Science.gov

Sample records for space group pc

  1. Polycomb Group (PcG) Proteins and Human Cancers: Multifaceted Functions and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate several crucial developmental and physiological processes in the cell. More recently, they have been found to play important roles in human carcinogenesis and cancer development and progression. The deregulation and dysfunction of PcG proteins often lead to blocking or inappropriate activation of developmental pathways, enhancing cellular proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and increasing the cancer stem cell population. Genetic and molecular investigations of PcG proteins have long been focused on their PcG functions. However, PcG proteins have recently been shown to exert non-classical-Pc-functions, contributing to the regulation of diverse cellular functions. We and others have demonstrated that PcG proteins regulate the expression and function of several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a PcG-independent manner, and PcG proteins are associated with the survival of patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on PcG proteins, including both the Pc-repressive and non-classical-Pc-functions. We specifically focus on the mechanisms by which PcG proteins play roles in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Finally, we discuss the potential value of PcG proteins as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer, and as molecular targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26227500

  2. International Space Exploration Coordination Group

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    International Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap September 2011 in The Global Exploration Strategy: the Framework for Coordination, released in May 2007, space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are developing the Global

  3. International Space Exploration Coordination Group

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    International Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap September 2011, and stimulating technical and commercial innovation. As more nations undertake space exploration activities established in The Global Exploration Strategy: the Framework for Coordination, released in May 2007, space

  4. Revised Distances, Kinematics, and Classifications of the Nearest Stellar Groups within 100 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent interest in assigning membership of low-mass or substellar field objects to clusters of "known" age, a modern analysis of the distances, kinematics, memberships, and physicality of purported nearby young stellar groups is needed. Van Leeuwen (2007) recently published a new astrometric analysis of data from the Hipparcos mission. Here I use the revised Hipparcos astrometry to estimate updated distances and parameters for the young stellar groups with obvious nuclei previously reported to lie within 100 pc of the Sun (except for the Hyades and Coma Ber, which were reported by van Leeuwen). Among the highlights of the results reported are: (1) the revised mean distances to the nuclei of the following groups: AB Dor (20.1+-1.5 pc), Ursa Major (25.2+-0.3 pc), Carina-Near (32.7+-1.2 pc), Tucana (43.0+-1.0 pc), TW Hya (52.7+-3.0 pc), 32 Ori (92.9+-2.4 pc), and eta Cha (94.3+-1.2 pc), (2) the 5-Myr-old epsilon Cha group appears to be the nearest known group associated with molecular gas (117+-4 pc), (3) the 8 Myr-old eta Cha cluster is the densest cluster within 100 pc ( 36 Msun/pc3), (4) the convergent point for the AB Dor group nucleus appears to be near its geometric center, a phenomena unique among nearby kinematic groups, and (5) the intrinsic 1D velocity dispersions of the nuclei are all remarkably similar (all 1 km/s), and are larger than that predicted assuming the nuclei are virialized (typically <0.5 km/s). This discrepancy is likely to be due to stellar multiplicity affecting the projected photocentric motions of the nuclear members. I present evidence suggesting that the purported clusters Chereul 2, Chereul 3, Latyshev 2, and Polaris are probably unphysical. With refined kinematic parameters for the nearby stellar groups, one can now conduct a more refined membership analysis for others stars purported to be distant ``members'' of these groups.

  5. International Space Exploration Coordination Group

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    International Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap August 2013 #12 The Global Exploration Roadmap is being developed by space agencies participating in the International Space for collaborative space exploration missions beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing

  6. POTENTIAL MEMBERS OF STELLAR KINEMATIC GROUPS WITHIN 30 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Morino, Jun-Ichi

    2012-01-15

    We analyze the kinematic histories of stars within 30 pc of the Sun, for which three-dimensional spatial coordinates and three-dimensional velocity vectors are available. From this sample, we extract members of stellar kinematic groups (SKGs) in the following manner. First, we consider in the three-dimensional velocity space centered on the local standard of rest, a sphere with a radius of 8 km s{sup -1} centered on the mean velocity vector of a particular SKG. Around each SKG velocity center, we have found a significant excess of stars compared to background field stars. For each candidate, in the three-dimensional spatial coordinate space, its trajectory is traced back in time by the age of the relevant SKG to obtain the estimated distance from the SKG center at the time of the SKG's birth by the epicyclic approximation and harmonic vertical motion. It often happens that a star is a candidate member of multiple SKGs. Then we rank the candidacy to multiple SKGs based on the smallness of distance separations. In this manner, we have kinematically selected 238 candidates. We further impose at least one of the following qualitative criteria for being a member: spectral type A or B, variability, or EUV and X-ray emission. We have finally selected 137 candidate members of SKGs out of a sample of 966 stars.

  7. POTENTIAL MEMBERS OF STELLAR KINEMATICAL GROUPS WITHIN 20 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Fukagawa, Misato

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the kinematical histories of stars within 20 pc of the Sun, for which three-dimensional spatial coordinates and three-dimensional velocity vectors are available. From this sample, we extract members of stellar kinematical groups (SKGs) in the following manner. First, in the three-dimensional velocity space centered on the local standard of rest, we consider a sphere with a radius of 8 km s{sup -1} centered on the mean velocity vector of a particular SKG. Around each SKG velocity center, we have found a significant excess of stars compared to background stars. For each candidate, in the three-dimensional spatial coordinate space, its trajectory is traced back in time by the age of the relevant SKG, to estimate the distance from the SKG center at the time of the SKG's birth by the epicycle approximation and vertical harmonic motion. It often happens that a star is a candidate member of multiple SKGs. Then we rank the candidacy to multiple SKGs based on the smallness of distance separations. In this manner, we have kinematically selected 74 candidate members of SKGs out of a sample of 383 stars. If we take into account stellar properties, the number is reduced to 68.

  8. UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP

    E-print Network

    UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP 18th September 2012 STFC 2012 #12;UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP 18th September 2012 STFC · Conclusion #12;UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP 18th September 2012 STFC

  9. Renormalization group in internal space

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.; Sailer, K.

    2005-01-15

    Renormalization group in the internal space consists of the gradual change of the coupling constants. Functional evolution equations corresponding to the change of the mass or the coupling constant are presented in the framework of a scalar model. The evolution in the mass which yields the functional generalization of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the one-particle irreducible effective action is given in its renormalized, cutoff-independent form. The evolution of the coupling constant generates an evolution equation for the two-particle irreducible effective action.

  10. UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP

    E-print Network

    Anand, Mahesh

    UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP ESA Lunar Lander ­ L-DEPP C.J. Owen and D.O. Kataria UCL/MSSL #12;UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP What is L-DEPP? · L-DEPP = Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package; · Investigate

  11. The impact of Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) epigenetic factors in plant plasticity.

    PubMed

    de la Paz Sanchez, Maria; Aceves-García, Pamela; Petrone, Emilio; Steckenborn, Stefan; Vega-León, Rosario; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice

    2015-11-01

    Current advances indicate that epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in the regulatory networks involved in plant developmental responses to environmental conditions. Hence, understanding the role of such components becomes crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying the plasticity and variability of plant traits, and thus the ecology and evolution of plant development. We now know that important components of phenotypic variation may result from heritable and reversible epigenetic mechanisms without genetic alterations. The epigenetic factors Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) are involved in developmental processes that respond to environmental signals, playing important roles in plant plasticity. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of TrxG and PcG functions in different developmental processes in response to internal and environmental cues and we also integrate the emerging evidence concerning their function in plant plasticity. Many such plastic responses rely on meristematic cell behavior, including stem cell niche maintenance, cellular reprogramming, flowering and dormancy as well as stress memory. This information will help to determine how to integrate the role of epigenetic regulation into models of gene regulatory networks, which have mostly included transcriptional interactions underlying various aspects of plant development and its plastic response to environmental conditions. PMID:26037337

  12. IDENTIFYING THE YOUNG LOW-MASS STARS WITHIN 25 pc. II. DISTANCES, KINEMATICS, AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-10

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of {approx}<300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of {approx}<25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young ({approx}<3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and {beta} Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages {approx}<150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event.

  13. X-ray diffraction and foam film investigations of PC head group interaction in water/ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brezesinski, G; Müller, H J; Toca-Herrera, J L; Krustev, R

    2001-04-01

    The influence of ethanol on single phospholipid monolayers at the water/air interface and in foam films has been investigated. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction investigations (GIXD) of Langmuir monolayers from 1,2-distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) spread on water subphases with different amounts of ethanol were performed. The thickness and free specific energy of formation of foam films stabilized by 1,2-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) at different concentrations of ethanol in the film forming dispersions were measured. The GIXD investigations show that the tilt angle of the alkyl chains in the PC lipid monolayer decreases with increasing concentration of ethanol caused by a decrease of the diameter of the head groups. With increasing ethanol content of the solution also the thickness of the aqueous core of PC lipid foam films decreases. We assume that ethanol causes a decreasing probability for the formation of hydrogen bonds of water molecules to the PC head groups. The distinct difference between the effects of ethanol on lipid bilayers as described in the literature and on monolayers and foam films found in this study is discussed. Whereas PC monolayers at the water/air interface become unstable above 25 vol.% ethanol, the PC foam films are stable up to 50 vol.% ethanol. This is related to the decrease of the surface excess energy per lipid molecule by the interaction between the two film surfaces. PMID:11369327

  14. Group actions on geodesic Ptolemy spaces

    E-print Network

    Foertsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study geodesic Ptolemy metric spaces $X$ which allow proper and cocompact isometric actions of crystallographic or, more generally, virtual polycyclic groups. We show that $X$ is equivariantly rough isometric to a Euclidean space.

  15. Noncommutative Phase Spaces on Aristotle group

    E-print Network

    Ancille Ngendakumana; Joachim Nzotungicimpaye; Leonard Todjihounde

    2013-07-26

    We realize noncommutative phase spaces as coadjoint orbits of extensions of the Aristotle group in a two-dimensional space. Through these constructions the momenta of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of a naturally introduced magnetic field. These cases correspond to the minimal coupling of the momentum with a magnetic potential.

  16. Genetic screen for novel polycomb group (PcG) genes and targets in Arabidopsis thaliana 

    E-print Network

    Lo?pez Vernaza, Manuel A.

    2009-01-01

    or suppressing the Clf- phenotype, as these may identify additional PcG genes and targets. Firstly, I screened an A. thaliana T-DNA mutagenized population and identified four mutations suppressing the Clf- phenotype: suppressor of polycomb 1 to 4 (sop1, sop2, sop...

  17. Distribution of mica polytypes among space groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    All the possible space groups for mica polytypes are deduced by making use of the characteristics of the mica unit layer and stacking mode. The algebraic properties of the vector-stacking symbol of Ross et al. (1966) are examined, and a simple algorithm for deducing the space group from this symbol is presented. A method considered for enumerating all possible stacking sequences of mica polytypes makes use of a computer.

  18. Landscape, Space, Place Interdisciplinary Reading Group

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Mapping the Erosion of Arctic Nature' (Geography) Wednesday 30th April, 3-4pm, Trent A35 Xiaofan Xu, `TheLandscape, Space, Place Interdisciplinary Reading Group 2013-2014 Date/Time/Location Session Leader) Wednesday 27th November, 3-4pm, Trent A35 Dr. Rebekah Scott, `Beckett's Diminishing Spaces' (English

  19. Aeritalia Space Systems Group, Turin, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Aeritalia has been involved in European space programs since the early 1960's. Space activities grew to the point that in 1984 Aeritalia established a separate Space Systems Group (SSG), located in Turin. Today, SSG is involved in dozens of projects, some of them jointly with NASA and U.S. aerospace companies. Here, several of the major projects, such as the Tethered Satellite system, HIPPARCOS, Columbus Pressurized Module, Italian Research Interim Stage, and others are briefly described.

  20. Shift Invariant Spaces on Lca Groups

    E-print Network

    Cabrelli, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In this article we extend the theory of shift-invariant spaces to the context of LCA groups. We introduce the notion of H-invariant space for a countable discrete subgroup H of an LCA group G, and show that the concept of range function and the techniques of fiberization are valid in this context. As a consequence of this generalization we prove characterizations of frames and Riesz bases of these spaces extending previous results, that were known for Rd and the lattice Zd .

  1. UK Space Exploration Working Group Report of the

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    UK Space Exploration Working Group Report of the UK Space Exploration Working Group 13 September 2007 #12;UK Space Exploration Working Group The UK Space Exploration Working Group Chair: Prof Frank STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Chris Lee SciSys/UKspace Dr Steve Welch Mullard Space Science

  2. DYNAMICS OF PLANETCROSSING ASTEROIDS Space Mechanics Group,

    E-print Network

    Milani, Andrea

    DYNAMICS OF PLANET­CROSSING ASTEROIDS A. MILANI Space Mechanics Group, Department of Mathematics, including Earth­crossing ones. The dynamics of planet­crossing asteroids/comets is strongly con­ trolled in a satisfactory way most of the dynamical behaviors found in the experiments. 1. THE ASTEROID COMPLEX, NEAR EARTH

  3. Fourier-Space Crystallography as Group Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabson, David; Fisher, Benji

    2001-03-01

    David Mermin has argued persuasively that the theoretical significance of quasicrystals lies not so much in relaxing the requirement of periodicity as in replacing exact identity of a density function (e.g., electronic or mass) under symmetry operations with indistinguishability of correlation functions, as expressed in Fourier space.(N.D. Mermin, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 151), 275 (1995) and references. After reviewing the formalism of Fourier-space crystallography (phase functions and gauge transformations), we present a new formulation in the language of cohomology of groups. First we reexpress the classification of space groups in terms of a first cohomology group; we then show how recent work by König and Mermin(A. König and N.D. Mermin, Am. J. Phys. 68), 525 (2000). on band sticking in nonsymmorphic crystals derives naturally from a first homology group and discuss its connection to a second cohomology group. The new language lets us prove generally several theorems previously known only in special cases. Finally, we let the listener decide whether we're just ``speaking prose.''(N.D. Mermin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 64), 3 (1992).

  4. Investigating the roles of arabidopsis polycomb-group genes in regulating flowering time and during plant development by (I) challenging silencing and (II) developing approaches to dissect Pc-G action 

    E-print Network

    Creasey, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins regulate homeotic gene silencing associated with the repressive covalent histone modification, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Pc-G mediated silencing is believed to ...

  5. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  6. BLIND SYMBOL IDENTIFIABILITY OF ORTHOGONAL SPACE-TIME BLOCK CODES Wing-Kin Ma , P.C. Ching , T. N. Davidson, and B.-N. Vo

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Tim

    BLIND SYMBOL IDENTIFIABILITY OF ORTHOGONAL SPACE-TIME BLOCK CODES Wing-Kin Ma , P.C. Ching , T. N Hamilton, Ont., Canada Parksville, Vic., Australia ABSTRACT This paper addresses the blind symbol. In many space-time communication schemes, achieving unique blind symbol identification requires certain

  7. Cell Groups Reveal Structure of Stimulus Space

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    An important task of the brain is to represent the outside world. It is unclear how the brain may do this, however, as it can only rely on neural responses and has no independent access to external stimuli in order to “decode” what those responses mean. We investigate what can be learned about a space of stimuli using only the action potentials (spikes) of cells with stereotyped—but unknown—receptive fields. Using hippocampal place cells as a model system, we show that one can (1) extract global features of the environment and (2) construct an accurate representation of space, up to an overall scale factor, that can be used to track the animal's position. Unlike previous approaches to reconstructing position from place cell activity, this information is derived without knowing place fields or any other functions relating neural responses to position. We find that simply knowing which groups of cells fire together reveals a surprising amount of structure in the underlying stimulus space; this may enable the brain to construct its own internal representations. PMID:18974826

  8. Space Propulsion Synergy Group ETO technology assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, James

    There exists within the aerospace community a widely recognized need to improve future space launch systems. While these needs have been expressed by many national committees, potential solutions have not achieved consensus nor have they endured. Facing the challenge to remain competitive with limited national resources, the U.S. must improve its strategic planning efforts. A nationally accepted strategic plan for space would enable a focused research & development program. The Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG), chartered to support long range strategic planning, has achieved several breakthroughs. First, using a broad industry/government team, the SPSG evaluated and achieved consensus on the vehicles, propulsion systems, and propulsion technologies that have the best long term potential for achieving desired system attributes. The breakthrough that enabled broad consensus was developing criteria that are measurable a-priori. Second, realizing that systems having the best long term payoffs can loose support when constraints are tight, the SPSG invented a dual prioritization approach that balances long term strategic thrusts with current programmatic constraints. This breakthrough enables individual program managers to make decisions based on both individual project needs and long term strategic needs. Results indicate that a SSTO using an integrated modular engine has the best long term potential for a 20 Klb class vehicle and that health monitoring and control technologies rank among the highest dual priority liquid rocket technologies.

  9. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  10. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  11. UCLA IGPP Space Plasma Simulation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 years the UCLA IGPP Space Plasma Simulation Group has pursued its theoretical effort to develop a Mission Oriented Theory (MOT) for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. This effort has been based on a combination of approaches: analytical theory, large scale kinetic (LSK) calculations, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and self-consistent plasma kinetic (SCK) simulations. These models have been used to formulate a global interpretation of local measurements made by the ISTP spacecraft. The regions of applications of the MOT cover most of the magnetosphere: the solar wind, the low- and high-latitude magnetospheric boundary, the near-Earth and distant magnetotail, and the auroral region. Most recent investigations include: plasma processes in the electron foreshock, response of the magnetospheric cusp, particle entry in the magnetosphere, sources of observed distribution functions in the magnetotail, transport of oxygen ions, self-consistent evolution of the magnetotail, substorm studies, effects of explosive reconnection, and auroral acceleration simulations.

  12. Space Propulsion Synergy Group ETO technology assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, James

    The Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG), which was chartered to support long-range strategic planning, has, using a broad industry/government team, evaluated and achieved consensus on the vehicles, propulsion systems, and propulsion technologies that have the best long-term potential for achieving desired system attributes. The breakthrough that enabled broad consensus was developing criteria that are measurable a priori. The SPSG invented a dual prioritization approach that balances long-term strategic thrusts with current programmatic constraints. This enables individual program managers to make decisions based on both individual project needs and long-term strategic needs. Results indicate that an SSTO using an integrated modular engine has the best long-term potential for a 20 Klb class vehicle, and that health monitoring and control technologies are among the highest dual priority liquid rocket technologies.

  13. Chain adaptation of space group representations and induced space group Clebsch-Gordan matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirl, R.; Davies, B. L.

    Specific subgroup chain adaptations of representations and corresponding CG-matrices are discussed. Simple applicable analytic formulas are derived which allow one to express supergroup CG-matrices in terms of subgroup CG-matrices. The results are applied to space groups.

  14. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  15. EINSTEIN SPACES WITH A CONFORMAL GROUP WOLFGANG K

    E-print Network

    Kuehnel, Wolfgang

    EINSTEIN SPACES WITH A CONFORMAL GROUP WOLFGANG K Ë? UHNEL & HANS­BERT RADEMACHER Abstract. The pseudo­Riemannian Einstein spaces with a (local or global) conformal group of strictly positive dimension Riemannian geometry is the following: Which spaces admit a global 1­parameter group of conformal

  16. Universal quantum groups acting on classical and quantum spaces

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    the simplest symmetry groups are (quantum) permutation groups, which can be viewed as the universal (quantumUniversal quantum groups acting on classical and quantum spaces Lecture 2 - Quantum symmetry groups) Quantum symmetry groups Leeds, 25 May 2010 1 / 24 #12;1 Quantum permutation groups 2 Quantum symmetry

  17. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Executive summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a space shuttle payload planning group session are presented. The purpose of the workshop is: (1) to provide guidance for the design and development of the space shuttle and the spacelab and (2) to plan a space science and applications program for the 1980 time period. Individual groups were organized to cover the various space sciences, applications, technologies, and life sciences. Summaries of the reports submitted by the working groups are provided.

  18. SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CENTRAL 14 pc OF NGC 3998: EVIDENCE FOR AN INFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, Nick

    2011-02-01

    Prior imaging of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 3998, with the Hubble Space Telescope revealed a small, highly inclined, nuclear ionized gas disk, the kinematics of which indicate the presence of a 270 million solar mass black hole. Plausible kinematic models are used to constrain the size of the broad emission line region (BELR) in NGC 3998 by modeling the shape of the broad H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} emission line profiles. The analysis indicates that the BELR is large with an outer radius {approx}7 pc, regardless of whether the kinematic model is represented by an accretion disk or a spherically symmetric inflow. The electron temperature in the BELR is {<=} 28,800 K consistent with photoionization by the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Indeed, the AGN is able to sustain the ionization of the BELR, albeit with a high covering factor ranging between 20% and 100% depending on the spectral energy distribution adopted for the AGN. The high covering factor favors a spherical distribution for the gas as opposed to a thin disk. If the gas density is {>=}7 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} as indicated by the broad forbidden [S II] emission line ratio, then interpreting the broad H{alpha} emission line in terms of a steady state spherically symmetric inflow leads to a rate {<=} 6.5 x 10{sup -2} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of a radiatively inefficient inflow by a factor of {<=}18.

  19. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  20. Modification of blood group A antigen expression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (PC-1) by inhibitors of N-glycan processing.

    PubMed

    Hirota, M; Mogaki, M; Pour, P M; Chaney, W G

    1992-09-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinomas induced in Syrian hamsters by treatment with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl) amine express blood group A antigen, which is absent in normal pancreatic cells. On membrane glycoproteins purified from tumors, blood group A antigen has been found to be expressed on multiantennary Asn-linked complex glycans. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibitors of Asn-glycan processing on blood group A antigen bearing glycan structures in a cell line (PC-1) established from a primary induced pancreatic cancer. Expression of blood group A antigen on cells and in membrane preparations was blocked by treatment with 1-deoxymannojirimycin, an inhibitor of mannosidase I, but was retained after treatment with swainsonine, an inhibitor of mannosidase II. However, swainsonine treatment altered the glycan structure associated with blood group A antigen from an endoglycosidase H resistant type to a sensitive type, indicating that the blood group A structure might shift from a complex type to a hybrid type glycan by this treatment. These results demonstrate that Asn-linked glycans carry the major blood group A antigens in PC-1 cells. PMID:1429870

  1. -COMPLETIONS OF DISCRETE GROUPS AND RELATED SPACES

    E-print Network

    Guentner, Erik

    together with conditions on the associated Radon-Nikodym cocycle. Precisely, suppose a discrete group acts is quasi-invariant for the action. Define upper and lower envelopes of the Radon-Nikodym cocycle by (x. BROWN AND ERIK GUENTNER here, s µ is the translate of the measure µ by the group element s, and ds µ

  2. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a…

  3. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  4. Exceptional groups, symmetric spaces and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Cacciatori, Sergio L.

    2009-03-31

    In this article we provide a detailed description of a technique to obtain a simple parameterization for different exceptional Lie groups, such as G{sub 2}, F{sub 4} and E{sub 6}, based on their fibration structure. For the compact case, we construct a realization which is a generalization of the Euler angles for SU(2), while for the non compact version of G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) we compute the Iwasawa decomposition. This allows us to obtain not only an explicit expression for the Haar measure on the group manifold, but also for the cosets G{sub 2}/SO(4), G{sub 2}/SU(3), F{sub 4}/Spin(9), E{sub 6}/F{sub 4} and G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) that we used to find the concrete realization of the general element of the group. Moreover, as a by-product, in the simplest case of G{sub 2}/SO(4), we have been able to compute an Einstein metric and the vielbein. The relevance of these results in physics is discussed.

  5. PC6 acupoint stimulation for the prevention of postcardiac surgery nausea and vomiting: a protocol for a two-group, parallel, superiority randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire; Rapchuk, Ivan; Shekar, Kiran; Marshall, Andrea P; Comans, Tracy; Doi, Suhail; McDonald, John; Spooner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent but unwanted complications for patients following anaesthesia and cardiac surgery, affecting at least a third of patients, despite pharmacological treatment. The primary aim of the proposed research is to test the efficacy of PC6 acupoint stimulation versus placebo for reducing PONV in cardiac surgery patients. In conjunction with this we aim to develop an understanding of intervention fidelity and factors that support, or impede, the use of PC6 acupoint stimulation, a knowledge translation approach. Methods and analysis 712 postcardiac surgery participants will be recruited to take part in a two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to receive a wrist band on each wrist providing acupressure to PC six using acupoint stimulation or a placebo. Randomisation will be computer generated, use randomly varied block sizes, and be concealed prior to the enrolment of each patient. The wristbands will remain in place for 36?h. PONV will be evaluated by the assessment of both nausea and vomiting, use of rescue antiemetics, quality of recovery and cost. Patient satisfaction with PONV care will be measured and clinical staff interviewed about the clinical use, feasibility, acceptability and challenges of using acupressure wristbands for PONV. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval will be sought from appropriate Human Research Ethics Committee/s before start of the study. A systematic review of the use of wrist acupressure for PC6 acupoint stimulation reported minor side effects only. Study progress will be reviewed by a Data Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) for nausea and vomiting outcomes at n=350. Dissemination of results will include conference presentations at national and international scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a one-page lay-summary of results. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12614000589684. PMID:25394818

  6. Meeting of intercosmos space physics group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, N. A.

    1989-06-01

    The 22nd meeting of scientists and specialists of Socialist countries in the Intercosmos program was held in April 1988, in Tbilisi. Taking part in the meeting were well-known Soviet scientists and major foreign specialists from Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, Cuba, Mongolia, Poland, Rumania, and Czechoslovakia. The meeting focused on a plan for collaboration in space physics for the 1991 to 1995 period and up to the year 2000. The Mars-94 project, which is a component part of the program, Mars-2000, proposed by Soviet scientists, is discussed along with other proposed planetary projects. In the area of high energy astrophysics, a project involving a large orbital observatory (Spektr-Rentgen-Gamma) is being prepared for solving problems associated with cosmology, extragalactic astronomy, and stellar astronomy. It will be carried out through international cooperation with significant developments effected by socialist countries. Two other projects discussed include Radioastron which involves radiointerferometry, and Relikt-2 which will continue research that was begun aboard the unmanned Prognoz-9 station. In the area of solar terrestrial physics, instruments are being designed for the study of X-ray active formations in the solar atmosphere and processes that take place in solar plasma (the Koronas-1, F project, and the Neytron project). The study of cosmic plasma is called for in the Interbol project. Also, the Czech furnace Kristallizator-ChSk-1 is in operation aboard the Mir orbital station and the launch of another unit is expected. All 10 Intercosmos countries are taking part in the preparation of experiments involving space-based materials science.

  7. Actuator Grouping Optimization on Flexible Space Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Wang, K. W.; Fang, Houfei; Quijano, Ubaldo

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid advances in deployable membrane and mesh antenna technologies, the feasibility of developing large, lightweight reflectors has greatly improved. In order to achieve the required surface accuracy, precision surface control is needed on these lightweight reflectors. For this study, an analytical model is shown which combines a flexible Kapton reflector with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuators for surface control. Surface errors are introduced that are similar to real world scenarios, and a least squares control algorithm is developed for surface control. Experimental results on a 2.4 meter reflector show that while the analytical reflector model is generally correct, due to idiosyncrasies in the reflector it cannot be used for online control. A new method called the En Mass Elimination algorithm is used to determine the optimal grouping of actuators when the number of actuators in the system exceeds the number of power supplies available.

  8. Group structure and group process for effective space station astronaut teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, J. M.; Kagan, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Space Station crews will encounter new problems, many derived from the social interaction of groups working in space for extended durations. Solutions to these problems must focus on the structure of groups and the interaction of individuals. A model of intervention is proposed to address problems of interpersonal relationships and emotional stress, and improve the morale, cohesiveness, and productivity of astronaut teams.

  9. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ngendakumana, Ancille Todjihoundé, Leonard; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  10. THE CURIOUS MODULI SPACES OF UNMARKED KLEINIAN SURFACE GROUPS

    E-print Network

    Canary, Dick

    THE CURIOUS MODULI SPACES OF UNMARKED KLEINIAN SURFACE GROUPS RICHARD D. CANARY AND PETER A. STORM an augmented deformation space AH(S), which is the analogue of Date: July 18, 2010. Canary was partially and the Roberta and Stanley Bogen Visiting Professorship at Hebrew University. 1 #12;2 RICHARD D. CANARY AND PETER

  11. SHELXT – Integrated space-group and crystal-structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    SHELXT automates routine small-molecule structure determination starting from single-crystal reflection data, the Laue group and a reasonable guess as to which elements might be present. The new computer program SHELXT employs a novel dual-space algorithm to solve the phase problem for single-crystal reflection data expanded to the space group P1. Missing data are taken into account and the resolution extended if necessary. All space groups in the specified Laue group are tested to find which are consistent with the P1 phases. After applying the resulting origin shifts and space-group symmetry, the solutions are subject to further dual-space recycling followed by a peak search and summation of the electron density around each peak. Elements are assigned to give the best fit to the integrated peak densities and if necessary additional elements are considered. An isotropic refinement is followed for non-centrosymmetric space groups by the calculation of a Flack parameter and, if appropriate, inversion of the structure. The structure is assembled to maximize its connectivity and centred optimally in the unit cell. SHELXT has already solved many thousand structures with a high success rate, and is optimized for multiprocessor computers. It is, however, unsuitable for severely disordered and twinned structures because it is based on the assumption that the structure consists of atoms.

  12. An Algebraic Group Approach to Compact Symmetric Spaces

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Roe

    An Algebraic Group Approach to Compact Symmetric Spaces Roe Goodman Nolan R. Wallach § Abstract group Weyl's use of integral equations `gives a transcendental solution to Presented by Roe Goodman.rutgers.edu. After logging in, change directory to /pub/goodman and see the README file for further information

  13. SHELXT – Integrated space-group and crystal-structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    The new computer program SHELXT employs a novel dual-space algorithm to solve the phase problem for single-crystal reflection data expanded to the space group P1. Missing data are taken into account and the resolution extended if necessary. All space groups in the specified Laue group are tested to find which are consistent with the P1 phases. After applying the resulting origin shifts and space-group symmetry, the solutions are subject to further dual-space recycling followed by a peak search and summation of the electron density around each peak. Elements are assigned to give the best fit to the integrated peak densities and if necessary additional elements are considered. An isotropic refinement is followed for non-centrosymmetric space groups by the calculation of a Flack parameter and, if appropriate, inversion of the structure. The structure is assembled to maximize its connectivity and centred optimally in the unit cell. SHELXT has already solved many thousand structures with a high success rate, and is optimized for multiprocessor computers. It is, however, unsuitable for severely disordered and twinned structures because it is based on the assumption that the structure consists of atoms. PMID:25537383

  14. Shift-modulation invariant spaces on LCA groups

    E-print Network

    Cabrelli, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    A $(K,\\Lambda)$ shift-modulation invariant space is a subspace of $L^2(G)$, that is invariant by translations along elements in $K$ and modulations by elements in $\\Lambda$. Here $G$ is a locally compact abelian group, and $K$ and $\\Lambda$ are closed subgroups of $G$ and the dual group $\\hat G$, respectively. In this article we provide a characterization of shift-modulation invariant spaces in this general context when $K$ and $\\Lambda$ are uniform lattices. This extends previous results known for $L^2(\\R^d)$. We develop fiberization techniques and suitable range functions adapted to LCA groups needed to provide the desired characterization.

  15. Scale-invariant phase space and the conformal group

    E-print Network

    James T. Wheeler

    1994-11-11

    The gauge bundle of the 4-dim conformal group over an 8-dim base space, called biconformal space, is shown have a consistent interpretation as a scale-invariant phase space. Specifically, we show that a classical Hamiltonian system generates a differential geometry which is necessarily biconformal, and that the classical Hamiltonian dynamics of a point particle is equivalent to the specification of a 7-dim hypersurface in flat biconformal space together with the consequent necessary existence of a set of preferred curves. The result is centrally important for establishing the physical interpretation of conformal gauging.

  16. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space environment of the earth, (2) to perform plasma physics investigations not feasible in ground-based laboratories, and (3) to conduct investigations which are important in understanding planetary and cometary phenomena. The core instrumentation and laboratory configurations for conducting the investigations are defined.

  17. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 10: Space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) physics and chemistry laboratory, (4) contamination experiments, and (5) laser information/data transmission technology. The space technology mission model is presented in tabular form. The proposed experiments to be conducted by each test facility are described. Recommended approaches for user community interfacing are included.

  18. Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1992-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

  19. Representations of the Poincare group on relativistic phase space

    E-print Network

    Yaakov Friedman

    2008-02-01

    We introduce a complex relativistic phase space as the space $\\mathbb{C}^4$ equipped with the Minkowski metric and with a geometric tri-product on it. The geometric tri-product is similar to the triple product of the bounded symmetric domain of type IV in Cartan's classification, called the spin domain. We define a spin 1 representations of the Lie algebra of the Poincar\\'{e} group by natural operators of this tri-product on the complex relativistic phase space. This representation is connected with the electromagnetic tensor. A spin 1/2 representation on the complex relativistic phase space is constructed be use of the complex Faraday electromagnetic tensor. We show that the Newman-Penrose basis for the phase space determines the Dirac bi-spinors under this representation. Quite remarkable that the tri-product representation admits only spin 1 and spin 1/2 representations which correspond to most particles of nature.

  20. Every finite group is the group of self homotopy equivalences of an elliptic space

    E-print Network

    Costoya, C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we prove that every finite group $G$ can be realized as the group of self-homotopy equivalences of infinitely many (non homotopy equivalent) rational elliptic spaces $X$. Moreover, for every $k$ positive integer, $X$ can be chosen to be $k$-connected.

  1. Entanglement renormalization in free bosonic systems: real-space versus momentum-space renormalization group transforms

    E-print Network

    G. Evenbly; G. Vidal

    2010-03-05

    The ability of entanglement renormalization (ER) to generate a proper real-space renormalization group (RG) flow in extended quantum systems is analysed in the setting of harmonic lattice systems in D=1 and D=2 spatial dimensions. A conceptual overview of the steps involved in momentum-space RG is provided and contrasted against the equivalent steps in the real-space setting. The real-space RG flow, as generated by ER, is compared against the exact results from momentum-space RG, including an investigation of a critical fixed point and the effect of relevant and irrelevant perturbations.

  2. Reflection and Rotation groups in Ordinary Space Barry Monson (UNB)

    E-print Network

    Monson, Barry

    Reflection and Rotation groups in Ordinary Space Barry Monson (UNB) Summer School on Symmetries), Summer School on Symmetries of Combinatorial Structures, Cuernavaca, July, 2012, (supported in part byReflection of reflections r1, r2 (in intersecting lines) is r 1 r 2 A r1r2 = rotation through angle 2 about centre A Note

  3. Gaussian distributions, Jacobi group, and Siegel-Jacobi space

    SciTech Connect

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2014-12-15

    Let N be the space of Gaussian distribution functions over ?, regarded as a 2-dimensional statistical manifold parameterized by the mean ? and the deviation ?. In this paper, we show that the tangent bundle of N, endowed with its natural Kähler structure, is the Siegel-Jacobi space appearing in the context of Number Theory and Jacobi forms. Geometrical aspects of the Siegel-Jacobi space are discussed in detail (completeness, curvature, group of holomorphic isometries, space of Kähler functions, and relationship to the Jacobi group), and are related to the quantum formalism in its geometrical form, i.e., based on the Kähler structure of the complex projective space. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [M. Molitor, “Remarks on the statistical origin of the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics,” Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 9(3), 1220001, 9 (2012); M. Molitor, “Information geometry and the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics,” e-print arXiv (2012); M. Molitor, “Exponential families, Kähler geometry and quantum mechanics,” J. Geom. Phys. 70, 54–80 (2013)], where we studied the quantum formalism from a geometric and information-theoretical point of view.

