <span class="hlt">group</span> characteristics and use of <span class="hlt">space</span> by golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca agroforest.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, <span class="hlt">group</span> sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. <span class="hlt">Group</span> size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, <span class="hlt">groups</span> produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding <span class="hlt">groups</span> of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction. PMID:21079956</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliveira, Leonardo C; Neves, Leonardo G; Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40281388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Full 3-D inversion of electromagnetic data on <span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic (EM) inversion might be believed to require high-performance computers. However, with the rapid progress of recent computer technology, running 3-D inversions on personal computers (<span class="hlt">PC</span>) is becoming a rational choice. This paper describes an attempt to carry out full 3-D inversions of synthetic frequency-domain EM data on a <span class="hlt">PC</span>. In the inversion, a staggered-grid finite difference scheme</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yutaka Sasaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/home5/P014082819/oliver_rtos_sopc_tencon04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accelerating an embedded RTOS in a So<span class="hlt">PC</span> platform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">So<span class="hlt">PC</span> platforms are becoming more prevalent as a solution for the implementation of embedded computing systems. This is due to their ease of implementation and highly customisable nature. We demonstrate a simple yet effective technique for accelerating an embedded RTOS running on a soft-core CPU in an So<span class="hlt">PC</span> platform. Custom instructions are developed to accelerate the task scheduling. We show</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timothy F. Oliver; Siraj Mohammed; Nataraj Muthu Krishna; Douglas L. Maskell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18095937"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of zinc phthalocyanine (Zn<span class="hlt">Pc</span>) for photovoltaic applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zinc phthalocyanine (Zn<span class="hlt">Pc</span>) is a promising candidate for solar-cell applications, because it is easily synthesized and is non-toxic to the environment. Recently, phthalocyanine (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>) was considered by many researchers as the active part in all-organic solar cells, i.e. plastic solar cells. It is a self-assembling liquid crystal developed from a common deep-blue-green pigment. It exhibits a characteristic structural self-organization, which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Senthilarasu; S. Velumani; R. Sathyamoorthy; A. Subbarayan; J. A. Ascencio; G. Canizal; P. J. Sebastian; J. A. Chavez; R. Perez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.emo.org.tr/ekler/9daa89c41ffb71f_ek.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-BASED COST EFFECTIVE DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cost effective <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based data acquisition systems employing ISA bus and printer port have been designed and developed. As real-time experimentation two applications have been considered of which the first one uses <span class="hlt">PC</span> with the data acquisition board for developing a storage oscilloscope. The second application is ON-OFF temperature control for maintaining the temperature of any liquid at any desired reference</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duygu Evrim; K. Balasubramanian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399533"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unraveling the neuroprotective mechanisms of Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> in excitotoxicity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Knowledge of the natural roles of cellular prion protein (Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span>) is essential to an understanding of the molecular basis of prion pathologies. This GPI-anchored protein has been described in synaptic contacts, and loss of its synaptic function in complex systems may contribute to the synaptic loss and neuronal degeneration observed in prionopathy. In addition, Prnp knockout mice show enhanced susceptibility to several excitotoxic insults, GABAA receptor-mediated fast inhibition was weakened, LTP was modified and cellular stress increased. Although little is known about how Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> exerts its function at the synapse or the downstream events leading to Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span>-mediated neuroprotection against excitotoxic insults, Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> has recently been reported to interact with two glutamate receptor subunits (NR2D and GluR6/7). In both cases the presence of Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> blocks the neurotoxicity induced by NMDA and Kainate respectively. Furthermore, signals for seizure and neuronal cell death in response to Kainate in Prnp knockout mouse are associated with JNK3 activity, through enhancing the interaction of GluR6 with PSD-95. In combination with previous data, these results shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind the role of Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> in excitotoxicity. Future experimental approaches are suggested and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Llorens, Franc; del Rio, Jose Antonio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3244960"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulation by Polycomb and Trithorax <span class="hlt">Group</span> Proteins in Arabidopsis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) and trithorax <span class="hlt">group</span> (trxG) proteins are key regulators of homeotic genes and have crucial roles in cell proliferation, growth and development. <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G and trxG proteins form higher order protein complexes that contain SET domain proteins, with a histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activity, responsible for the different types of lysine methylation at the N-terminal tails of the core histone proteins. In recent years, genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to begin to understand how <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G and trxG proteins are recruited to chromatin and how they regulate their target genes and to elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of the biological roles of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G and trxG proteins, their molecular mechanisms of action and further examines the role of histone marks in <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G and trxG regulation in Arabidopsis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvarez-Venegas, Raul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4077293"> <span id="translatedtitle">Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span>F16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Interface properties of cobalt(II) phthalocyanine (Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span>) and cobalt(II) hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span>F16) to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES)). It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Pc</span>F16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petraki, Fotini; Uihlein, Johannes; Aygul, Umut; Chasse, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.3215M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal variability of the dimethylsulfide to chlorophyll ratio in the surface ocean: an assessment based on phytoplankton <span class="hlt">group</span> dominance determined from <span class="hlt">space</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced in surface seawater by phytoplankton. Phytoplankton culture experiments have shown that nanoeucaryotes (NANO) display much higher mean DMSP-to-Carbon or DMSP-to-Chlorophyll (Chl) ratios than Prochlorococcus (PRO), Synechococcus (SYN) or diatoms (DIAT). Moreover, the DMSP-lyase activity of algae which cleaves DMSP into dimethylsulfide (DMS) is even more <span class="hlt">group</span> specific than DMSP itself. Ship-based observations have shown at limited spatial scales, that sea surface DMS-to-Chl ratios (DMS:Chl) are dependent on the composition of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Here we use satellite remote sensing of Chl (from SeaWiFS) and of Phytoplankton <span class="hlt">Group</span> Dominance (PGD from PHYSAT) with ship-based sea surface DMS concentrations (8 cruises in total) to assess this dependence on an unprecedented spatial scale. PHYSAT provides PGD (either NANO, PRO, SYN, DIAT, Phaeocystis (PHAEO) or coccolithophores (COC)) in each satellite pixel (1/4° horizontal resolution). While there are identification errors in the PHYSAT method, it is important to note that these errors are lowest for NANO PGD which we typify by high DMSP:Chl. In summer, in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, we find that mean DMS:Chl associated with NANO + PHAEO and PRO + SYN + DIAT are 13.6±8.4 mmol g-1 (n=34) and 7.3±4.8 mmol g-1 (n=24), respectively. That is a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) that is consistent with NANO and PHAEO being relatively high DMSP producers. However, in the western North Atlantic between 40° N and 60° N, we find no significant difference between the same PGD. This is most likely because coccolithophores account for the non-dominant part of the summer phytoplankton assemblages. Meridional distributions at 22° W in the Atlantic, and 95° W and 110° W in the Pacific, both show a marked drop in DMS:Chl near the equator, down to few mmol g-1, yet the basins exhibit different PGD (NANO in the Atlantic, PRO and SYN in the Pacific). In tropical and subtropical Atlantic and Pacific waters away from the equatorial and coastal upwelling, mean DMS:Chl associated with high and low DMSP producers are statistically significantly different, but the difference is opposite of that expected from culture experiments. Hence, in a majority of cases PGD is not of primary importance in controlling DMS:Chl variations. We therefore conclude that water-leaving radiance spectra obtained simultaneously from ocean color sensor measurements of Chl concentrations and dominant phytoplankton <span class="hlt">groups</span> can not be used to predict global fields of DMS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masotti, I.; Belviso, S.; Alvain, S.; Johnson, J. E.; Bates, T. S.; Tortell, P. D.; Kasamatsu, N.; Mongin, M.; Marandino, C. A.; Saltzman, E. S.; Moulin, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.neoplasia.com/pdf/manuscript/v06i06/neo04160.