  4. Gaussian distributions, Jacobi group, and Siegel-Jacobi space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2014-12-01

    Let N be the space of Gaussian distribution functions over ?, regarded as a 2-dimensional statistical manifold parameterized by the mean ? and the deviation ?. In this paper, we show that the tangent bundle of N , endowed with its natural Kähler structure, is the Siegel-Jacobi space appearing in the context of Number Theory and Jacobi forms. Geometrical aspects of the Siegel-Jacobi space are discussed in detail (completeness, curvature, group of holomorphic isometries, space of Kähler functions, and relationship to the Jacobi group), and are related to the quantum formalism in its geometrical form, i.e., based on the Kähler structure of the complex projective space. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [M. Molitor, "Remarks on the statistical origin of the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics," Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 9(3), 1220001, 9 (2012); M. Molitor, "Information geometry and the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics," e-print arXiv (2012); M. Molitor, "Exponential families, Kähler geometry and quantum mechanics," J. Geom. Phys. 70, 54-80 (2013)], where we studied the quantum formalism from a geometric and information-theoretical point of view.

  5. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  6. Differential calculus on quantum spaces and quantum groups

    SciTech Connect

    Zumino, B

    1992-12-10

    A review of recent developments in the quantum differential calculus. The quantum group GLq(n) is treated by considering it as a particular quantum space. Functions on SLq(n) are defined as a subclass of functions on GLq(n). The case of SOq(n) is also briefly considered. These notes cover part of a lecture given at the XIX International Conference on Group Theoretic Methods in Physics, Salamanca, Spain 1992.

  7. Space-times admitting a three-dimensional conformal group

    E-print Network

    J. Carot; A. A. Coley; A. M. Sintes

    2000-05-16

    Perfect fluid space-times admitting a three-dimensional Lie group of conformal motions containing a two-dimensional Abelian Lie subgroup of isometries are studied. Demanding that the conformal Killing vector be proper (i.e., not homothetic nor Killing), all such space-times are classified according to the structure of their corresponding three-dimensional conformal Lie group and the nature of their corresponding orbits (that are assumed to be non-null). Each metric is then explicitly displayed in coordinates adapted to the symmetry vectors. Attention is then restricted to the diagonal case, and exact perfect fluid solutions are obtained in both the cases in which the fluid four-velocity is tangential or orthogonal to the conformal orbits, as well as in the more general "tilting" case.

  8. The Lorentzian oscillator group as a geodesic orbit space

    SciTech Connect

    Batat, W.; Gadea, P. M.; Oubina, J. A.

    2012-10-15

    We prove that the four-dimensional oscillator group Os, endowed with any of its usual left-invariant Lorentzian metrics, is a Lorentzian geodesic (so, in particular, null-geodesic) orbit space with some of its homogeneous descriptions corresponding to certain homogeneous Lorentzian structures. Each time that Os is endowed with a suitable metric and an appropriate homogeneous Lorentzian structure, it is a candidate for constructing solutions in d-dimensional supergravity with at least 24 of the 32 possible supersymmetries.

  9. Extra Invariance of Shift-Invariant Spaces on LCA Groups

    E-print Network

    Anastasio, Magalí; Paternostro, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Let G be an LCA group and K a closed subgroup of G. A closed subspace of L^2(G) is called K-invariant if it is invariant under translations by elements of K. Assume now that H is a countable uniform lattice in G and M is any closed subgroup of G containing H. In this article we study necessary and sufficient conditions for an H-invariant space to be M-invariant. As a consequence of our results we prove that for each closed subgroup M of G containing the lattice H, there exists an H-invariant space S that is exactly M-invariant. That is, S is not invariant under any other subgroup M' containing M. We also obtain estimates on the support of the Fourier transform of the generators of the H-invariant space, related to its M-invariance.

  10. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  11. Geroch group for Einstein spaces and holographic integrability

    E-print Network

    Petkou, Anastasios C; Siampos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    We review how Geroch's reduction method is extended from Ricci-flat to Einstein spacetimes. The Ehlers-Geroch SL(2,R) group is still present in the three-dimensional sigma-model that captures the dynamics, but only a subgroup of it is solution-generating. Holography provides an alternative three-dimensional perspective to integrability properties of Einstein's equations in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These properties emerge as conditions on the boundary data (metric and energy-momentum tensor) ensuring that the hydrodynamic derivative expansion be resummed into an exact four-dimensional Einstein geometry. The conditions at hand are invariant under a set of transformations dubbed holographic U-duality group. The latter fills the gap left by the Ehlers-Geroch group in Einstein spaces, and allows for solution-generating maps mixing e.g. the mass and the nut charge.

  12. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  13. A structural group-connectome in standard stereotactic (MNI) space.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    A group connectome of 20 subjects has been normalized into standard stereotactic (MNI) space. Data has been processed using the Gibbs' Tracking approach (Reisert et al., 2011) [11] and normalized into standard space using DARTEL (Ashburner, 2007) [1]. All data has been acquired within the scope of the study A. Horn, D. Ostwald, M. Reisert, F. Blankenburg, The structural-functional connectome and the default mode network of the human brain, NeuroImage 102 (2013) 142-151. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.09.069. The utility of this dataset can be described by the following points: In medical studies in which subject-specific dMRI is not available, a standardized connectome may help to gain some canonical insight into white-matter connectivity. The dataset enables scientists who use different modalities (like EEG, MEG etc.) without access to MRI, to combine studies obtained using other methodology with insights from the brain's inner structural formation. The dataset could also extend possible claims made by meta-analyzes/literature-based studies. PMID:26543893

  14. Report of the Working Group on Space/Lunar Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The group discussed the advantages and disadvantages of five locations for an optical/infrared array: low-Earth orbit (LEO), Sun-synchronous Earth-orbit, geosynchronous orbit (GEO), Lagrangian points (L4 and L5), and the lunar surface. The factors affecting an array and our assessments of them are given and briefly discussed. In the discussions, two axioms are assumed: (1) Human expansion into space and to the Moon will occur; and (2) The Space Station will be constructed and operational. The major conclusion reached is that baselines of moderate size (greater than 300 m) are best done on the Moon and that large baselines (greater than 10 km) can be done only on the Moon. Three areas needing additional research were identified as follows. (1) Studies are needed on methods to steer long-baseline systems in orbit. This involves learning how to control free-flyers. It is not clear how the difficulty of control varies with orbital elevation. (2) More work is needed on the internal metrology of array systems, both orbital and lunar-surface systems.(3) We need to understand the radiation effects on detectors and electronics and learn how to mitigate them.

  15. EINSTEIN SPACES WITH A CONFORMAL GROUP WOLFGANG KUHNEL & HANS-BERT RADEMACHER

    E-print Network

    Kuehnel, Wolfgang

    EINSTEIN SPACES WITH A CONFORMAL GROUP WOLFGANG K¨UHNEL & HANS-BERT RADEMACHER Abstract. The pseudo-Riemannian Einstein spaces with a (local or global) conformal group of strictly positive dimension can be classified is the following: Which spaces admit a global 1-parameter group of conformal transformations? One of the highlights

  16. Root filtration spaces from Lie algebras and abstract root groups 1

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Arjeh M.

    Root filtration spaces from Lie algebras and abstract root groups 1 Arjeh M. Cohen a, G subgroups and simple Lie algebras generated by extremal elements lead to root filtration spaces algebras. Key words: Abstract root groups, buildings, groups of Lie type, Lie algebras, shadow spaces 1

  17. Quantum Circuit Synthesis using Group Decomposition and Hilbert Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraivanov, Michael S.

    The exponential nature of Moore's law has inadvertently created huge data storage complexes that are scattered around the world. Data elements are continuously being searched, processed, erased, combined and transferred to other storage units without much regard to power consumption. The need for faster searches and power efficient data processing is becoming a fundamental requirement. Quantum computing may offer an elegant solution to speed and power through the utilization of the natural laws of quantum mechanics. Therefore, minimal cost quantum circuit implementation methodologies are greatly desired. This thesis explores the decomposition of group functions and the Walsh spectrum for implementing quantum canonical cascades with minimal cost. Three different methodologies, using group decomposition, are presented and generalized to take advantage of different quantum computing hardware, such as ion traps and quantum dots. Quantum square root of swap gates and fixed angle rotation gates comprise the first two methodologies. The third and final methodology provides further quantum cost reduction by more efficiently utilizing Hilbert spaces through variable angle rotation gates. The thesis then extends the methodology to realize a robust quantum circuit synthesis tool for single and multi-output quantum logic functions.

  18. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours, with 30 s time resolution. IONOLAB-TEC values also include the receiver differential code bias (DCB) for each GPS station estimated uniquely by the IONOLAB-BIAS algorithm. The web based computation program is written in JAVA and it is provided both in Turkish and English at www.ionolab.org. The IONOLAB-TEC computation requires no installation or licensing on the client side. The application has a layered design. Developed components are modular that allows possible changes regarding the estimation method can be easily adapted. Same flexibility is also provided for the data access. Also, presentation of estimation data is architected to support different client types. Currently, the user can login to the IONOLAB-TEC web site and choose the desired location and dates on-line for TEC estimation. The carrier phase leveled TEC estimates of IONOLAB-TEC are provided for the chosen station/s and for the chosen day/s along with two-hourly GIM-TEC estimates of IGS centers. The output is provided in the user designated form either in graphs or an excel data sheet. The IONOLAB-TEC provides robust, reliable, and high resolution TEC estimates and provides a medium for comparison of the GIM-TEC values from the IGS centers.

  19. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2015-10-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org. PMID:26315543

  20. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2015-11-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org. PMID:26403825

  1. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2015-12-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org. PMID:26456659

  2. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 1: Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The space astronomy missions to be accomplished by the space shuttle are discussed. The principal instrument is the Large Space Telescope optimized for the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, but usable also in the infrared. Two infrared telescopes are also proposed and their characteristics are described. Other instruments considered for the astronomical observations are: (1) a very wide angle ultraviolet camera, (2) a grazing incidence telescope, (3) Explorer-class free flyers to measure the cosmic microwave background, and (4) rocket-class instruments which can fly frequently on a variety of missions. The stability requirements of the space shuttle for accomplishing the astronomy mission are defined.

  3. PC Windows Acrobat XI Pro PC Windows Acrobat XI Pro

    E-print Network

    ://www.officesoft.gsic.titech.ac.jp/pdf/passcode.pdf "2 PC " PC PC 4 TTInstaller (Windows ) Web TTInstaller(Windows ) / How to download TTInstaller for Windo ws http://www.officesoft.gsic.titech.ac.jp/pdf/How_to_download_TTInstaller_for_Windows.pdf 5 PC Windows Acrobat XI Pro 1 PC Windows Acrobat XI Pro 2015-05-25 1 Web Windows Acrobat

  4. PC Creative Cloud (Windows) PC Creative Cloud (Windows)

    E-print Network

    Furui, Sadaoki

    PC Creative Cloud (Windows) 1 PC Creative Cloud (Windows) 2015-11-06 1 Web Creative Cloud PC | Creative Cloud https://helpx.adobe.com/jp/creative-cloud/system-requirements.html 2 PC PC Cloud 5.1 Web TTInstaller(Windows )() http://www.officesoft.gsic.titech.ac

  5. PC Creative Cloud (Mac) PC Creative Cloud (Mac)

    E-print Network

    Furui, Sadaoki

    PC Creative Cloud (Mac) 1 PC Creative Cloud (Mac) 2015-11-12 1 Web Creative Cloud PC | Creative Cloud https://helpx.adobe.com/jp/creative-cloud/system-requirements.html 2 PC PC http://www.officesoft.gsic.titech.ac.jp/pdf/How_to_download_TTInstaller_for_Mac_OS_X.pdf 5 Mac OS Adobe Creative Cloud

  6. CPT Groups of Spinor Fields in de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter Spaces

    E-print Network

    V. V. Varlamov

    2015-04-02

    $CPT$ groups for spinor fields in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces are defined in the framework of automorphism groups of Clifford algebras. It is shown that de Sitter spaces with mutually opposite signatures correspond to Clifford algebras with different algebraic structure that induces an essential difference of $CPT$ groups associated with these spaces. $CPT$ groups for charged particles are considered with respect to phase factors on the various spinor spaces related with real subalgebras of the simple Clifford algebra over the complex field (Dirac algebra). It is shown that $CPT$ groups for neutral particles which admit particle-antiparticle interchange and $CPT$ groups for truly neutral particles are described within semisimple Clifford algebras with quaternionic and real division rings, respectively. A difference between bosonic and fermionic $CPT$ groups is discussed.

  7. Working Group 2 Summary:. Space Charge Effects in Bending Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Courtlandt L.; Emma, Paul J.

    2000-12-01

    Participants in Working Group 2 included: Y. Batygin, C. Bohn, B. Carlsten, J. Ellison, P. Emma, Z. Huang, A. Kabel, R. Kishek, R. Li, P. Musumeci, S. Nagaitsev, J. Qiang, M. Reiser, A. Ruggerio, R. Warnock, and M. Zeitlin.

  8. Morse actions of discrete groups on symmetric spaces Michael Kapovich, Bernhard Leeb, Joan Porti

    E-print Network

    Leeb, Bernhard

    Morse actions of discrete groups on symmetric spaces Michael Kapovich, Bernhard Leeb, Joan Porti which emerges from our analysis is that of Morse quasigeodesics in higher rank symmetric spaces, generalizing the Morse property for quasigeodesics in Gromov hyperbolic spaces. It leads to the notion of Morse

  9. PC-SPES (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contain prescription medicines . It was taken off the market and is no longer being made (see Question ... Serenoa repens ) PC-SPES was taken off the market because some batches were found to contain prescription ...

  10. Marathons versus Spaced Groups: Skin Conductance and the Effects of Time Distribution on Encounter Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 41 students to 2 twice-weekly groups, which met for 3 hours eight times; 2 marathons, which met continuously for 24 hours; and nontreatment control group. Treatment groups had significant positive changes on 14 of 15 measured personality variables between pre- and post-test, and positive change on all dependent measures between…

  11. Group calls for space policies to transcend politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    At a 22 May briefing, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) called on Congress to “establish space exploration policy goals which transcend partisan political differences.” AIAA president and former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said the “goal of establishing human capability to b e a space-faring species is not a short-term goal,” nor is it a goal that belongs to only one political party. “We will not reach long-term goals without a stable, coherent, sensible plan that transcends elections and leaders,” said Griffin, who has provided advice to Republican U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Griffin pointed to NASA's 2008 authorization as providing the kind of vision needed for NASA. The act called for human return to the Moon and preparation for the capability for permanent bases on the Moon, among other things, he said. “That's the kind of thing that we need. All of the goals espoused by the 2008 act were long-term, generational, strategic in scope,” Griffin said, adding that the act, which had bipartisan support, demonstrated “the kind of societal support, rather than political support, that I believe our space program deserves.”

  12. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 6: Communications and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Communications and Navigation working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The basic goals to be accomplished are to increase the use of space systems and to develop new space capabilities for providing communication and navigation services to the user community in the 1980 time period. Specific experiments to be conducted for improving space communication and navigation capabilities are defined. The characteristics of the experimental equipment required to accomplish the mission are discussed.

  13. Compact Group Actions and Maps into $K(\\pi, 1)$-Spaces

    E-print Network

    May 5, 2003 ... acting effectively and homotopically trivially then G must be abelian. ... effective torus action (Tk, M) is homologically injective. ..... Inn(F). Being a homomorphic image of the finitely generated group 7r1(M), Inn(l') .... M. A. Armstrong, The fundamental group of an orbit space of a discontinuous group, Proc.

  14. Polyimides Containing Pendent Phosphine Oxide Groups for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Watson, K. A.; Connell, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    As part of an ongoing materials development activity to produce high performance polymers that are durable to the space environment, phosphine oxide containing polyimides have been under investigation. A novel dianhydride was prepared from 2,5-dihydroxyphenyldiphenylphosphine oxide in good yield. The dianhydride was reacted with commercially available diamines, and a previously reported diamine was reacted with commercially available dianhydrides to prepare isomeric polyimides. The physical and mechanical properties, particularly thermal and optical properties, of the polymers were determined. One material exhibited a high glass transition temperature, high tensile properties, and low solar absorptivity. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of these resins will be discussed.

  15. MCMC-Particle-based group tracking of space objects within Bayesian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    With the intense increase in space objects, especially space debris, it is necessary to efficiently track and catalog the extensive dense clusters of space objects. As the main instrument for low earth orbit (LEO) space surveillance, ground-based radar system is usually limited by its resolution while tracking small space debris with high density. Thus, the obtained measurement information could have been seriously missed, which makes the traditional tracking method inefficient. To address this issue, we conceived the concept of group tracking. For group tracking, the overall tendency of the group objects is expected to be revealed, and the trajectories of individual objects are simultaneously reconstructed explicitly. According to model the interaction between the group center and individual trajectories using the Markov random field (MRF) within Bayesian framework, the objects' number and individual trajectory can be estimated more accurately in the condition of high miss alarm probability. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-Particle algorithm was utilized for solving the Bayesian integral problem. Furthermore, we introduced the mechanism for describing the behaviors of groups merging and splitting, which can expand the single group tracking algorithm to track variable multiple groups. Finally, simulation of the group tracking of space objects was carried out to validate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  17. A MODULATED MULTIBAND Pc1 EVENT OBSERVED BY POLAR/EFI AROUND THE PLASMAPAUSE

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    in amplitude, corresponding to classical Pc1 pearls. The repetition period was the same on ground and in space. Moreover, the repetition period of Pc1 pearls coincided with the period of simultaneous Pc4 waves observed by POLAR and on ground. The observations suggest that Pc1 pearls (EMIC waves in general) are modulated

  18. The Local Population of White Dwarfs within 25 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, Jay B.; Oswalt, Terry D.; Sion, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We have extended the detailed survey of the local white dwarf population from 20 pc to 25 pc, effectively doubling the sample volume to now include 231 stars. The present 25 pc has an estimated completeness of 70% (the corresponding 20 pc sample is now 85% complete). The space density of white dwarfs remains at 4.8 ± 0.5 x 10-3 pc-3. There exists a curious excess of single stars in the sample 70% vs 30% in systems with one or more companions. A pronounced apparent deficiency remains between the eleven known Sirius-like systems present in the 20 pc sample and only a single such system presently known in the extended 25 pc sample. Also demonstrated, using explicit individual white dwarf cooling ages, is the feasibility of estimating the white dwarf birth rates over the last ~ 5 Gyr.This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1413537

  19. Unitary Space-Time Constellations Based on Finite Reflection Group Codes

    E-print Network

    Nevins, Monica

    1 Unitary Space-Time Constellations Based on Finite Reflection Group Codes Terasan Niyomsataya, Ali diversity unitary space-time constellations for two transmitter antennas. Our proposed constellations unitary constellation designs in the literature. I. INTRODUCTION Consider a multiple-antenna system with M

  20. Representations of the Canonical group, (the semi-direct product of the Unitary and Weyl-Heisenberg groups), acting as a dynamical group on noncommuting extended phase space

    E-print Network

    Stephen G. Low

    2002-05-01

    The unitary irreducible representations of the covering group of the Poincare group P define the framework for much of particle physics on the physical Minkowski space P/L, where L is the Lorentz group. While extraordinarily successful, it does not provide a large enough group of symmetries to encompass observed particles with a SU(3) classification. Born proposed the reciprocity principle that states physics must be invariant under the reciprocity transform that is heuristically {t,e,q,p}->{t,e,p,-q} where {t,e,q,p} are the time, energy, position, and momentum degrees of freedom. This implies that there is reciprocally conjugate relativity principle such that the rates of change of momentum must be bounded by b, where b is a universal constant. The appropriate group of dynamical symmetries that embodies this is the Canonical group C(1,3) = U(1,3) *s H(1,3) and in this theory the non-commuting space Q= C(1,3)/ SU(1,3) is the physical quantum space endowed with a metric that is the second Casimir invariant of the Canonical group, T^2 + E^2 - Q^2/c^2-P^2/b^2 +(2h I/bc)(Y/bc -2) where {T,E,Q,P,I,Y} are the generators of the algebra of Os(1,3). The idea is to study the representations of the Canonical dynamical group using Mackey's theory to determine whether the representations can encompass the spectrum of particle states. The unitary irreducible representations of the Canonical group contain a direct product term that is a representation of U(1,3) that Kalman has studied as a dynamical group for hadrons. The U(1,3) representations contain discrete series that may be decomposed into infinite ladders where the rungs are representations of U(3) (finite dimensional) or C(2) (with degenerate U(1)* SU(2) finite dimensional representations) corresponding to the rest or null frames.

  1. Expanding Trauma through Space and Time: Mapping the Rhetorical Strategies of Trauma Carrier Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degloma, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I detail two rhetorical strategies that trauma carrier groups--including social movement organizations, professional mental health associations, and patient advocacy groups--use to expand the relevance of trauma and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) through space and time: the social transmission of trauma and the social…

  2. Correlation-skeleton method for space-time analysis of disturbances in the Pc4-5 period range during magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhatov, N. A.; Revunov, S. E.; Shadrukov, D. V.

    2015-09-01

    Special method of correlation-skeleton processing of long period MHD disturbed components of the geomagnetic field is developed. To analyze space-time distribution for field components recorded along the meridian 210 at different stages of geomagnetic storms it is applied. This method on the base of post-processing of space-time wavelet analysis of disturbances was performed. The proposal of spectra calculation results in the form of wavelet skeleton pictures is shown. The method allows to find synchronization of oscillatory processes along the geomagnetic meridian and use it as indication of a global magnetic disturbance. Developed algorithm as a diagnostic tool state of the magnetosphere can also be used.

  3. A Hilbert Space Operator Representation of Abelian Po-Groups of Bilinear Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Ji?í; Paseka, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a non-trivial singular positive bilinear form Simon (J. Funct. Analysis 28, 377-385 (1978)) yields that on an infinite-dimensional complex Hilbert space {{H}} the set of bilinear forms {{F}}({H}) is richer than the set of linear operators {{V}}({H}). We show that there exists an structure preserving embedding of partially ordered groups from the abelian po-group {{S}}D({H}) of symmetric bilinear forms with a fixed domain D on a Hilbert space {{H}} into the po-group of linear symmetric operators on a dense linear subspace of an infinite dimensional complex Hilbert space l 2( M). Moreover, if we restrict ourselves to the positive parts of the above mentioned po-groups, we can embed positive bilinear forms into corresponding positive linear operators.

  4. PC based leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Mactaggart, R.H.; Myers, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Software based leak detection has a reputation of being very complex and requiring large amounts of computing power to be effective. This makes it impractical for application on small pipelines. This paper will discuss implementation of a software based leak detection system on a small crude oil gathering pipeline. The leak detection system uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system.

  5. PC software overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.T.; Kissock, P.S.

    1992-10-01

    The laptop PC is used by the Annunciator maintenance personnel to generate the site configuration and the sunrise/sunset times data files, to upload software files and data files to the host computer, to download the historical log file from the host, to maintain the historical log database, and to generate reports. This manual describes the organization and functionality of the software as well as generation mechanisms for development and target environments.

  6. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  7. PC Windows Adobe Creative Cloud PC Windows Adobe Creative Cloud

    E-print Network

    PC Windows Adobe Creative Cloud 1 PC Windows Adobe Creative Cloud 2015-05-25 1 Web Windows Adobe Creative Cloud PC | Creative Cloud https://helpx.adobe.com/jp/creative-cloud Adobe Creative Cloud 5.1 Web TTInstaller(Windows )() http://www.officesoft.gsic.titech.ac

  8. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R&D facilities planning for the U.S., and these are discussed in Section 4 of this volume.

  9. Current Activities and Capabilities of the Terrestrial Environment Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Batts, Wade

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designated Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the center of excellence for space transportation. The Aerospace Environments and Effects (AEE) team of the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch (EL23) in the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at MSFC, supports the center of excellence designation by providing near-Earth space, deep space, planetary, and terrestrial environments expertise to projects as required. The Terrestrial Environment (TE) group within the AEE team maintains an extensive TE data base. Statistics and models derived from this data are applied to the design and development of new aerospace vehicles, as well as performance enhancement of operational vehicles such as the Space Shuttle. The TE is defined as the Earth's atmospheric environment extending from the surface to orbital insertion altitudes (approximately 90 km).

  10. Parametric Realization of the Lorentz Transformation Group in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces

    E-print Network

    Abraham A. Ungar

    2015-05-09

    The Lorentz transformation group $SO(m,n)$ is a group of Lorentz transformations of order $(m,n)$, that is, a group of special linear transformations in a pseudo-Euclidean space of signature $(m,n)$ that leave the pseudo-Euclidean inner product invariant. A parametrization of $SO(m,n)$ is presented, giving rise to the composition law of Lorentz transformations of order $(m,n)$ in terms of parameter composition. The parameter composition, in turn, gives rise to a novel group-like structure called a bi-gyrogroup. Bi-gyrogroups form a natural generalization of gyrogroups where the latter form a natural generalization of groups. Like the abstract gyrogroup, the abstract bi-gyrogroup can play a universal computational role which extends far beyond the domain of pseudo-Euclidean spaces.

  11. A simple assay to study social behavior in Drosophila: measurement of social space within a group.

    PubMed

    Simon, A F; Chou, M-T; Salazar, E D; Nicholson, T; Saini, N; Metchev, S; Krantz, D E

    2012-03-01

    We have established a new simple behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to determine how genes and the environment influence the behavior of flies within a social group. Specifically, we measure social space as the distance between two flies. The majority of Canton-s flies, regardless of their gender, are within two body lengths from each other. Their social experience affects this behavior, with social isolation reducing and mating enhancing social space respectively, in both males and females. Unlike several other social behaviors in the fly, including the formation of social groups themselves (a well-described behavior), social space does not require the perception of the previously identified aggregation pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate. Conversely, performance of the assay in darkness or mutations in the eye pigmentation gene white increased social space. Our results establish a new assay for the genetic dissection of a fundamental mode of social interaction. PMID:22010812

  12. Perfect fluid space-times admitting a 3-dimensional conformal group acting on null orbits

    E-print Network

    A. M. Sintes; J. Carot

    2000-05-16

    Space-times admitting a 3-dimensional Lie group of conformal motions $C_3$ acting on null orbits are studied. Coordinate expressions for the metric and the conformal Killing vectors (CKV) are then provided (irrespectively of the matter content) and all possible perfect fluid solutions are found, although none of them verifies the weak and dominant energy conditions over the whole space-time manifold.

  13. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts as well as performing major probabilistic assessments used to support flight rationale and help establish program requirements. During 2008, the Analysis Group performed more than 70 assessments. Although all these assessments were important, some were instrumental in the decisionmaking processes for the Shuttle and Constellation Programs. Two of the more significant tasks were the Space Transportation System (STS)-122 Low Level Cutoff PRA for the SSP and the Orion Pad Abort One (PA-1) PRA for the CxP. These two activities, along with the numerous other tasks the Analysis Group performed in 2008, are summarized in this report. This report also highlights several ongoing and upcoming efforts to provide crucial statistical and probabilistic assessments, such as the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) PRA for the Hubble Space Telescope service mission and the first fully integrated PRAs for the CxP's Lunar Sortie and ISS missions.

  14. Groups of generalized flux transformations in the space of generalized connections

    E-print Network

    J. M. Velhinho

    2009-01-05

    We present a group of transformations in the space of generalized connections that contains the set of transformations generated by the flux variables of loop quantum gravity. This group is labelled by certain SU(2)-valued functions on the bundle of directions in the spatial manifold. A further generalization is obtained by considering functions that depend on germs of analytic curves, rather than just on directions.

  15. The Determination of the Orbit Spaces of Compact Coregular Linear Groups

    E-print Network

    Vittorino Talamini

    2015-03-26

    Some aspects of phase transitions can be more conveniently studied in the orbit space of the action of the symmetry group. After a brief review of the fundamental ideas of this approach, I shall concentrate on the mathematical aspect and more exactly on the determination of the equations defining the orbit space and its strata. I shall deal only with compact coregular linear groups. The method exposed has been worked out together with prof. G. Sartori and it is based on the solution of a matrix differential equation. Such equation is easily solved if an integrity basis of the group is known. If the integrity basis is unknown one may determine anyway for which degrees of the basic invariants there are solutions to the equation, and in all these cases also find out the explicit form of the solutions. The solutions determine completely the stratification of the orbit spaces. Such calculations have been carried out for 2, 3 and 4-dimensonal orbit spaces. The method is of general validity but the complexity of the calculations rises tremendously with the dimension $q$ of the orbit space. Some induction rules have been found as well. They allow to determine easily most of the solutions for the $(q+1)$-dimensional case once the solutions for the $q$-dimensional case are known. The method exposed is interesting because it allows to determine the orbit spaces without using any specific knowledge of group structure and integrity basis and evidences a certain hidden and yet unknown link with group theory and invariant theory.

  16. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  17. Finite group theory and Connectedness of moduli spaces of Riemann Surface covers

    E-print Network

    Fried, Michael

    of P1 , we could write it by hand. It isn't. Further, why deal one cover at-a-time? Consider all coversFinite group theory and Connectedness of moduli spaces of Riemann Surface covers Mike Fried, UCI be the universal exponent p central extension of Gk: · Gk+1 Gk factors through k.

  18. On the Construction of Space-time Hamiltonian Constellations from Group Codes

    E-print Network

    Nevins, Monica

    On the Construction of Space-time Hamiltonian Constellations from Group Codes Terasan Niyomsataya, Canada K1N 6N5 mnevins@uottawa.ca Abstract-- Full diversity signal constellations for any numbers in this paper. The diversity product of a 2×2 Hamiltonian constellation equals one half of the Euclidean

  19. INFLUENCE OF SPAWNING GROUP SIZE AND SPACE ON REPRODUCTION BY SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cripe, G.M., R.L. Hemmer and L.R. Goodman. In press. Influence of Spawning Group Size and Space on Reproduction Variability of Sheepshead Minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB...

  20. Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

  1. Structure-dependent exchange in the organic magnets Cu(II)Pc and Mn(II)Pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Kerridge, A.; Harker, A. H.; Fisher, A. J.

    2008-05-01

    We study exchange couplings in the organic magnets copper(II) phthalocyanine [Cu(II)Pc] and manganese(II) phthalocyanine [Mn(II)Pc] by a combination of Green’s function perturbation theory and ab initio density-functional theory (DFT). Based on the indirect exchange model, our perturbation-theory calculation of Cu(II)Pc qualitatively agrees with the experimental observations. DFT calculations performed on Cu(II)Pc dimer show a very good quantitative agreement with exchange couplings that our theoretical group extracts by using a global fitting for the magnetization measurements to a spin- (1)/(2) Bonner-Fisher model. These two methods give us remarkably consistent trends for the exchange couplings in Cu(II)Pc when changing the stacking angles. The situation is more complex for Mn(II)Pc owing to the competition between superexchange and indirect exchange.

  2. Kepler problem in deformed (quantum) four-dimensional space in non relativistic limit with Galilei group of motion

    E-print Network

    A. N. Leznov

    2007-08-04

    It is shown that Kepler problem in deformed (quantum) four-dimensional space in non relativistic limit is integrable in quadratures. In non relativistic limit group of motion of quantum space coincide with Galilei one.

  3. Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

  4. GFI - EASY PC GRAPHICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Easy PC Graphics (GFI) is a graphical plot program that permits data to be easily and flexibly plotted. Data is input in a standard format which allows easy data entry and evaluation. Multiple dependent axes are also supported. The program may either be run in a stand alone mode or be embedded in the user's own software. Automatic scaling is built in for several logarithmic and decibel scales. New scales are easily incorporated into the code through the use of object-oriented programming techniques. For the autoscale routines and the actual plotting code, data is not retrieved directly from a file, but a "method" delivers the data, performing scaling as appropriate. Each object (variable) has state information which selects its own scaling. GFI is written in Turbo Pascal version 6.0 for IBM PC compatible computers running MS-DOS. The source code will only compile properly with the Turbo Pascal v. 6.0 or v. 7.0 compilers; however, an executable is provided on the distribution disk. This executable requires at least 64K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher, as well as an HP LaserJet printer to print output plots. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium in ASCII format. GFI was developed in 1993.

  5. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the ?? index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  6. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 7: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Earth Observations working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Earth Observation experiments are: (1) establishment of quantitative relationships between observable parameters and geophysical variables, (2) development, test, calibration, and evaluation of eventual flight instruments in experimental space flight missions, (3) demonstration of the operational utility of specific observation concepts or techniques as information inputs needed for taking actions, and (4) deployment of prototype and follow-on operational Earth Observation systems. The basic payload capability, mission duration, launch sites, inclinations, and payload limitations are defined.

  7. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 8: Earth and ocean physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Earth and Ocean Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The requirements for the space shuttle mission are defined as: (1) precision measurement for earth and ocean physics experiments, (2) development and demonstration of new and improved sensors and analytical techniques, (3) acquisition of surface truth data for evaluation of new measurement techniques, (4) conduct of critical experiments to validate geophysical phenomena and instrumental results, and (5) development and validation of analytical/experimental models for global ocean dynamics and solid earth dynamics/earthquake prediction. Tables of data are presented to show the flight schedule estimated costs, and the mission model.

  8. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few ?E{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  9. Phase-space shapes of clusters and rich groups of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtak, Rados?aw

    2013-11-01

    Context. Clusters and groups of galaxies are highly aspherical, with shapes approximated by nearly prolate ellipsoids of revolution. An equally fundamental property is the shape of these objects in velocity space which is the anisotropy of the global velocity dispersion tensor. Although many studies address the problem of the shape in position space, there has been no attempt to measure shapes in velocity space. Aims: Here we make use of kinematical data comprising ~600 nearby clusters and rich groups of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to place constraints on the phase-space shapes of these objects, i.e. their shapes in both position and velocity space. Methods: We show that the line of sight velocity dispersion normalised by a mass-dependent velocity scale correlates with the apparent elongation, with circular (elongated) clusters exhibiting an excessive (decremental) normalised velocity dispersion. This correlation holds for dynamically young or old clusters and, therefore, it originates from projecting their intrinsic phase-space shapes rather than from dynamical evolution. It signifies that clusters are preferentially prolate not only in position space, but also in velocity space. This property allows us to break the degeneracy between oblate and prolate models and thus to deproject the apparent elongations and the line of sight velocity dispersions obtaining constraints on the axial ratios of the ellipsoids approximating cluster shapes in 3D position or velocity space. Results: The distribution of the axial ratios in position space is found to be well approximated by a Gaussian with a mean, ? = 0.66 ± 0.01, and a dispersion, ? = 0.07 ± 0.008. The velocity ellipsoids representing the shapes in velocity space are more spherical, with a mean axial ratio of 0.78 ± 0.03. Conclusions: The mean axial ratio of the velocity ellipsoids points to a highly anisotropic velocity distribution and, therefore, to a strong dependance of the observed velocity dispersions on the angle between the line of sight and the semi-principle axes of the clusters. This finding has important implications for mass measurements based on the line of sight velocity dispersion profiles in individual clusters. For typical axial ratios of the velocity ellipsoids in the analysed cluster sample, systematic errors on the mass estimates inferred from the line of sight velocity dispersions become comparable to statistical uncertainties for galaxy clusters with as few as 40 spectroscopic redshifts.

  10. 76 FR 1990 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...PC-6 Service Bulletin No. 57-005, REV No. 2, dated May 19, 2008; and Chapter...PC-6 Service Bulletin No. 57-005, REV No. 2, dated May 19, 2008. (2) For...PC-6 Service Bulletin No. 57-005, REV No. 2, dated May 19, 2008. (3)...

  11. Science Requirements Working Group (SRWG) in float zone materials processing in space: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowle, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    A summary and history of the Float Zone Working Group was presented. The functions of this working group are to: provide an informal forum of scientific investigators for the exchange of information and ideas in the approach of the solution of common problems in float zone processing, help plan the research and development necessary to place the float zone process on a firm base of scientific understanding and advanced technological development, establish the science requirements for the AFZES for Spacelab, and seek ways to maximize the advantages of the space environment in the pursuit of these goals.

  12. Methods of space-group determination - a supplement dealing with twinned crystals and metric specialization.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2015-10-01

    Tables for the determination of space group for single crystals, twinned crystals and crystals with a specialized metric are presented in the form of a spreadsheet for use on a computer. There are 14 tables, one for each of the Bravais-lattice types. The content of the tables is arranged so that at the intersection of rows, displaying the conditions for reflection, and of columns, displaying the Laue and crystal classes, one finds those space groups compatible with the observed Bravais-lattice type, the conditions for reflection and the Laue and crystal classes. The tables are intended to be of direct use to an experimentalist working with an unknown structure. PMID:26422223

  13. Numerical treatment of the one-group half-space problem with anisotropic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Alani, M.A.; Ganapol, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    Currently, several reliable computational methods exist for one-group half-space problems, including the F{sub N} method and the Laplace transform inversion technique from which to choose. Previously the Laplace transform method has been shown to provide an efficient method to obtain numerical values for the scalar flux. The method utilizes software designed to evaluate Laplace transform inversions numerically with both mainframe and personal computer computational environments. At present the inversion method allows the routine calculation of fluxes for half-space problems only with isotropic scattering. This calculation requires only the expression for the exiting angular intensity from the half-space. In this paper, we extend the inversion method to include anisotropic scattering.

  14. Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group 88th Meeting: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Task Report, 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2004-01-01

    Supported Return-to-Flight activities by providing surface climate data from Kennedy Space Center used primarily for ice and dew formation studies, and upper air wind analysis primarily used for ascent loads analyses. The MSFC Environments Group's Terrestrial and Planetary Environments Team documented Space Shuttle day-of-launch support activities by publishing a document in support of SSP Return-to-Flight activities entitled "Space Shuttle Program Flight Operations Support". The team also formalized the Shuttle Natural Environments Technical Panel and chaired the first special session of the SSP Natural Environments Panel meeting at KSC, November 4-7,2003.58 participants from NASA, DOD and other government agencies from across the country attended the meeting.

  15. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  16. Wanted: A Solid, Reliable PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses PC reliability, one of the most pressing issues regarding computers. Nearly a quarter century after the introduction of the first IBM PC and the outset of the personal computer revolution, PCs have largely become commodities, with little differentiating one brand from another in terms of capability and performance. Most of…

  17. NASA PC software evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Kuan, Julie C.

    1986-01-01

    The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

  18. Report from the MPP Working Group to the NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James R.; Grosch, Chester; Mcanulty, Michael; Odonnell, John; Storey, Owen

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) gave a select group of scientists the opportunity to test and implement their computational algorithms on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) located at Goddard Space Flight Center, beginning in late 1985. One year later, the Working Group presented its report, which addressed the following: algorithms, programming languages, architecture, programming environments, the way theory relates, and performance measured. The findings point to a number of demonstrated computational techniques for which the MPP architecture is ideally suited. For example, besides executing much faster on the MPP than on conventional computers, systolic VLSI simulation (where distances are short), lattice simulation, neural network simulation, and image problems were found to be easier to program on the MPP's architecture than on a CYBER 205 or even a VAX. The report also makes technical recommendations covering all aspects of MPP use, and recommendations concerning the future of the MPP and machines based on similar architectures, expansion of the Working Group, and study of the role of future parallel processors for space station, EOS, and the Great Observatories era.

  19. A Bruhat decomposition for the loop space of a compact group: A new approach to results of Bott

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Howard; Raghunathan, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    We give a new proof of Bott's result, that the loop space of a compact, simply connected, simple Lie group has a cellular decomposition of a certain type. In particular, one obtains the Poincaré polynomial for the loop space and Bott periodicity for the unitary group. PMID:16592292

  20. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  1. Toward a standardized structural-functional group connectome in MNI space.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the structural architecture of the human brain in terms of connectivity between its subregions has provided profound insights into its underlying functional organization and has coined the concept of the "connectome", a structural description of the elements forming the human brain and the connections among them. Here, as a proof of concept, we introduce a novel group connectome in standard space based on a large sample of 169 subjects from the Enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (eNKI-RS). Whole brain structural connectomes of each subject were estimated with a global tracking approach, and the resulting fiber tracts were warped into standard stereotactic (MNI) space using DARTEL. Employing this group connectome, the results of published tracking studies (i.e., the JHU white matter and Oxford thalamic connectivity atlas) could be largely reproduced directly within MNI space. In a second analysis, a study that examined structural connectivity between regions of a functional network, namely the default mode network, was reproduced. Voxel-wise structural centrality was then calculated and compared to others' findings. Furthermore, including additional resting-state fMRI data from the same subjects, structural and functional connectivity matrices between approximately forty thousand nodes of the brain were calculated. This was done to estimate structure-function agreement indices of voxel-wise whole brain connectivity. Taken together, the combination of a novel whole brain fiber tracking approach and an advanced normalization method led to a group connectome that allowed (at least heuristically) performing fiber tracking directly within MNI space. Such an approach may be used for various purposes like the analysis of structural connectivity and modeling experiments that aim at studying the structure-function relationship of the human connectome. Moreover, it may even represent a first step toward a standard DTI template of the human brain in stereotactic space. The standardized group connectome might thus be a promising new resource to better understand and further analyze the anatomical architecture of the human brain on a population level. PMID:26327244

  2. Personal Computer (PC) thermal analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, James M.; Holzhauer, Douglas J.; Yaworsky, Paul S.

    1990-03-01

    Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has developed an expert system based design verification tool to increase the efficiency of calculating device junction temperatures on printed circuit boards (PCBs). This tool, the Personal Computer (PC) Thermal Analyzer, was developed for reliability and electronic design engineers for use during the computer-aided design (CAD) phase. The PC Thermal Analyzer was developed through the combination of two technical areas, thermal analysis and expert systems. This intelligent analyzer is a more effective verification tool because traditional tools require much time and knowledge of thermal analysis, while the PC Thermal Analyzer is quick, requires no expertise in thermal analysis, and provides useful results during the CAD phase.

  3. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  4. Operator evolution in the three-body space via the similarity renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Micah; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin; Jurgenson, Eric; Navratil, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Performing quantitative calculations of nuclear observables in terms of nucleons interacting through two- and three-nucleon forces is a guiding principle of ab initio nuclear theory. Computationally, this is complicated by the large model spaces needed to reach convergence in many-body approaches, such as the no-core shell model (NCSM). In recent years, the similarity renormalization group (SRG) has provided a powerful tool to soften interactions for ab initio structure calculations, thus leading to convergence within smaller model spaces. SRG has been very successful when applied to the Hamiltonian of the nuclear system. However, when computing observables other than spectra, one must evolve the relevant operators using the same transformation that was applied to the Hamiltonian. Here we compute the root mean square (RMS) radius of 3H to show that evolving the \\rcirc2 operator in the three-body space, thus including two- and three-body SRG induced terms, will yield an exactly unitary transformation. We then extend our calculations to 4He and compute the RMS radius and total strength of the dipole transition using operators evolved in the three-body space. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support came from U.S. DOE/SC/NP (work proposal SCW1158), IMRR: LLNL-ABS-647982.

  5. Quantum scalar fields in de Sitter space from the nonperturbative renormalization group

    E-print Network

    Maxime Guilleux; Julien Serreau

    2015-09-29

    We investigate scalar field theories in de Sitter space by means of nonperturbative renormalization group techniques. We compute the functional flow equation for the effective potential of O(N) theories in the local potential approximation and we study the onset of curvature-induced effects as quantum fluctuations are progressively integrated out from subhorizon to superhorizon scales. This results in a dimensional reduction of the original action to an effective zero-dimensional Euclidean theory. We show that the latter is equivalent both to the late-time equilibrium state of the stochastic approach of Starobinsky and Yokoyama and to the effective theory for the zero mode on Euclidean de Sitter space. We investigate the immediate consequences of this dimensional reduction: symmetry restoration and dynamical mass generation.

  6. Quantum scalar fields in de Sitter space from the nonperturbative renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilleux, Maxime; Serreau, Julien

    2015-10-01

    We investigate scalar field theories in de Sitter space by means of nonperturbative renormalization group techniques. We compute the functional flow equation for the effective potential of O (N ) theories in the local potential approximation and we study the onset of curvature-induced effects as quantum fluctuations are progressively integrated out from subhorizon to superhorizon scales. This results in a dimensional reduction of the original action to an effective zero-dimensional Euclidean theory. We show that the latter is equivalent both to the late-time equilibrium state of the stochastic approach of Starobinsky and Yokoyama and to the effective theory for the zero mode on Euclidean de Sitter space. We investigate the immediate consequences of this dimensional reduction: symmetry restoration and dynamical mass generation.

  7. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 5: Solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Solar Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The areas to be investigated by the solar physics experiments are: (1) the production of mechanical energy in the subphotospheric layers and its transport and dissipation in the upper layers of the atmosphere, (2) the mass flux from the subphotospheric layers into the chromosphere and corona and beyond the solar wind, (3) solar activity and its relationship to magnetic fields, and (4) the production of solar flares. The approach to be followed in conducting the experiments and the equipment required are defined.

  8. Crystallization of the Focal Adhesion Kinase Targeting (FAT) Domain in a Primitive Orthorhombic Space Group

    SciTech Connect

    Magis,A.; Bailey, K.; Kurenova, E.; Hernandez Prada, J.; Cance, W.; Ostrov, D.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data from the targeting (FAT) domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were collected from a single crystal that diffracted to 1.99 Angstroms resolution and reduced to the primitive orthorhombic lattice. A single molecule was predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient. The data were phased using molecular-replacement methods using an existing model of the FAK FAT domain. All structures of human focal adhesion kinase FAT domains solved to date have been solved in a C-centered orthorhombic space group.

  9. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 4: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Life Sciences working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Life Sciences investigations are: (1) to continue the research directed at understanding the origin of life and the search for extraterrestrial evidence of life, (2) biomedical research to understand mechanisms and provide criteria for support of manned flight, (3) technology development for life support, protective systems, and work aids for providing environmental control, and (4) to study basic biological functions at all levels or organization influenced by gravity, radiation, and circadian rhythms. Examples of candidate experimental schedules and the experimental package functional requirements are included.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Stephan's Quintet: Star Cluster Formation in a Compact Group Environment

    E-print Network

    S. C. Gallagher; J. C. Charlton; S. D. Hunsberger; D. Zaritsky; B. C. Whitmore

    2001-03-31

    Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of Stephan's Quintet, Hickson Compact Group 92, yielded 115 candidate star clusters (with V-I < 1.5). Unlike in merger remants, the cluster candidates in Stephan's Quintet are not clustered in the inner regions of the galaxies; they are spread over the debris and surrounding area. Specifically, these sources are located in the long sweeping tail and spiral arms of NGC 7319, in the tidal debris of NGC 7318B/A, and in the intragroup starburst region north of these galaxies. Analysis of the colors of the clusters indicates several distinct epochs of star formation that appear to trace the complex history of dynamical interactions in this compact group.

  11. Renormalization Group and Decoupling in Curved Space: II. The Standard Model and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Eduard V. Gorbar; Ilya L. Shapiro

    2003-03-14

    We continue the study of the renormalization group and decoupling of massive fields in curved space, started in the previous article and analyse the higher derivative sector of the vacuum metric-dependent action of the Standard Model. The QCD sector at low-energies is described in terms of the composite effective fields. For fermions and scalars the massless limit shows perfect correspondence with the conformal anomaly, but similar limit in a massive vector case requires an extra compensating scalar. In all three cases the decoupling goes smoothly and monotonic. A particularly interesting case is the renormalization group flow in the theory with broken supersymmetry, where the sign of one of the beta-functions changes on the way from the UV to IR.

  12. Intraspecific variation in space use, group size, and mating systems of caviomorph rodents

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Christine R.; Burger, Joseph Robert

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in social systems is widely recognized across many taxa, and specific models, including polygamy potential, resource defense, and resource dispersion, have been developed to explain the relationship between ecological variation and social organization. Although mammals from temperate North America and Eurasia have provided many insights into this relationship, rodents from the Neotropics and temperate South America have largely been ignored. In this review we focus on reports documenting intraspecific variation in spacing systems, group size, and mating systems of caviomorphs. This large group of New World hystricognath rodents occupies a diverse array of habitats; thus, members of the same species potentially exhibit different social systems in response to different ecological conditions. Spatial patterns vary in response to a diverse array of factors, including predation, food availability, population density, and soil characteristics. Changes in group size typically correlate with changes in resource availability, particularly food. Mating systems generally reflect the ability of males to control access to females, which may depend on population density or food distribution. In general, social organization in caviomorphs fits predictions of resource-based models; however, most studies have been purely observational, involving small numbers of animals over short time periods and reporting qualitative rather than quantitative levels of ecological correlates. In future studies the use of molecular techniques and controlled, experimental manipulations can increase our understanding of intraspecific variation in caviomorph social systems. This understudied group of rodents offers excellent opportunities to provide insights into the influence of ecological conditions on behavior such as social systems. PMID:22328790

  13. Topological Entropy and Renormalization Group flow in 3-dimensional spherical spaces

    E-print Network

    M. Asorey; C. G. Beneventano; I. Cavero-Peláez; D. D'Ascanio; E. M. Santangelo

    2015-01-17

    We analyze the renormalization group (RG) flow of the temperature independent term of the entropy in the high temperature limit \\beta/aentropy S_hol decreases monotonically when the RG scale flows to the infrared. At the conformal fixed points the values of the holonomy entropy do coincide with the genuine topological entropies recently introduced. The monotonic behavior of the RG flow leads to an inequality between the topological entropies of the conformal field theories connected by such flow, i.e. S_top^UV > S_top^IR. From a 3-dimensional viewpoint the same term arises in the 3-dimensional Euclidean effective action and has the same monotonic behavior under the RG group flow. We conjecture that such monotonic behavior is generic, which would give rise to a 3-dimensional generalization of the c-theorem, along the lines of the 2-dimensional c-theorem and the 4-dimensional a-theorem. The conjecture is related to recent formulations of the F-theorem. In particular, the holonomy entropy on lens spaces is directly related to the topological R\\'enyi entanglement entropy on disks of 2-dimensional flat spaces.

  14. Real-space renormalization group method for quantum 1/2 spins on the pyrochlore lattice.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Adeva, Angel J

    2014-04-01

    A simple phenomenological real-space renormalization group method for quantum Heisenberg spins with nearest and next nearest neighbour interactions on a pyrochlore lattice is presented. Assuming a scaling law for the order parameter of two clusters of different sizes, a set of coupled equations that gives the fixed points of the renormalization group transformation and, thus, the critical temperatures and ordered phases of the system is found. The particular case of spins 1/2 is studied in detail. Furthermore, to simplify the mathematical details, from all the possible phases arising from the renormalization group transformation, only those phases in which the magnetic lattice is commensurate with a subdivision of the crystal lattice into four interlocked face-centred cubic sublattices are considered. These correspond to a quantum spin liquid, ferromagnetic order, or non-collinear order in which the total magnetic moment of a tetrahedral unit is zero. The corresponding phase diagram is constructed and the differences with respect to the classical model are analysed. It is found that this method reproduces fairly well the phase diagram of the pyrochlore lattice under the aforementioned constraints. PMID:24625859

  15. Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin; Ullal, Chaitanya K; Carter, W Craig; Thomas, Edwin L

    2003-10-01

    The promise of photonic crystals and their potential applications has attracted considerable attention towards the establishment of periodic dielectric structures that in addition to possessing robust complete bandgaps, can be easily fabricated with current techniques. A number of theoretical structures have been proposed. To date, the best complete photonic bandgap structure is that of diamond networks having Fd3m symmetry (2-3 gap). The only other known complete bandgap in a face-centred-cubic (f.c.c.) lattice structure is that of air spheres in a dielectric matrix (8-9 gap; the so called 'inverse-opal' structure). Importantly, there is no systematic approach to discovering champion photonic crystal structures. Here we propose a level-set approach based on crystallography to systematically examine for photonic bandgap structures and illustrate this approach by applying it to the 11 f.c.c. groups. This approach gives us an insight into the effects of symmetry and connectivity. We classify the F-space groups into four fundamental geometries on the basis of the connectivity of high-symmetry Wyckoff sites. Three of the fundamental geometries studied display complete bandgaps--including two: the F-RD structure with Fm3m symmetry and a group 216 structure with F43m symmetry that have not been reported previously. By using this systematic approach we were able to open gaps between the 2-3, 5-6 and 8-9 bands in the f.c.c. systems. PMID:12970758

  16. Application of the renormalization group to the calculation of the vacuum decay rate in flat and curved space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Metaxas, Dimitrios

    2007-02-15

    I show that an application of renormalization group arguments may lead to significant corrections to the vacuum decay rate for phase transitions in flat and curved space-time. It can also give some information regarding its dependence on the parameters of the theory, including the cosmological constant in the case of decay in curved space-time.

  17. [Study on fluorescence labeling and determination of polypeptide (PC2~PC6) by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-xi; Gao, Li-jie; Cao, Wei; Zheng, Li; Chen, Jun-hui; Xu, Xiu-li; Wang, Xiao-ru

    2014-12-01

    This study was based on the thiol groups (-SH) of PC2~PC6, which could be reacted with the Monobromobimane (mBBr), in order to get polypeptide derivatives with fluorescent signal. A new method was developed for measuring the Polypeptides by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector, then the chromatographic conditions of HPLC was optimized; meawhile the reaction proportion of PCs and mBBr was identified by Trap-MS. The results showed that, the reaction proportion of PCs and mBBr was 1:1, the polypeptide derivatives had good stability; the five compounds separation was better, and the peak time focused on the 16.6~22.0 min; the linear correlation coefficient of PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6 was >0.9991, and the limits of quantification were 0.3, 0.05, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mg · L(-1) respectively, the recovery rate was 83.0%-102.0%; the method was reproducible, RSD<2%, this method for measuring the peptide compounds was rapid and accurate. PMID:25881428

  18. Velocity space diffusion and nongyrotropy of pickup water group ions at comet Grigg-Skjellerup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.; Wilken, B.; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion of water group cometary ions in velocity space at comet Grigg-Skjellerup was measured during the Giotto spacecraft encounter. The evolution of the collapsed pitch angle and energy distributions during the inbound and outbound passes shows that the timescale for energy diffusion may be similar to that for pitch angle diffusion. Fully isotropic pitch angle distributions were never seen. Also the bulk parameters of the three-dimensional distributions are examined. Transformation of these parameters into a field-aligned solar wind frame allows us to test the gyrotropy of the distributions. These observations imply that there were deviations from gyrotropy throughout the encounter becoming most important near to closest approach.

  19. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  20. Revisiting numerical real-space renormalization group for quantum lattice systems

    E-print Network

    Li-Xiang Cen

    2015-10-04

    Although substantial progress has been achieved in solving quantum impurity problems, the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method generally performs poorly when applied to quantum lattice systems in a real-space blocking form. The approach was thought to be unpromising for most lattice systems owing to its flaw in dealing with the boundaries of the block. Here the discovery of intrinsic prescriptions to cure interblock interactions is reported which clears up the boundary obstacle and is expected to reopen the application of NRG to quantum lattice systems. While the resulting RG transformation turns out to be strict in the thermodynamic limit, benchmark tests of the algorithm on a one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet and a two-dimensional tight-binding model demonstrate its numerical efficiency in resolving low-energy spectra for the lattice systems.

  1. Renormalization Group and Decoupling in Curved Space: III. The Case of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    E-print Network

    Eduard V. Gorbar; Ilya L. Shapiro

    2003-11-15

    We continue investigation of the renormalization group and decoupling of the quantized massive fields in curved space. In the present work we analyze a theory, where fields gain their masses due to the Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB), that is the case providing a remarkable exception from the Appelquist-Carazzone theorem in the matter fields sector. In the vacuum sector, already at the classical level, the theory with SSB includes, in the general case an infinite number of the non-local terms in the induced vacuum action. Despite this surprising property, we show that the theory is renormalizable and moreover the low-energy decoupling in the higher-derivative gravitational sector performs similar to the AC theorem.

  2. The homology of symmetric groups and the algebra of covering spaces Andre Joyal (speaker) and Terrence Bisson

    E-print Network

    Howlett, Robert Brian

    The homology of symmetric groups and the algebra of covering spaces Andr´e Joyal (speaker compare the direct sum HS of the homology of the symmetric groups with the direct sum RS. The purpose of our talk is to produce a similar picture for the direct sum HS of the homology of the symmetric

  3. Lost in Transmission: Using Study Groups to Provide Space for Creativity and Reflexivity in an Instrumentalist University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Jane; Crouch, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Since independent study groups can be important in providing spaces for students in creative disciplines to develop a critically reflexive approach to their creative practice, tutors in an Australian university introduced independent group learning to students studying in creative disciplines. However, student responses to the experience of…

  4. Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Steinacker, H

    1997-05-23

    Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group U{sub q}(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin {ge} 1, {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of {open_quotes}pure gauges{close_quotes}, as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of U{sub q}(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of U{sub q}(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin {ge} 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard {open_quotes}truncated{close_quotes} tensor product as well as many-particle representations.

  5. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  6. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  7. Fractal space-times under the microscope: A Renormalization Group view on Monte Carlo data

    E-print Network

    Martin Reuter; Frank Saueressig

    2011-10-24

    The emergence of fractal features in the microscopic structure of space-time is a common theme in many approaches to quantum gravity. In this work we carry out a detailed renormalization group study of the spectral dimension $d_s$ and walk dimension $d_w$ associated with the effective space-times of asymptotically safe Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG). We discover three scaling regimes where these generalized dimensions are approximately constant for an extended range of length scales: a classical regime where $d_s = d, d_w = 2$, a semi-classical regime where $d_s = 2d/(2+d), d_w = 2+d$, and the UV-fixed point regime where $d_s = d/2, d_w = 4$. On the length scales covered by three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, the resulting spectral dimension is shown to be in very good agreement with the data. This comparison also provides a natural explanation for the apparent puzzle between the short distance behavior of the spectral dimension reported from Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT), Euclidean Dynamical Triangulations (EDT), and Asymptotic Safety.

  8. On the Reflection Type Decomposition of the Adjoint Reduced Phase Space of a Compact Semisimple Lie group

    E-print Network

    Martin Hofmann; Gerd Rudolph; Matthias Schmidt

    2013-02-25

    We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide e.g. for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

  9. On the reflection type decomposition of the adjoint reduced phase space of a compact semisimple Lie group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.

    2013-08-01

    We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

  10. On the reflection type decomposition of the adjoint reduced phase space of a compact semisimple Lie group

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, M.; Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.

    2013-08-15

    We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Search for Planetary Nebulae in Globular Clusters of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    2015-04-01

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  12. D2PC sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.P.

    1992-08-01

    The Chemical Hazard Prediction Model (D2PC) developed by the US Army will play a critical role in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program by predicting chemical agent transport and dispersion through the atmosphere after an accidental release. To aid in the analysis of the output calculated by D2PC, this sensitivity analysis was conducted to provide information on model response to a variety of input parameters. The sensitivity analysis focused on six accidental release scenarios involving chemical agents VX, GB, and HD (sulfur mustard). Two categories, corresponding to conservative most likely and worst case meteorological conditions, provided the reference for standard input values. D2PC displayed a wide variety of sensitivity to the various input parameters. The model displayed the greatest overall sensitivity to wind speed, mixing height, and breathing rate. For other input parameters, sensitivity was mixed but generally lower. Sensitivity varied not only with parameter, but also over the range of values input for a single parameter. This information on model response can provide useful data for interpreting D2PC output.

  13. Computer (PC/Network) Coordinator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 22 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer (PC/network) coordinator, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 22 units are as…

  14. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study commercialization working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The benefits for each of the following commercial areas was investigated: communications, remote sensing, materials processing in space, low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite assembly, testing, and servicing, and space tourism. In each case, where economic benefits are derived, the costs for accomplishing tasks with the Space Station are compared with the cost with the Space Transportation System only.

  15. Marital sexual relationships and birth spacing among two Yoruba sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Adeokun, L A

    1982-01-01

    Discussion focuses on the marital sexual relationships (MSR) and the timing of the next child among the Ekiti and Ikale subgroups of the Yoruba (Nigeria). Contrasts in postpartum sexual practices between the 2 groups allows for demonstration of the importance of parents' perception of their child's growth and their observance of prohibitions on sexual intercourse during the wife's lactation as factors shaping their decision to have another child. It is argued that the similarity in birth spacing among the 2 groups, derived from contrasting attitudes to postpartum abstinence, is evidence of an explicit decision on the timing of the next child. Such a decision considers the role of the child's growth and social development as it affects adults in the performance of their daily social and economic routines and goes beyond an unquestioned response to quasi-religious taboos. A questionnaire was administered in the local dialect to 535 Ekiti women and 460 Ikale women, currently married and aged 14-49 years. Appropriately modified male questionnaires were completed for 398 and 380 husbands of eligible women in the respective locations. Due in part to conservatism in sexual behavior and family formation, the main features of Yoruba postpartum practices such as extended and demand breastfeeding, the taboo on sexual intercourse during lactation, and the devotion to child welfare are believed to, and do, occur in Ekiti. Socioeconomic development has brought many changes, but the combination of these practices with the high infant mortality resulting from limited access to modern health care and the lack of basic amenities assures that children are born at substantial ages apart. The need for the surviving child to reach a consciously determined age and/or stage of growth and development assures the adequacy and rationality of child spacing in this age conscious society. The Ikale are an exception to the general rule concerning sexual abstinence during lactation. The theme of a mother's trials and concern over her children is also valid with the Ikale. The Ikale mother supplements the natural protection offered by postpartum amenorrhea with the use of traditional methods of contraception, most notably the rhythm method. The crude birthrates for the 2 groups were hardly different--54.7 in Ekiti and 54.4 in Ikale. There was only a negligible difference in fertility rates. In both groups only negligible proportions of women would breastfeed for less than 6 months. Only 7.4% of Ikale women would breastfeed beyond 2 years, but 12.9% of Ekiti women were breastfeeding that long. In Ikale there was a higher awareness of the association between extended breastfeeding and the delay in the onset of menstruation. The main implication of this discussion is to challenge the emphasis on lactational abstinence as the main determinant of changes in fertility behavior. The Ikale case shows that such an assumption is not valid. PMID:12264950

  16. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  17. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  18. Extreme Covariant Quantum Observables in the Case of an Abelian Symmetry Group and a Transitive Value Space

    E-print Network

    Haapasalo, Erkka

    2011-01-01

    We represent quantum observables as POVMs (normalized positive operator valued measures) and consider convex sets of observables which are covariant with respect to a unitary representation of a locally compact Abelian symmetry group $G$. The value space of such observables is a transitive $G$-space. We characterize the extreme points of covariant observables and also determine the covariant extreme points of the larger set of all quantum observables. The results are applied to position, position difference and time observables.

  19. Comparison of Polar Cap (PC) index calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index introduced by Troshichev and Andrezen (1985) is derived from polar magnetic variations and is mainly a measure of the intensity of the transpolar ionospheric currents. These currents relate to the polar cap antisunward ionospheric plasma convection driven by the dawn-dusk electric field, which in turn is generated by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. Coefficients to calculate PCN and PCS index values from polar magnetic variations recorded at Thule and Vostok, respectively, have been derived by several different procedures in the past. The first published set of coefficients for Thule was derived by Vennerstrøm, 1991 and is still in use for calculations of PCN index values by DTU Space. Errors in the program used to calculate index values were corrected in 1999 and again in 2001. In 2005 DMI adopted a unified procedure proposed by Troshichev for calculations of the PCN index. Thus there exists 4 different series of PCN index values. Similarly, at AARI three different sets of coefficients have been used to calculate PCS indices in the past. The presentation discusses the principal differences between the various PC index procedures and provides comparisons between index values derived from the same magnetic data sets using the different procedures. Examples from published papers are examined to illustrate the differences.

  20. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  1. Effects of incentives on psychosocial performances in simulated space-dwelling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.; Emurian, Henry H.

    Prior research with individually isolated 3-person crews in a distributed, interactive, planetary exploration simulation examined the effects of communication constraints and crew configuration changes on crew performance and psychosocial self-report measures. The present report extends these findings to a model of performance maintenance that operationalizes conditions under which disruptive affective responses by crew participants might be anticipated to emerge. Experiments evaluated the effects of changes in incentive conditions on crew performance and self-report measures in simulated space-dwelling groups. Crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crew performance effectiveness was unaffected by either positive or negative incentive conditions, while self-report measures were differentially affected—negative incentive conditions produced pronounced increases in negative self-report ratings and decreases in positive self-report ratings, while positive incentive conditions produced increased positive self-report ratings only. Thus, incentive conditions associated with simulated spaceflight missions can significantly affect psychosocial adaptation without compromising task performance effectiveness in trained and experienced crews.

  2. Space station needs, attributes and architecture options study technology development working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The structural criteria for a space station is lack of risk by the technology employed. Orbiter technology can be transferred for use in construction with improvement in three areas: fiber optic data bus, water reclamation, and; improved space suit design.

  3. Do the $P_c^+$ Pentaquarks Have Strange Siblings?

    E-print Network

    Richard F. Lebed

    2015-10-31

    The recent LHCb discovery of states $P_c^+(4380)$, $P_c^+(4450)$, believed to be $c\\bar c uud$ pentaquark resonances, begs the question of whether equivalent states with $c\\bar c \\to s\\bar s$ exist, and how they might be produced. The precise analogue to the $P_c^+$ discovery channel $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi \\, K^- \\! p$, namely, $\\Lambda_c \\to \\phi \\pi^0 \\! p$, is feasible for this study and indeed is less Cabibbo-suppressed, although its limited phase space suggests that evidence of a $s\\bar s uud$ resonance $P_s^+$ would be confined to the kinematic endpoint region.

  4. Predicting stable stoichiometries of compounds via evolutionary global space-group optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Freeman, Arthur J.; Zunger, Alex

    2009-09-01

    Whereas the Daltonian atom-to-atom ratios in ordinary molecules are well understood via the traditional theory of valence, the naturally occurring stoichiometries in intermetallic compounds ApBq , as revealed by phase-diagram compilations, are often surprising. Even equal-valence elements A and B give rise to unequal (p,q) stoichiometries, e.g., the 1:2, 2:1, and 3:1 ratios in AlpScq . Moreover, sometimes different stoichiometries are associated with different lattice types and hence rather different physical properties. Here, we extend the fixed-composition global space-group optimization (GSGO) approach used to predict, via density-functional calculations, fixed-composition lattice types [G. Trimarchi and A. Zunger, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 295212 (2008)] to identify simultaneously all the minimum-energy lattice types throughout the composition range. Starting from randomly selected lattice vectors, atomic positions and stoichiometries, we construct the T=0 “convex hull” of energy vs composition. Rather than repeat a set of GSGO searches over a fixed list of stoichiometries, we minimize the distance to the convex hull. This approach is far more efficient than the former one as a single evolutionary search sequence simultaneously identifies the lowest-energy structures at each composition and among these it selects those that are ground states. For Al-Sc we correctly identify the stable stoichiometries and relative structure types: AlSc2-B82 , AlSc-B2, and Al2Sc-C15 in the Nat=6 periodic cells, and Al2Sc6-D019 , AlSc-B2, and Al3Sc-L10 in the Nat=8 periodic cells. This extended evolutionary GSGO algorithm represents a step toward a fully ab initio materials synthesis, where compounds are predicted starting from sole knowledge of the chemical species of the constituents.

  5. Glide reflection symmetry, Brillouin zone folding, and superconducting pairing for the P 4 /n m m space group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Emilian M.; Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the studies of the superconducting pairing states in the iron-based superconductors, we analyze the effects of Brillouin zone folding procedure from a space-group symmetry perspective for a general class of materials with the P 4 /n m m space group. The Brillouin zone folding amounts to working with an effective 1-Fe unit cell, instead of the crystallographic 2-Fe unit cell. We show that the folding procedure can be justified by the validity of a glide reflection symmetry throughout the crystallographic Brillouin zone and by the existence of a minimal double degeneracy along the edges of the latter. We also demonstrate how the folding procedure fails when a local spin-orbit coupling is included although the latter does not break any of the space-group symmetries of the bare Hamiltonian. In light of these general symmetry considerations, we further discuss the implications of the glide reflection symmetry for the superconducting pairing in an effective multiorbital t -J1-J2 model. We find that, for spin-singlet pairing states, the P4/n m m space-group symmetry allows only even parity under the glide reflection and zero total momentum.

  6. Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond HST Conference (Origins Conference and UV-Optical Working Group Support)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Morse, Jon

    2001-01-01

    This grant supported three major activities, from 1997-2001. (1) Origins Conference. The funds from this grant were used, initially, to support a Conference on "Origins", held May 19-23, 1997 at Estes Park, CO and attended by a wide range of astronomers, planetary scientists, and astrobiologists. The scientific proceedings of this meeting were published in 1998 by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific: "Origins" (1998) "Proceedings of the International Origins Conference". (2) UV-Optical Space Astronomy. Conference Additional funds provided by the NASA Office of Space Science were used to support a meeting held August 5-7, 1998 at Boulder, CO and attended by ultraviolet and optical astronomers and instrumentalists interested in a UV-O successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. The scientific proceedings of this meeting were published in 1999: "Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope" (1999), NASA provided funds and commissioned the UVOWG (Ultraviolet-Optical Working Group), charged with recommending a set of fundamental scientific problems and new space missions in the UV/Optical wavelength bands. The working group was chaired by J. M. Shull, and included ten other astrophysicists. Their report was published as a "White Paper" (Nov. 1999) entitled "The Emergence of the Modern Universe: Tracing the Cosmic Web" available. The results of this report were used in the NASA Strategic Planning ("Roadmap") exercise and by the NRC Astronomy/Astrophysics Decade Committee.

  7. Group Theoretical Quantization of a Phase Space S^1 x R^+ and the Mass Spectrum of Schwarzschild Black Holes in D Space-Time Dimensions

    E-print Network

    M. Bojowald; H. A. Kastrup; F. Schramm; T. Strobl

    2000-04-20

    The symplectic reduction of pure spherically symmetric (Schwarzschild) classical gravity in D space-time dimensions yields a 2-dimensional phase space of observables consisting of the Mass M (>0) and a canonically conjugate (Killing) time variable T. Imposing (mass-dependent) periodic boundary conditions in time on the associated quantum mechanical plane waves which represent the Schwarzschild system in the period just before or during the formation of a black hole, yields an energy spectrum of the hole which realizes the old Bekenstein postulate that the quanta of the horizon A_{D-2} are multiples of a basic area quantum. In the present paper it is shown that the phase space of such a Schwarzschild black hole in D space-time dimensions is symplectomorphic to a symplectic manifold S={(phi in R mod 2 pi, p = A_{D-2} >0)} with the symplectic form d phi wedge d p. As the action of the group SO_+(1,2) on that manifold is transitive, effective and Hamiltonian, it can be used for a group theoretical quantization of the system. The area operator p for the horizon corresponds to the generator of the compact subgroup SO(2) and becomes quantized accordingly: The positive discrete series of the irreducible unitary representations of SO_+(1,2) yields an (horizon) area spectrum proportional k+n, where k =1,2,... characterizes the representation and n = 0,1,2,... the number of area quanta. If one employs the unitary representations of the universal covering group of SO_+(1,2) the number k can take any fixed positive real value (theta-parameter). The unitary representations of the positive discrete series provide concrete Hilbert spaces for quantum Schwarzschild black holes.

  8. Proceedings of the Space Shuttle Sortie Workshop. Volume 2: Working group reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Details are presented on the mission planning progress in each of the working paper reports. The general topics covered are the following: space technology; materials processing and space manufacturing; communications and navigation; earth and ocean physics; oceanography; earth resources and surface environmental quality; meteorology and atmospheric environmental quality; life sciences; atmospheric and space physics; solar physics; high energy cosmic rays; X-ray and gamma ray astronomy; ultraviolet-optical astronomy; planetary astronomy; and infrared astronomy.

  9. The redshift-space neighborhoods of 13 SSRS groups of galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella, M.; Focardi, P.; Geller, M. J.

    1996-08-01

    The Southern Sky Redshift Survey includes 13 groups of 5 or more members with velocities >=2000km/s. By measuring redshifts and accumulating data from the literature, we increase the total number of known group members from 89 to 218. We also measured new redshifts for 59 foreground/background galaxies superimposed on the group neighborhoods. The velocity dispersions of the groups are remarkably stable.

  10. SI PC104 Performance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Montelongo, S

    2005-12-16

    The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

  11. Responding to the Concerns of Student Cultural Groups: Redesigning Spaces for Cultural Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Anise Mazone; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the engagement of a student committee in redesigning an entire floor of a university union to accommodate student cultural centers and provide space in a fair and equitable manner. The reorganization focused on the process as well as the task of allocating space, with an emphasis on the opportunity to foster the development of…

  12. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  13. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  14. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  15. Clustering and group selection of multiple criteria alternatives with application to space-based networks.