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased expression of the EZH2 polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> gene in BMI1-positive neoplastic cells during bronchial carcinogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) genes are responsible for maintenance of cellular identity and contribute to regulation of the cell cycle. Recent studies have identified several <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G genes as oncogenes, and a role for <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins in human oncogenesis is suspected. We investigated the expression of BMI-1 and EZH2 <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G oncogenes in human bronchial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and bronchial premalignant precursor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roderick H. J. Breuer; Peter J. F. Snijders; Egbert F. Smit; Thomas G. Sutedja; Richard G. A. B. Sewalt; Arie P. Otte; Kemenade van F. J; Pieter E. Postmus; Chris J. L. M. Meijer; Frank M. Raaphorst</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/68nu7vhx81l21736.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revised <span class="hlt">Space</span> Fortress: A validation study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe briefly the redevelopment of <span class="hlt">Space</span> Fortress (SF), a research tool widely used to study training of complex tasks\\u000a involving both cognitive and motor skills, to be executed on currentgeneration systems with significantly extended capabilities,\\u000a and then compare the performance of human participants on an original <span class="hlt">PC</span> version of <span class="hlt">Space</span> Fortress (SF) with the revised <span class="hlt">Space</span>\\u000a Fortress (RSF). Participants</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wayne L. Shebilske; Richard A. Volz; Kevin M. Gildea; Judson W. Workman; Maitreyi Nanjanath; Sen Cao; Jonathan Whetzel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AAS...212.6206V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategies, Programs and Projects 2008 of the Astrophysical <span class="hlt">Group</span> "<span class="hlt">SPACE</span>-Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos, Peru" - Preparing for the IYA2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a review of our efforts to introduce astronomy as scientific career in Peru, showing how our astronomy outreach programs have been one of the most important keys to reach our national astronomical scientific goals, remarking the crucial role that the celebration of the IYA2009 must play, in order to promote PhD programmes in astronomy in developing countries. We show the importance of the creation of the Seminario Permanente de Astronomía y Ciencias Espaciales (<span class="hlt">SPACE</span>) in the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, as an academic scientific and cultural center in Peru, to support our 26 years-old "Astronomical Fridays” which are addressed to wide range of public, from schoolchildren to scientists. We also show how important was to rediscover our ancient astronomical cultural past of Incas in order to promote the construction of a Astronomical Center located near Cusco city over 4000 meters above sea level, which includes a tourist-educational observatory, a scientific optical observatory and a solar radio observatory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vera, Victor; Aguilar, M.; Huisacayna, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23891651"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphine treatment selectively regulates expression of rat pituitary POMC and the prohormone convertases <span class="hlt">PC</span>1/3 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>2.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prohormone convertases, <span class="hlt">PC</span>1/3 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 are thought to be responsible for the activation of many prohormones through processing including the endogenous opioid peptides. We propose that maintenance of hormonal homeostasis can be achieved, in part, via alterations in levels of these enzymes that control the ratio of active hormone to prohormone. In order to test the hypothesis that exogenous opioids regulate the endogenous opioid system and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis, we studied the effect of short-term morphine or naltrexone treatment on pituitary <span class="hlt">PC</span>1/3 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 as well as on the level of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor gene for the biosynthesis of the endogenous opioid peptide, ?-endorphin. Using ribonuclease protection assays, we observed that morphine down-regulated and naltrexone up-regulated rat pituitary <span class="hlt">PC</span>1/3 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 mRNA. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein levels changed in parallel with the changes in mRNA levels and were accompanied by changes in the levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein. We propose that the alterations of the prohormone processing system may be a compensatory mechanism in response to an exogenous opioid ligand whereby the organism tries to restore its homeostatic hormonal milieu following exposure to the opioid, possibly by regulating the levels of multiple endogenous opioid peptides and other neuropeptides in concert. PMID:23891651</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nie, Ying; Ferrini, Monica G; Liu, Yanjun; Anghel, Adrian; Espinosa, Enma V Paez; Stuart, Ronald C; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Nillni, Eduardo A; Friedman, Theodore C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834746"> <span id="translatedtitle">METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY <span class="hlt">PC</span> BOILERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility <span class="hlt">PC</span> boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb per million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. A revised subcontract was executed with BBP to reflect changes in the pilot testing program. Modeling activities were continued to develop and verify revised design approaches for both the Preheat gas combustor and <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner. Reactivation of the pilot test system was then begun with BBP personnel. During the previous reporting period, reactivation of the pilot test system was completed with the modified Preheat gas combustor. Following shakedown of the modified gas combustor alone, a series of successful tests of the new combustor with PRB coal using the original <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner were completed. NOx at the furnace exit was reduced significantly with the modified gas combustor, to as low as 150 ppm with only 36 ppm CO (both corrected to 3% O2). Concurrent with testing, GTI and BBP collaborated on development of two modified designs for the <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner optimized to fire preheated char and pyrolysis products from the Preheat gas combustor. During the current reporting period, one of the two modified <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner designs was fabricated and installed in the pilot test facility. Testing of the modified pilot system (modified gas combustor and modified <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner) during the quarter included 38 tests with PRB coal. NOx reduction was significantly improved to levels as low as 60-100 ppmv with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020086598&hterms=Social+Work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522Social%2BWork%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Space</span> Resources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Space</span> resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must <span class="hlt">space</span> travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover <span class="hlt">space</span> station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; <span class="hlt">space</span> explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California <span class="hlt">Space</span> Inst. and the NASA Johnson <span class="hlt">Space</span> Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and <span class="hlt">Space</span> Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a <span class="hlt">group</span> of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger <span class="hlt">group</span> of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. <span class="hlt">Space</span> Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of <span class="hlt">space</span> resources in the development of future <span class="hlt">space</span> activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. <span class="hlt">Space</span> resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing <span class="hlt">space</span> resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of <span class="hlt">space</span> resources in the development of <span class="hlt">space</span> activities. In fact, <span class="hlt">Space</span> Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by <span class="hlt">Space</span> Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and <span class="hlt">Space</span> Resources and <span class="hlt">Space</span> Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on <span class="hlt">Space</span>, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the <span class="hlt">Space</span> Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in <span class="hlt">Space</span>, also emphasize expansion of the <span class="hlt">space</span> Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using <span class="hlt">space</span> resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in <span class="hlt">space</span>. Our report does not represent any Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging op</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7406"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the <span class="hlt">PC</span>/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology <span class="hlt">Group</span>, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descnies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S `chn' and `SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6417256"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>/FRAM, Version 3. 2 User Manual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the <span class="hlt">PC</span>/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology <span class="hlt">Group</span>, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descnies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S chn' and SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3386012"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro effects of fetal rat cerebrospinal fluid on viability and neuronal differentiation of <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. Rat pheochromocytoma <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation since they differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells in response to growth factors. This study aimed to establish whether <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells were responsive to fetal CSF and therefore whether they might be used to investigate CSF physiology in a stable cell line lacking the time-specific response patterns of primary cells previously described. Methods In vitro assays of viability, proliferation and differentiation were carried out after incubation of <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells in media with and without addition of fetal rat CSF. An MTT tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability and/or cell proliferation. Expression of neural differentiation markers (MAP-2 and ?-III tubulin) was determined by immunocytochemistry. Formation and growth of neurites was measured by image analysis. Results <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to bFGF. Viability and cell proliferation of <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells cultured in CSF-supplemented medium from E18 rat fetuses were significantly elevated relative to the control <span class="hlt">group</span>. Neuronal-like outgrowths from cells appeared following the application of bFGF or CSF from E17 and E19 fetuses but not E18 or E20 CSF. Beta-III tubulin was expressed in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells cultured in any media except that supplemented with E18 CSF. MAP-2 expression was found in control cultures and in those with E17 and E19 CSF. MAP2 was located in neurites except in E17 CSF when the whole cell was positive. Conclusions Fetal rat CSF supports viability and stimulates proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells in an age-dependent way, suggesting that CSF composition changes with age. This feature may be important in vivo for the promotion of normal brain development. There were significant differences in the effects on <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells compared to primary cortical cells. This suggests there is an interaction in vivo between developmental stage of cells and the composition of CSF. The data presented here support an important, perhaps driving role for CSF composition, specifically neurotrophic factors, in neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation. The effects of CSF on <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells can thus be used to further investigate the role of CSF in driving development without the confounding issues of using primary cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AnGeo..28.1703H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Empirically modelled <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3 activity based on solar wind parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is known that under certain solar wind (SW)/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle) the occurrence of ground-level <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3-4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock). Although the models cannot account for the lack of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude <span class="hlt">Pc</span>3 activity predominantly through upstream waves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heilig, B.; Lotz, S.; Ver?, J.; Sutcliffe, P.; Reda, J.; Pajunpää, K.; Raita, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4317..111H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mixed-mode fracture behavior of <span class="hlt">PC</span>/ABS blends</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years polymer alloys or polymer blends have become one of the most widely used material in engineering application. To improve the reliability of the materials, extensive studies are required on their fracture behaviors under general loading conditions. Polycarbonate (<span class="hlt">PC</span>)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends were selected in this research to examine the fracture behavior of po9lymer alloys. <span class="hlt">PC</span>/ABS is the polymer alloy of <span class="hlt">PC</span> and ABS and its characteristics varies with volume fractions of two components. In this study, fracture test under mode I and mixed mode loading was conducted and fracture behaviors were observed. At a certain value of mixed mode loading ratio with high mode II components, crack due to shear type fracture initiates at the initial crack tip. Fracture toughness and the appearance of shear type fracture depends on blending ratio of <span class="hlt">PC</span> and ABS. It is suggested that these tendencies related to morphology of <span class="hlt">PC</span>/ABS blends. Fracture resistance increase under mixed more loading with lower in mode II component, while it reduces with the appearance of shear type fracture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Husaini; Kishimoto, Kikuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990inin.symp....6S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-based PCM telemetry data reduction system software</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Wind Research Program is using pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry systems to study horizontal-axis wind turbines. SERI has developed a low-cost <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based PCM data-acquisition system to facilitate quick PCM data analysis in the field. The SERI <span class="hlt">PC</span>-PCM system consists of AT-compatible hardware boards for decoding and combining PCM data streams and DOS software for control and management of data acquisition. Up to four boards can be installed in a single <span class="hlt">PC</span>, providing the capability to combine data from four PCM streams direct to disk or memory. This paper describes the SERI Quick-Look Data Management Program, which is a comprehensive software package used to organize, acquire, process, and display information from PCM data streams. The software was designed for use in conjunction with SERI's <span class="hlt">PC</span>-PCM hardware described in a related paper. Features of the Quick-Look program are highlighted, including those which make it useful in an experiment test environment to quickly examine and verify incoming data. Also discussed are problems and techniques associated with <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based PCM data acquisition, processing, and real-time display.