    PubMed

    Malakooti, Behnam; Yang, Ziyong

    2004-02-01

    In many real-world problems, the range of consequences of different alternatives are considerably different. In addition, sometimes, selection of a group of alternatives (instead of only one best alternative) is necessary. Traditional decision making approaches treat the set of alternatives with the same method of analysis and selection. In this paper, we propose clustering alternatives into different groups so that different methods of analysis, selection, and implementation for each group can be applied. As an example, consider the selection of a group of functions (or tasks) to be processed by a group of processors. The set of tasks can be grouped according to their similar criteria, and hence, each cluster of tasks to be processed by a processor. The selection of the best alternative for each clustered group can be performed using existing methods; however, the process of selecting groups is different than the process of selecting alternatives within a group. We develop theories and procedures for clustering discrete multiple criteria alternatives. We also demonstrate how the set of alternatives is clustered into mutually exclusive groups based on 1) similar features among alternatives; 2) ideal (or most representative) alternatives given by the decision maker; and 3) other preferential information of the decision maker. The clustering of multiple criteria alternatives also has the following advantages. 1) It decreases the set of alternatives to be considered by the decision maker (for example, different decision makers are assigned to different groups of alternatives). 2) It decreases the number of criteria. 3) It may provide a different approach for analyzing multiple decision makers problems. Each decision maker may cluster alternatives differently, and hence, clustering of alternatives may provide a basis for negotiation. The developed approach is applicable for solving a class of telecommunication networks problems where a set of objects (such as routers, processors, or intelligent autonomous vehicles) are to be clustered into similar groups. Objects are clustered based on several criteria and the decision maker's preferences. PMID:15369049

  16. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore »find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  17. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  18. Working group report on advanced high-voltage high-power and energy-storage space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, H. A.; Cooke, D. L.; Evans, R. W.; Hastings, D.; Jongeward, G.; Laframboise, J. G.; Mahaffey, D.; Mcintyre, B.; Pfizer, K. A.; Purvis, C.

    1986-01-01

    Space systems in the future will probably include high-voltage, high-power energy-storage and -production systems. Two such technologies are high-voltage ac and dc systems and high-power electrodynamic tethers. The working group identified several plasma interaction phenomena that will occur in the operation of these power systems. The working group felt that building an understanding of these critical interaction issues meant that several gaps in our knowledge had to be filled, and that certain aspects of dc power systems have become fairly well understood. Examples of these current collection are in quiescent plasmas and snap over effects. However, high-voltage dc and almost all ac phenomena are, at best, inadequately understood. In addition, there is major uncertainty in the knowledge of coupling between plasmas and large scale current flows in space plasmas. These gaps in the knowledge are addressed.

  19. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  20. Space station needs attributes and architectural options study costing working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Individuals in the United States who understand the promise of materials processing in space and who also are senior technical personnel associated with commercial firms that process materials: (1) endorsed the concept of a space station as a desirable national asset; (2) stated that a commercial MPS research program is mandatory to extend commericalization of space for materials processing; and (3) described in general terms a national research laboratory and free flying facilities that are needed. Participants agreed that industry R&D is motivated largely by market pull rather than by technology push, that initial interest is low-g materials research; and that to farther, commercial market assurance (a salable product) is a must.

  1. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  2. Cooperation between SMYD3 and PC4 drives a distinct transcriptional program in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Kyunghwan; Schmidt, Thomas; Punj, Vasu; Tucker, Haley; Rice, Judd C.; Ulmer, Tobias S.; An, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    SET and MYND domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase, which has been implicated in cell growth and cancer pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that SMYD3 can influence distinct oncogenic processes by acting as a gene-specific transcriptional regulator. However, the mechanistic aspects of SMYD3 transactivation and whether SMYD3 acts in concert with other transcription modulators remain unclear. Here, we show that SMYD3 interacts with the human positive coactivator 4 (PC4) and that such interaction potentiates a group of genes whose expression is linked to cell proliferation and invasion. SMYD3 cooperates functionally with PC4, because PC4 depletion results in the loss of SMYD3-mediated H3K4me3 and target gene expression. Individual depletion of SMYD3 and PC4 diminishes the recruitment of both SMYD3 and PC4, indicating that SMYD3 and PC4 localize at target genes in a mutually dependent manner. Artificial tethering of a SMYD3 mutant incapable of binding to its cognate elements and interacting with PC4 to target genes is sufficient for achieving an active transcriptional state in SMYD3-deficient cells. These observations suggest that PC4 contributes to SMYD3-mediated transactivation primarily by stabilizing SMYD3 occupancy at target genes. Together, these studies define expanded roles for SMYD3 and PC4 in gene regulation and provide an unprecedented documentation of their cooperative functions in stimulating oncogenic transcription. PMID:26350217

  3. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe…

  4. Social organization and space use of a wild mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) group.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Kappeler, Peter M; Willaume, Eric; Benoit, Laure; Mboumba, Sylvère; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2015-10-01

    Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are enigmatic Old World primates whose social organization and ecology remain poorly known. Previous studies indicated, for example, that groups are composed of only adult females and their young or that several units composed of one adult male and several females make up larger permanent social units. Here, we present the first data on group composition and male ranging patterns from the only habituated wild mandrill group and examine how home range size and daily path length varied with environmental and demographic factors over a 15-month period. Our study site is located in southern Gabon where we followed the group on a daily basis, collecting data on presence, ranging, behavior, and parasite load of its individual members. Throughout the study, the group was made up of about 120 individuals, including several non-natal and natal adult and sub-adult males. One-male units were never observed. The mandrills traveled an estimated 0.44-6.50?km/day in a home range area of 866.7?ha. Exploratory analyses revealed that precipitation, the number of adult males present, and the richness of protozoan parasites were all positively correlated with daily path length. These results clarify the social system of mandrills and provide first insights into the factors that shape their ranging patterns. PMID:26235675

  5. Topological Entropy and Renormalization group flow in 3-dimensional spherical spaces

    E-print Network

    Asorey, M; Cavero-Peláez, I; D'Ascanio, D; Santangelo, E M

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the renormalization group flow of the temperature independent term of the entropy in the high temperature limit \\beta/a S^IR_top between the topological entropies of the conformal field theories connected by such flow. From a 3-dimensional viewpoint the same term arises in the 3-dimensional Euclidean effective action and has the same monotone behavior under the RG group flow. We conjecture that such monotonic behavior is generic, which would give rise to a 3-dimensional generalization of the c-theorem, along the lines of the 2-dimensional c-theorem and the 4-dimensional a-theorem.

  6. Renormalization group improved black hole space-time in large extra dimensions

    E-print Network

    Thomas Burschil; Benjamin Koch

    2009-12-22

    By taking into account a running of the gravitational coupling constant with an ultra violet fixed point, an improvement of classical black hole space-times in extra dimensions is studied. It is found that the thermodynamic properties in this framework allow for an effective description of the black hole evaporation process. Phenomenological consequences of this approach are discussed and the LHC discovery potential is estimated.

  7. Hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P21/n) structure. The results indicate that PC61BM combines into C-H⋯Od bonded molecular chains, where Od denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C-H⋯Os bonds, where Os denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC61BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P21/n) PC61BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C-H⋯Od bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC61BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC61BM.

  8. PC Mac OS Adobe Creative Cloud PC Mac OS Adobe Creative Cloud

    E-print Network

    PC Mac OS Adobe Creative Cloud 1 PC Mac OS Adobe Creative Cloud 2015-05-25 1 Web Mac OS Adobe Creative Cloud PC | Creative Cloud https://helpx.adobe.com/jp/creative-cloud Adobe Creative Cloud 5.1 Web TTInstaller (Mac OS X )() http://www.officesoft.gsic.titech.ac.jp/pdf

  9. Creating Spaces for Critical Transformative Dialogues: Legitimising Discussion Groups as Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards-Groves, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Focussed dialogue (as lived and living practices) can have a powerful role in renewing professional practice, advancing its sustainability and development as administrative and political systems colonise the practices of teachers and teacher educators. However, participating in discussion groups for many teachers, including those in academia, is…

  10. Integral group actions on symmetric spaces and discrete duality symmetries of supergravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Lisa; Murray, Scott H.; Sati, Hisham

    2015-10-01

    For G = G(?), a split, simply connected, semisimple Lie group of rank n and K the maximal compact subgroup of G, we give a method for computing Iwasawa coordinates of K?G using the Chevalley generators and the Steinberg presentation. When K?G is a scalar coset for a supergravity theory in dimensions ?3, we determine the action of the integral form G(?) on K?G. We give explicit results for the action of the discrete U-duality groups SL2(?) and E7(?) on the scalar cosets SO(2)?SL2(?) and [SU(8)/{ ± Id}]?E7(+7)(?) for type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions and 11-dimensional supergravity reduced to D = 4 dimensions, respectively. For the former, we use this to determine the discrete U-duality transformations on the scalar sector in the Borel gauge and we describe the discrete symmetries of the dyonic charge lattice. We determine the spectrum-generating symmetry group for fundamental BPS solitons of type IIB supergravity in D = 10 dimensions at the classical level and we propose an analog of this symmetry at the quantum level. We indicate how our methods can be used to study the orbits of discrete U-duality groups in general.

  11. Learning in Large Learning Spaces: The Academic Engagement of a Diverse Group of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Teaching larger groups of students is a growing phenomenon in HE and this brings with it its own challenges, not least for the students themselves but also for their lecturers. Demographic factors as well as the experiences that characterise us as individuals will impact upon our ability to learn. The pilot study reported here considered the…

  12. THE RELATIVE BRAUER GROUP AND GENERALIZED CROSS PRODUCTS FOR A CYCLIC COVERING OF AFFINE SPACE

    E-print Network

    Ford, Timothy J.

    mentioned in the title. It is the kernel of the natural map on Brauer groups B(R) B(S). Let be a primitive). We define using generalized crossed product algebras over the ring A. For each rank one reflexive

  13. An HI survey of the Centaurus and Sculptor Groups - Constraints on the space density of low mass galaxies

    E-print Network

    W. J. G. de Blok; M. A. Zwaan; M. Dijkstra; F. H. Briggs; K. C. Freeman

    2001-11-13

    We present results of two 21-cm HI surveys performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in the nearby Centaurus A and Sculptor galaxy groups. These surveys are sensitive to compact HI clouds and galaxies with HI masses as low as 3E+06 Msun, and are therefore among the most sensitive extragalactic HI surveys to date. The surveys consist of sparsely spaced pointings that sample approximately 2% of the groups' area on the sky. We detected previously known group members, but we found no new HI clouds or galaxies down to the sensitivity limit of the surveys. If the HI mass function had a faint end slope of alpha = 1.5 below M_{HI} = 10^{7.5} Msun in these groups, we would have expected ~3 new objects. Cold dark matter theories of galaxy formation predict the existence of a large number low mass DM sub-halos that might appear as tiny satellites in galaxy groups. Our results support and extend similar conclusions derived from previous HI surveys that a HI rich population of these satellites does not exist.

  14. IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

  15. On the renormalization group for the interacting massive scalar field theory in curved space

    E-print Network

    Guilherme de Berredo-Peixoto; Eduard V. Gorbar; Ilya L. Shapiro

    2003-11-24

    The effective action for the interacting massive scalar field in curved space-time is derived using the heat-kernel method. Starting from this effective action, we establish a smooth quadratic form of the low-energy decoupling for the four-scalar coupling constant and for the nonminimal interaction parameter. The evolution of this parameter from the conformal value 1/6 at high energies down to the IR regime is investigated within the two toy models with negative and positive four-scalar coupling constants.

  16. Real-space renormalization-group study of the exchange-interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. H.; Lee, Felix

    1990-12-01

    Through use of an approximation introduced by Suzuki and Takano, the Migdal-Kadanoff (MK) renormalization-group transformation with the rescaling length b=2 is derived for the exchange-interaction (EI) model. Both the standard MK method and its modification, which preserves the free energy in the renormalization transformation, are used to determine critical temperatures and thermal exponents of the EI model on cubic lattices for various spins.

  17. Individual and grouping track pits etched in the exposed in a free space plastic track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, L.; Bazhutov, Yu

    2013-02-01

    New results concerned to the investigation of depth-dependent the pit-like surface-average and the grouping track-density distributions in the cosmic ray exposed column of CN-85 and CR-39 plastic solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are presented. Two main sources: solar cosmic ray protons and recoil nuclei for very short (length <3 ?m) track-pit formation are considered. Theoretical estimation of the total, uniform track-pit density indicates on failure of evidence of some additional radiation effects, partially, hypothetically conditioned with the Erzion theory. Some quantitative proofs of this hypothesis have been obtained in the measurements of the pit-groups. Totally, up to this time it was registered near of 30 pit groups with the surface pit-density in the interval of (1-15) × 106 cm2, that is two-three orders of magnitude higher than uniformly distributed track-pits on the same CR-39 plate surface. As a result of layer-by-layer investigation of the exposed CN-85 stock arrangement three pit swarms exactly correlated with the end point of high ionizing primary charge particle tracks were observed. Obtained data are considered in according to submission based on the probability of detection for the negative charged cosmic ray Erzion particles stopping events.

  18. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of stress. Nevertheless, the confinement and isolation were experienced as the major stress factors. The crew members described themselves as a heterogeneous but harmonious group that was successful in their mission. In fact, the team maintained its cohesion by opposing external authority, using management as a scapegoat. Occasionally, in times of crisis, they also criticized ground crew. The Commander supported this attitude. Strongly differences in personality and behavior were noted. Analysis of the sociometric data showed that the asserted harmony was more apparent than real. It is questionable whether the group cohesion would have persisted in a life threatening crisis or even in a prolongation of the experiment. The most reliable instruments for this type of survey seem to be: group methods, non-obstructive tests, indirect instruments, and qualitative tools. The least reliable are: strictly quantitative methods, self-evaluations, standard debriefing techniques, since these reinforced in most cases subjects' defenses in an unconscious avoidance of criticism. Several recommendations were made for the organization, definition of objectives, experiment selection, crew selection, roles of external management and personnel. In particular, it is felt to be necessary to explain the aims of the mission to the subjects, to give clear and complete information, to establish confident and cooperative relations with the crew. It is essential to allow dialogue, to take opinions and suggestions of the crew seriously, and to establish clear rules of confidentiality. PMID:8814802

  19. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between groups occurs, the circumstances in which social spaces are or need to be negotiated and the way divides are bridged. The study's limitations are that it is bounded by the focus of attention and the search terms used and there is yet to be developed a probabilistic, predictive model for gaps and how to connect them. Conclusions Gaps offer insights into social structures, and how real world behaviours of participants in workplaces, organisations and institutions are fragile. The paper highlights the circumstances in which network disjunctures and group divides manifest. Knowledge of these phenomenon provides opportunities for working out ways to improve health sector organisational communications, knowledge transmission and relationships. PMID:21134295

  20. The effect of spacing transverse to the wave direction on the Morison force coefficients in two cylinder groups

    SciTech Connect

    Haritos, N.; Smith, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides some results from an experimental study currently being carried out in the Michell laboratory at the University of Melbourne. The principal purpose of the study is to investigate the Morison in-line hydrodynamic force characteristics of slender surface-piercing multi-cylinder structures. The test program has been tailored to provide more detailed observations within the close-spaced region (Separation/Diameter ratio, s/D < 2) of the group interference effect in such multi-cylinder structures over the Keulegan Carpenter range 0 < KC < 20 which encompasses the inertia force dominant Morison regime (KC < 5), as well as the so-called troublesome region (5 < KC < 15) where both drag and inertia force components are significant. Results currently in hand for the side-by-side two-cylinder group configuration are presented which clearly depict the characteristics of this interference effect.

  1. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiwen; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009; Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 ; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 ; Liu, Zongping; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  2. Real-space renormalization group for spectral properties of hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan

    2015-10-01

    We derive the determinant of the Laplacian for the Hanoi networks and use it to determine their number of spanning trees (or graph complexity) asymptotically. While spanning trees generally proliferate with increasing average degree, the results show that modifications within the basic patterns of design of these hierarchical networks can lead to significant variations in their complexity. To this end, we develop renormalization group methods to obtain recursion equations from which many spectral properties can be obtained. This provides the basis for future applications to explore the physics of several dynamic processes.

  3. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes.

    PubMed

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro; Lanzuolo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors-and how this cross talk influences physiological processes-is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein-mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein-mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors. PMID:26553927

  4. Scale-PC shielding analysis sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    The SCALE computational system is a modular code system for analyses of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. With the release of SCALE-PC Version 4.3, the radiation shielding analysis community now has the capability to execute the SCALE shielding analysis sequences contained in the control modules SAS1, SAS2, SAS3, and SAS4 on a MS- DOS personal computer (PC). In addition, SCALE-PC includes two new sequences, QADS and ORIGEN-ARP. The capabilities of each sequence are presented, along with example applications.

  5. Dispersive Pc1 bursts observed by Freja

    SciTech Connect

    Mursula, K.; Braeysy, T.; Rasinkangas, R.; Tanskanen, P.; Blomberg, L.G.; Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.

    1994-08-15

    The authors report on observation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (Pc1 pulsations) by the Freja satellite on November 18, 1992. These observations are coincident with ground based observation of such pearl like Pc1 pulsations extending over a 12 hour period. This is the first observation by a satellite above the ionosphere of such phenomena. The wave pulsations were observed to come in 10 to 25 second pulses, and to be clearly dispersive in nature. Two spectral bands were observed in all Pc1 pearls. In the longer bursts, the authors observed time differences between the two distinct spectral bands.

  6. Endoplasmic oleoyl-PC desaturase references the second double bond.

    PubMed

    Schwartzbeck, J L; Jung, S; Abbott, A G; Mosley, E; Lewis, S; Pries, G L; Powell, G L

    2001-07-01

    The regiospecificity for the gene product of fad2,(1) the microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturase from higher plants, differs from some previous suggestions. Rather than only referencing the carboxyl group (a Delta(12) desaturase) or the methyl terminus (an omega-6 desaturase), this desaturase locates the second double bond in its substrates by first referencing the existing double bond. This specificity was demonstrated for the oleoyl-PC desaturase cDNA from the developing seeds of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae). The expressed enzyme was capable of desaturating monounsaturated fatty acyl groups in membrane lipids. Endogenous palmitoleate was desaturated to cis, cis 9,12 hexadecadienoate (9(Z)12(Z)C16:2), endogenous oleate to linoleate (9(Z)12(Z) octadecadienoate), and cis 10-nonadecenoate (provided as a supplement in the growth medium) to 10(Z)13(Z)C19:2. The rule, Delta(x+3) where x=9 is the double bond location in the substrate, best describes the consistent placement of the second double bond in the above monounsaturated substrates for the oleoyl-PC desaturase of higher plants. PMID:11397429

  7. The Exploration Atmospheres Working Group's Report on Space Radiation Shielding Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Thibeault, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    This part of Exploration Atmospheres Working Group analyses focuses on the potential use of nonmetallic composites as the interior walls and structural elements exposed to the atmosphere of the spacecraft or habitat. The primary drive to consider nonmetallic, polymer-based composites as an alternative to aluminum structure is due to their superior radiation shielding properties. But as is shown in this analysis, these composites can also be made to combine superior mechanical properties with superior shielding properties. In addition, these composites can be made safe; i.e., with regard to flammability and toxicity, as well as "smart"; i.e., embedded with sensors for the continuous monitoring of material health and conditions. The analysis main conclusions are that (1) smart polymer-based composites are an enabling technology for safe and reliable exploration missions, and (2) an adaptive, synergetic systems approach is required to meet the missions requirements from structure, properties, and processes to crew health and protection for exploration missions.

  8. Charge transfer excitations in water-soluble sulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS) donor molecules coupled to C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zope, Rajendra; Basurto, Luis; Olguin, Marco; Baruah, Tunna

    2013-03-01

    We present a study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a recently synthesized group of water-soluble sulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS) donor molecules coupled to C60. The ZnPcS donors (ZnPcS2, ZnPcS3, and ZnPcS4) are promising materials for achieving solar cell device production with the photoactive area prepared from aqueous solution. Experimentally, decreasing the number of sulfonate substituent groups for ZnPc increased the photocurrent and lowered the open circuit voltage VOC. Measurements show that the VOC is largest for ZnPc-S4/C60 and lowest for ZnPc-S3/C60. The degree of sulfonation and the measured device VOC does not result in the expected pattern of values based on donor-acceptor HOMO/LUMO energy differences. Variations in film morphology may account for the unexpected pattern of VOC values. Our charge transfer excited state calculations show that the lowest CT excitation energy among the group of ZnPcS/C60 donor-acceptor pairs corresponds to the disulfonated ZnPc/C60 system. The largest CT excited state energies belong to the tetrasulfonated ZnPc/C60 complex. We also examine the effect of geometrical orientation on the CT energies for the ZnPcS donor-acceptor pairs.

  9. Market Making in the PC Industry

    E-print Network

    Dedrick, Jason; Kraemer, Kenneth L

    2007-01-01

    can shape demand Supplier markets Product management Vendorsupply chain mgt. management For supplier markets, vendorssuppliers gained capabilities, the PC makers were able to concentrate on marketing, branding, product management,

  10. Inter-Agency Consultative Group for Space Science (IACG): Handbook of Missions and Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ACE spacecraft design is based on the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) built by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the Applied Physics Lab (APL) for the AMPTE program. ACE is designed as a spinning spacecraft with its spin axis aligned to the Earth-Sun axis. The ACE launch weight will be approx. 633 kg, including 105 kg of scientific instruments and 184 kg of propellant. Using a Delta-class expendable launch vehicle, ACE will be launched into an L1 libration point (240 R(sub e)) orbit. Telemetry will be 6.7 kbps average, using tape recorder storage with daily readout to DSN. The experiment power requirement is approximately 76 W nominal and 96 W peak. The prime objective of the ACE mission is: (1) to determine accurate elemental and isotropic abundances including solar matter, local interstellar matter and local galactic matter; (2) to study the origin of elements and evolutionary processing in galactic nucleosynthesis, galactic evolution, origin and evolution of the solar system; (3) to study coronal formation and solar-wind acceleration processes; and (4) to study particle acceleration and transport, including coronal shock acceleration, stochastic flare acceleration, interplanetary shock acceleration, and interstellar acceleration and propagation. To accomplish this objective, ACE will perform comprehensive and coordinated determinations of the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic nuclei accelerated on the Sun, in interplanetary space, and from galactic sources. These observations will span five decades in energy, from solar wind to galactic cosmic ray energies, and will cover the element range from H-1 to Zr-40. Comparison of these samples of matter will be used to study the origin and subsequent evolution of both solar system and galactic material by isolating the effects of fundamental processes that include nucleosynthesis, charged and neutral particle separation, bulk plasma acceleration, and the acceleration of suprathermal and high-energy particles.

  11. DimmPC Backplane PCB Chris J Cannell

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    DimmPC Backplane PCB Chris J Cannell 22 September 2004 Description The DimmPC Backplane contains on the ASCL website. Printed Circuit Board Figure 5: DimmPC Backplane PCB (Top-right, Bottom-left) #12;

  12. Incorporating Space Science Content Into the Undergraduate Curriculum by the NASA Education Forums' Higher Education Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Fraknoi, A.; Moldwin, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Low, R.; Schultz, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NASA Education Forums, the Higher Education Working Group (HEWG) strives to support undergraduate science education through a variety of activities. These activities include: providing resource that incorporate space science topics into the existing undergraduate curriculum, understanding the role that community colleges play in STEM education and preparing STEM teachers, and identifying issues in diversity related to STEM education. To assess the best way of including space science into the undergraduate curriculum, the HEWG held a series of workshops and conducted surveys of undergraduate faculty who are conducting research in space science. During this engagement, the faculty expressed a need for a centralized repository of materials that can be used as part of already existing undergraduate courses in astronomy, physics, and earth science. Such a repository has since been developed, the 'EarthSpace Higher Education Clearing House (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/) and it is still growing. Additional community tools, such as a newsletter, are provided through this website. To better understand the role and needs of community colleges, the HEWG undertook and extensive survey of community college STEM faculty. 187 faculty responded to the survey and the results show the extensive teaching load these faculty have, as well as the diverse demographics and the extent to which STEM teachers begin their preparation at 2 year institutions. Finally, the HEWG has begun to work on understanding the issues faced in increasing the diversity of the STEM work force. Progress and results of all this work will be summarized in this presentation.

  13. [Functions of prion protein PrPc].

    PubMed

    Cazaubon, Sylvie; Viegas, Pedro; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier

    2007-01-01

    It is now well established that both normal and pathological (or scrapie) isoforms of prion protein, PrPc and PrPsc respectively, are involved in the development and progression of various forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or "mad cow disease") and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human, collectively known as prion diseases. The protein PrPc is highly expressed in the central nervous system in neurons and glial cells, and also present in non-brain cells, such as immune cells or epithelial and endothelial cells. Identification of the physiological functions of PrPc in these different cell types thus appears crucial for understanding the progression of prion diseases. Recent studies highlighted several major roles for PrPc that may be considered in two major domains : (1) cell survival (protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis) and (2) cell adhesion. In association with cell adhesion, distinct functions of PrPc were observed, depending on cell types : neuronal differentiation, epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity, transendothelial migration of monocytes, T cell activation. These observations suggest that PrPc functions may be particularly relevant to cellular stress, as well as inflammatory or infectious situations. PMID:17875293

  14. Saturated Kochen-Specker-type configuration of 120 projective lines in eight-dimensional space and its group of symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruuge, Artur E.; Oystaeyen, Freddy van

    2005-05-01

    There exists an example of a set of 40 projective lines in eight-dimensional Hilbert space producing a Kochen-Specker-type contradiction. This set corresponds to a known no-hidden variables argument due to Mermin. In the present paper it is proved that this set admits a finite saturation, i.e., an extension up to a finite set with the following property: every subset of pairwise orthogonal projective lines has a completion, i.e., is contained in at least one subset of eight pairwise orthogonal projective lines. An explicit description of such an extension consisting of 120 projective lines is given. The idea to saturate the set of projective lines related to Mermin's example together with the possibility to have a finite saturation allow to find the corresponding group of symmetry. This group is described explicitely and is shown to be generated by reflections. The natural action of the mentioned group on the set of all subsets of pairwise orthogonal projective lines of the mentioned extension is investigated. In particular, the restriction of this action to complete subsets is shown to have only four orbits, which have a natural characterization in terms of the construction of the saturation.

  15. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85... Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85... Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  17. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85... Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85... Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  19. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  20. Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  1. Calcium transport mechanisms of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Duman, Joseph G; Chen, Liangyi; Hille, Bertil

    2008-04-01

    Many studies of Ca2+ signaling use PC12 cells, yet the balance of Ca2+ clearance mechanisms in these cells is unknown. We used pharmacological inhibition of Ca2+ transporters to characterize Ca2+ clearance after depolarizations in both undifferentiated and nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells. Sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA), and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) account for almost all Ca2+ clearance in both cell states, with NCX and PMCA making the greatest contributions. Any contribution of mitochondrial uniporters is small. The ATP pool in differentiated cells was much more labile than that of undifferentiated cells in the presence of agents that dissipated mitochondrial proton gradients. Differentiated PC12 cells have a small component of Ca2+ clearance possessing pharmacological characteristics consistent with secretory pathway Ca2+ ATPase (SPCA), potentially residing on Golgi and/or secretory granules. Undifferentiated and differentiated cells are similar in overall Ca2+ transport and in the small transport due to SERCA, but they differ in the fraction of transport by PMCA and NCX. Transport in neurites of differentiated PC12 cells was qualitatively similar to that in the somata, except that the ER stores in neurites sometimes released Ca2+ instead of clearing it after depolarization. We formulated a mathematical model to simulate the observed Ca2+ clearance and to describe the differences between these undifferentiated and NGF-differentiated states quantitatively. The model required a value for the endogenous Ca2+ binding ratio of PC12 cell cytoplasm, which we measured to be 268 +/- 85. Our results indicate that Ca2+ transport in undifferentiated PC12 cells is quite unlike transport in adrenal chromaffin cells, for which they often are considered models. Transport in both cell states more closely resembles that of sympathetic neurons, for which differentiated PC12 cells often are considered models. Comparison with other cell types shows that different cells emphasize different Ca2+ transport mechanisms. PMID:18347082

  2. Structure of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase R2 in space group P6[subscript 1]22

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerhalter, Monika; Saleh, Lana; Bollinger Jr., J. Martin; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-07-20

    A new crystal form of wild-type ribonucleotide reductase R2 from Escherichia coli was obtained. Crystals grow in space group P6{sub 1}22 with one R2 monomer in the asymmetric unit. A twofold crystallographic symmetry axis generates the physiological dimeric form of R2. Co-crystallization with CoCl{sub 2} or MnCl{sub 2} results in full occupancy of the dinuclear metal site. The structure of the Mn{sup II}-loaded form was determined to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution by molecular replacement. The crystallization conditions, backbone conformation, crystal-packing interactions and metal centers are compared with those of previously determined crystal forms.

  3. Position space renormalization group study of the spin-1 random semi-infinite Blume-Capel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bouziani, Mohammed; Gaye, Abou; Jellal, Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    We study the spin-1 Blume-Capel model under a random crystal field in the tridimensional semi-infinite case. This has been done by using the real-space renormalization group approximation and specifically the Migdal-Kadanoff technique. Interesting results are obtained, which tell us that the randomness destroys the first order phase transitions and only those of the second order occur. We give the list of nine fixed points and their topology describing the surface critical behavior. Five new types of phase diagram are found with a rich variety of phase transitions, in accordance with the values of the bulk and surface probabilities and the ratios linking bulk and surface interactions.

  4. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  5. Emissions tracking system (ETS-PC) software

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherbee, J. Jr.; Kress, T.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. EPA Acid Rain Division developed and is maintaining the Emissions Tracking System (ETS) to receive, store and analyze data from continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) submitted by utilities affected by the 1990 Clean Air Act. This paper will describe ETS-PC, a PC application developed by EPA to assist utilities in analyzing and submitting emission data files each quarter. ETS-PC includes quality assurance software which helps utilities identify possible errors in their quarterly data files (QDFs) prior to submission. It also includes communications software which allows utilities to transfer QDFs via modem directly to the EPA mainframe computer located in Research Triangle Park, NC. After a file is transferred, users are provided with immediate feedback from the mainframe in the form of a file transfer receipt and summary.

  6. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501... DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is... publicize to all PC Postage customers the following payment options (listed in order of preference):...

  7. Possible effects of ionospheric beating for the formation of Pc1 pearl structures based on 6-year ground observations in Canada, Russia and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, C. W.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I.; Poddelsky, I.; Shevtsov, B.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate pearl structures (amplitude modulation) of Pc1 pulsations simultaneously observed at Athabasca (ATH, 54.7N, 246.7E, L=4.3) in Canada, Magadan (MGD, 60.1N, 150.7E, L=2.6) in Russia, and Moshiri (MOS, 44.4N, 142.3E, L=1.5) in Japan. From a 6-year period of ground observations, from 2008 to 2013, we selected 150 events at longitudinally separated stations (ATH and MGD, group 1), 782 at latitudinally separated stations (MGD and MOS, group 2), all with high coherence of Pc1 waveforms (r > 0.5). As a result, we found that the peak occurrence rates of simultaneous Pc1 events were at 12-18 UT in group1, when ATH was in the morning sector and MGD in the midnight sector. In group 2, the peak was at 18-21 UT, with MGD and MOS in the morning sector. Using cross-correlation analysis, we confirmed the similarity of Pc1 pearl structures at different stations during Pc1 event timing. 82 % of Pc1 events in group 1 were less than 40 % of similarity of Pc1 pearl structures. In addition, 18 % of Pc1 events in group 1, which are over than 40 % of similarity of Pc1 pearl structures, were concentrated at 10-18 UT. According to polarization angle distribution in group 1, 57 % of Pc1 events occurred between ATH and MGD. Most of those events had high similarity of Pc1 amplitude envelopes. We investigated the relationship between the similarity of Pc1 pearl structures and geomagnetic activities (AE and SYM-H indices). The AE index seemed suddenly to start decreasing before the Pc1 onset and increasing after 80 min. The variation of SYM-H index was increasing 2 hours before Pc1 onset. From our statistical analysis, we suggest that the beating process in the ionosphere could be the dominant generation mechanism of Pc1 pearl structures in the ionosphere. It seems that the ionospheric duct in dawn sector of the ionosphere is well-defined during Pc1 pulsation propagating from ionospheric sources to stations. In order to understand the beating process in the ionosphere more clearly, we are going to take into account the possible effects such as distributed ionospheric source, attenuation effect in the ionosphere, dispersive propagation in the ionosphere and Pc1 source amplitude. Using the same procedure, we will also investigate Pc1 pearl structures simultaneously observed at latitudinally separated ground stations (MGD and MOS).

  8. Deploying mainframe technical applications on the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Glynn, C.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Numerous engineering applications on the corporate mainframe network running VM/CMS have been redesigned and deployed on PC's running DOS. The majority of these applications apply to operations engineering and include calculating fluid properties, multiphase-flow pressure drops, and optimum designs for both downhole and surface equipment. The redesign effort focused on the user interface, with only minor changes made to the calculation routines. The PC version of the applications executes faster, at a lower cost per execution, and requires less support and training than the corresponding mainframe version.

  9. PC-based focal plane evaluation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Michael T.

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes a new focal plane evaluation system based on the IBM 386 PC. It has been used to evaluate three devices--a 4 X 128 X 128 pixel SWIR array, a 2098 X 3 linear CCD used as a panoramic camera, and a 1024 X 1024 MPP split frame CCD. Results and images from each are presented. The system includes a word generator implemented as a single PC/AT card, which generates all the complex looping timing signals required for focal plane operation and data acquisition. The word generator is described more fully in a companion paper. Software simulates a popular 'subpattern' style of timing editing. A commercial analog data acquisition module on a single PC/AT card, and software are used to acquire, pre-process and display up to four channels of an image at pixel rates to 1 MHz, continuously up to the extended memory limit of the 386, many Mbytes. Commercial image processing software is used to further process and display images. The system has proven to be powerful, easy and fast to use, flexible, transportable, and yet inexpensive due to the choice of the PC as its base.

  10. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment. PMID:18497164

  11. An IBM PC version of ASENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcraft, R.W.

    1987-12-01

    ASENT, a FORTRAN program developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been converted to Microsoft QuickBASIC for use on the IBM PC. The new version includes a plotting routine which is CGA compatible. A listing of the program and a sample data case are given in the Appendix. 2 refs.

  12. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus (USB); "Firewire,"…

  13. Stretch Your PC Dollars--Buy Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    True, John

    1986-01-01

    Relates how the story of how San Francisco State University evaluated IBM PC look-alikes, considered some of the risks involved, and decided to purchase over 100 of them. Questions of compatibility, vendor longevity, support, and other risk management issues are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  14. Experience using EPICS on PC platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemire, K.U.

    1998-03-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft`s operating systems, and also Wind River System`s real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms.

  15. Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN/PC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Mital, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Composites Analyzer (ICAN/PC) computer program designed to carry out comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered continuous-fiber polymer matrix composites. Performs micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analyses, taking account of hygrothermal responses of fiber composites. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. PC Games and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of PC games in the history classroom might be relatively new, the ideas for these assignments and the theory behind their use borrows heavily from a number of areas and combines different pedagogical techniques. Using computer games allows teachers to recombine disparate teaching threads into something novel that will serve…

  17. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  18. Shifting from a mainframe to a PC environment

    SciTech Connect

    Benavides, R.M.; Wilke, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    This case study of a PC-DOS{reg_sign}/Mainframe system highlights a unique method to reduce the dependence on the Mainframe Computer system by individuals preparing written engineering proposals for prospective customers. With the development and implementation of the Engineering Proposal System (EPS), data storage and remote communications are now the only two functions processed by the mainframe computer. Two key areas for success were user involvement and proper training. While most of the individuals preparing the proposals had worked on the mainframe for some period of time, very few had worked on PCs. An EPS users` group was established to bring together the needs of the end user and the needs of the programmers. This group remains active in enhancing and troubleshooting the current system. The problems involved with a totally dependence mainframe system, as well as communications and problems experienced with remote locations, are discussed herein. Satellite and phone modem communications are also briefly discussed. Several hardware configurations were necessary to respond to various needs created by the engineers` location and working environment. The existing PC system, its components and the method used to automatically combine all the components into a high quality end product are covered here. Since this is a case study, all aspects of the product experience are explored.