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simms, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990NIMPA.299..272C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-based analysis of alpha-particle spectra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently developed personal-computer (<span class="hlt">PC</span>) software performs analysis of alpha-particle spectra. The spectra are collected using a commercially available multichannel analyzer board in the <span class="hlt">PC</span>, interfaced with up to eight alpha-particle detectors. The <span class="hlt">PC</span> is an IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span>-AT computer with a 20 Mbyte Bernoulli-Box removable cartridge disk, a math coprocessor and a printer. Once saved on disk, the spectra are analyzed using the software described here. The <span class="hlt">PC</span> analysis software performs automatic peak-area determination with operator override. Sample analysis can use measured detector efficiencies or chemical yields obtained from a radionuclide spike or both. Background contribution corrections for all peaks are included. Upper limit values are calculated for nuclides specified by the operator and not found in the sample. Nuclide identification uses a master table of up to 64 nuclides with up to 8 alpha lines for each nuclide. Any one of 32 available subtables can be selected for use in an analysis. Analysis time is short and is limited by interaction with the operator, not by calculation time. Both detailed and summary versions of final results are printed for ease of data reporting. Utilities included with the software provide nuclide table editing, subset table editing, energy calibration, efficiency calibration and background analysis with background correction file update.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chapman, Terry C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17526019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells to oxidative injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental <span class="hlt">group</span>, <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. PMID:17526019</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Binding of bovine T194A Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> by PrPSc-specific antibodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are based on the misfolding of a cellular prion protein (Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span>) into an infectious, pathological conformation (PrPSc). There is proof-of-principle evidence that a prion vaccine is possible but this is tempered with concerns of the potential dangers associated with induction of immune responses to a widely-expressed self-protein. By targeting epitopes that are specifically exposed upon protein misfolding, our <span class="hlt">group</span> developed a vaccine that induces PrPSc-specific antibody responses. Here we consider the ability of this polyclonal antibody (SN6b) to bind to a mutant of Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> associated with spontaneous prion disease. Polyclonal antibodies were selected to mimic the vaccination outcome and also explore all possible protein conformations of the recombinant bovine prion protein with mutation T194A [bPrP(T194A)]. This mutant is a homolog of the human T183A mutation of Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> that is associated with early onset of familial dementia. With nanopore analysis, under non-denaturing conditions, we observed binding of the SN6b antibody to bPrP(T194A). This interaction was confirmed through ELISAs as well as immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and cellularly expressed forms of bPrP(T194A). This interaction did not promote formation of a protease resistant conformation of PrP in vitro. Collectively, these findings support the disease-specific approach for immunotherapy of prion diseases but also suggest that the concept of conformation-specific immunotherapy may be complicated in individuals who are genetically predisposed to Pr<span class="hlt">PC</span> misfolding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madampage, Claudia A; Maattanen, Pekka; Marciniuk, Kristen; Brownlie, Robert; Andrievskaia, Olga; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil R; Lee, Jeremy S; Napper, Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://robofesta.open.ac.uk/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robotics Outreach <span class="hlt">Group</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">RoboFesta is "a worldwide educational movement that focuses on bringing science and technology to a general audience through widespread public participation in a range of robot competitions." This website provides links and information on the Open University Robotics Outreach <span class="hlt">Group</span>, which began as a multidisciplinary research <span class="hlt">group</span> that promoted RoboFesta. Members have posted various resources for students and teachers involved in the project, including a discussion of using the Lego RCX brick and their On-Brick Programmer using leJOS (Java for the RCX) that allows users to write simple, linear programs for the RCX Brick without the need for a <span class="hlt">PC</span>. Related activities and worksheets are also posted and free to download as part of the Teacher Resource Packs being developed to support the RoboCup Junior robot soccer competition. Other projects such as the Robot Fashion Show and Dinomech, 'Robot' Dinosaurs workshop, are also described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3295...23S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Software issues for <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based stereoscopic displays: how to make <span class="hlt">PC</span> users see stereo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">PC</span>, as the dominant computer platform, is the most exciting market for stereoscopic displays and applications. Several low-cost stereoscopic display systems have been introduced for PCs, including liquid-crystal shutter (LCS) glasses, low-resolution head-mounted displays, and polarized displays with passive polarized glasses. However, each stereoscopic system has its own proprietary driver, and few drivers support Windows. LCDBios, a DOS driver developed by Donald Sawdai, solved the difficult timing problem of accurately synchronizing LCS glasses to the monitor's refresh without degrading computer system performance. More important, LCDBios also provided the stereoscopic industry with a defacto standard API for displaying stereoscopic images with any LCS glasses. However, the LCDBios API only supported LCS glasses for DOS applications without hardware graphics acceleration. The Stereoscopic Device Interface (SSDI), developed by the authors, now provides a standard architecture and API for driving any stereoscopic display system under DOS and Windows while taking advantage of hardware graphics acceleration. The SSDI architecture consists of the SSDI core, SSDI rendering platform drivers, and SSDI device drivers specific to the stereoscopic hardware. The SSDI architecture is broad enough to support device driver modules for all current stereoscopic hardware, including extensions for head-tracking. SSDI currently runs under Windows 95/98 and DOS, while Windows NT support is under development.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sawdai, Donald; Hamlin, Gregory J.; Swift, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52708006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hyperreflection <span class="hlt">groups</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce the concept of hyperreflection <span class="hlt">groups</span>, which are a generalization of Coxeter <span class="hlt">groups</span>. We prove the Deletion and Exchange Conditions for hyperreflection <span class="hlt">groups</span>, and we discuss special subgroups and fundamental sectors of hyperreflection <span class="hlt">groups</span>. In the second half of the paper, we prove that Coxeter <span class="hlt">groups</span> and graph products of <span class="hlt">groups</span> are examples of hyperreflection <span class="hlt">groups</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David G. Radcliffe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3149882"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fine structure of the "<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G body" in human U-2 OS cells established by correlative light-electron microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) proteins of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) are found to be diffusely distributed in nuclei of cells from various species. However they can also be localized in intensely fluorescent foci, whether imaged using GFP fusions to proteins of PRC1 complex, or by conventional immunofluorescence microscopy. Such foci are termed <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies, and are believed to be situated in the nuclear intechromatin compartment. However, an ultrastructural description of the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G body has not been reported to date. To establish the ultrastructure of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies in human U-2 OS cells stably expressing recombinant polycomb BMI1-GFP protein, we used correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) implemented with high-pressure freezing, cryosubstitution and on-section labeling of BMI1 protein with immunogold. This approach allowed us to clearly identify fluorescent <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies, not as distinct nuclear bodies, but as nuclear domains enriched in separated heterochromatin fascicles. Importantly, high-pressure freezing and cryosubstitution allowed for a high and clear-cut immunogold BMI1 labeling of heterochromatin structures throughout the nucleus. The density of immunogold labeled BMI1 in the heterochromatin fascicles corresponding to fluorescent “<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies” did not differ from the density of labeling of heterochromatin fascicles outside of the “<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies”. Accordingly, an appearance of the fluorescent “<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies” seems to reflect a local accumulation of the labeled heterochromatin structures in the investigated cells. The results of this study should allow expansion of the knowledge about the biological relevance of the “<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G bodies” in human cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juda, Pavel; Cmarko, Dusan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12547161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exceptional <span class="hlt">Groups</span> and Physics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quarks and leptons charges and interactions are derived from gauge theories associated with symmetries. Their <span class="hlt">space</span>-time labels come from representations of the non-compact algebra of Special Relativity. Common to these descriptions are the Lie <span class="hlt">groups</span> stemming from their invariances. Does Nature use Exceptional <span class="hlt">Groups</span>, the most distinctive among them? We examine the case for and against their use. They do</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierre Ramond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834747"> <span id="translatedtitle">METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY <span class="hlt">PC</span> BOILERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility <span class="hlt">PC</span> boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. During the current reporting period, BBP's subcontract was modified to reflect changes in the pilot testing program, and the modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor were completed. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach was defined for the combined <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner and 3-million Btu/h pilot system. Modeling of the modified gas-fired preheat combustor was also started.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355796"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aspartame-induced apoptosis in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. PMID:24355796</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5033..187T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span> as a mobil PACS terminal using wireless LAN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A PACS mobile terminal has applications in ward round, emergency room and remote teleradiology consultation. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have the highest mobility and are used for many medical applications. However, their roles are limited in the field of radiology due to small screen size. In this study, we built a wireless PACS terminal using a hand-held tablet-<span class="hlt">PC</span>. A tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span> (X-pilot, LEO systems, Taiwan) running the WinCE operating systems was used as our mobile PACS terminal. This device is equipped with 800×600 resolution 10.4 inch TFT monitor. The network connection between the tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span> and the server was linked via wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11b).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsao, Bo-Shen; Ching, Yu-Tai; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Chang, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chien-Jung; Yen, York; Lee, Yuan-Ten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10471391"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laminin stimulates protein tyrosine dephosphorylation in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laminin stimulates neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma cells (<span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells). Here, we investigated laminin signal transduction mechanisms by adding the tyrosine kinase/phosphatase modulators, genistein, quercetin, aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATA), and vanadate to <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells. At 10 microM both genistein and quercetin enhanced laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth by 1.7- and 2.3-fold, respectively, while at 10 microM, ATA inhibited laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth by 92%. Vanadate inhibited neurite outgrowth by 63% at 10 microM. Immunoblot analysis revealed four proteins of approximately 240, 22, 110, and 35 kDa, which were dephosphorylated on tyrosine residues in laminin-treated <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells, but not in NIH 3T3 cells. These results demonstrate that laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth involves protein tyrosine dephosphorylation and suggests that this mechanism may have specificity to neuronal cells. PMID:10471391</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weeks, B S; Wilson, P J; Heffernan, C C; Gorra, V A; White, L E; Ahmad, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/821271"> <span id="translatedtitle">METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY <span class="hlt">PC</span> BOILERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the current quarter, pilot scale testing was continued with the modified combustor and modified channel burner using the new PRB coal delivered in late December. Testing included benchmark testing to determine whether the system performance was comparable to that with the previous batch of PRB coal, baseline testing to characterize performance of the <span class="hlt">PC</span> Burner without coal preheating, and parametric testing to evaluate the effect of various preheat combustor and <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner operating variables, including reduced gas usage in the preheat combustor. A second version of the <span class="hlt">PC</span> burner in which the secondary air channels were closed and replaced with six air nozzles was then tested with PRB coal. Plans were developed with RPI for the next phase of testing at the 100 million Btu/h scale using RPI's Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF). A cost estimate for preparation of the CBTF and preheat burner system design, installation and testing was then prepared by RPI.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1216892"> <span id="translatedtitle">Specific co-ordinated regulation of <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 gene expression with that of preproinsulin in insulin-producing beta TC3 cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short-term (less than 2 h) glucose stimulation of isolated pancreatic islets specifically increases the biosynthesis of proinsulin and its converting enzymes <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 at the translation level. To determine whether gene expression of <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 was also regulated by longer-term (more than 6 h) glucose stimulation along with that of preproinsulin, studies were performed with the beta TC3 insulin-producing cell line. By Northern blot analysis, glucose maintained <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 mRNA levels in parallel with those of preproinsulin. After 48 h, mRNA levels of preproinsulin, <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 were, respectively, 2.9 (P < 0.05), 3.0 (P < 0.005) and 5.3 (P < 0.001) times greater in the presence of glucose than in beta TC3 cells cultured in the absence of glucose. Glucose-regulated <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 gene expression, like that of preproinsulin, was maximal at glucose concentrations above 5.5 mM. Studies of mRNA stability showed that the half-lives of <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 (9 h) and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 (5 h) mRNA were much shorter than that of preproinsulin mRNA (over 24 h), but little effect of glucose on stability of these mRNAs was observed. Nuclear run-off analysis indicated that transcription of preproinsulin, <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 was modestly induced after 1 h exposure to 16.7 mM glucose. Therefore preproinsulin, <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 mRNA levels in beta TC3 cells were most probably maintained at the level of gene transcription. In contrast, elevation of cyclic AMP by forskolin had no effect on mRNA levels or gene transcription of preproinsulin, <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3, despite a cyclic-AMP-induced phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein that correlated with a marked increase in cJun and cFos gene transcription in the same beta-cells. These results suggest that preproinsulin, <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 gene transcription can be specifically glucose-regulated in a mechanism that is unlikely to involve a key role for cyclic AMP. The co-ordinate increase in <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 mRNA levels with that of preproinsulin mRNA in response to chronic glucose represents a long-term means of catering for an increased demand on proinsulin conversion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schuppin, G T; Rhodes, C J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.372a2043M"> <span id="translatedtitle">10 <span class="hlt">pc</span> Scale Circumnuclear Molecular Gas Imaging of Nearby AGNs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the images and kinematics of circumnuclear molecular gas from 100 <span class="hlt">pc</span> scale down to 10 <span class="hlt">pc</span> scale in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). We have observed several nearby galaxies that host AGNs, such as the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128), the Seyfert 2 galaxy M51 (NGC 5194), the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097, and the Seyfert 2 / starburst composite galaxy NGC 4945, in CO lines to see whether the molecular gas distribution, kinematics, and physical conditions at 10 - 100 <span class="hlt">pc</span> scale follows the AGN unified model or not. In 