  19. Synchronization of heart rate indices of human and Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic quiet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenchenko, Tatiana

    Geomagnetic pulsations with duration of the period over 150 seconds (Pc5-6) are present in the magnetosphere almost constantly. Unlike other types of geomagnetic pulsations, they are characterized by high amplitudes reaching in auroral latitudes 30-100 nT, and even 300 - 600 nT in time of significant geomagnetic disturbances [1]. To date, it is generally accepted that the classic morning and afternoon Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere are toroidal Alfven resonance vibrations of the geomagnetic field lines [2, 3]. It was revealed that the basic oscillation periods, presented in heart rate variability of healthy subjects, in conditions of rest, at each time point substantially coincide with the periods of oscillation of the X-vector components of the geomagnetic field in the frequency range of Pc5-6 pulsations. Synchronization effect was observed in approximately 60% of cases [4]. The above statement is based on the results of more than 100 experiments (recording time from 60 to 200 min), conducted in the period 2011-2013 in various research groups [4]. In total, 37 volunteers in the age range 18-65 yrs took part in the experiments. Experiments were performed in Pushchino and Khimki (Moscow region), Arkhangelsk, Tomsk, Sofia (Bulgaria), as well as at the station Starorusskaya (Leningrad region). The geomagnetic data were obtained from INTERMAGNET network (http://ottawa.intermagnet.org/Welcom_e.php). From a biophysical point of view, the observed effects of timing fluctuations of heart rate of healthy subjects with the oscillations of the magnetic induction vector of the GMF could be an effective tool for solving one of the most actual problems in heliobiophysics, namely the identification of specific physiological mechanisms of biosystems response to low-intensity variations external factors. 1. Pilipenko V.A., Kleimenova N.G., Kozyreva O.V., Yumoto K., Bitterly G. Geomagnetism and aeronomy, 1997, V. 37, ?.3, P. 64-76 2. Chen L. and Hasegawa A. J.Geophys. Res. 1974. Vol.79,P.1024-1032 3. Southwood D.J. Planet. Space Sci. 1974. Vol.22, P.483-491. 4.Zenchenko T.A., Medvedeva A.A., Khorseva N.I., Breus T.K. // Geophysical Processes and Biosphere. 2013. V. 12. ? 4. P. 73-84

  20. PC-SEAPAK user's guide, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Fu, Gary; Darzi, Michael; Firestone, James K.

    1992-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is designed to provide a complete and affordable capability for processing and analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. Since the release of version 3.0 over a year ago, significant revisions were made to the AVHRR and CZCS programs and to the statistical data analysis module, and a number of new programs were added. This new version has 114 procedures listed in its menus. The package continues to emphasize user-friendliness and interactive data analysis. Additionally, because the scientific goals of the ocean color research being conducted have shifted to larger space and time scales, batch processing capabilities were enhanced, allowing large quantities of data to be easily ingested and analyzed. The development of PC-SEAPAK was paralled by two other activities that were influential and assistive: the global CZCS processing effort at GSFC and the continued development of VAX-SEAPAK. SEAPAK incorporates the instrument calibration and support all levels of data available from the CZCS archive.

  1. IBM PC enhances the world's future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Jozelle

    1988-01-01

    Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

  2. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with ? ? 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (? ? 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ?} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ?}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  3. D-Side: A Facility and Workforce Planning Group Multi-criteria Decision Support System for Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2005-01-01

    "To understand and protect our home planet, to explore the universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers" is NASA's mission. The Systems Management Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is searching for methods to effectively manage the Center's resources to meet NASA's mission. D-Side is a group multi-criteria decision support system (GMDSS) developed to support facility decisions at JSC. D-Side uses a series of sequential and structured processes to plot facilities in a three-dimensional (3-D) graph on the basis of each facility alignment with NASA's mission and goals, the extent to which other facilities are dependent on the facility, and the dollar value of capital investments that have been postponed at the facility relative to the facility replacement value. A similarity factor rank orders facilities based on their Euclidean distance from Ideal and Nadir points. These similarity factors are then used to allocate capital improvement resources across facilities. We also present a parallel model that can be used to support decisions concerning allocation of human resources investments across workforce units. Finally, we present results from a pilot study where 12 experienced facility managers from NASA used D-Side and the organization's current approach to rank order and allocate funds for capital improvement across 20 facilities. Users evaluated D-Side favorably in terms of ease of use, the quality of the decision-making process, decision quality, and overall value-added. Their evaluations of D-Side were significantly more favorable than their evaluations of the current approach. Keywords: NASA, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Decision Support System, AHP, Euclidean Distance, 3-D Modeling, Facility Planning, Workforce Planning.

  4. CASE STUDY -- LEAN 94-02: A Case Study of Self-Directed Work Teams at Boeing Defense and Space Group - Corinth

    E-print Network

    Klein, Janice

    1994-02-24

    Boeing Defense & Space Group - Corinth (BD&SG-C) is a self-directed team based unionized facility in the defense and commercial aircraft industry. The plant was a greenfield start-up in 1987. Due to the nature of the defense ...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.74 Section 1280.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Rules Apply to...

  7. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  8. Instructor-Led Computer Classes for PC and MAC

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Instructor-Led Computer Classes for PC and MAC If you have an @Berkeley email address you can Coordinator calpact@berkeley.edu , ph: 643-0451 Instructor-Led Computer Classes for PC and MAC If you have

  9. Trending in Pc Measurements via a Bayesian Zero-Inflated Mixed Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, Jonathon; Hejduk, Matthew; Stamey, James

    2015-01-01

    Two satellites predicted to come within close proximity of one another, usually a high-value satellite and a piece of space debris moving the active satellite is a means of reducing collision risk but reduces satellite lifetime, perturbs satellite mission, and introduces its own risks. So important to get a good statement of the risk of collision in order to determine whether a maneuver is truly necessary. Two aspects of this Calculation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) based on the most recent set of position velocity and uncertainty data for both satellites. Examination of the changes in the Pc value as the event develops. Events should follow a canonical development (Pc vs time to closest approach (TCA)). Helpful to be able to guess where the present data point fits in the canonical development in order to guide operational response.

  10. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  11. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to make payments for postage...

  12. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to make payments for postage...

  13. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED...POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to...

  14. The USL NASA PC R and D development environment standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM PC/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the PC's are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling PC resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.

  15. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property custodian (PC... Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the... required on all actions affecting the personal property within his jurisdiction. The designation as PC...

  16. Bifurcation Diagrams and Quotient Topological Spaces Under the Action of the Affine Group of a Family of Planar Quadratic Vector Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerba Diaconescu, Oxana; Schlomiuk, Dana; Vulpe, Nicolae

    In this article, we consider the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, &boldsymbol; ? } of all real quadratic differential systems (dx)/(dt) = p(x, y), (dy)/(dt) = q(x, y) with gcd(p, q) = 1, having invariant lines of total multiplicity four and two complex and one real infinite singularities. We first construct compactified canonical forms for the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, &boldsymbol; ? } so as to include limit points in the 12-dimensional parameter space of this class. We next construct the bifurcation diagrams for these compactified canonical forms. These diagrams contain many repetitions of phase portraits and we show that these are due to many symmetries under the group action. To retain the essence of the dynamics we finally construct the quotient spaces under the action of the group G = Aff(2, ?) × ?* of affine transformations and time homotheties and we place the phase portraits in these quotient spaces. The final diagrams retain only the necessary information to capture the dynamics under the motion in the parameter space as well as under this group action. We also present here necessary and sufficient conditions for an affine line to be invariant of multiplicity k for a quadratic system.

  17. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir. PMID:23546826

  18. Intracellular Distributing and Interferon-? Secretion of Human Interleukin-18 in BxPC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Linlin; Xu, Bin; Xu, Jian; Sun, Jinquan; Shen, Wen; Zhang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in vitro, explore IL-18, interferon-? (IFN-?) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretive activity in BxPC-3 line cells with interleukin-18 mutants. Methods: Human IL-18 full-length gene (hIL-18-F) and the hIL-18 presumed mature protein gene (hIL-18-M) were inserted into the expression vector pEGFP-N1, to construct recombinant plasmids as Mu0, Mu1, Mu2, Mu3, and Mu4, and the recombinant plasmids were then transferred into BxPC-3 line cells. There are significant differences between Mu1, Mu2 and the pEGFP-C1 control group (P<0.05) by 3-(4,5-dimethiazol- 2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) for a proliferation assay, and the fluorescence of the Mu1 and Mu 2 appeared targeted to the membranous region in the BxPC-3 cells after transfected 24h by confocal laser scanning microscope (OLSM).To characterize the intracellular distribution of hIL-18, recombinant IL-18 were each fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, and expressed in BxPC-3 cells. Results: Results showed that the Mu1 tended to the membranous region in BxPC-3 cells, this indicates that the N-terminal former amino acid peptide helped ChIL-18 target to BxPC-3 cellS membranes. ELISA results demonstrated that IFN-? and IL-18 secreted levels of BxPC-3 cells transfecting with recombinant plasmid showed an significant difference (P<0.01); refers to IL-2 expression, the two BxPC-3 cells groups transfecting with recombinant plasmid have no significant function (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that hIL-18 and hIL-18 presumed mature protein can induce the secretion of IFN-? in BxPC-3 cells, and increase the expression of IL-18, but they have no effects on IL-2. PMID:24465163

  19. PC-controlled X-band SLAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Botond; Seller, Rudolf; Mihaly, Sandor; Bozsoki, Istvan

    A description is given of a side-looking airborne radar (SLAR). The radar is based on a modified ship-radar, and its control and preprocessing of the digitized video-signal are done by a PC-AT. The SLAR is intended to be used mainly for agricultural purposes, but can be used in other areas of application (water management, pollution monitoring, etc.). An important goal is to become more familiar with the understanding of radar images. In-flight experiments carried out proved the usefulness of this moderate cost solution.

  20. PC-assisted translation of photogrammetric papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güthner, Karlheinz; Peipe, Jürgen

    A PC-based system for machine translation of photogrammetric papers from the English into the German language and vice versa is described. The computer-assisted translating process is not intended to create a perfect interpretation of a text but to produce a rough rendering of the content of a paper. Starting with the original text, a continuous data flow is effected into the translated version by means of hardware (scanner, personal computer, printer) and software (OCR, translation, word processing, DTP). An essential component of the system is a photogrammetric microdictionary which is being established at present. It is based on several sources, including e.g. the ISPRS Multilingual Dictionary.

  1. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  2. TEC variations during geomagnetic storm/substorm with Pc5/PI2 pulsation signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, A. M.; Mahrous, A. M.; Fathy, I.; Ghamry, E.; Groves, K.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-06-01

    The electron density integral along the paths between a GPS satellite and receiver is known as Total Electron Content (TEC), and this parameter is used in studying the ionosphere behaviors. TEC can be obtained by means of many methods. A space-based radio navigation system, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), offers good opportunities for studying the ionosphere. The TEC is calculated from the group path delay and phase advance in GPS satellite signals along the slant paths connecting GPS receivers and satellites at 22,000 km. Locally, a dual frequency GPS receiver was installed in Helwan, Egypt (29.86°N, 31.32°E) in November 2009. Here, GPS data were analyzed to establish a daily observation of Vertical TEC in a region located near to the northern crest of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly. During a moderate geomagnetic storm, observed on 02-05 May 2010, a number of ionospheric/magnetic phenomena were observed. Also, observations for Pc5/Pi2 pulsations were recorded during the geomagnetic storm phases. These geomagnetic observations are taken from MAGDAS-magnetometer station, located at Aswan (23.59°N, 32.51°E). More than 10 TECU increase in the ionospheric TEC values were recorded during the daytime of 02 May, followed by a large reduction during 03 May, reference to the pre-storm conditions. This confirms the enhancement in the geomagnetic H-component peak during the storm's initial phase and its reduction during the main phase.

  3. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working Group Summary. 5: Propulsion (P-1). A. Summary Statement. B. Technology Needs (Form 1). C. Priority Assessments (Form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    All themes require some form of advanced propulsion capabilities to achieve their stated objectives. Requirements cover a broad spectrum ranging from a new generation of heavy lift launch vehicles to low thrust, long lift system for on-orbit operations. The commonality extant between propulsive technologies was established and group technologies were grouped into vehicle classes by functional capability. The five classes of launch vehicles identified by the space transportation theme were augmented with a sixth class, encompassing planetary and on-orbit operations. Propulsion technologies in each class were then ranked, and assigned priority numbers. Prioritized technologies were matched to theme requirements.

  4. Evaluating security systems using SNAP-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, C.D.; Gregg, M.L.; Erdbruegger, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    SNAP-PC (Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure for the Personal Computer) is a user-friendly version of SNAP designed for IBM XT or AT compatible microcomputers. SNAP is a simulation-based analysis technique supporting the evaluation of fixed-site security systems to prevent theft or sabotage of a specified target. Through SNAP the user is able to define the facility, the sensor system, the guard operating policies and response tactics, and the adversary's attack plan. SNAP uses the system definition to analyze its effectiveness in defending against specific threats. The system performance statistics measured by SNAP include: Adversary mission success probability, guard and adversary casualties, duration of engagements, outcome of engagements, duration of scenario by outcome (adversary success/fail), and adversary duration by facility location. The SNAP-PC package provides a compact analysis tool that can be used to analyze a wide variety of security systems. It places SNAP, a proven evaluation technique, in the hands of on-site personnel, not just computer analysts. The support programs eliminate the labor intensive tedious task of organizing and sorting through reams of output reports and greatly reduce the time previously required to analyze a security system.

  5. ICAN - INTEGRATED COMPOSITE ANALYZER (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) is a computer program designed to carry out a comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered fiber composites. The analysis contains the essential features required to effectively design structural components made from fiber composites. ICAN includes the micromechanical design features of the Intraply Hybrid Composite Design (INHYD) program to predict ply level hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties. The laminate analysis features of the Multilayered Filamentary Composite Analysis (MFCA) program are included to account for interply layer effects. ICAN integrates these and additional features to provide a comprehensive analysis capability for composite structures. Additional features unique to ICAN include the following: 1) ply stress-strain influence coefficients, 2) microstresses and microstrain influence coefficients, 3) concentration factors around a circular hole, 4) calculation of probable delamination locations around a circular hole, 5) Poisson's ratio mismatch details near a straight edge, 6) free-edge stresses, 7) material card input for finite element analysis using NASTRAN (available separately from COSMIC) or MARC, 8) failure loads based on maximum stress criterion, and laminate failure stresses based on first-ply failures and fiber breakage criteria, 9) transverse shear stresses, normal and interlaminar stresses, and 10) durability/fatigue type analyses for thermal as well as mechanical cyclic loads. The code can currently assess degradation due to mechanical and thermal cyclic loads with or without a defect. ICAN includes a dedicated data bank of constituent material properties, and allows the user to build a database of material properties of commonly used fibers and matrices so the user need only specify code names for constituents. Input to ICAN includes constituent material properties (or code names), factors reflecting the fabrication process, and composite geometry. ICAN performs micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analysis including the hygrothermal response of fiber composites. ICAN output includes the various ply and composite properties, composite structural response, and composite stress analysis results with details of failure. Output can be tailored to specific needs by choosing the appropriate options. Two machine versions of ICAN are available. The IBM 370 series version (LEW-14468) is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM 370 series computers running OS/TSS. The IBM PC version (LEW-15592) is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on the IBM PC series computers running MS-DOS and Microsoft FORTRAN 5.1. The IBM 370 version requires 3.5Mb of memory for execution. No sample executable is provided. For the IBM PC version, a sample executable, along with sample input and output data, is included on the distribution medium. Although the included executable requires a math coprocessor, the ICAN source can be recompiled into an executable which does not require a math coprocessor. The standard distribution medium for the IBM 370 version of ICAN is a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in EBCDIC CARD IMAGE format. The standard distribution medium for the IBM PC version is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. ICAN was developed in 1986 and the IBM PC version was released in 1992.

  6. Crystals of the Arp2/3 complex in two new space groups with structural information about actin-related protein 2 and potential WASP binding sites.

    PubMed

    Jurgenson, Christopher T; Pollard, Thomas D

    2015-09-01

    Co-crystals of the bovine Arp2/3 complex with the CA motif from N-WASP in two new space groups were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The crystals in the orthorhombic space group P212121 contained one complex per asymmetric unit, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.48, b = 156.71, c = 177.84?Å, and diffracted to 3.9?Å resolution. The crystals in the tetragonal space group P41 contained two complexes per asymmetric unit, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 149.93, c = 265.91?Å, and diffracted to 5.0?Å resolution. The electron-density maps of both new crystal forms had densities for small segments of subdomains 1 and 2 of Arp2. Both maps had density at the binding site on Arp3 for the C-terminal EWE tripeptide from N-WASP and a binding site proposed for the C motif of N-WASP in the barbed-end groove of Arp2. The map from the tetragonal crystal form had density near the barbed end of Arp3 that may correspond to the C helix of N-WASP. The noise levels and the low resolution of the maps made the assignment of specific molecular structures for any of these CA peptides impossible. PMID:26323303

  7. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  8. Disk-based k-mer counting on a PC

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The k-mer counting problem, which is to build the histogram of occurrences of every k-symbol long substring in a given text, is important for many bioinformatics applications. They include developing de Bruijn graph genome assemblers, fast multiple sequence alignment and repeat detection. Results We propose a simple, yet efficient, parallel disk-based algorithm for counting k-mers. Experiments show that it usually offers the fastest solution to the considered problem, while demanding a relatively small amount of memory. In particular, it is capable of counting the statistics for short-read human genome data, in input gzipped FASTQ file, in less than 40 minutes on a PC with 16 GB of RAM and 6 CPU cores, and for long-read human genome data in less than 70 minutes. On a more powerful machine, using 32 GB of RAM and 32 CPU cores, the tasks are accomplished in less than half the time. No other algorithm for most tested settings of this problem and mammalian-size data can accomplish this task in comparable time. Our solution also belongs to memory-frugal ones; most competitive algorithms cannot efficiently work on a PC with 16 GB of memory for such massive data. Conclusions By making use of cheap disk space and exploiting CPU and I/O parallelism we propose a very competitive k-mer counting procedure, called KMC. Our results suggest that judicious resource management may allow to solve at least some bioinformatics problems with massive data on a commodity personal computer. PMID:23679007

  9. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  10. Homotheties of a Class of Spherically Symmetric Space-Times Admitting G_3 as Maximal Isometry Group

    E-print Network

    M. Kashif Habib; Daud Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    In this article, for a subclass of the spherically symmetric spacetimes admitting G3 as the isometry groups, the metrics along with their corresponding homotheties are found without imposing any restriction on the stress energy tensor.

  11. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN-PC is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. An 80286 machine with an 80287 math co-processor is required for execution. The executable requires at least 640K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher. The package includes sample executables which were compiled under Microsoft FORTRAN v. 5.1. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. METCAN-PC was developed in 1992.

  12. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  13. Talk in Blended-Space Speech Communities: An Exploration of Discursive Practices of a Professional Development Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Tabitha Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study is an exploration of alternative teacher professional development. While using symbolic interactionism for a research lens, it characterizes the discursive practices commonly found in formal, informal, and blended-space speech communities based on the talk within a leadership-development program comprised of five female, church-based…

  14. Using Innovative Outliers to Detect Discrete Shifts in Dynamics in Group-Based State-Space Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Outliers are typically regarded as data anomalies that should be discarded. However, dynamic or "innovative" outliers can be appropriately utilized to capture unusual but substantively meaningful shifts in a system's dynamics. We extend De Jong and Penzer's 1998 approach for representing outliers in single-subject state-space models to a…

  15. Existence of new nonlocal field theory on noncommutative space and spiral flow in renormalization group analysis of matrix models

    E-print Network

    Shoichi Kawamoto; Tsunehide Kuroki

    2015-06-17

    In the previous study, we formulate a matrix model renormalization group based on the fuzzy spherical harmonics with which a notion of high/low energy can be attributed to matrix elements, and show that it exhibits locality and various similarity to the usual Wilsonian renormalization group of quantum field theory. In this work, we continue the renormalization group analysis of a matrix model with emphasis on nonlocal interactions where the fields on antipodal points are coupled. They are indeed generated in the renormalization group procedure and are tightly related to the noncommutative nature of the geometry. We aim at formulating renormalization group equations including such nonlocal interactions and finding existence of nontrivial field theory with antipodal interactions on the fuzzy sphere. We find several nontrivial fixed points and calculate the scaling dimensions associated with them. We also consider the noncommutative plane limit and then no consistent fixed point is found. This contrast between the fuzzy sphere limit and the noncommutative plane limit would be manifestation in our formalism of the claim given by Chu, Madore and Steinacker that the former does not have UV/IR mixing, while the latter does.

  16. Phosphorylation-dependent control of Pc2 SUMO E3 ligase activity by its substrate protein HIPK2.

    PubMed

    Roscic, Ana; Möller, Andreas; Calzado, Marco A; Renner, Florian; Wimmer, Verena C; Gresko, Ekaterina; Lüdi, Katharina Schmid; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2006-10-01

    Sumoylation serves to control key cellular functions, but the regulation of SUMO E3 ligase activity is largely unknown. Here we show that the polycomb group protein Pc2 binds to and colocalizes with homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) and serves as a SUMO E3 ligase for this kinase. DNA damage-induced HIPK2 directly phosphorylates Pc2 at multiple sites, which in turn controls Pc2 sumoylation and intranuclear localization. Inducible phosphorylation of Pc2 at threonine 495 is required for its ability to increase HIPK2 sumoylation in response to DNA damage, thereby establishing an autoregulatory feedback loop between a SUMO substrate and its cognate E3 ligase. Sumoylation enhances the ability of HIPK2 to mediate transcriptional repression, thus providing a mechanistic link for DNA damage-induced transcriptional silencing. PMID:17018294

  17. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  18. Using seismic array-processing to enhance observations of PcP waves to constrain lowermost mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D" region are essential to understand the interaction between the earth's mantle and core. A variety of seismic data-processing techniques have been used to detect and measure travel-times and amplitudes of weak short-period teleseismic body-waves phases that interact with CMB and D", which is crucial to constrain properties of the lowermost mantle at short wavelengths. Major challenges in enhancing these observations are: (1) increasing signal-to-noise ratio of target phases and (2) isolating them from unwanted neighboring phases. Seismic array-processing can address these problems by combining signals from groups of seismometers and exploiting information that allows to separate the coherent signals from the noise. Here, we focus on the study of the Pacific large-low shear-velocity province (LLSVP) and surrounding areas using differential travel-times and amplitude ratios of the P and PcP phases, and their depth phases. We particularly design scale-dependent slowness filters that do not compromise time-space resolution. This is a local delay-and-sum (i.e. slant-stack) approach implemented in the time-scale domain using the wavelet transform to enhance time-space resolution (i.e. reduce array aperture). We group stations from USArray and other nearby networks, and from Hi-Net and F-net in Japan, to define many overlapping local arrays. The aperture of each array varies mainly according (1) to the space resolution target and (2) to the slowness resolution required to isolate the target phases at each period. Once the target phases are well separated, we measure their differential travel-times and amplitude ratios, and we project these to the CMB. In this process, we carefully analyze and, when possible and significant, correct for the main sources of bias, i.e., mantle heterogeneities, earthquake mislocation and intrinsic attenuation. We illustrate our approach in a series of regional studies of the CMB and D" using P and PcP observations with unprecedented resolution, for events with magnitude Mw>5.4 and distances up to 80 degrees. Regions sampled span Alaska and the north of Canada, inside and outside of the northwest border of the Pacific LLSVP, and up to its eastern border from central America.

  19. Pearl structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations observed at multipoint ground stations at Russia, Japan and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, C.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I.; Poddelsky, I.; Shevtsov, B.

    2013-12-01

    Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations propagate from high to low latitudes through the ionospheric wave duct. A few papers had shown longitudinal propagation of Pc1 pulsations [e.g., Kawamura et al. 1981; Sakaguchi et al.2012]. Despite these previous researches, diurnal variations of longitudinally-distributed Pc1 pulsations and the pearl structures at different stations have not been investigated yet. In order to understand generation and propagation processes of Pc1 pulsations in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere, it is necessary to investigate spatial distribution of Pc1 pulsations using magnetometers at longitudinally and latitudinally separated ground stations. We have investigated spatial distributions of the Pc1 pulsations observed by induction magnetometers at three ground stations at Moshiri (MOS) in Japan, Magadan (MGD) in far-eastern Russia and Athabasca (ATH) in central Canada from January 2009 to December 2011. Simultaneous Pc1 events observed at MGD and ATH occurred in the morning and afternoon sectors. This result is consistent with the global distribution of EMIC waves observed in space [Min et al. 2012]. The simultaneous Pc1 events with high coherence (> 0.5) observed at ATH and MGD concentrates in the afternoon to pre-midnight sector. The Pc1 frequencies of the simultaneous Pc1 events at ATH and MGD in the afternoon to pre-midnight sector were higher than those in the post-midnight to morning sector. Most of the simultaneous Pc1 events with high coherence observed at ATH and MGD have different pearl structures. This result indicates that the pearl structures should be not caused in the magnetosphere, and rather made during the propagation in the ionospheric duct. Simultaneous Pc1 events observed at MGD and MOS at subauroral and middle latitudes, respectively, were most frequently observed at night suggesting that propagation in the ionospheric duct suffers less attenuation at night. In the presentation we discuss these results in combination with the EMIC wave distribution in the magnetosphere and their propagation to the ionosphere and in the ionospheric duct.

  20. Human 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-ligand complexes: crystals of different space groups with various cations and combined seeding and co-crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.-W.; Han, Q.; Qiu, W.; Campbell, R. L.; Xie, B.-X.; Azzi, A.; Lin, S.-X.

    1999-01-01

    Human estrogenic 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSD1) is responsible for the synthesis of active estrogens that stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The enzyme has been crystallized using a Mg 2+/PEG (3500)/?-octyl glucoside system [Zhu et al., J. Mol. Biol. 234 (1993) 242]. The space group of these crystals is C2. Here we report that cations can affect 17?-HSD1 crystallization significantly. In the presence of Mn 2+ instead of Mg 2+, crystals have been obtained in the same space group with similar unit cell dimensions. In the presence of Li + and Na + instead of Mg 2+, the space group has been changed to P2 12 12 1. A whole data set for a crystal of 17ß-HSD1 complex with progesterone grown in the presence of Li + has been collected to 1.95 Å resolution with a synchrotron source. The cell dimensions are a=41.91 Å, b=108.21 Å, c=117.00 Å. The structure has been preliminarily determined by molecular replacement, yielding important information on crystal packing in the presence of different cations. In order to further understand the structure-function relationship of 17?-HSD1, enzyme complexes with several ligands have been crystallized. As the steroids have very low aqueous solubility, we used a combined method of seeding and co-crystallization to obtain crystals of 17?-HSD1 complexed with various ligands. This method provides ideal conditions for growing complex crystals, with ligands such as 20?-hydroxysteroid progesterone, testosterone and 17?-methyl-estradiol-NADP +. Several complex structures have been determined with reliable electronic density of the bound ligands.

  1. Prokineticin Receptor 1 Antagonist PC-10 as a Biomarker for Imaging Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Orit; Weiss, Ido D.; Niu, Gang; Balboni, Gianfranco; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Lattanzi, Roberta; Salvadori, Severo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and its ligand Bv8 were shown to be expressed in inflammation-induced pain and by tumor-supporting fibroblasts. Blocking this receptor might prove useful for reducing pain and for cancer therapy. However, there is no method to quantify the levels of these receptors in vivo. Methods A nonpeptidic PKR1 antagonist, N-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine, which contains a free guanidine group, was labeled with 18F by reacting the guanidine function with N-succinimidyl-4-18F-fluorobenzoate to give the guanidinyl amide N-(4-18F-fluoro-benzoyl)-N?-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine (18F-PC-10). Inflammation was induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund adjuvant in the paw. The mice were imaged with 18F-PC-10, 18F-FDG, and 64Cu-pyruvaldehyde bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-PTSM) at 24 h after complete Freund adjuvant injection using a small-animal PET device. Results 18F-PC-10 was synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 16% ± 3% (decay-corrected). 18F-PC-10 accumulated specifically in the inflamed paw 4- to 5-fold more than in the control paw. Compared with 18F-PC-10, 18F-FDG and 64Cu-PTSM displayed higher accumulation in the inflamed paw but also had higher accumulation in the control paw, demonstrating a reduced signal-to-background ratio. 18F-PC-10 also accumulated in PKR1-expressing organs, such as the salivary gland and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion 18F-PC-10 can be used to image PKR1, a biomarker of the inflammation process. However, the high uptake of 18F-PC-10 in the gastrointestinal tract, due to specific uptake and the metabolic processing of this highly lipophilic molecule, would restrict its utility. PMID:21421710

  2. Physical Properties of PC-PMMA Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Arifur; Baer, Eric; Chipara, Alin Cristian; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pullickel M.; Hinthorne, James; Elamin, Ibrahim; Chipara, Mircea; Eric Baer Collaboration; Pullickel Ajayan Collaboration; Mircea Chipara Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Multilayers of polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been obtained by the layer multiplying coextrusion method. Each sample (1024 layers, of equal thickness, with individual thickness between 10 and 200 nm) has been investigated at room temperature by Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS) using a Bruker Discovery 8 spectrometer (Cu K ? radiation), Raman spectroscopy (Bruker Senterra confocal Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm), FTIR spectroscopy (Tensor 27 Bruker), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further details about the glass transition temperature in these samples have been obtained by Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, DMA, (TA Instruments Q800) at various frequencies in the range 1 to 100 Hz. Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, (TA Instruments Q200) was used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the polymeric film on the crystallization processes. Non-isothermal DSC measurements aimed at the identification and location of the main phase transitions (glass, crystallization, and melting) occurring in these multilayers. The effects of confinement on the phase transitions occurring in these multilayers are discussed in detail.

  3. Identifying wide, cold planets within 8pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deacon, Niall; Kraus, Adam; Crossfield, Ian

    2014-12-01

    Direct imaging exoplanet studies have recently unveiled a previously-unexpected population of massive planets (up to 15 M_Jup) in wide orbits (>100AU). Although most of these discoveries have been around younger stars and have been of similar temperatures to field brown dwarfs, one object (WD 0806-661B), is the coldest planet known outside our solar system. We propose a survey of all stars and brown dwarfs within 8pc to identify massive planetary companions in the 150-1500AU separation range. We will 1) Measure the fraction of wide planetary mass companions to stars in the Solar neighbourhood. 2) Identify all planets within 8 parsecs with masses above 8 Jupiter masses in our chosen projected separation range with lower mass limits for closer and younger stars. 3) Identify approximately 8 planets, four of which will have temperatures below 300K making them ideal targets to study water clouds in cold atmospheres with both JWST and the next generation of ground-based extremely large telescopes. Our survey will be the most complete survey for wide planets to-date and will provide both a measurement of the wide planet population and a legacy of cold, well constrained targets for future observatories.

  4. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is... card. (b) The provider must make payments on behalf of the customer to the Postal Service in accordance... responsibility of the Postal Service. The RC must lock the customer account immediately so that the customer...

  5. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  6. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of incompatibilities between the MVP-AT image board and ZENITH computers. Also, the MVP-AT image board is not necessarily compatible with 486-based systems; users of 486-based systems should consult with Matrox about compatibility concerns. Other PC-SEAPAK requirements include a Microsoft mouse (serial version), 2Mb RAM, and 100Mb hard disk space. For data ingest and backup, 9-track tape, 8mm tape and optical disks are supported and recommended. PC-SEAPAK has been under development since 1988. Version 4.0 was updated in 1992, and is distributed without source code. It is available only as a set of 36 1.2Mb 5.25 inch IBM MS-DOS format diskettes. PC-SEAPAK is a copyrighted product with all copyright vested in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Phar Lap's DOS_Extender run-time version is integrated into several of the programs; therefore, the PC-SEAPAK programs may not be duplicated. Three of the distribution diskettes contain DOS_Extender files. One of the distribution diskettes contains Media Cybernetics' HALO88 font files, also licensed by NASA for dissemination but not duplication. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. HALO88 is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics, but the product was discontinued in 1991.

  7. Space group analysis of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 ceramics with x = 0.20, 0.27 and 0.30 through electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahid; Lalla, N. P.

    2007-10-01

    The space groups of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 in the composition range 0.20<=x<=0.30 have been investigated using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction has been used in selected area diffraction (SAD), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and micro-diffraction modes to record zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) and higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) patterns. For the 0.20<=x<=0.30 composition range there is still controversy regarding the correct space group: P 21/m, Pnma, Imma or I4/mcm. By invoking Rietveld refinement, detailed analysis of CBED patterns containing A2-type GM-lines and comparison between simulated ZOLZ/FOLZ and experimentally observed SAD patterns, we have established that for Sr1-xCaxTiO3 (0.20<=x<=0.30) two types of phase coexist at room temperature. These are the Pnma and P 21212 orthorhombic phases, coexisting with volume fractions of about 40% and 60% respectively.

  8. Evidence for cleavage of the PC1/PC3 pro-segment in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, I

    1994-06-01

    AtT-20 cells contain two molecular weight forms (87 and 66 kDa) of the prohormone convertase PC1 (also known as PC3), thought to be involved in prohormone maturation. In this study we found that PC1 is first synthesized as a 94-kDa protein, which is then rapidly converted to a 84-kDa form. Two lines of evidence suggest that the generation of the 84-kDa protein from its 94-kDa precursor occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The processing of the 94-kDa protein to the lower molecular weight form was extremely rapid, occurring with a half-life less than 2 min. The 84-kDa form was initially endoglycosidase H-sensitive, indicating lack of acquisition of sugars transferred in the medial Golgi. Within 40 min after the labeling period, the 84-kDa protein was converted to an endoglycosidase H-resistant form of 87 kDa, which was then processed to an endoglycosidase H-resistant 66-kDa protein. Radiosequencing of the 87- and 66-kDa proteins indicated that the biosynthesis of the 87-kDa protein involves the removal of the 83 amino acid Pro segment and that the processing of the 87-kDa to the 66-kDa form occurred by cleavage of a carboxy-terminal segment. Brefeldin A did not interrupt the cleavage of the 94-kDa to the 87-kDa protein, but completely blocked the processing of the 84- to 87-kDa proteins to the 66-kDa species. The 84-kDa protein produced in brefeldin-treated cells remained sensitive to endoglycosidase H, indicating a lack of exposure to Golgi sugar transferases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8087424

  9. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  10. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  11. Effect of increase in orientational order of lipid chains and head group spacing on non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sutapa Mondal; Bansode, Amol S; Sarkar, Munna

    2010-12-21

    Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. The fusion process, both in vivo and in vitro, is induced by different agents which include mainly proteins and peptides. For protein- and peptide-mediated membrane fusion, conformational reorganization serves as a driving force. Small drug molecules do not share this advantage; hence, drug induced membrane fusion occurring in absence of any other fusogenic agent and at physiologically relevant concentration of the drugs is a very rare event. To date, only three drugs, namely, meloxicam (Mx), piroxicam (Px), and tenoxicam (Tx), belonging to the oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have been shown by us to induce fusion at very low drug to lipid ratio without the aid of any other fusogenic agent. In our continued effort to understand the interplay of different physical and chemical parameters of both the participating drugs and the membrane on the mechanism of this drug induced membrane fusion, we present here the effect of increase in orientational order of the lipid chains and increase in head group spacing. This is achieved by studying the effect of low concentration cholesterol (<10 mol %) at temperatures above the chain-melting transition. Low concentration cholesterol (<10 mol %), above the gel to fluid transition temperature, is mainly known to increase orientational order of the lipid chains and increase head group spacing. To isolate the effect of these parameters, small unilameller vesicles (SUVs) formed by dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with an average diameter of 50-60 nm were used as simple model membranes. Fluorescence assays were used to probe the time dependence of lipid mixing, content mixing, and leakage and also used to determine the partitioning of the drugs in the membrane bilayer. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the effect of drugs in the presence of cholesterol on the chain-melting temperature which reflects the fluidization effect of the hydrophobic tail region of the bilayer. Our results show contradictory effect of low concentration cholesterol on the fusion induced by the three drugs, which has been explained by parsing the effect of orientational order and increase in head group spacing on the fusion process. PMID:21114267

  12. YOUNG STARS NEAR EARTH: THE OCTANS-NEAR ASSOCIATION AND CASTOR MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura; Song, Inseok; Schneider, Adam E-mail: lvican@ucla.edu E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu

    2013-11-20

    All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages ?100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a 'good box' with dimensions ?20 km s{sup –1} on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age '20 Myr?' and located ?140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity –3.6 km s{sup –1} that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call {sup O}ctans-Near{sup ;} these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages ?200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg—6.2 pc from Earth with likely age ?100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ?200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor group—if it exists at all—are mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

  13. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  14. Management of Data Replication for PC Cluster-based Cloud Storage System

    E-print Network

    Myint, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Storage systems are essential building blocks for cloud computing infrastructures. Although high performance storage servers are the ultimate solution for cloud storage, the implementation of inexpensive storage system remains an open issue. To address this problem, the efficient cloud storage system is implemented with inexpensive and commodity computer nodes that are organized into PC cluster based datacenter. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is an open source cloud based storage platform and designed to be deployed in low-cost hardware. PC Cluster based Cloud Storage System is implemented with HDFS by enhancing replication management scheme. Data objects are distributed and replicated in a cluster of commodity nodes located in the cloud. This system provides optimum replica number as well as weighting and balancing among the storage server nodes. The experimental results show that storage can be balanced depending on the available disk space, expected availability and failure probability of each node ...