100 <span class="hlt">pc</span> scale, most of the circumnuclear molecular gas shows smooth velocity gradient, suggesting a regular rotating feature, and also shows abnormal line ratios, suggesting the existence of active sources to make the circumnuclear molecular gas dense and/or warm conditions or abnormal chemical compositions. In 10 <span class="hlt">pc</span> scale, on the other hand, the molecular gas kinematics shows various characteristics, some shows very disturbed kinematics such as a jet-entrained feature in the galaxies that have jets, but some still shows regular rotation feature in a galaxy that does not have obvious jets. These results indicate that the kinematics and physical/chemical conditions of the circumnuclear molecular gas at the scale less than 100 <span class="hlt">pc</span> is highly affected by the AGN activities, and at this scale, there is no clear evidence of any unified feature seen in the circumnuclear molecular gas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsushita, Satoki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 protein in insect cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 and used for the detection of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 fusion proteins. The results showed that <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2-N and <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2-C. When expressed alone, either <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2-N or <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)] [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Jiansheng, E-mail: jsliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)] [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Changyong, E-mail: cyliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)] [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793993"> <span id="translatedtitle">METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY <span class="hlt">PC</span> BOILERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility <span class="hlt">PC</span> boiler NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during the quarter included completion of the equipment fabrication and installation efforts for the 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Selection and procurement of the first two test coals and preliminary selection of the final two test coals were completed. Shakedown and commissioning activities were finished and <span class="hlt">PC</span> Preheat pilot scale tests commenced with PRB coal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/415625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonbinomial distribution of relative neurite outgrowth in <span class="hlt">PC</span>-12 cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previously the authors reported the results of a series of experimental tests using <span class="hlt">PC</span>-12 cells to examine the biological effects of prescribed combinations of both nerve growth factor and magnetic fields. Because the assay of the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-12 cells is based on a binary classification of the cells following treatment, the data might be expected to have a binomial distribution. However, the data consistently show a smaller variability than that predicted by the binomial distribution model. In this paper, they examine some possible reasons for this reduction in variability in the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blackman, C.F.; House, D.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blanchard, J.P. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Run-08 <span class="hlt">pC</span> polarization analysis - October 16, 2008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 <span class="hlt">pC</span> data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the <span class="hlt">pC</span> analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750038569&hterms=firehose&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dfirehose"> <span id="translatedtitle">Excitation and dissipation of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>-1 micropulsations. [hydromagnetic instability model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical model based on hydromagnetic instabilities (including Alfven firehose and magnetoacoustic mirror instabilities), in the region where the electrons are in the transition from collisional to collisionless and ions are in the collisionless region, is proposed as a possible wave emission mechanism for <span class="hlt">Pc</span>-1 pulsations. The model is compared with recent observations with good agreement between the theory and observations, especially for an emission source located at a distance L less than 5. Furthermore, a suggestion is made that the hydromagnetic instabilities could be relevant to the night and early morning hours emissions while the ion cyclotron instabilities could be responsible for the daytime emission of <span class="hlt">Pc</span>-1 pulsations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hung, R. J.; Smith, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6892169"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-based flux mapping data collection system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diablo Canyon Power Plant if owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of California. The plant consists of two Westinghouse design pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Unit 1 began commercial operation in May 1985, Unit 2 in March 1986. Many personal computer (<span class="hlt">PC</span>)-based engineering applications have been developed at the site to perform calculations required by plant operations and surveillance testing. This paper addresses the development and implementation of a <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based system which collects and transmits data for meeting Technical Specification surveillance requirements on reactor core conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fahley, J.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17432117"> <span id="translatedtitle">[A <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based 3D stereoscopic medical visualization system].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a low-cost <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based, high-quality and interactive 3D stereoscopic medical visualization system is presented, which can be clinically used for diagnosis and surgical planning. The algorithms of direct volume rendering have been improved for realization with the programmable graphics hardware under <span class="hlt">PC</span> environment. Local illumination, classification and non-polygonal iso-surface rendering are also incorporated into the system in appropriate consideration of both high-quality rendering and real-time interaction. The medical visualization system has been applied to the neurosurgical and orthopedic planning and the effectiveness has been clinically proved. PMID:17432117</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Peng; Tang, Hui; Lin, Yi-xing; Bao, Xu-dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991IJRSP..20..280D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span>-based observation control of balloon-borne telescope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The operations involved during observations, using the TIFR 100-cm balloon-borne far-infrared telescope, have been semi-automated using an IBM-<span class="hlt">PC</span>. A hardware interface has been developed for this <span class="hlt">PC</span>, which interacts with the two-way radio communication links (telemetry and telecommand) between the ground station and the telescope system. In addition, software has been developed to improve the accuracy of the telescope aspect information. This has been implemented by on-line processing of the signals from the focal plane optical and infrared detectors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Das, B.; Ghosh, S. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6650059"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span> proliferation: Minimizing corporate risk through planning for application maintenance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rapid proliferation of personal computers, offering tremendous productivity gains for the knowledge worker, often creates new application maintenance tasks. Specific concerns include security, data integrity, and access authorization. Distributed networks require security and communication systems. Distributed data entry requires file servers, network support personnel, and synchronization methods to preserve the integrity of corporate data. Much <span class="hlt">PC</span> software which must be maintained will be developed outside of standard-imposing environments and without benefit of formal training. A recommended method for limiting future maintenance problems is the formation of a staff possessing skills specific to problem solving in the areas mentioned and functioning as <span class="hlt">PC</span> consultants for the area of the knowledge worker.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shafer, L.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895035"> <span id="translatedtitle">METHANE de-NOX for Utility <span class="hlt">PC</span> Boilers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the <span class="hlt">PC</span> Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter has focused on disposition of <span class="hlt">PC</span> Preheat experimental equipment at the CBTF as well as methods for disposal of about 100 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; a final report is due in December 2005.