  15. Braid groups of imprimitive reflection groups

    E-print Network

    Digne, François

    6/5/2012 1 Braid groups of imprimitive reflection groups Ruth Corran Cap Hornu May 30, 2012 Finite complex reflection groups V a vector space over C with dim(V) = r. A complex reflection s is a non) is the reflection hyperplane for the reflection s A (finite) complex reflection group W is a (finite) group

  16. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Method of mounting a PC board to a hybrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system for mounting a hybrid electronic component to a PC board is disclosed. The system includes a set of brackets for mutually engaging a first surface of the PC board and a cover surface of the hybrid electronic component, wherein the cover surface has an arcuate shape when in a vacuum environment. The brackets are designed with legs having lengths and thicknesses for providing clearance between the cover surface of the hybrid and the first surface of the PC board for use when the hybrid electronic component is in a vacuum environment.

  18. Hands-on program of IBM-PC training at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lier, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Since December 1983, the Laboratory has offered introductory courses of IBM-PC training. A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted and a nine-course module of classes was designed and implemented. Forty classes were completed in the one-year period. The target group includes the novice computer user in the scientific, management, administrative, and secretarial personnel groups. The development, needs assessment, course implementation and design, course evaluations, and future direction of computer training will be discussed. Lab-automation, robotics, design of the lab and office and the impact of computer on society will be discussed briefly.

  19. A new PAT/QbD approach for the determination of blend homogeneity: combination of on-line NIRS analysis with PC Scores Distance Analysis (PC-SDA).

    PubMed

    Puchert, T; Holzhauer, C-V; Menezes, J C; Lochmann, D; Reich, G

    2011-05-01

    A novel and straightforward multivariate analytical tool for the qualitative determination of powder blend uniformity using on-line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is presented. The approach combines current chemometric methods, e.g. spectral pre-processing and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), with (1) a new approach of data analysis to determine the end-point of the blending process, (2) building a design space (DS) for blend homogeneity and (3) developing a solid statistical rationale to stop blending according to Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles of FDA's Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative. The new approach comprises calculation of Euclidean distances between PCA scores in a multidimensional space and determination of Moving Block Standard Deviations (MBSDs) of successive Principal Component (PC) scores distances to estimate a time-window during blending where spectral variability decreases to a preset minimum. Hotelling's T(2) statistics is then used to monitor and report blend homogeneity. This technique is called "Principal Component Scores Distance Analysis" (PC-SDA). A Central Composite Design resulting in 10 batches mixed in a bin-blender (same composition, different blender fill level, different number of revolutions) was executed. NIR Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) in combination with Symmetry Parameter Image Analysis (SPIA) was used to verify the NIRS analyzer response and assess homogeneity of all NIR-active components. PMID:21168484

  20. Abnormal expression and processing of the proprotein convertases PC1 and PC2 in human colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Tzimas, George N; Chevet, Eric; Jenna, Sarah; Nguyên, Duc Thang; Khatib, Abdel M; Marcus, Victoria; Zhang, Yi; Chrétien, Michel; Seidah, Nabil; Metrakos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background The family of proprotein convertases has been recently implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in animal models. However, these studies have not yet been completely corroborated in human tumors. Methods Using RT PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry we assessed the presence and the processing patterns of the convertases PC1 and PC2 as well as the PC2 specific chaperone 7B2 in human liver metastases originating from colorectal cancer and compared them to unaffected and normal liver. Furthermore, we assessed the presence and processing profiles of PC1, PC2 and 7B2 in primary colon cancers. Results mRNA, protein expression, and protein cleavage profiles of proprotein convertases 1 and 2 are altered in liver colorectal metastasis, compared to unaffected and normal liver. Active PC1 protein is overexpressed in tumor, correlating with its mRNA profile. Moreover, the enhanced PC2 processing pattern in tumor correlates with the overexpression of its specific binding protein 7B2. These results were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. The specific and uniform convertase pattern observed in the metastases was present only in a fraction of primary colon cancers. Conclusion The uniformly altered proprotein convertase profile in liver metastases is observed only in a fraction of primary colon cancers, suggesting possible selection processes involving PCs during metastasis as well as an active role of PCs in liver metastasis. In addition, the exclusive presence of 7B2 in metastatic tumors may represent a new target for early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment. PMID:16293189

  1. Effect of carnosine and related compounds on proliferation of cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Rybakova, Yu S; Boldyrev, A A

    2012-11-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the mechanism of carnosine effect on cell proliferation. We studied the effect of carnosine and its derivatives on cell cycle progression in cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12). It was found that 48-h incubation of PC-12 cells with carnosine in concentrations of 10-50 mM led to deceleration of cell proliferation, reduction of G0/G1 peak, and accumulation of S- and G2/M-phase cells. Methylation of the carnosine molecule by 1N-position of the imidazole ring potentiated its effect on cell proliferation. Acetylation of the carnosine molecule by free ?-amino group attenuated its effect. PMID:23330110

  2. Pre-engagement process improvement in IBM PC services

    E-print Network

    Zuo, Jie, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    The front end of the IBM PC factory integration & deployment process is a pre-engagement process. In this study, the pre-engagement process, was analyzed. The organizational structure in the pre-engagement process and the ...

  3. User's Manual IBM PowerPC 970MP RISC Microprocessor

    E-print Network

    interface units of each processing unit. It includes a summary and details of key design fundamentals. 1.2.1.1 Key Design Fundamentals of the Microprocessor Core · 64-bit implementation of the PowerPC Architecture

  4. PC BEEPOP - A PERSONAL COMPUTER HONEY BEE POPULATION DYNAMICS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony population dynamics. he model consists of a system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, colony energetics, and contaminant exposure. t includes a mortal...

  5. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  6. PC-SPES (PDQ)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. SUPERDAN-PC. Calculates Dancoff Factor for Spheres, Cylinders & Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    SUPERDAN-PC computes the Dancoff factor which is used to determine the flux reduction in resonance integral calculations. This personal computer version was converted from the SC-4/SUPERDAN IBM mainframe.

  8. Improving the flexibility of the desktop PC supply chain

    E-print Network

    Wu, Johnson (Johnson Chun Hsien)

    2006-01-01

    Dell Inc. is a company headquartered in Round Rock, TX founded by entrepreneur Michael Dell in 1984. In its 20+ years of history, Dell has revolutionized the PC industry by deploying the "Dell Direct" model--eliminating ...

  9. OCEAN-PC and a distributed network for ocean data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) wishes to develop an integrated software package for oceanographic data entry and access in developing countries. The software, called 'OCEAN-PC', would run on low cost PC microcomputers and would encourage and standardize: (1) entry of local ocean observations; (2) quality control of the local data; (3) merging local data with historical data; (4) improved display and analysis of the merged data; and (5) international data exchange. OCEAN-PC will link existing MS-DOS oceanographic programs and data sets with table-driven format conversions. Since many ocean data sets are now being distributed on optical discs (Compact Discs - Read Only Memory, CD-ROM, Mass et al. 1987), OCEAN-PC will emphasize access to CD-ROMs.

  10. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...50-Authorities and Responsibilities for Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the immediate physical custody of all personal property under his control and for...

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...50-Authorities and Responsibilities for Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the immediate physical custody of all personal property under his control and for...

  12. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...50-Authorities and Responsibilities for Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the immediate physical custody of all personal property under his control and for...

  13. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...50-Authorities and Responsibilities for Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the immediate physical custody of all personal property under his control and for...

  14. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...50-Authorities and Responsibilities for Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the immediate physical custody of all personal property under his control and for...

  15. PC BEEPOP - AN ECTOXICOLOGICAL SIMULATION MODEL FOR HONEY BEE POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee colony population dynamics. he model consists of a feedback system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, and contaminant exposures. t includes a mortality module (BEEKILL) and a ch...

  16. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868...Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor...

  17. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868...Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor...

  18. Endoproteolytic processing of integrin pro-alpha subunits involves the redundant function of furin and proprotein convertase (PC) 5A, but not paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE) 4, PC5B or PC7.

    PubMed Central

    Lissitzky, J C; Luis, J; Munzer, J S; Benjannet, S; Parat, F; Chrétien, M; Marvaldi, J; Seidah, N G

    2000-01-01

    Several integrin alpha subunits undergo post-translational endoproteolytic processing at pairs of basic amino acids that is mediated by the proprotein convertase furin. Here we ask whether other convertase family members can participate in these processing events. We therefore examined the endoproteolysis rate of the integrin subunits pro-alpha5, alpha6 and alphav by recombinant furin, proprotein convertase (PC)5A, paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE)4, PC1, PC2 and PC7 in vitro and/or ex vivo after overexpression in LoVo cells that were deficient in furin activity. We found that 60-fold more PC1 than furin was needed to produce 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunit substrates in vitro; the defective pro-alpha chain endoproteolysis in LoVo cells was not rescued by overexpression of PC1 or PC2. No endoproteolysis occurred with PC7 either in vitro or ex vivo, although similar primary sequences of the cleavage site are found in integrins and in proteins efficiently processed by PC7, which suggests that a particular conformation of the cleavage site is required for optimal convertase-substrate interactions. In vitro, 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunits was obtained with one-third of the amount of PC5A and PACE4 than of furin. In LoVo cells, PC5A remained more active than furin, PACE4 activity was quite low, and PC5B, which differs from PC5A by a C-terminal extension containing a transmembrane domain, was very inefficient in processing integrin alpha-subunit precursors. In conclusion, these results indicate that integrin alpha-subunit endoproteolytic processing involves the redundant function of furin and PC5A and to a smaller extent PACE4, but not of PC1, PC2, PC5B or PC7. PMID:10657249

  19. The role of P2X7 receptor in PC12 cells after exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bo; Liu, Shuangmei; Xu, Changshui; Liu, Jun; Kong, Fanjun; Li, Guilin; Zhang, Chunping; Gao, Yun; Xu, Hong; Yu, Shicheng; Zheng, Chaoran; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Wu, Bing; Lv, Qiulan; Zou, Lifang; Ying, Mofeng; Zhang, Xi; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-10-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role in signal transmission via acting on P2X receptors. P2X7 receptor is involved in pathophysiological changes of ischemic diseases. The PC12 cell line is a popular model system to study sympathetic neuronal function. In this study, the effects of P2X7 on the viability or [Ca(2+)]i in PC12 cells after exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were investigated. The results showed that the viability of PC12 cells was decreased under the condition of OGD. BzATP, a P2X7 agonist, decreased the viability, while P2X7 antagonist oxATP or P2X7 siRNA reversed the viability of PC12 cells under the condition of OGD. The expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in PC12 cells were up-regulated under the condition of OGD or BzATP treatment. The expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in OGD PC12 cells, which were pretreated with oxATP or P2X7 siRNA. It was also found that oxATP or P2X7 siRNA effectively suppressed the increase of [Ca(2+)]i induced by OGD. P2X7 agonist ATP or BzATP enhanced the [Ca(2+)]i rise induced by OGD in PC12 cells. The [Ca(2+)]i peak induced by ATP or BzATP in OGD group was decreased by ERK inhibitor U0126. Therefore, P2X7 antagonists or P2X7 siRNA could depress the sympathetic neuronal damage induced by ischemia. PMID:24746144

  20. N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-?-aminoisobutyryl-?-aminoisobutyric acid methyl ester: two polymorphic forms in the space group P2(1)/n.

    PubMed

    Gebreslasie, Hadgu Girmay; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Görbitz, Carl Henrik

    2011-08-01

    The title compound (systematic name: methyl 2-{2-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-methylpropanamido}-2-methylpropanoate), C(14)H(26)N(2)O(5), (I), crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n in two polymorphic forms, each with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The molecular conformation is essentially the same in both polymorphs, with the ?-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residues adopting ? and ? values characteristic of ?-helical and mixed 3(10)- and ?-helical conformations. The helical handedness of the C-terminal residue (Aib2) is opposite to that of the N-terminal residue (Aib1). In contrast to (I), the closely related peptide Boc-Aib-Aib-OBn (Boc is tert-butoxycarbonyl and Bn is benzyl) adopts an ?(L)-P(II) backbone conformation (or the mirror image conformation). Compound (I) forms hydrogen-bonded parallel ?-sheet-like tapes, with the carbonyl groups of Aib1 and Aib2 acting as hydrogen-bond acceptors. This seems to represent an unusual packing for a protected dipeptide containing at least one ?,?-disubstituted residue. PMID:21817793

  1. Els UK Job: CDI ch09-i047172 16-11-2007 4:15p.m. Page:325 Trim:165240MM Float:Top/Bot TS: Integra, India Fonts: Palatino & Helvetica 9/11 Margins:Top:4PC Gutter:5PC T. W:30PC open recto 1 Color 49 Lines

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    , India Fonts: Palatino & Helvetica 9/11 Margins:Top:4PC Gutter:5PC T. W:30PC open recto 1 Color 49 LinesPC Gutter:5PC T. W:30PC open recto 1 Color 49 Lines #12;Els UK Job: CDI ch09-i047172 16-11-2007 4:15pPC Gutter:5PC T. W:30PC open recto 1 Color 49 Lines Chapter 9 Resource Adequacy Alternate

  2. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start with a thorough scientific investigation of the polar region while allowing the ability to demonstrate and validate the systems needed to take humans on more ambitious lunar exploration excursions. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration serves as a model for future cooperation and is documented in a summary report and a comprehensive document that also describes the collaborative international process that led to its development. ISECG plans to continue with architecture studies such as this to examine an open transportation architecture and other destinations, with expanded participation from ISECG agencies, as it works to inform international partnerships and advance the Global Exploration Strategy.

  3. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  4. Space Research Centre Space Research Centre

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Space Research Centre Space Research Centre www.src.le.ac.uk #12;2 University of Leicester · DeLivering over five DecaDes of space science anD instrUmentation expertise... Welcome to the SRC The Space Research Centre's (SRC) programme has two main foci: the Space Science and Instrumentation (SSI) Group

  5. PC/FRAM, Version 3. 2 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-02-23

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descnies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S chn' and SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument.

  6. Protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on PC12 cells apoptosis mediated by TAG1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Lou, Ji-Yu; Bai, Hong-Ying; Wang, Yun-Liang; Li, Jin-Feng; Yin, Hong-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the protection effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on PC12 cells apoptosis mediated by transient axonal glycoprotein 1 (TAG1). Methods: PC12 cells were divided into control group, A?25-35 group and BMSCs + A?25-35 group. The effects of BMSCs on PC12 cells treated by A?25-35 were detected using MTT, Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining methods. The expression levels of TAG1, ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP), AICD and p53 were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting methods. The expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by Western blotting method. The activity of Caspase 3 was detected by spectrophotometric method. Results: MTT results showed that cell activity decreased after the treatment of 20 ?M A?25-35 for 48 h (P<0.01) while it increased in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining results showed that A?25-35 could induce the apoptosis of PC12 cells while the apoptosis of PC12 cells was inhibited in BMSCs + A?25-35 group. RT-PCR and Western blotting methods showed that 20 ?M A?25-35 could increase the expression levels of TAG1, APP, AICD and p53 (P<0.01) while they decreased in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). 20 ?M A?25-35 could increase the expression levels of Bax and decrease the expression levels of Bcl-2 (P<0.01), while the expression levels of Bax decreased and the expression levels of Bcl-2 increase in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). 20 ?M A?25-35 could enhance Caspase 3 activity while it decreased in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). Conclusions BMSCs with A?25-35 could inhibit the apoptosis of PC12 cells, which maybe related with TAG1/APP/AICD signal pathway. PMID:26722394

  7. Attenuating microwave radiation by absorption through controlled nanoparticle localization in PC/PVDF blends.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-10-14

    Nanoscale ordering in a polymer blend structure is indispensable to obtain materials with tailored properties. It was established here that controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles, with different characteristics, in co-continuous PC/PVDF (polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluoride)) blends can result in outstanding microwave absorption (ca. 90%). An excellent reflection loss (RL) of ca. -71 dB was obtained for a model blend structure wherein the conducting (multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs) and the magnetic inclusions (Fe3O4) are localized in PVDF and the dielectric inclusion (barium titanate, BT) is in PC. The MWNTs were modified using polyaniline, which facilitates better charge transport in the blends. Furthermore, by introducing surface active groups on BT nanoparticles and changing the macroscopic processing conditions, the localization of BT nanoparticles can be tailored, otherwise BT nanoparticles would localize in the preferred phase (PVDF). In this study, we have shown that by ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, the incoming EM radiation can be attenuated. For instance, when PANI-MWNTs were localized in PVDF, the shielding was mainly through reflection. Now by localizing the conducting inclusion and the magnetic lossy materials in PVDF and the dielectric materials in PC, an outstanding shielding effectiveness of ca. -37 dB was achieved where shielding was mainly through absorption (ca. 90%). Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that lightweight microwave absorbers can be designed using polymer blends as a tool. PMID:26431367

  8. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilig, B.; Lotz, S.; Ver?, J.; Sutcliffe, P.; Reda, J.; Pajunpää, K.; Raita, T.

    2010-09-01

    It is known that under certain solar wind (SW)/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle) the occurrence of ground-level Pc3-4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock). Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through upstream waves.

  9. Mixed-mode fracture behavior of PC/ABS blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husaini, -; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    2001-06-01

    In recent years polymer alloys or polymer blends have become one of the most widely used material in engineering application. To improve the reliability of the materials, extensive studies are required on their fracture behaviors under general loading conditions. Polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends were selected in this research to examine the fracture behavior of po9lymer alloys. PC/ABS is the polymer alloy of PC and ABS and its characteristics varies with volume fractions of two components. In this study, fracture test under mode I and mixed mode loading was conducted and fracture behaviors were observed. At a certain value of mixed mode loading ratio with high mode II components, crack due to shear type fracture initiates at the initial crack tip. Fracture toughness and the appearance of shear type fracture depends on blending ratio of PC and ABS. It is suggested that these tendencies related to morphology of PC/ABS blends. Fracture resistance increase under mixed more loading with lower in mode II component, while it reduces with the appearance of shear type fracture.

  10. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. PMID:17526019

  11. A metric space for Type Ia supernova spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasdelli, Michele; Hillebrandt, W.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Benitez-Herrera, S.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chen, J.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fink, M.; Fleury, M.; Fouchez, D.; Gangler, E.; Guy, J.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kromer, M.; Lombardo, S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nordin, J.; Pain, R.; Pécontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Suzuki, N.; Tao, C.; Taubenberger, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Tilquin, A.; Weaver, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    We develop a new framework for use in exploring Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) spectra. Combining principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) analysis we are able to establish correlations between the principal components (PCs) and spectroscopic/photometric SNe Ia features. The technique was applied to ˜120 SN and ˜800 spectra from the Nearby Supernova Factory. The ability of PCA to group together SNe Ia with similar spectral features, already explored in previous studies, is greatly enhanced by two important modifications: (1) the initial data matrix is built using derivatives of spectra over the wavelength, which increases the weight of weak lines and discards extinction, and (2) we extract time evolution information through the use of entire spectral sequences concatenated in each line of the input data matrix. These allow us to define a stable PC parameter space which can be used to characterize synthetic SN Ia spectra by means of real SN features. Using PLS, we demonstrate that the information from important previously known spectral indicators (namely the pseudo-equivalent width of Si II 5972 Å/Si II 6355 Å and the line velocity of S II 5640 Å/Si II 6355 Å) at a given epoch is contained within the PC space and can be determined through a linear combination of the most important PCs. We also show that the PC space encompasses photometric features like B/V magnitudes, B - V colours and SALT2 parameters c and x1. The observed colours and magnitudes, which are heavily affected by extinction, cannot be reconstructed using this technique alone. All the above-mentioned applications allowed us to construct a metric space for comparing synthetic SN Ia spectra with observations.

  12. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  13. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effect of morphine on PC12 cells with molecular radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chen; Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Jiuyi; Zhang, Chunyang; Jin, Lei; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Dacheng; Chen, Die Yan

    2000-10-01

    Molecular Radar (MR) is a new method to detect biological processes in living cells at the level of molecular, it is also the newest means to get intracellular information. In this paper we study the effect of morphine on PC12 cells using MR. The results show that the effect of morphine on PC12 cells is time- and concentration-dependent. Morphine treating for short time induces the increase and fluctuation of intracellular (CA2+), while morphine treating for long time induces chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondria membrane potential apoptosis.

  15. [A skin cell segregating control system based on PC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-zhong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Hong-bing

    2005-11-01

    A skin cell segregating control system based on PC (personal computer) is presented in this paper. Its front controller is a single-chip microcomputer which enables the manipulation for 6 patients simultaneously, and thus provides a great convenience for clinical treatments for vitiligo. With the use of serial port communication technology, it's possible to monitor and control the front controller in a PC terminal. And the application of computer image acquisition technology realizes the synchronous acquisition of pathologic shin cell images pre/after the operation and a case history. Clinical tests prove its conformity with national standards and the pre-set technological requirements. PMID:16494054

  16. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  17. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min; Liang, Jiansheng; Liang, Changyong

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  18. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use...Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for...

  19. Sex comb on midleg (Scm) is a functional link between PcG-repressive complexes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyuckjoon; McElroy, Kyle A.; Jung, Youngsook Lucy; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Zee, Barry M.; Park, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key regulators of development in Drosophila and are strongly implicated in human health and disease. How PcG complexes form repressive chromatin domains remains unclear. Using cross-linked affinity purifications of BioTAP-Polycomb (Pc) or BioTAP-Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], we captured all PcG-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) or PRC2 core components and Sex comb on midleg (Scm) as the only protein strongly enriched with both complexes. Although previously not linked to PRC2, we confirmed direct binding of Scm and PRC2 using recombinant protein expression and colocalization of Scm with PRC1, PRC2, and H3K27me3 in embryos and cultured cells using ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing). Furthermore, we found that RNAi knockdown of Scm and overexpression of the dominant-negative Scm-SAM (sterile ? motif) domain both affected the binding pattern of E(z) on polytene chromosomes. Aberrant localization of the Scm-SAM domain in long contiguous regions on polytene chromosomes revealed its independent ability to spread on chromatin, consistent with its previously described ability to oligomerize in vitro. Pull-downs of BioTAP-Scm captured PRC1 and PRC2 and additional repressive complexes, including PhoRC, LINT, and CtBP. We propose that Scm is a key mediator connecting PRC1, PRC2, and transcriptional silencing. Combined with previous structural and genetic analyses, our results strongly suggest that Scm coordinates PcG complexes and polymerizes to produce broad domains of PcG silencing. PMID:26063573

  20. Utilization of arsenic trioxide as a treatment of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, TOSHIHIRO; ISHIBASHI, KENICHI; YUMOTO, ATSUSHI; NISHIO, KAZUTO; OGASAWARA, YUKI

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used drug in combination chemotherapy. However, various malignant tumors frequently acquire resistance to cisplatin. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved as a chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, and the combination of ATO and cisplatin has been revealed to demonstrate synergistic effects in ovarian and small cell lung cancer cells. Thus, it was hypothesized that ATO may also be active against cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells. The present study also evaluated the effects of ATO on the cisplatin-sensitive NSCLC PC-9 and PC-14 cell lines. Notably, ATO demonstrated a markedly decreased IC50 in the cisplatin-resistant PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells compared with the IC50 in the cisplatin-sensitive parental PC-9 and PC-14 cells. Additionally, it was found that arsenite accumulation in the PC-9 cell line was affected through the downregulation of GS-X pump systems. Although it is likely that cisplatin resistance in PC-9 cells does not depend on the GS-X pump systems, ATO was effective against cisplatin-resistant NSCLC PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells in combination chemotherapy. PMID:26622574

  1. Polycomb group protein bodybuilding: working out the routines.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Cem; Paro, Renato

    2013-09-30

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate gene expression by modifying chemical and structural properties of chromatin. Isono et al. (2013) now report in Developmental Cell a polymerization-dependent mechanism used by PcG proteins to form higher-order chromatin structures, referred to as Polycomb bodies, and demonstrate its necessity for gene silencing. PMID:24091008

  2. Els UK Job: CDI Ch06-I047172 13-11-2007 11:15a.m. Page:245 Trim:165240MM Float:Top/Bot TS: Integra, India Fonts: Palatino & Helvetica 9/11 Margins:Top:4PC Gutter:5PC T. W:30PC open recto 1 Color 49 Lines

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    , India Fonts: Palatino & Helvetica 9/11 Margins:Top:4PC Gutter:5PC T. W:30PC open recto 1 Color 49 Lines: Palatino & Helvetica 9/11 Margins:Top:4PC Gutter:5PC T. W:30PC open recto 1 Color 49 Lines 246 Competitive

  3. PcG Proteins, DNA Methylation, and Gene Repression by Chromatin Looping

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vijay K; McGarvey, Kelly M; Licchesi, Julien D.F; Ohm, Joyce E; Herman, James G; Schübeler, Dirk; Baylin, Stephen B

    2008-01-01

    Many DNA hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced genes in adult cancers are Polycomb group (PcG) marked in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We show that a large region upstream (?30 kb) of and extending ?60 kb around one such gene, GATA-4, is organized—in Tera-2 undifferentiated embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells—in a topologically complex multi-loop conformation that is formed by multiple internal long-range contact regions near areas enriched for EZH2, other PcG proteins, and the signature PcG histone mark, H3K27me3. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated depletion of EZH2 in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells leads to a significant reduction in the frequency of long-range associations at the GATA-4 locus, seemingly dependent on affecting the H3K27me3 enrichments around those chromatin regions, accompanied by a modest increase in GATA-4 transcription. The chromatin loops completely dissolve, accompanied by loss of PcG proteins and H3K27me3 marks, when Tera-2 cells receive differentiation signals which induce a ?60-fold increase in GATA-4 expression. In colon cancer cells, however, the frequency of the long-range interactions are increased in a setting where GATA-4 has no basal transcription and the loops encompass multiple, abnormally DNA hypermethylated CpG islands, and the methyl-cytosine binding protein MBD2 is localized to these CpG islands, including ones near the gene promoter. Removing DNA methylation through genetic disruption of DNA methyltransferases (DKO cells) leads to loss of MBD2 occupancy and to a decrease in the frequency of long-range contacts, such that these now more resemble those in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells. Our findings reveal unexpected similarities in higher order chromatin conformation between stem/precursor cells and adult cancers. We also provide novel insight that PcG-occupied and H3K27me3-enriched regions can form chromatin loops and physically interact in cis around a single gene in mammalian cells. The loops associate with a poised, low transcription state in EC cells and, with the addition of DNA methylation, completely repressed transcription in adult cancer cells. PMID:19053175

  4. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  5. MCS -Data Recorder PC Assembly and Operating System Installation

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    MCS - Data Recorder PC Assembly and Operating System Installation Christopher Wolfe , Steve Ellingson, Cameron Patterson June 6, 2010 Bradley Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, 302 Whittemore.edu 1 #12;Contents 1 Purpose 4 2 Hardware Specification 4 3 Assembly 4 4 Software Installation 13 4

  6. Role of PrPC glycosylation in health and disease 

    E-print Network

    Iremonger, Kayleigh

    2013-11-29

    in a number of isoforms in vivo due to variable occupancy of the two N-linked glycosylation sites. The function of PrPC is still unclear but it is essential for disease in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The significance of the Pr...

  7. SEF.ASSISTANT: Shell for Authoring Language SEF.PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masturzi, Elio R.

    This paper describes SEF.ASSISTANT, a special software shell for authoring languages to be used in the development of courseware serving computer based education (CBE). The capabilities of SEF.ASSISTANT are identified: (1) it will generate programs written in the IBM SEF.PC authoring language; (2) it is compatible with external standard software…

  8. Desktop Publishing in a PC-Based Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies, considers, and interrelates the functionality of hardware, firmware, and software types; discusses the relationship of input and output devices in the PC-based desktop publishing environment; and reports some of what has been experienced in three years of working intensively in/with desktop publishing devices and solutions. (MES)

  9. PC-CUBE: A personal computer based hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Alex; Fox, Geoffrey; Walker, David; Snyder, Scott; Chang, Douglas; Chen, Stanley; Breaden, Matt; Cole, Terry

    1988-01-01

    PC-CUBE is an ensemble of IBM PCs or close compatibles connected in the hypercube topology with ordinary computer cables. Communication occurs at the rate of 115.2 K-band via the RS-232 serial links. Available for PC-CUBE is the Crystalline Operating System III (CrOS III), Mercury Operating System, CUBIX and PLOTIX which are parallel I/O and graphics libraries. A CrOS performance monitor was developed to facilitate the measurement of communication and computation time of a program and their effects on performance. Also available are CXLISP, a parallel version of the XLISP interpreter; GRAFIX, some graphics routines for the EGA and CGA; and a general execution profiler for determining execution time spent by program subroutines. PC-CUBE provides a programming environment similar to all hypercube systems running CrOS III, Mercury and CUBIX. In addition, every node (personal computer) has its own graphics display monitor and storage devices. These allow data to be displayed or stored at every processor, which has much instructional value and enables easier debugging of applications. Some application programs which are taken from the book Solving Problems on Concurrent Processors (Fox 88) were implemented with graphics enhancement on PC-CUBE. The applications range from solving the Mandelbrot set, Laplace equation, wave equation, long range force interaction, to WaTor, an ecological simulation.

  10. PC-based telerehabilitation system with force feedback.

    PubMed

    Popescu, V; Burdea, G; Bouzit, M; Girone, M; Hentz, V

    1999-01-01

    A PC-based orthopedic rehabilitation system was developed for use at home, while allowing for remote monitoring from the clinic. The home rehabilitation station has a Pentium II PC with graphics accelerator, Polhemus tracker, and a novel Multipurpose Haptic Control Interface with its own Pentium board. This interface is used to sample patient's hand positions and to provide resistive forces using the Rutgers Master II (RMII) glove. A library of virtual rehabilitation routines was developed using WorldToolKit software. At the present time, it consists of two physical therapy exercises (DigiKey and Ball) and two functional rehabilitation exercises (Peg Board test and Ball game). All VR exercises allow automatic and transparent patient data collection into an Oracle database. A remote Pentium II PC is connected with the home-based PC over the Internet and an additional video-conferencing connection. The remote computer running Oracle server is used to maintain the patient database, monitor progress and change exercise level of difficulty. This allows for timely patient progress monitoring and repeat evaluations over time from the Clinic. The system will soon start clinical trails at Stanford Medical School, with progress being monitored remotely from Rutgers University. Other rehabilitation haptic interfaces under development include devices for elbow, and knee rehabilitation connected to the Multipurpose Haptic Control Interface. PMID:10538369

  11. A PC-based Workstation for Robotic Discectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadei, C.; Fiorini, P.; Martelli, S.; Montanari, M.; Morri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a PC-based controller for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The development is motivated by the need of reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to X-rays during surgical procedures such as percutanrous discectomy.

  12. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,…

  13. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  14. PC Board Layout and Electronic Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jimmy

    This teacher's guide contains 11 units of instruction for a course on computer electronics and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) using a personal computer (PC). The course covers the following topics: introduction to electronic drafting with CAD; CAD system and software; basic electronic theory; component identification; basic integrated circuit…

  15. Purdue Nuclear and Many Body Theory Group (PNMBTG) Preprint PNMBTG-11--11 (November 2011) Invited paper presented at Topical Meeting of the 2012 Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space, the

    E-print Network

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-7]. The BECNF theory is based on a singlePurdue Nuclear and Many Body Theory Group (PNMBTG) Preprint PNMBTG-11--11 (November 2011) Invited paper presented at Topical Meeting of the 2012 Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space, the 43rd

  16. Transgressive loop group extensions

    E-print Network

    Konrad Waldorf

    2015-04-27

    A central extension of the loop group of a Lie group is called transgressive, if it corresponds under transgression to a degree four class in the cohomology of the classifying space of the Lie group. Transgressive loop group extensions are those that can be explored by finite-dimensional, higher-categorical geometry over the Lie group. We show how transgressive central extensions can be characterized in a loop-group theoretical way, in terms of loop fusion and thin homotopy equivariance.

  17. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasan, S. Karimov; Zubair, Ahmad; Farid, Touati; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; M. Muqeet, Rehman; S. Zameer, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H2Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H2Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 ?m. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ? 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. Project supported by the GIK Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Pakistan and Physical Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan.

  18. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Mbikay, M.; Seidah, N.G.; Chretien, M.

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei) F{sub 1} x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-Mullerian hormone) locus; in a human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipoacortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previoulsy mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effect of lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction on the abnormal aggregation of ?-synuclein in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, RUNQING; ZHAO, JIE; ZHANG, JIEWEN; LIU, WEI; ZHAO, MEIYING; LI, JIANGTAO; LV, JUAN; LI, YANAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction on the abnormal aggregation of ?-synuclein, and to analyze its role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PC12 cells subjected to nerve growth factor-induced differentiation were used as the cell model to study the dopaminergic neurons, and the lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E64) and, respectively, were used exclusively and in combination to treat the PC12 cells. The viability and metabolic state of the cells was assessed using the MTT assay; flow cytometry was used to measure the rate of cell apoptosis; and the double immunofluorescence method was applied to observe the formation of thioflavin S- and ?-synuclein protein-positive aggregates and inclusion bodies in the PC12 cells. In addition, the Hoechst 33258 staining method was used to observe the apoptosis of the ?-synuclein protein and thioflavin-S double-labeled cells. Following the administration of the lysosomal and proteasomal pathway inhibitors, the cell viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and the cell apoptosis rate increased. The proportion of PC12 cells with ?-synuclein protein-positive aggregates and inclusion bodies in the E64 group was 7.94%, compared with 20.33 and 36.77% in the lactacystin and combination treatment groups, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the number of inclusion body-positive cells in the treatment groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.78%) (P<0.05). Apoptosis was evident in the double-positive cells with ?-synuclein protein-positive inclusion bodies (17.29±1.54%). In conclusion, lysosomal and proteasomal dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD through the induction of abnormal ?-synuclein protein aggregation in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26136940

  20. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 6: Power (P-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Power requirements for the multipurpose space power platform, for space industrialization, SETI, the solar system exploration facility, and for global services are assessed for various launch dates. Priorities and initiatives for the development of elements of space power systems are described for systems using light power input (solar energy source) or thermal power input, (solar, chemical, nuclear, radioisotopes, reactors). Systems for power conversion, power processing, distribution and control are likewise examined.

  1. CARES/PC - CERAMICS ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatmary, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The beneficial properties of structural ceramics include their high-temperature strength, light weight, hardness, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. For advanced heat engines, ceramics have demonstrated functional abilities at temperatures well beyond the operational limits of metals. This is offset by the fact that ceramic materials tend to be brittle. When a load is applied, their lack of significant plastic deformation causes the material to crack at microscopic flaws, destroying the component. CARES/PC performs statistical analysis of data obtained from the fracture of simple, uniaxial tensile or flexural specimens and estimates the Weibull and Batdorf material parameters from this data. CARES/PC is a subset of the program CARES (COSMIC program number LEW-15168) which calculates the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of ceramic components utilizing the Batdorf and Weibull models to describe the effects of multi-axial stress states on material strength. CARES additionally requires that the ceramic structure be modeled by a finite element program such as MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS. The more limited CARES/PC does not perform fast-fracture reliability estimation of components. CARES/PC estimates ceramic material properties from uniaxial tensile or from three- and four-point bend bar data. In general, the parameters are obtained from the fracture stresses of many specimens (30 or more are recommended) whose geometry and loading configurations are held constant. Parameter estimation can be performed for single or multiple failure modes by using the least-squares analysis or the maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests measure the accuracy of the hypothesis that the fracture data comes from a population with a distribution specified by the estimated Weibull parameters. Ninety-percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters and the unbiased value of the shape parameter for complete samples are provided when the maximum likelihood technique is used. CARES/PC is written and compiled with the Microsoft FORTRAN v5.0 compiler using the VAX FORTRAN extensions and dynamic array allocation supported by this compiler for the IBM/MS-DOS or OS/2 operating systems. The dynamic array allocation routines allow the user to match the number of fracture sets and test specimens to the memory available. Machine requirements include IBM PC compatibles with optional math coprocessor. Program output is designed to fit 80-column format printers. Executables for both DOS and OS/2 are provided. CARES/PC is distributed on one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette in compressed format. The expansion tool PKUNZIP.EXE is supplied on the diskette. CARES/PC was developed in 1990. IBM PC and OS/2 are trademarks of International Business Machines. MS-DOS and MS OS/2 are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. VAX is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  2. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  3. Perceptual grouping and visual enumeration.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    We used lateralized Event-Related Potential (ERP) measures - the N2pc and CDA/SPCN components - to assess the role of grouping by target similarity during enumeration. Participants saw a variable number (0, 1, 2 or 3) of same- or differently-colored targets presented among homogeneous distracters, and performed an enumeration task. Results showed that the N2pc, but not the CDA, was larger for multiple targets of identical color relative to targets of different colors. The findings are interpreted in terms of the effects of grouping on early versus late stages of multiple object processing. Within this framework, they reveal that grouping has an effect on early individuation mechanisms, while later processing mechanisms are less prone to such an influence. PMID:23226408

  4. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of a magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observations at high latitudes.

  5. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observation at high altitudes.

  6. Conversion from 8800 to 8800PC -- Evaluation and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, A.E.; Lawson, B.J.

    1998-03-20

    Though a final version of the software is pending the 8800PC operating system host computer is a welcomed change from the old Digital (DEC) host computer. The 8800PC host computer uses the Windows NT operating system and has proven to be very user friendly. Descriptive window messages replace the cryptic coding of the DEC host. Though numerous electrical components were replaced, system calibration remained constant. Calibrated Thermoluminescent (TL) output from a randomly selected 8815 field card was measured before and after the upgrade. The % difference, when comparing calibrated output from an upgraded reader to the non upgraded reader, ranged from 0.2 to 3%. The most disappointing aspect of the upgrade experience was the lag time between hardware installation and software completion.

  7. A Cuing Study of the N2pc Component: An Index of Attentional Deployment to Objects Rather Than Spatial Locations

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Arita, Jason T.; Luck, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic visual cues indicating the location of an upcoming target are believed to invoke endogenous shifts of attention to cued locations. In the present study, we investigated how visual attention is shifted during such cuing paradigms by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). We focused on a component known to index lateralized shifts of perceptual attention during visual search tasks, known as the N2pc component. The ERP data show that attention was shifted to a cued location in anticipation of a target shape when the location is marked by a placeholder-object (Experiments 1 and 2). However, when the possible locations were not marked by placeholder objects we found no evidence for an anticipatory shift of attention to the cued location (Experiment 3). These findings indicate that the perceptual-attention mechanism indexed by the N2pc is deployed to objects and not simply locations in space devoid of object structure. PMID:19682440

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a photograph of giant twisters and star wisps in the Lagoon Nebula. This superb Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar twisters, eerie furnels and twisted rope structures (upper left), in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) that lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. This image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2).

  9. A PC-Based Controller for Dextrous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and performance of a PC-based controller for 7-DOF dextrous manipulators. The computing platform is a 486-based personal computer equipped with a bus extender to access the robot Multibus controller, together with a single board computer as the graphical engine, and with a parallel I/O board to interface with a force-torque sensor mounted on the manipulator wrist.

  10. Four-Channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 Circuit Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The mini bus interface card (miniBIC) is the first four-channel electronic circuit board that conforms to MIL-STD-1553 and to the electrical-footprint portion of PC/104. [MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical- interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. PC/104 is an industry standard for compact, stackable modules that are fully compatible (in architecture, hardware, and software) with personal-computer data- and power-bus circuitry.] Prior to the development of the miniBIC, only one- and two-channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 boards were available. To obtain four channels, it was necessary to include at least two boards in a PC/104 stack. In comparison with such a two-board stack, the miniBIC takes up less space, consumes less power, and is more reliable. In addition, the miniBIC includes 32 digital input/output channels. The miniBIC (see figure) contains four MIL-STD-1553B hybrid integrated circuits (ICs), four transformers, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and an Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) interface. Each hybrid IC includes a MILSTD-1553 dual transceiver, memory-management circuitry, processor interface logic circuitry, and 64Kx16 bits of shared static random access memory. The memory is used to configure message and data blocks. In addition, 23 16-bit registers are available for (1) configuring the hybrid IC for, and starting it in, various modes of operation; (2) reading the status of the functionality of the hybrid IC; and (3) resetting the hybrid IC to a known state. The miniBIC can operate as a remote terminal, bus controller, or bus monitor. The FPGA provides the chip-select and data-strobe signals needed for operation of the hybrid ICs. The FPGA also receives interruption signals and forwards them to the ISA bus. The ISA interface connects the address, data, and control interfaces of the hybrid ICs to the ISA backplane. Each channel is, in effect, a MIL-STD-1553 interface that can operate either independently of the others or else as a redundant version of one of the others. The transformer in each channel provides electrical isolation between the rest of the miniBIC circuitry and the bus to which that channel is connected.

  11. Polycomb Group Proteins Set the Stage for Early Lineage Commitment

    E-print Network

    Surface, Lauren Elizabeth

    Precise control of gene expression patterns is critical for the specification of cellular diversity during metazoan development. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins comprise a class of transcriptional modifiers that have dynamic ...

  12. Tablet PC interaction with digital micromirror device (DMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Dahshan, Mostafa H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Digital light processing (DLP) is an innovative display technology that uses an optical switch array, known as a digital micromirror device (DMD), which allows digital control of light. To date, DMDs have been used primarily as high-speed spatial light modulators for projector applications. A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile PC. Its touch screen or digitizing tablet technology allows the user to operate the notebook with a stylus or digital pen instead of using a keyboard or mouse. In this paper, we describe an interface solution that translates any sketch on the tablet PC screen to an identical mirror-copy over the cross-section of the DMD micromirrors such that the image of the sketch can be projected onto a special screen. An algorithm has been created to control each single micromirror of the hundreds of thousands of micromirrors that cover the DMD surface. We demonstrate the successful application of a DMD to a high-speed two-dimensional (2D) scanning environment, acquiring the data from the tablet screen and launching its contents to the projection screen; with very high accuracy up to 13.68 ?m x 13.68 ?m of mirror pitch.

  13. Hypergravity Stimulation Enhances PC12 Neuron-Like Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity is a strong physical cue able to elicit different cellular responses, representing a largely uninvestigated opportunity for tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. Our recent studies have shown that both proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells can be enhanced by hypergravity treatment; given these results, PC12 neuron-like cells were chosen to test the hypothesis that hypergravity stimulation might also affect the behavior of neuronal cells, in particular promoting an enhanced differentiated phenotype. PC12 cells were thus cultured under differentiating conditions for either 12?h or 72?h before being stimulated with different values of hypergravity (50?g and 150?g). Effects of hypergravity were evaluated at transcriptional level 1?h and 48?h after the stimulation, and at protein level 48?h from hypergravity exposure, to assess its influence on neurite development over increasing differentiation times. PC12 differentiation resulted strongly affected by the hypergravity treatments; in particular, neurite length was significantly enhanced after exposure to high acceleration values. The achieved results suggest that hypergravity might induce a faster and higher neuronal differentiation and encourage further investigations on the potential of hypergravity in the preparation of cellular constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering purposes. PMID:25785273

  14. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  15. Hypergravity stimulation enhances PC12 neuron-like cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Cialdai, Francesca; Monici, Monica; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity is a strong physical cue able to elicit different cellular responses, representing a largely uninvestigated opportunity for tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. Our recent studies have shown that both proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells can be enhanced by hypergravity treatment; given these results, PC12 neuron-like cells were chosen to test the hypothesis that hypergravity stimulation might also affect the behavior of neuronal cells, in particular promoting an enhanced differentiated phenotype. PC12 cells were thus cultured under differentiating conditions for either 12?h or 72?h before being stimulated with different values of hypergravity (50?g and 150?g). Effects of hypergravity were evaluated at transcriptional level 1?h and 48?h after the stimulation, and at protein level 48?h from hypergravity exposure, to assess its influence on neurite development over increasing differentiation times. PC12 differentiation resulted strongly affected by the hypergravity treatments; in particular, neurite length was significantly enhanced after exposure to high acceleration values. The achieved results suggest that hypergravity might induce a faster and higher neuronal differentiation and encourage further investigations on the potential of hypergravity in the preparation of cellular constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering purposes. PMID:25785273

  16. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 µM capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  17. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (editor); Oleary, B. (editor); Gosset, B. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  18. An overview of the evaluation plan for PC/MISI: PC-based Multiple Information System Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Lim, Bee Lee; Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    An initial evaluation plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intend to be used as a blueprint for the evaluation of this system. Each objective of the design project is discussed along with the evaluation parameters and methodology to be used in the evaluation of the implementation's achievement of those objectives. The potential of the system for research activities related to more general aspects of information retrieval is also discussed.

  19. Successors for JVMI instructions succI (instr, pc, regT, opdT) =

    E-print Network

    Börger, Egon

    , ETH Z¨urich, Switzerland 2 #12;Successors for JVMC instructions succC (meth)(instr, pc, regT, opd¨urich, Switzerland 3 #12;Successors for JVMO instructions succO(meth)(instr, pc, regT, opdT) = succC (meth)(instr, pc for JVMO instructions (continued) succO(meth)(instr, pc, regT, opdT) = case instr of InvokeSpecial(t, c

  20. Chemogenomic analysis of neuronal differentiation with pathway changes in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jack Yu-Shih; Wu, Chien Liang; Liao, Chia Nan; Higuchi, Akon; Ling, Qing-Dong

    2015-12-15

    The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database creates networks from interrelations between molecular biology and underlying chemical elements. This allows for analysis of biologic networks, genomic information, and higher-order functional information at a system level. Through high throughput experiments and system biology analysis, we investigated the genes and pathways associated with NGF induced neuronal differentiation. We performed microarray experiments and used the KEGG database, system biology analysis, and annotation of pathway functions to study NGF-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. We identified 2020 NGF-induced genes with altered expressions over time. Cross-matching with the KEGG database revealed 830 genes; among which, 395 altered genes were found to have a 2-fold increase in gene expression over a two-hour period. We then identified 191 associated biologic pathways in the KEGG database; the top 15 pathways showed correlation with neural differentiation. These included the neurotrophin pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, genes associated with axonal guidance and the Wnt pathways. The activation of these pathways synchronized with nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. In summary, we have established a model system that allows one to systematically characterize the functional pathway changes in a group of neuronal population after an external stimulus. PMID:26595144

  1. The Role of 6-Gingerol on Inhibiting Amyloid ? Protein-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zong, Shao-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Song-Wen; Li, Ke-Ke; Fang, Ye; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Our previous study suggests that ginger root extract can reverse behavioral dysfunction and prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like symptoms induced by the amyloid-? protein (A?) in a rat model. 6-Gingerol is the major gingerol in ginger rhizomes, but its effect on the treatment of AD remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine if 6-gingerol had a protective effect on A?1-42-induced damage and apoptotic death in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which 6-gingerol may exert its neuroprotective effects. Our results indicated that pre-treatment with 6-gingerol significantly increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis in A?1-42-treated cells. Moreover, 6-gingerol pretreatment markedly reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity compared with the A?1-42 treatment group. In addition, 6-gingerol pretreatment also significantly enhanced the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (p-GSK-3?). Overall, these results indicate that 6-gingerol exhibited protective effects on apoptosis induced by A?1-42 in cultured PC12 cells by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, suppressing the activation of GSK-3? and enhancing the activation of Akt, thereby exerting neuroprotective effects. Therefore, 6-gingerol may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of AD. PMID:25811848

  2. Evaluation of Manual Spelling, Observational and Incidental Learning Using Computer-Based Instruction with a Tablet PC, Large Screen Projection, and a Forward Chaining Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purrazzella, Kimberly; Mechling, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The study employed a multiple probe design to investigate the effects of computer-based instruction (CBI) and a forward chaining procedure to teach manual spelling of words to three young adults with moderate intellectual disability in a small group arrangement. The computer-based program included a tablet PC whereby students wrote words directly…

  3. Brassinin Combined with Capsaicin Enhances Apoptotic and Anti-metastatic Effects in PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Moo; Oh, Eun Young; Lee, Jong Hyun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok Geun; Lee, Junhee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2015-11-01

    Brassinin (BSN), a type of indole compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, has shown anti-cancer effects in cells and animals. Capsaicin (CAP), an alkaloid derived from the chilli pepper, is also of interest in for its reported efficacy against various malignancies. The objective of our study was to analyze the potential synergistic anti-tumor effects of BSN combined with CAP on prostate cancer PC-3 cells. After treatment with BSN and CAP at various concentrations, the synergistic cytotoxic effect of PC-3 cells was analyzed by MTT method, proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, colony formation, and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of BSN and CAP on the constitutive expressions of MMP-9/2, their enzymatic activities, cellular migration, and cell invasion were also investigated. The cytotoxicity was synergistically increased in combination compared with the single drug used; moreover, proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and colony formation were significantly suppressed and anti-apoptotic-, proliferative-, and metastatic-related proteins were clearly abolished in the combination group. Besides, constitutive MMP-9/2 expression, their enzymatic activities, cell migration, and tumor cell invasion were inhibited, and TIMP-1 was up-regulated in the combination group in PC-3 cells. Our results indicate, for the first time, that BSN and CAP in combination exert synergistic anticancer effects in prostate carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26426257

  4. Mutation in the S4 segment of the adult skeletal sodium channel gene in an Italian paramyotonia congenita (PC) family.

    PubMed

    Sansone, V; Rotondo, G; Ptacek, L J; Meola, G

    1994-12-01

    The periodic paralyses are a group of autosomal dominant muscle diseases sharing the common feature of episodic stiffness and weakness, usually occurring with muscle cooling (as in the case of paramyotonia congenita, PC phenotype) or changes in extracellular K+ levels resulting from various precipitating factors (hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, HYPP and hypokalemic periodic paralysis, HypoPP). It is now known that HYPP maps to chromosome 17q, and that PC and a form of myotonia congenita without periodic paralysis also map to the 17q locus, thus indicating that they derive from allelic variants. So far, these disorders have been described in various ethnic groups but, to our knowledge, have never been reported in Italy. We describe a mutation in an S4 segment of the adult skeletal muscle sodium channel in a clinically-defined Italian family that leads to the paramyotonia congenita (PC) phenotype with dominant autosomal inheritance and temperature-related symptoms (regional weakness following cooling and exercise), present since childhood in all of the affected family members. PMID:7721550

  5. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  6. PC index as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere: 2. Relation to the interplanetary electric field E KL before substorm onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, OA; Sormakov, DA

    2015-12-01

    This paper (the second of a series) presents the results of statistical investigation of relationship between the interplanetary electric field E KL and the Polar Cap (PC) index in case of magnetic substorms (1998-2001), which have been analyzed in Troshichev et al. (J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 2014). The PC index is directly related to the E KL field variations on interval preceding the substorm sudden onset (SO): correlation R > 0.5 is typical of more than 90 % of isolated substorms, 80 % of expanded substorms, and 99 % of events with coordinated E KL and PC jumps. The low or negative correlation observing in ~10 % of examined substorms suggests that the solar wind flow measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in the Lagrange point L1 did not encounter the magnetosphere in these cases. Examination of the delay times ? T in the response of PC index to E KL variations provides the following results: (1) delay times do not depend on separate solar wind parameters, such as solar wind speed V X and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B Z component, contrary to general conviction, (2) the ? T value is best controlled by the E KL field growth rate (d E KL/dt), (3) the lower ? T limit (5-7 min is attained under conditions of the higher E KL growth rate, and (4) the PC index provides the possibility to verify the solar wind flow transportation time from ACE position (where the solar wind speed is estimated) to magnetosphere. These results, in combination with data testifying that the substorm onsets are related to the PC precursors, demonstrate that the PC index is an adequate ground-based indicator of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere.

  7. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells and suppresses PC-3 solid tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors. PMID:24782648

  8. Trinity Engineering Associates | United States Environmental Protection Agency CAP88-PC V4 TRAINING

    E-print Network

    Trinity Engineering Associates | United States Environmental Protection Agency CAP88-PC V4 TRAINING | United States Environmental Protection Agency DOWNLOADING, INSTALLING, AND RUNNING CAP88-PC, VERSION 4 Associates | United States Environmental Protection Agency DOWNLOADING CAP88-PC · Download .NET Framework 4

  9. Finding MD5 Collisions on a Notebook PC Using Multi-message Modifications

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    1 Finding MD5 Collisions on a Notebook PC Using Multi-message Modifications Vlastimil Klima1, 2 v the methods presented in [1, 8]. It enables us to find a MD5 collision on a standard notebook PC roughly in 8 colliding block in 2 minutes using a notebook PC. The same computation phase took the Chinese team about

  10. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  11. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  12. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  13. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  14. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  15. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  16. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  17. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g., a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500...

  18. Installing Fake Root Keys in a PC Adil Alsaid and Chris J. Mitchell

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Chris

    to a user PC without the PC user knowing it. Depending on the security settings selected by the PC user the software supplier key pair. The private key from the CA key pair is used to sign a certificate for the public key from the software supplier key pair, and the name of a reputable software supplier is included

  19. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  20. 76 FR 39473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1120-PC, U.S. Property and...: 1545-1027. Form Number: Form 1120-PC. Abstract: Property and casualty insurance companies are...

  1. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC

  2. The USL NASA PC R and D project: General specifications of objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Given here are the general specifications of the objectives of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA PC R and D Project, a project initiated to address future R and D issues related to PC-based processing environments acquired pursuant to the NASA contract work; namely, the IBM PC/XT systems.

  3. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive... relative changes in a hemodynamically stable patient's cutaneous carbon dioxide tension as an adjunct...

  4. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive... relative changes in a hemodynamically stable patient's cutaneous carbon dioxide tension as an adjunct...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  6. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  7. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section...Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2 ) monitor is a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section...Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2 ) monitor is a...

  9. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section...Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2 ) monitor is a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section...Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2 ) monitor is a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section...Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2 ) monitor is a...

  12. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  13. microRNA regulatory mechanism by which PLLA aligned nanofibers influence PC12 cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yadong; Lü, Xiaoying; Ding, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Aligned nanofibers (AFs) are regarded as promising biomaterials in nerve tissue engineering. However, a full understanding of the biocompatibility of AFs at the molecular level is still challenging. Therefore, the present study focused on identifying the microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulatory mechanism by which poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) AFs influence PC12 cell differentiation. Approach. Firstly, the effects of PLLA random nanofibers (RFs)/AFs and PLLA films (control) on the biological responses of PC12 cells that are associated with neuronal differentiation were examined. Then, SOLiD sequencing and cDNA microarray were employed to profile the expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs. The target genes of the misregulated miRNAs were predicted and compared with the mRNA profile data. Functions of the matched target genes (the intersection between the predicted target genes and the experimentally-determined, misregulated genes) were analyzed. Main results. The results revealed that neurites spread in various directions in control and RF groups. In the AF group, most neurites extended in parallel with each other. The glucose consumption and lactic acid production in the RF and AF groups were higher than those in the control group. Compared with the control group, 42 and 94 miRNAs were significantly dysregulated in the RF and AF groups, respectively. By comparing the predicted target genes with the mRNA profile data, five and 87 matched target genes were found in the RF and AF groups, respectively. Three of the matched target genes in the AF group were found to be associated with neuronal differentiation, whereas none had this association in the RF group. The PLLA AFs induced the dysregulation of miRNAs that regulate many biological functions, including axonal guidance, lipid metabolism and long-term potentiation. In particular, two miRNA-matched target gene-biological function modules associated with neuronal differentiation were identified as follows: (1) miR-23b, miR-18a, miR-107 and miR-103 regulate the Rras2 and Nf1 gene and thereby, affect cytoskeleton regulation and MAPK pathway; (2) miR-92a, miR-339-5p, miR-25, miR-125a-5p, miR-351 and miR-19b co-regulate the Pafah1b1 gene, affecting PC12 cell migration and differentiation. Significance. This work demonstrates a bioinformatic approach to accomplish miRNA-mRNA profile integrative analysis and provides more insights for understanding the regulatory mechanism of miRNA in AFs affecting neuronal differentiation. These findings will be greatly beneficial for the application and design of AFs in nerve tissue engineering.

  14. The roles of Polycomb-Group proteins in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana 

    E-print Network

    Thorpe, Frazer

    2009-01-01

    The roles of Polycomb-Group proteins in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana The Polycomb-group (Pc-G) complex determines animal cell fate by regulating the expression of the homeotic genes that specify the body ...

  15. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 2: Data handling, communications (E-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technologies required to support the stated OAST thrust to increase information return by X1000, while reducing costs by a factor of 10 are identified. The most significant driver is the need for an overall end-to-end data system management technology. Maximum use of LSI component technology and trade-offs between hardware and software are manifest in most all considerations of technology needs. By far, the greatest need for data handling technology was identified for the space Exploration and Global Services themes. Major advances are needed in NASA's ability to provide cost effective mass reduction of space data, and automated assessment of earth looking imagery, with a concomitant reduction in cost per useful bit. A combined approach embodying end-to-end system analysis, with onboard data set selection, onboard data processing, highly parallel image processing (both ground and space), low cost, high capacity memories, and low cost user data distribution systems would be necessary.

  16. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 1: Navigation, guidance, control (E-1) A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The six themes identified by the Workshop have many common navigation guidance and control needs. All the earth orbit themes have a strong requirement for attitude, figure and stabilization control of large space structures, a requirement not currently being supported. All but the space transportation theme have need for precision pointing of spacecraft and instruments. In addition all the themes have requirements for increasing autonomous operations for such activities as spacecraft and experiment operations, onboard mission modification, rendezvous and docking, spacecraft assembly and maintenance, navigation and guidance, and self-checkout, test and repair. Major new efforts are required to conceptualize new approaches to large space antennas and arrays that are lightweight, readily deployable, and capable of precise attitude and figure control. Conventional approaches offer little hope of meeting these requirements. Functions that can benefit from increasing automation or autonomous operations are listed.

  17. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

  18. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Twelve aerothermodynamic space technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the space transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.

  19. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 7: Material (M-1). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The approach of matching technology areas with various themes needs was not effective for the materials and thermal control discipline because of the diversity of requirements for each. Top priorities were evolved from the advanced space transportation system and the space power platform because these are essential building blocks in fulfilling some of the other themes. Important needs identified include life long-life cryogenic cooling systems for sensors, masers, and other devices and the needs for lightweight nuclear shielding materials for nuclear electric propulsion.

  20. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  1. PC analysis of an acousto-ultrasonic signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiernan, M. T.; Duke, J. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction is given to PC software developed to analyze a digitized signal. The specific way in which the software was implemented and the relative ease with which the same software can be implemented in different systems for various applications are discussed. The basic equations and related theory used in the software are furnished. Specifically, mention is made of signal digitization, dc biasing, Fourier analysis, moment analysis, digital filtering, and transfer functions. Examples of calculations are given to indicate the physical significance of variables calculated from the frequency domain via moment equations.

  2. Minocycline attenuates both OGD-induced HMGB1 release and HMGB1-induced cell death in ischemic neuronal injury in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Department of Neurosurgery, Omuta City General Hospital, 2-19-1 Takarazaka, Omuta-City, Fukuoka 836-8567 ; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Ito, Takashi; Tancharoen, Salunya; Morimoto, Yoko; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Oyama, Yoko; Takenouchi, Kazunori; Miura, Naoki; Arimura, Noboru; Nawa, Yuko; Meng, Xiaojie; Shrestha, Binita; Arimura, Shinichiro; and others

    2009-07-24

    High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a non-histone DNA-binding protein, is massively released into the extracellular space from neuronal cells after ischemic insult and exacerbates brain tissue damage in rats. Minocycline is a semisynthetic second-generation tetracycline antibiotic which has recently been shown to be a promising neuroprotective agent. In this study, we found that minocycline inhibited HMGB1 release in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated PC12 cells and triggered the activation of p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). The ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibitor U-0126 and p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 blocked HMGB1 release in response to OGD. Furthermore, HMGB1 triggered cell death in a dose-dependent fashion. Minocycline significantly rescued HMGB1-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. In light of recent observations as well as the good safety profile of minocycline in humans, we propose that minocycline might play a potent neuroprotective role through the inhibition of HMGB1-induced neuronal cell death in cerebral infarction.

  3. Conformal Carroll groups

    E-print Network

    C. Duval; G. W. Gibbons; P. A. Horvathy

    2014-07-02

    Conformal extensions of Levy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labelled by an integer $k$. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to Conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by "Carrollian photons". Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  4. Spaces of Kleinian Groups Cambridge University Press, 2004 Lond. Math. Soc. Lec. Notes xxx, 1-14 Y. Minsky, M. Sakuma & C. Series*

    E-print Network

    Wolpert, Scott A.

    , Yeu03], for the convexity of the WP metric completion [DW03 , MW02* * , Wol03, Yam01], for the study of harmonic maps into Teichm"uller space [DKW00 , Yam99, Yam01], and for the action of the mapping class

  5. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  9. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

  10. Binding to and photo-oxidation of cardiolipin by the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Kim, Junhwan; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Berlin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-09-01

    Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its peroxidation correlates with release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptosis. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier Förster resonance energy transfer studies showed colocalization of Pc 4 and cardiolipin, which suggests cardiolipin as a target of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Pc 4. Using liposomes as membrane models, we find that Pc 4 binds to cardiolipin-containing liposomes similarly to those that do not contain cardiolipin. Pc 4 binding is also studied in MCF-7c3 cells and those whose cardiolipin content was reduced by treatment with palmitate. Decreased levels of cardiolipin are quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The similar level of binding of Pc 4 to cells, irrespective of palmitate treatment, supports the lack of specificity of Pc 4 binding. Thus, factors other than cardiolipin are likely responsible for the preferential localization of Pc 4 in mitochondria. Nonetheless, cardiolipin within liposomes is readily oxidized by Pc 4 and light, yielding apparently mono- and dihydroperoxidized cardiolipin. If similar products result from exposure of cells to Pc 4-PDT, they could be part of the early events leading to apoptosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  11. [PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Shi, Qing-Guo; Qian, Xiao-Long; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Hong-Tao; Wang, Le-Le; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2010-04-01

    PC-1(Prostate and colon gene 1) gene belongs to TPD52 (Tumor Protein D52) gene family. The expression of PC-1 is found to promote androgen-independent progression. This study was conducted to assess the mechnism of promotion of androgen-independent progression in PC-1 gene. The c-myc gene expression was tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses in the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line. After separation of cytoplasm and nulear proteins of the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line, the beta-catenin protein was detected by Western blotting. C4-2 cell line was used to examine the effects of 10058-F4 on the PC-1 gene expression. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting indicated that PC-1 enhanced c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells, PC-1 was also found to enhance beta-catenin expression in nuclear. Furthermore, a small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4 represses PC-1 gene expression in C4-2 cell line. Our findings suggest that PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Meanwhile, c-myc plays a feed-forward role in enhancing PC-1 driven c-myc gene expression, and promotes prostate an-drogen-independent progression. PMID:20423888

  12. ORMGEN. PC: a microcomputer program for automatic mesh generation of 2-D crack geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, J.W.; Bass, B.R.

    1986-03-01

    ORMGEN.PC (Oak Ridge Mesh GENeration.Personal Computer) automatically generates two-dimensional finite-element models for either cracked or uncracked structures. Element connectivities and nodal point coordinates are written in formats that are compatible for subsequent fracture analysis using either the ORVIRT.PC finite-element microcomputer program or the ADINA/ORVIRT mainframe system. ORMGEN.PC emphasizes generality in its design. Finite-element models can be generated for disks, plates, cylinders, and even geometries with holes, such as compact tension specimens. Either surface or embedded flaw geometries can be modeled. Detailed user instructions describe both preparation of input data and program operation. Sample problems are presented that demonstrate the flexibility of the program. ORMGEN.PC executes on an IBM PC/AT or PC/XT microcomputer; typical runtimes on an IBM PC/AT are 30 to 45 s. 20 figs.

  13. Extraction of weak PcP phases using the slant-stacklet transform - I: method and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    In order to study fine scale structure of the Earth's deep interior, it is necessary to extract generally weak body wave phases from seismograms that interact with various discontinuities and heterogeneities. The recent deployment of large-scale dense arrays providing high-quality data, in combination with efficient seismic data processing techniques, may provide important and accurate observations over large portions of the globe poorly sampled until now. Major challenges are low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and interference with unwanted neighbouring phases. We address these problems by introducing scale-dependent slowness filters that preserve time-space resolution. We combine complex wavelet and slant-stack transforms to obtain the slant-stacklet transform. This is a redundant high-resolution directional wavelet transform with a direction (here slowness) resolution that can be adapted to the signal requirements. To illustrate this approach, we use this expansion to design coherence-driven filters that allow us to obtain clean PcP observations (a weak phase often hidden in the coda of the P wave), for events with magnitude Mw > 5.4 and distances up to 80°. In this context, we then minimize a linear misfit between P and PcP waveforms to improve the quality of PcP-P traveltime measurements as compared to a standard cross-correlation method. This significantly increases both the quantity and the quality of PcP-P differential traveltime measurements available for the modelling of structure near the core-mantle boundary. The accuracy of our measurements is limited mainly by the highest frequencies of the signals used and the level of noise. We apply this methodology to two examples of high-quality data from dense arrays located in north America. While focusing here on body-wave separation, the tools we propose are more general and may contribute to enhancing seismic signal observations in global seismology in situations of low SNR and high signal interference.

  14. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Baozhong; Yin Junjie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He Yuying

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future.

  15. PC-based closed-circuit television system

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffersen, D.; Clark, C.

    1990-01-01

    The PC-based closed-circuit television (CCTV) system is a low-cost, highly functional alternative to conventional video system equipment. The system provides routing switching, character generation, video presence detection, and solid-state video recording and replay by using four uniquely designed boards that fit into the backplane slots of an IBM PC-XT-compatible personal computer. Each board controls 16 separate channels, and the boards can be daisy-chained together to build larger, more powerful systems. The system can be configured to handle as many as 240 input signals or up to 48 output channels, and uses a redundant video bus loop. The video bus can be tapped into throughout the loop to provide localized routing switching within several buildings, and video termination at multiple locations, such as security operators' stations. This approach reduces cabling costs and allows additional routing switchers to be added easily with little impact on existing equipment. The system is capable of communicating with several control interfaces, and control software is currently in place for communicating via an RS-232 link and the Intel BitBus network. The hardware drivers are Microsoft C modules that can be linked with a user developed control program.

  16. On the PC Interface for Hearing-Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Mitsuhiro; Akiyama, Kouichi; Hama, Hiromitsu

    2002-12-01

    A human being takes in the outer world information by using the five senses, and lives. So he is forced very inconvenient life even when one sense is missing. Among others, it is said that the sense of hearing has importance next to the sight, but it is one of the organs which surely become weak with aging, and "hearing defect" is particularly the problem which all people face someday. But, technically and socially, the system which the person whose physical function is poor can entry into and contribute to the society is very important. In this research, the way of making up for a lost function by the medium change to the sense of touch information from the auditory information is examined, as a help that hearing-impaired gets "safety", "independence", "the tranquility of the heart" from the technical side. In this paper, as a concrete system, it paid attention to the mouse of the PC interface, and a vibration mouse was used under the environment which a PC was being used for, and thought about building of the system which can acquire the sound information of the life environment in real time.

  17. Rotordynamics on the PC: Further Capabilities of ARDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Rotordynamics codes for personal computers are now becoming available. One of the most capable codes is Analysis of RotorDynamic Systems (ARDS) which uses the component mode synthesis method to analyze a system of up to 5 rotating shafts. ARDS was originally written for a mainframe computer but has been successfully ported to a PC; its basic capabilities for steady-state and transient analysis were reported in an earlier paper. Additional functions have now been added to the PC version of ARDS. These functions include: 1) Estimation of the peak response following blade loss without resorting to a full transient analysis; 2) Calculation of response sensitivity to input parameters; 3) Formulation of optimum rotor and damper designs to place critical speeds in desirable ranges or minimize bearing loads; 4) Production of Poincard plots so the presence of chaotic motion can be ascertained. ARDS produces printed and plotted output. The executable code uses the full array sizes of the mainframe version and fits on a high density floppy disc. Examples of all program capabilities are presented and discussed.

  18. Nuclear data retrieval for PC applications, PCNuDat

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, R.R.

    1996-11-01

    The PCNuDat program for IBM-PC compatibles is similar to the NuDat program available through the NNDC Online Nuclear Data Service. They provide a user with access to nuclear data in a convenient and menu driven system. This data is useful in both basic and applied research. The nuclear base used by NuDat is extracted from several data bases maintained at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The program is an extended DOS program which uses 32 bit addressing. It can run in a DOS window on all the current Windows operating systems. The program and its data base are currently available on both a CD-ROM or electronically over the Internet. Electronic access can be made through the NNDC`s Web home page. The files may also be FTP`d from the public area under the [pc{_}prog] directory on bnlnd2.dne.bnl.gov. The CD-ROM version also contains the Nuclear Science References (NSR) data base and its retrieval program, Papyrus NSR.

  19. How to reveal the exotic nature of the Pc(4450 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    The LHCb Collaboration announced two pentaquark-like structures in the J /? p invariant mass distribution. We show that the current information on the narrow structure at 4.45 GeV is compatible with kinematical effects of the rescattering from ?c 1p to J /? p : First, it is located exactly at the ?c 1p threshold. Second, the mass of the four-star well-established ? (1890 ) is such that a leading Landau singularity from a triangle diagram can coincidentally appear at the ?c 1p threshold, and third, there is a narrow structure at the ?c 1p threshold but not at the ?c 0p and ?c 2p thresholds. In order to check whether that structure corresponds to a real exotic resonance, one can measure the process ?b0?K-?c 1p . If the Pc(4450 ) structure exists in the ?c 1p invariant mass distribution as well, then the structure cannot be just a kinematical effect but is a real resonance; otherwise, one cannot conclude that Pc(4450 ) is another exotic hadron. In addition, it is also worthwhile to measure the decay ? (1 S )?J /? p p ¯ : a narrow structure at 4.45 GeV but not at the ?c 0p and ?c 2p thresholds would exclude the possibility of a pure kinematical effect.