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23419717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> response elements in Drosophila and vertebrates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> genes (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) encode a <span class="hlt">group</span> of about 16 proteins that were first identified in Drosophila as repressors of homeotic genes. <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins are present in all metazoans and are best characterized as transcriptional repressors. In Drosophila, these proteins are known as epigenetic regulators because they remember, but do not establish, the patterned expression state of homeotic genes throughout development. <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins, in general, are not DNA binding proteins, but act in protein complexes to repress transcription at specific target genes. How are <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins recruited to the DNA? In Drosophila, there are specific regulatory DNA elements called Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> response elements (PREs) that bring <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G protein complexes to the DNA. Drosophila PREs are made up of binding sites for a complex array of DNA binding proteins. Functional PRE assays in transgenes have shown that PREs act in the context of other regulatory DNA and PRE activity is highly dependent on genomic context. Drosophila PREs tend to regulate genes with a complex array of regulatory DNA in a cell or tissue-specific fashion and it is the interplay between regulatory DNA that dictates PRE function. In mammals, <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins are more diverse and there are multiple ways to recruit <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G complexes, including RNA-mediated recruitment. In this review, we discuss evidence for PREs in vertebrates and explore similarities and differences between Drosophila and vertebrate PREs. PMID:23419717</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kassis, Judith A; Brown, J Lesley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polycomb <span class="hlt">Group</span> Proteins Are Key Regulators of Keratinocyte Function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Polycomb <span class="hlt">group</span> (<span class="hlt">Pc</span>G) proteins are epigenetic suppressors of gene expression that function through modification of histones to change chromatin structure and modulate gene expression and cell behavior. Recent studies show that <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins are expressed in epidermis, that their levels change during differentiation and in disease states, and that <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G expression is regulated by agents that influence cell proliferation and survival. The results indicate that <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins regulate keratinocyte cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, senescence, and differentiation. These proteins are expressed in progenitor cells, in the basal layer, and in suprabasal keratinocytes, and the level, timing, and distribution of expression suggest that the <span class="hlt">Pc</span>G proteins have a central role in maintaining the balance between cell survival and death in multiple epidermal compartments. Additional studies indicate an important role in skin cancer progression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Ching Chew, Yap; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/773283"> <span id="translatedtitle">COBOL on a <span class="hlt">PC</span>: a new perspective on a language and its performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparison of Cobol performance on the <span class="hlt">PC</span> AT Enhanced versus an IBM 370 mainframe suggests that high-quality <span class="hlt">PC</span> compiler implementations—combined with the new language features of the Cobol 85 Standard—are improving the <span class="hlt">PC</span> environment for Cobol to the point where serious applications can now be developed and debugged on the <span class="hlt">PC</span>, either to be run on the <span class="hlt">PC</span> itself,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul J. Jalics</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacillus anthracis-Like Bacteria and Other B. cereus <span class="hlt">Group</span> Members in a Microbial Community Within the International <span class="hlt">Space</span> Station: A Challenge for Rapid and Easy Molecular Detection of Virulent B. anthracis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For some microbial species, such as Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of the disease anthrax, correct detection and identification by molecular methods can be problematic. The detection of virulent B. anthracis is challenging due to multiple virulence markers that need to be present in order for B. anthracis to be virulent and its close relationship to Bacillus cereus and other members of the B. cereus <span class="hlt">group</span>. This is especially the case in environments where build-up of Bacillus spores can occur and several representatives of the B. cereus <span class="hlt">group</span> may be present, which increases the chance for false-positives. In this study we show the presence of B. anthracis-like bacteria and other members of the B. cereus <span class="hlt">group</span> in a microbial community within the human environment of the International <span class="hlt">Space</span> Station and their preliminary identification by using conventional culturing as well as molecular techniques including 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and real-time PCR. Our study shows that when monitoring the microbial hygiene in a given human environment, health risk assessment is troublesome in the case of virulent B. anthracis, especially if this should be done with rapid, easy to apply and on-site molecular methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Roest, Hendrik I. J.; Degener, John E.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2920479"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span>) and apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span> methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span>), buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span>), and apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span> were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i) platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span>), and (ii) buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span>) and (iii) single donor platelets (apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span>) by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span>, 62 of BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> and 20 of apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span>) were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span>, BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> and apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span> was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span>, BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> and apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span> was 7.6±2.97 × 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 × 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 × 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2 –16.2 × 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 × 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 × 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span> (n = 10), BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> (n = 10) and apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span> (n = 6) units was 4.05±0.48 × 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 × 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 × 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 × 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 × 107/unit and 3.2 – 5.2 × 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span> and BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> and 6 units were apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span>. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD) and ranged from 6.5 – 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span> and BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> than PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span> units. Variation in volume was more in BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span> than PRP-<span class="hlt">PC</span> units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC-<span class="hlt">PC</span>. As compared to the above two platelet concentrates, all the units of apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span> fulfilled the desired quality control criteria of volume. Apheresis-<span class="hlt">PC</span> units showed better swirling and platelet count than PRP-PCs and BC-PCs. All the platelet concentrates units had pH well above the recommended norm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Ravindra P.; Marwaha, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Dash, Sumitra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1219719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differences in the autocatalytic cleavage of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3 can be attributed to sequences within the propeptide and Asp310 of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 are subtilisin-like proteases involved in the maturation of prohormones and proneuropeptides within neuroendocrine cells. They are synthesized as zymogens that undergo autocatalytic maturation within the secretory pathway. Maturation of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 is slow (t12 >8 h), exhibits a pH optimum of 5.5 and is dependent on calcium (K0.5 2 mM), while pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3 maturation is relatively rapid (t12 15 min), exhibits a neutral pH optimum and is not calcium dependent. These differences in the rates and optimal conditions for activation of the proteases may contribute to the diversity of products generated by these proteases in different cell types. Although highly similar, there are two major differences between pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3: the presence of an aspartate at position 310 in pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 compared with asparagine at the equivalent position in pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3 (and all other members of the subtilisin family), and the N-terminal propeptides, which exhibit low sequence identity (30%). With a view to establishing the structural features that might be responsible for these differences in the maturation of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3, Asp310 in pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 was mutated to Asn, and Asn309 in pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3 was mutated to Asp. Chimaeric proteins were also made consisting of the pro-region of <span class="hlt">PC</span>2 fused to the mature portion of <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 and the pro-region of <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 fused to the mature region of <span class="hlt">PC</span>2. The wild-type and mutant DNA constructs were then transcribed and translated in an in vitro system capable of supporting maturation of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 and pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3. The results demonstrated that Asp310 of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 is responsible for the acidic pH optimum for maturation. Thus changing Asp310 to Asn shifted the pH optimum for maturation to pH 7.0. However, changing Asn309 of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3 to Asp had no effect on the optimum pH for maturation of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3. A chimaeric construct containing the propeptide of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 attached to <span class="hlt">PC</span>3 shifted the pH optimum for maturation from pH 7.0 to 6.0 and slowed down the rate of maturation (t12 >8 h). When attached to <span class="hlt">PC</span>2, the pro-region of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>3 had no effect on the optimum pH for maturation (pH 5.5-6.0), but it did accelerate the rate of maturation (t12 2 h). These results demonstrate that Asp310 and the pro-region of pro-<span class="hlt">PC</span>2 contribute to the acidic pH optimum and low rate of maturation of this zymogen relative to its closely related homologue <span class="hlt">PC</span>3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scougall, K; Taylor, N A; Jermany, J L; Docherty, K; Shennan, K I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3994845"> <span id="translatedtitle">Communication <span class="hlt">spaces</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication <span class="hlt">spaces</span>. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into <span class="hlt">groups</span> that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such <span class="hlt">groupings</span> were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a <span class="hlt">space</span> to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital <span class="hlt">spaces</span> could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication <span class="hlt">spaces</span> offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coiera, Enrico</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51133991"> <span id="translatedtitle">An empirical study of consumer's repurchase intention of tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mobile technological products have now become part of people's lives. As such, the tablet computer is really a new-generation <span class="hlt">PC</span> that is very popular among business people as well as students, due to its comfort and mobility, and because it functions well. The purpose of this explanatory and exploratory research survey was to test a hypothesized model regarding customers' perceptions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49910480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flash memory BIOS for <span class="hlt">PC</span> and notebook computers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author describes a flash memory device used to store the basic input\\/output system (BIOS) of a <span class="hlt">PC</span> or notebook computer. Rapidly increasing computer complexity requires rapid and convenient BIOS modifications. BIOS code can be stored in ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, bulk erasable flash memory, or block erasable flash memory. Updating BIOS stored in ROM or EPROM requires much time and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jerry Jex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computer+AND+usage&pg=4&id=EJ750493"> <span id="translatedtitle">Installing and Managing <span class="hlt">PC</span> Time-Control Software</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Employees of a West Virginia library system were tired of intervening in frequent patron fights over the public access PCs. In this article, the author discusses how the implementation of time-control software for an automated session reservation/management service reduced the conflict. A team was assigned to investigate <span class="hlt">PC</span> management software.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dawson, Jennifer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=power+AND+electronics&pg=7&id=EJ780206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Audio Podcasting in a Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span>-Enhanced Biochemistry Course</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span> is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1607835"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PC</span> software for SAW propagation in anisotropic multilayers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A software package that provides an interactive and graphical environment for surface acoustic wave (SAW) and plate-mode propagation studies in arbitrarily oriented anisotropic and piezoelectric multilayers is described. The software, which runs on an IBM <span class="hlt">PC</span> with math coprocessor, is based on a transfer-matrix formulation for calculating the characteristics of SAW propagation in multilayers that was originally written for a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. L. Adler; J. K. Slaboszewicz; G. W. Farnell; C. K. Jen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36246595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneity of Catecholamine-Containing Vesicles in <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vesicular catecholamine release has been measured amperometrically from undifferentiated rat <span class="hlt">PC</span>12 cells using carbon fiber microelectrodes. During superfusion with high K+ saline, vesicular release was detected from ?50% of 200 cells investigated. On repeated stimulation the releasable pool of vesicles is rapidly depleted, while vesicle contents remains constant. Vesicular catecholamine release is not restored within 1 h after depletion of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Remco H. S. Westerink; Aart de Groot; Henk P. M. Vijverberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fie-conference.org/fie2008/papers/1144.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acceptance of Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span> technology by engineering faculty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers the results of a two-year project in which Tablet PCs were given to engineering faculty at the Pennsylvania State University. During Phase 1, 34 faculty members received a Tablet <span class="hlt">PC</span> for use in the classroom. Due to the success of this implementation and demand by other faculty, the project was expanded in the following year to include</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roxanne Toto; Kyu Yon Lim; Hien Nguyen; Sarah Zappe; Tom Litzinger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49960762"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">PC</span> based coherent sonar workstation for experimental underwater acoustics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apart from water, the most important component in an experimental underwater acoustics program is a versatile sonar system for transmitting, receiving, and recording acoustic waveforms. At the Underwater Research Lab (URL) at Simon Fraser University a simple yet fully coherent sonar workstation has been developed by making use of ZBM compatible personal computer (<span class="hlt">PC</span>) technology, commercially available digital signal processing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Kraeutner; J. Bird</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pc-based+AND+computer+AND+software&pg=2&id=EJ359652"> <span id="translatedtitle">Desktop Publishing in a <span class="hlt">PC</span>-Based Environment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Identifies, considers, and interrelates the functionality of hardware, firmware, and software types; discusses the relationship of input and output devices in the <span class="hlt">PC</span>-based desktop publishing environment; and reports some of what has been experienced in three years of working intensively in/with desktop publishing devices and solutions. (MES)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sims, Harold A.</p> <p class="dwt_publish