  20. CAP88-PC Version 4, an updated radionuclide NESHAPS model.

    PubMed

    Wood, Raymond; Stuenkel, David; Rosnick, Reid

    2013-08-01

    The latest version of the CAP88-PC computer model, Version 4, has many changes and improvements from previous versions. The most significant of these changes from a user perspective are the incorporation of age-dependent radionuclide dose and risk factors for ingestion and inhalation, the increase in the number of included radionuclides, and a change in the file management system used by the program. Other changes less visible to the user include new code architecture, incorporation of numerical solvers for the calculation of radioactive decay chains, including the ingrowth of decay products during air transport and ground surface deposition, enhanced error messages, updated on-line help, and a utility for migrating Version 3 datasets, wind files, and population files to Version 4. The modifications have produced a significant improvement in speed and stability for Version 4 relative to Version 3 and eliminated the solution approximations used in Version 3. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has implemented an extensive testing and documentation program for CAP88-PC Version 4 to address user concerns with past versions, resulting in enhanced documentation supporting compatibility with user software quality assurance programs. PMID:23803671

  1. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  2. COMPPAP - COMPOSITE PLATE BUCKLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Composite Plate Buckling Analysis Program (COMPPAP) was written to help engineers determine buckling loads of orthotropic (or isotropic) irregularly shaped plates without requiring hand calculations from design curves or extensive finite element modeling. COMPPAP is a one element finite element program that utilizes high-order displacement functions. The high order of the displacement functions enables the user to produce results more accurate than traditional h-finite elements. This program uses these high-order displacement functions to perform a plane stress analysis of a general plate followed by a buckling calculation based on the stresses found in the plane stress solution. The current version assumes a flat plate (constant thickness) subject to a constant edge load (normal or shear) on one or more edges. COMPPAP uses the power method to find the eigenvalues of the buckling problem. The power method provides an efficient solution when only one eigenvalue is desired. Once the eigenvalue is found, the eigenvector, which corresponds to the plate buckling mode shape, results as a by-product. A positive feature of the power method is that the dominant eigenvalue is the first found, which is this case is the plate buckling load. The reported eigenvalue expresses a load factor to induce plate buckling. COMPPAP is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77. Two machine versions are available from COSMIC: a PC version (MSC-22428), which is for IBM PC 386 series and higher computers and compatibles running MS-DOS; and a UNIX version (MSC-22286). The distribution medium for both machine versions includes source code for both single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The PC version includes source code which has been optimized for implementation within DOS memory constraints as well as sample executables for both the single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The double precision versions of COMPPAP have been successfully implemented on an IBM PC 386 compatible running MS-DOS, a Sun4 series computer running SunOS, an HP-9000 series computer running HP-UX, and a CRAY X-MP series computer running UNICOS. COMPPAP requires 1Mb of RAM and the BLAS and LINPACK math libraries, which are included on the distribution medium. The COMPPAP documentation provides instructions for using the commercial post-processing package PATRAN for graphical interpretation of COMPPAP output. The UNIX version includes two electronic versions of the documentation: one in LaTex format and one in PostScript format. The standard distribution medium for the PC version (MSC-22428) is a 5.25 inch 1.2Mb MS-DOS format diskette. The standard distribution medium for the UNIX version (MSC-22286) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. For the UNIX version, alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. COMPPAP was developed in 1992.

  3. Triptolide Inhibited Cytotoxicity of Differentiated PC12 Cells Induced by Amyloid-Beta25–35 via the Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengjuan; Li, Zhigui; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaochen; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that an abnormal deposition of amyloid beta-peptide25–35 (A?25–35) was the primary cause of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). And the elimination of A?25–35 is considered an important target for the treatment of AD. Triptolide (TP), isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. (TWHF), has been shown to possess a broad spectrum of biological profiles, including neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In our study investigating the effect and potential mechanism of triptolide on cytotoxicity of differentiated rat pheochromocytoma cell line (the PC12 cell line is often used as a neuronal developmental model) induced by Amyloid-Beta25–35 (A?25–35), we used 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, Western blot, and acridine orange staining to detect whether triptolide could inhibit A?25–35–induced cell apoptosis. We focused on the potential role of the autophagy pathway in A?25–35-treated differentiated PC12 cells. Our experiments show that cell viability is significantly decreased, and the apoptosis increased in A?25–35-treated differentiated PC12 cells. Meanwhile, A?25–35 treatment increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II (LC3 II), which indicates an activation of autophagy. However, triptolide could protect differentiated PC12 cells against A?25–35-induced cytotoxicity and attenuate A?25–35-induced differentiated PC12 cell apoptosis. Triptolide could also suppress the level of autophagy. In order to assess the effect of autophagy on the protective effects of triptolide in differentiated PC12 cells treated with A?25–35, we used 3-Methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagy activator). MTT assay showed that 3-MA elevated cell viability compared with the A?25–35-treated group and rapamycin inhibits the protection of triptolide. These results suggest that triptolide will repair the neurological damage in AD caused by deposition of A?25–35 via the autophagy pathway, all of which may provide an exciting view of the potential application of triptolide or TWHF as a future research for AD. PMID:26554937

  4. Effects of the acupoints PC 6 Neiguan and LR 3 Taichong on cerebral blood flow in normal subjects and in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Quirico, P E; Allais, G; Ferrando, M; de Lorenzo, C; Burzio, C; Bergandi, F; Rolando, S; Schiapparelli, P; Benedetto, C

    2014-05-01

    Acupuncture has been proven to be effective in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders; it acts both on the peripheral flow and on the cerebral flow. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of the insertion of PC 6 Neiguan and LR 3 Taichong acupoints on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). These effects were measured in a group of patients suffering from migraine without aura (Group M) and in a healthy control group (Group C). In the study, we included 16 patients suffering from migraine without aura, classified according to the criteria of the International Headache Society, and 14 healthy subjects as a control group. The subjects took part in the study on two different days, and on each day, the effect of a single acupoint was evaluated. Transcranial Doppler was used to measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) in the MCA. Our study showed that the stimulation of PC 6 Neiguan in both groups results in a significant and longlasting reduction in the average BFV in the MCA. After pricking LR 3 Taichong, instead, the average BFV undergoes a very sudden and marked increase; subsequently, it decreases and tends to stabilize at a slightly higher level compared with the baseline, recorded before needle insertion. Our data seem to suggest that these two acupoints have very different effects on CBF. The insertion of PC 6 Neiguan probably triggers a vasodilation in MCA, while the pricking of LR 3 Taichong determines a rapid and marked vasoconstriction. PMID:24867849

  5. Lie Groups, Physics, and Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Robert

    2008-01-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Lie groups; 2. Matrix groups; 4. Lie algebras; 5. Matrix algebras; 6. Operator algebras; 7. Exponentiation; 8. Structure theory for Lie algebras; 9. Structure theory for simple Lie algebras; 10. Root spaces and Dykin diagrams; 11. Real forms; 12. Riemannian symmetric spaces; 13. Contraction; 14. Hydrogenic atoms; 15. Maxwell's equations; 16. Lie groups and differential equations; References; Index.

  6. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 3: Sensors (E-3). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Developments required to support the space power, SETI, solar system exploration and global services programs are identified. Instrumentation and calibration sensors (rather than scientific) are needed for the space power system. Highly sophisticated receivers for narrowband detection of microwave sensors and sensors for automated stellar cataloging to provide a mapping data base for SETI are needed. Various phases of solar system exploration require large area solid state imaging arrays from UV to IR; a long focal plane telescope; high energy particle detectors; advanced spectrometers; a gravitometer; and atmospheric distanalyzer; sensors for penetrometers; in-situ sensors for surface chemical analysis, life detection, spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of surface soils, and for meteorological measurements. Active and passive multiapplication sensors, advanced multispectral scanners with improved resolution in the UV and IR ranges, and laser techniques for advanced probing and oceanographic characterization will enhance for global services.

  7. Group Dynamics in Long -term blind endeavors on Earth as an analog for Remote Space Missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1803 - 1806, Dynamic Analysis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.; Reilly, J.

    In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains newline M Lewis and W Clark L C Expedition on an exploration to learn more about the large territory of land the U S had just purchased from France Cavan 1991 Their mission was to find a direct water route to the Pacific Ocean for the purpose of commerce and further industrial development Edwards 1999 Looking back at the events of this exploration there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond NASA Vision for Space Exploration 2004 - The L C Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean newline - The expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in early 18th century newline - The expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew newline - Supplies brought on the mission were limited mainly a mass weight issue rather than cost therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources In-Situ Resource Utilization approach including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty was necessary for crew survival The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar

  8. SRC2-1 is required in PcINF1-induced pepper immunity by acting as an interacting partner of PcINF1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-qin; Qiu, Ai-lian; Shi, Lan-ping; Cai, Jin-sen; Huang, Xue-ying; Yang, Sheng; Wang, Bo; Shen, Lei; Huang, Mu-kun; Mou, Shao-liang; Ma, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Yan-yan; Lin, Lin; Wen, Jia-yu; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Guan, De-yi; Lai, Yan; He, Shui-lin

    2015-07-01

    Elicitins are elicitors that can trigger hypersensitive cell death in most Nicotiana spp., but their underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. The gene Phytophthora capsici INF1 (PcINF1) coding for an elicitin from P. capsici was characterized in this study. Transient overexpression of PcINF1 triggered cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and was accompanied by upregulation of the hypersensitive response marker, Hypersensitive Induced Reaction gene 1 (HIR1), and the pathogenesis-related genes SAR82, DEF1, BPR1, and PO2. A putative PcINF1-interacting protein, SRC2-1, was isolated from a pepper cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid screening and was observed to target the plasma membrane. The interaction between PcINF1 and SRC2-1 was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation. Simultaneous transient overexpression of SRC2-1 and PcINF1 in pepper plants triggered intensive cell death, whereas silencing of SRC2-1 by virus-induced gene silencing blocked the cell death induction of PcINF1 and increased the susceptibility of pepper plants to P. capsici infection. Additionally, membrane targeting of the PcINF1-SRC2-1 complex was required for cell death induction. The C2 domain of SRC2-1 was crucial for SRC2-1 plasma membrane targeting and the PcINF1-SRC2-1 interaction. These results suggest that SRC2-1 interacts with PcINF1 and is required in PcINF1-induced pepper immunity. PMID:25922484

  9. Characterization of four new monoclonal antibodies against the distal N-terminal region of PrPc

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Katrina; Vranac, Tanja; ?urin Šerbec, Vladka

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. They are characterized by the accumulation in the central nervous system of a pathological form of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). The prion protein is a membrane glycoprotein that consists of two domains: a globular, structured C-terminus and an unstructured N-terminus. The N-terminal part of the protein is involved in different functions in both health and disease. In the present work we discuss the production and biochemical characterization of a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the distal N-terminus of PrPC using a well-established methodology based on the immunization of Prnp0/0 mice. Additionally, we show their ability to block prion (PrPSc) replication at nanomolar concentrations in a cell culture model of prion infection. These mAbs represent a promising tool for prion diagnostics and for studying the physiological role of the N-terminal domain of PrPC. PMID:25802800

  10. Antibiofilm Properties of Silver and Gold Incorporated PU, PCLm, PC and PMMA Nanocomposites under Two Shear Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Shilpa N.; Selvaraj, Veerapandian; Prabhawathi, Veluchamy; Doble, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles (of average size ?20–27 nm) were incorporated in PU (Polyurethane), PCLm (Polycaprolactam), PC (polycarbonate) and PMMA (Polymethylmethaacrylate) by swelling and casting methods under ambient conditions. In the latter method the nanoparticle would be present not only on the surface, but also inside the polymer. These nanoparticles were prepared initially by using a cosolvent, THF. PU and PCLm were dissolved and swollen with THF. PC and PMMA were dissolved in CHCl3 and here the cosolvent, THF, acted as an intermediate between water and CHCl3. FTIR indicated that the interaction between the polymer and the nanoparticle was through the functional group in the polymer. The formation of E.coli biofilm on these nanocomposites under low (in a Drip flow biofilm reactor) and high shear (in a Shaker) conditions indicated that the biofilm growth was higher (twice) in the former than in the latter (ratio of shear force?=?15). A positive correlation between the contact angle (of the virgin surface) and the number of colonies, carbohydrate and protein attached on it were observed. Ag nanocomposites exhibited better antibiofilm properties than Au. Bacterial attachment was highest on PC and least on PU nanocomposite. Casting method appeared to be better than swelling method in reducing the attachment (by a factor of 2). Composites reduced growth of organisms by six orders of magnitude, and protein and carbohydrate by 2–5 times. This study indicates that these nanocomposites may be suitable for implant applications. PMID:23675476

  11. -Search-Register Submit News Blogs Protocols Forum Groups Shop All Health Bioscience Physical Science Environment Space Tech Life Origins Misc

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    -Search- Register Submit News Blogs Protocols Forum Groups Shop All Health Bioscience Physical strong piezoelectricity ­ a type of charge-generation caused by mechanical stress ­ in three dimensions and Entrepreneurship at the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, were published online Dec. 22 in Nano

  12. Noninvasive assessment of tissue distribution and tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181, a silicon phthalocyanine analogue, in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lihua; Guo, Jianxia; Clausen, Dana M.; Eiseman, Julie L.

    2010-02-01

    Objective: In in vitro photodynamic therapy, the LD50 of Pc 181 has been reported to be 7 to 8 times less than that of silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4). The Optical Pharmacokinetic System (OPS) can measure photosensitizer concentrations in accessible tissues non-invasively. We used OPS to evaluate the tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181 and Pc 4 and the tissue drug distribution in SCID mice bearing either human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 or human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SCC-15 xenografts. Methods: Following iv administration of 2.5 mg/kg Pc 181 or 2 mg/kg Pc 4 to SCID mice, OPS measurements were taken on tumor and normal tissues between 5 and 4320 min in vivo or in situ. Results: Large variations in tumor Pc 181 concentrations were observed among mice. In MDA-MB-231 tumors, the Pc 181 concentration peaked at 240 min, and was retained in the tumor. Tumor Pc 181 concentrations were much less than the tumor Pc 4 concentrations at an equimolar dose. Pc 181 concentrations were the highest in liver, followed by spleen, and kidney. In mice bearing SCC-15 xenografts, skin and underlying tissue Pc 181 concentrations were higher than tumor concentrations at all time points examined. Conclusions: This first Pc 181 pharmacokinetics study described a tissue Pc 181 distribution similar to that of Pc 4. However, tumor Pc 181 concentrations were lower than those of Pc 4 at equimolar doses.

  13. Characterizing the Nearest Young Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Kyle A.

    Moving groups are associations of stars which originated from the same star forming region. These groups are typically young (< 200 Myr) since they have not dissipated into the galactic field population. Over the last 15 years, roughly 10 such moving groups have been found with distances < 150 pc (7 with distances < 100 pc), each with a unique velocity and position. This work first investigates the likelihood to resolve star from two moving groups (AB Doradus and Beta Pictoris) using high spacial resolution optical interferrometry and found 5 AB Doradus stars and 1 Beta Pictoris star with declinations > -30 could be spacially resolved. To more deeply characterize individual groups, we used the 2.7m telescope at the McDonald Observatory to observe 10 proposed AB Doradus stars and 5 proposed Octans-Near stars (3 probable members, 2 possible) with high resolution (R ˜60,000) optical spectroscopy. Each group is characterized in three ways: (1) Chemical analysis to determine the homogeneity among members, (2) Kinematic traceback to determine the origin, and (3) Isochrone fitting to determine the age. We find the 8 stars in our AB Doradus sample are chemically homogeneous with [M/H] = -0.03 +/- 0.06 dex, traceback to an age of 125 Myr, and the stars in this mass range are on the main sequence. The two deviants are a metal rich, potentially younger member and a metal poor, young star likely not associated with AB Doradus. In our Octans-Near sample, we find the 3 probable members have [M/H] = -0.06 +/- 0.11, the stars do not trace back to a common origin, and the probable members are on the main sequence. In addition to these tests, we found that the probable members are slightly more lithium depleted than the Pleiades, implying an age between 125 and 200 Myr. Finally, we investigate systematic trends in fundamental stellar parameters from the use of different techniques. Preliminary results find differences in temperatures between interferrometric and spectroscopic techniques to be a function of temperature with a interferrometric temperatures being cooler by an average of 36 +/- 115 K. We also calculated the chemical abundances as a function of condensation temperature for our moving group sample and predict 2 stars in AB Doradus could represent the initial star forming environment and discuss the implications for planet hosting stars in nearby moving groups. This updated characterization technique allows for a deeper understanding of the moving group environment. As future, high precision instruments emerge in astronomy (JameWebb Space Telescope, GAIA, 30m class telescopes), moving groups are ideal targets since these associations will help us understand star forming regions, stellar evolution at young ages, constrain stellar evolutionary models, and identify planetary formation and evolution mechanisms.

  14. The SAND domain protein ULTRAPETALA1 acts as a trithorax group factor to regulate cell fate in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During development, trithorax group (trxG) chromatin remodeling complexes counteract repression by Polycomb group (PcG) complexes to sustain active expression of key regulatory genes. Although PcG complexes are well characterized in plants, little is known about trxG activities. Here we demonstrate ...

  15. Effect of oridonin-mediated hallmark changes on inflammatory pathways in human pancreatic cancer (BxPC-3) cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ru-Yi; Xu, Bin; Chen, Su-Feng; Chen, Si-Si; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Jun; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of oridonin on nuclear transcription factors and to study the relationship between biological behavior and inflammatory factors in human pancreatic cancer (BxPC-3) cells. METHODS: BxPC-3 cells were treated with various concentrations of oridonin, and viability curves were generated to test for inhibitory effects of the drug on cells. The expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, or IL-33 was detected in BxPC-3 cell supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the protein expression of nuclear transcription factors including nuclear factor ?B, activating protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, transforming growth factor ?1 and sma and mad homologues in BxPC-3 cells was detected using Western blot. Carcinoma hallmark-related proteins such as survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 were also detected using immunoblotting, and intra-nuclear IL-33 expression was detected using immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: Treatment with oridonin reduced the viability of BxPC-3 cells in a dose dependent manner. The cells exhibited reduced growth following treatment with 8 ?g/mL oridonin (13.05% ± 3.21%, P < 0.01), and the highest inhibitory ratio was 90.64% ± 0.70%, which was achieved with oridonin at a dose of 32 ?g/mL. The IC50 value of oridonin in BxPC-3 cells was 19.32 ?g/mL. ELISA analysis revealed that oridonin down-regulated the inflammatory factors IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-33 in a dose-dependent manner. IL-1? expression was significantly reduced in the 16 and 32 ?g/mL treatment groups compared to the control group (12.97 ± 0.45 pg/mL, 11.17 ± 0.63 pg/mL vs 14.40 ± 0.38 pg/mL, P < 0.01). Similar trends were observed for IL-6 expression, which was significantly reduced in the 16 and 32 ?g/mL treatment groups compared to the control group (4.05 ± 0.14 pg/mL vs 4.45 ± 0.43 pg/mL, P < 0.05; 3.95 ± 0.13 pg/mL vs 4.45 ± 0.43 pg/mL, P < 0.01). IL-33 expression was significantly reduced in the 8, 16, and 32 ?g/mL treatment groups compared to the control group (911.05 ± 14.18 pg/mL vs 945.25 ± 12.09 pg/mL, P < 0.05; 802.70 ± 11.88 pg/mL, 768.54 ± 10.98 pg/mL vs 945.25 ± 12.09 pg/mL, P < 0.01). Western blot and immunofluorescent staining analyses suggested that oridonin changed the hallmarks and regulated the expression of various nuclear transcription factors. CONCLUSION: The results obtained suggest that oridonin alters the hallmarks of pancreatic cancer cells through the regulation of nuclear transcription factors. PMID:25356049

  16. Cigarette smoke modulates PC3 prostate cancer cell migration by altering adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suping; Long, Minica; Tachado, Souvenir D; Seng, Seyha

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer?related mortality among American males. Studies suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with the progression of PCa; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have not been extensively investigated. PCa progression is characterized by increased cell migration and alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM)? and cell adhesion molecule (CAM)?related gene expression. In the present study, the influence of cigarette smoke medium (SM) on cell migration and on the expression of ECM? and CAM?related genes in PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. According to a wound?healing assay, SM treatment promoted PC3 cell migration. RNA expression levels from SM?treated and control cells were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Of 84 genes analyzed, 27.38% (23/84) exhibited a ?2?fold change in threshold cycle in PC3 cells following 0.5% SM treatment. Functional gene grouping analysis demonstrated that SM treatment modulated the RNA transcription of approximately 18.4% of CAMs and 33.93% of ECM?related genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that SM treatment led to a significant decrease in transcription levels of the following genes: Collagen 5 ??1(V), connective tissue growth factor, integrin ??2, kallmann syndrome 1, laminin ? 3, matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7), MMP13, secreted protein acidic cysteine?rich, thrombospondin?2 and versican; and that SM significantly increased the transcription levels of MMP2 and MMP12. Furthermore, MMP2 knockdown significantly reduced the migration of SM?treated PC3 cells. The present study provides novel insights into the association of cigarette smoking with PCa progression, via the alteration of ECM/CAM interactions. PMID:26351771

  17. Reducing zirconium(IV) phthalocyanines and the structure of a Pc(4-)Zr complex.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Platel, Rachel H; Teixeira Tasso, Thiago; Furuyama, Taniyuki; Kobayashi, Nagao; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2015-08-21

    The synthesis and characterization of the ring-unsubstituted zirconium phthalocyanine PcZrCl2 (; Pc(x-) = phthalocyaninato(x-)) and its reduction products are described. X-ray analysis of (crystallized from hot 1-chloronaphthalene) reveals that is a chloride-bridged dimer [PcZrCl]2(?-Cl)2 in the solid-state; was also characterized by UV-vis/MCD spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, which indicated reduction potentials at -0.55, -0.95 and -1.28 V. Although attempts to access these Pc-ring reduced species with KC8 led to mixtures of reduced products due to the insolubility of both starting materials, one equivalent of the reducing agent KEt3BH reacted with to generate Pc(3-)-containing species, as indicated by visible Q-band spectral changes (from ?max = 686 for to 589/611 nm), a single ESR peak (g = 2.001) and paramagnetically shifted (1)H NMR resonances consistent with the presence of a Pc-radical anion. Addition of two equivalents of KEt3BH to generated Pc(4-)-containing species, confirmed by a shift in ?max to 522 nm and upfield-shifted (1)H NMR peaks relative to . Reaction of with one and two equivalents of LiCp* did not generate Cp*-substituted products but also effected reduction to analogous Pc(3-) and Pc(4-) species. This latter material, the air-sensitive ring di-reduced "ate"-complex Pc(4-)Zr(LiCl)1.5(DME)3, of the form [LiCl(DME)4]0.5[Pc(4-)ZrClLi(DME)] was structurally characterized, illustrating partial bond localization in the Pc(4-) ring, which also adopts a saddle-shape vs. the more typical dome-configuration found in . This represents a rare example of an isolated and structurally characterized Pc(4-) complex. PMID:26153800

  18. The role of Pc5 waves in relativistic electron losses through the magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsavrias, Christos; Daglis, Ioannis; Turner, Drew; Georgiou, Marina; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Sandberg, Ingmar; Balasis, George

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the response of the outer Van Allen belt electrons to the arrival of different ICMEs (Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections), which trigger - or not - geospace magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms of various intensities. To do that, we examine direct observations of equatorial electron phase space density (PSD) by using differential flux data from the Magnetospheric Electron Ion Spectrometers (MagEIS) on-board the Van Allen Probes, the Solid State Telescope (SST) of THEMIS (A, D and E), the EPIC Radiation Monitor of XMM and the MAGnetospheric Electron Detector (MAGED) of GOES 13 and 15. Observations show that losses due to magnetopause shadowing are accompanied by outward diffusion driven by Pc5 ULF waves. In addition, there is a 300 MeV/G threshold in energy that separates the source of relativistic electrons inside the outer belt even after the arrival of a prominent pressure pulse. The study is complemented by in-situ and ground-based data of the solar wind parameters and the geomagnetic indices. This work has received support from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analysing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

  19. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  20. Abundance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) affects group characteristics and use of space by golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca agroforest.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leonardo C; Neves, Leonardo G; Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction. PMID:21079956

  1. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  2. PC-based Digital Acoustic Control System (DACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Kamlesh C.

    1991-01-01

    The PC-based Digital Acoustic Control System (DACS), which is a closed-loop system capable of precisely controlling the spectrum in real-time mode, is discussed. The system is based on integrated facility hardware including control microphones, signal conditioners, a real-time analyzer (RTA), a shaper, high capacity power amplifiers, and acoustic horns and generators. The DACS provides both an improved spectrum simulation and realtime information of pertinent test parameters that are stored in five separate files. These files can be hard copied and/or transferred to other programs to obtain a specific format of the test data. It is demonstrated that the computer interface with digital RTA and programmable filters are most effective and efficient. This facility runs independently under the control of a computer with an IEEE-488 interface to the facility hardware.

  3. Science and engineering programs for the IBM PC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The selection of programs for the IBM PC in this book is aimed primarily at the electronics and communications engineer, programmer, college student, and advanced electronic hobbyist, all having at least some familiarity with the computer and with programming in BASIC. The programs are all written in BASIC, will work with both DOS 1.1 and 2.0 releases, and can easily be modified to the user's specific needs. Thus any program can be applied either as it is, to solve many science, engineering, and operations research problems, or it can be incorporated into another program written by the user. The programs presented cover assorted problems in the fields of electrical engineering, probability, statistics, queuing theory, reliability, curve fitting, graph generation, number theory, computer science, artificial intelligence, and other disciplines. 13 references.

  4. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2000-07-05

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NO{sub x} SIP call.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulations on a 9-node PC Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouriou, J.

    Monte Carlo simulation methods are frequently used in the fields of medical physics, dosimetry and metrology of ionising radiation. Nevertheless, the main drawback of this technique is to be computationally slow, because the statistical uncertainty of the result improves only as the square root of the computational time. We present a method, which allows to reduce by a factor 10 to 20 the used effective running time. In practice, the aim was to reduce the calculation time in the LNHB metrological applications from several weeks to a few days. This approach includes the use of a PC-cluster, under Linux operating system and PVM parallel library (version 3.4). The Monte Carlo codes EGS4, MCNP and PENELOPE have been implemented on this platform and for the two last ones adapted for running under the PVM environment. The maximum observed speedup is ranging from a factor 13 to 18 according to the codes and the problems to be simulated.

  6. Creating security system models using SNAP-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, C.D.; Gregg, M.L.; Erdbruegger, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    SNAP-PC (Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure for the Personal Computer) is a user-friendly version of SNAP designed for IBM XT or AT compatible microcomputers. SNAP is a simulation-based analysis technique supporting the evaluation of fixed-site security systems to prevent theft or sabotage of a specified target. Through SNAP the user is able to define the facility, the sensor system, the guard operating policies and response tactics, and the adversary's attack plan. SNAP uses the system definition to analyze its effectiveness in defending against specific threats. The system performance statistics measured by SNAP include: adversary mission success probability, guard and adversary casualties, duration of engagements, outcome of engagements, duration of scenario by outcome (adversary success/fail), and adversary duration by facility location. The development of SNAP began in the late 1970's for use on a mainframe computer.

  7. A PC-Based Free Text DSS for Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Ralph R.; Buchanan, Paul; Massey, James K.; Jin, Ming

    1987-01-01

    A free Decision Support System(DST) has been constructed for health care professional that allows the analysis of complex medical cases and the creation of diagnostic list of potential diseases for clinical evaluation.The system uses a PC-based text management system specifically designed for desktop operation. The texts employed in the decision support package include the Merck Manual (published by Merck Sharpe & Dohme) and Control of Communicable Diseas in Man (published by the American Public Health Association). The background and design of the database are discussed along with a structured analysis procedure for handling free text DSS system. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology and conclusions are drawn in the summary that point to expanded areas of professional intention and new frontiers yet to be explored in this rapidly progressing field.

  8. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-09-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day, as I was watching this progression, I asked myself what is the downward acceleration of the playing cards. Could the game programmer have used a realistic value of Earth's acceleration due to gravity? It occurred to me that this could be an excellent open-inquiry activity for high school or introductory college physics students!

  9. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Stan Wohadlo

    2001-03-31

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative coal combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers without the need for post-combustion cleaning. Work during the quarter included initiation of the equipment fabrication effort for all pilot system components. Fabrication of the gas-fired combustor was started and completed by IGT during the quarter. The combustor was then installed in IGT's combustion laboratory for proof-of-performance testing prior to shipping to BBP for installation in the pilot-scale test system. A testing procedure and performance goals were developed for the combustor testing.

  10. Development of PC Games for Use in Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Yuuta; Miyakawa, Michio; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    We have developed a rehabilitation tool used for treatment of patients suffering from hemiplegia and evaluation of the paralysis-stage. The tool consists of a PC and button switches for a computer game so that it is not expensive, available in anywhere, and possible to get a change of air in the patients. In this study, we have evaluated behavior indices such as an operation time to play with the games both in healthy young students and patients with paralysis. From experimental results, it was shown that the recorded behavioral indices showed the strong dependence on the motion control function of a subject. Preceding evaluation of effectiveness in rehabilitation of the developed tool, possible application of the tool in evaluation of the motion control function of the patients with hemiplegia was discussed in this paper.

  11. Power-cable-carrier control (PC/sup 3/) system

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.; Wally, K.; Rosborough, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    A control system has been developed that uses a carrier signal imposed on an existing ac power circuit to transmit commands. This system was specifically developed to control an entire solar collector field by sending sun-tracking information to the trough collectors or by commanding them to assume safe positions (STOW) if out-of-limit conditions were encountered. Objectives were to develop a control system that operates reliably and has enough functions to control an entire collector field, yet do it at less cost than for conventional approaches. Development, design, operating characteristics, and field testing and results of the new system, the Power Cable Carrier Control (PC/sup 3/) System are described.

  12. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  13. PC/CIC: A Tandem 3U CubeSat Mission for Global Cloud Ice Mass Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B. T.; Gallaher, D. W.; Periasamy, L.; Alvarenga, G.; Scambos, T. A.; Weaver, R.; Evans, K. F.; Heymsfield, A.; Pilewskie, P.; Buehler, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    PolarCube and CloudIceCube (PC/CIC) are twin tandem 3U CubeSat satellites based on a common and existing bus design (ALL-STAR) and a common Earth-imaging passive microwave instrument payload architecture with suborbital aircraft flight heritage. These instrument payloads are being miniaturized for an orbital opportunity to provide atmospheric temperature profile measurements, cloud ice mass statistics, sea ice/ice-free ocean detection and mapping, and ice sheet surface snow properties that complement and extend existing passive microwave measurements from space. Collectively, these instruments, currently being prototyped, will comprise the first multi-frequency millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave (MMW/SMMW) passive microwave imaging sensors flown in space. The objective is to map the brightness temperature spectra of several critical cryospheric and tropospheric Earth systems at high spatial resolution (~18.5 km) and high radiometric precision (~0.3-2.0K) at three key bands (118.7503, 325.153-340, and 670 GHz) over the entire globe during a nominal one year mission beginning in 2016. We discuss the application of the integrated PC/CIC data sets to climatological cloud modeling, determination of the vertical temperature and water vapor structure of polar regions, polar climate and atmosphere change studies, sea ice mapping, and ice sheet snow accumulation. Importantly, global cloud ice mass and mean particle size mapping will be supported at ~2o spatial scale using a new and independent passive MMW/SMMW technique as a means to constrain general circulation model cloud statistics. The PC/CIC mission will provide an important snapshot of global cloud ice mass statistics in the current era years prior to operational passive microwave cloud ice measurement. It will also demonstrate the use of compact, multi-frequency, scanning microwave radiometers that are prototypes of a new low-cost class of spaceborne microwave weather and climate sensors.

  14. Fabrication of ZnPc/Protein Nanohorns for Double Photodynamic and Hyperthermic Cancer Phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minfang; Murakami, Tatsuya; Ajima, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Sandanayaka, Atula S.; Ito, Osamu; Iijima, Sumio; Yudasaka, Masako

    2009-03-01

    We developed double photodynamic and hyperthermic phototherapy systems [1] by loading zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) on single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs). A protein of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also attached to the surface of SWNHs. ZnPc performed photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect and SWNH had photohyperthermic (PHT) effect. BSA endowed hydrophilic property to the system. Previous results in vitro showed that the efficiency of phototherapy using ZnPc-SWNH-BSA was higher than that of ZnPc or SWNHs. We show in this report that mouse tests also exhibited the similar tendency. ZnPc-SWNH-BSA was locally injected in tumors subcutaneously transplanted on mice. And the laser (670 nm) was irradiated for 15 minute everyday for 10 days. By this phototherapy, the tumors completely disappeared. The phototherapy using ZnPc or SWNHox-BSA exhibited weaker antitumor effects, and the tumors continued to grow. [1] Zhang et al. PNAS, 2008, 105, 14773.

  15. Distinct Spacing Between Anionic Groups: An Essential Chemical Determinant for Achieving Thiophene-Based Ligands to Distinguish ?-Amyloid or Tau Polymorphic Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Klingstedt, Therése; Shirani, Hamid; Mahler, Jasmin; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Nyström, Sofie; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of protein aggregates is associated with many devastating neurodegenerative diseases and the existence of distinct aggregated morphotypes has been suggested to explain the heterogeneous phenotype reported for these diseases. Thus, the development of molecular probes able to distinguish such morphotypes is essential. We report an anionic tetrameric oligothiophene compound that can be utilized for spectral assignment of different morphotypes of ?-amyloid or tau aggregates present in transgenic mice at distinct ages. The ability of the ligand to spectrally distinguish between the aggregated morphotypes was reduced when the spacing between the anionic substituents along the conjugated thiophene backbone was altered, which verified that specific molecular interactions between the ligand and the protein aggregate are necessary to detect aggregate polymorphism. Our findings provide the structural and functional basis for the development of new fluorescent ligands that can distinguish between different morphotypes of protein aggregates. PMID:26013403

  16. Distinct Spacing Between Anionic Groups: An Essential Chemical Determinant for Achieving Thiophene-Based Ligands to Distinguish ?-Amyloid or Tau Polymorphic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Klingstedt, Therése; Shirani, Hamid; Mahler, Jasmin; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Nyström, Sofie; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2015-06-15

    The accumulation of protein aggregates is associated with many devastating neurodegenerative diseases and the existence of distinct aggregated morphotypes has been suggested to explain the heterogeneous phenotype reported for these diseases. Thus, the development of molecular probes able to distinguish such morphotypes is essential. We report an anionic tetrameric oligothiophene compound that can be utilized for spectral assignment of different morphotypes of ?-amyloid or tau aggregates present in transgenic mice at distinct ages. The ability of the ligand to spectrally distinguish between the aggregated morphotypes was reduced when the spacing between the anionic substituents along the conjugated thiophene backbone was altered, which verified that specific molecular interactions between the ligand and the protein aggregate are necessary to detect aggregate polymorphism. Our findings provide the structural and functional basis for the development of new fluorescent ligands that can distinguish between different morphotypes of protein aggregates. PMID:26013403

  17. Hyperreflection groups

    E-print Network

    Radcliffe, David G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of hyperreflection groups, which are a generalization of Coxeter groups. We prove the Deletion and Exchange Conditions for hyperreflection groups, and we discuss special subgroups and fundamental sectors of hyperreflection groups. In the second half of the paper, we prove that Coxeter groups and graph products of groups are examples of hyperreflection groups.

  18. CWG - MUTUAL COUPLING PROGRAM FOR CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE-FED APERTURE ARRAY (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Mutual Coupling Program for Circular Waveguide-fed Aperture Array (CWG) was developed to calculate the electromagnetic interaction between elements of an antenna array of circular apertures with specified aperture field distributions. The field distributions were assumed to be a superposition of the modes which could exist in a circular waveguide. Various external media were included to provide flexibility of use, for example, the flexibility to determine the effects of dielectric covers (i.e., thermal protection system tiles) upon the impedance of aperture type antennas. The impedance and radiation characteristics of planar array antennas depend upon the mutual interaction between all the elements of the array. These interactions are influenced by several parameters (e.g., the array grid geometry, the geometry and excitation of each array element, the medium outside the array, and the internal network feeding the array.) For the class of array antenna whose radiating elements consist of small holes in a flat conducting plate, the electromagnetic problem can be divided into two parts, the internal and the external. In solving the external problem for an array of circular apertures, CWG will compute the mutual interaction between various combinations of circular modal distributions and apertures. CWG computes the mutual coupling between various modes assumed to exist in circular apertures that are located in a flat conducting plane of infinite dimensions. The apertures can radiate into free space, a homogeneous medium, a multilayered region or a reflecting surface. These apertures are assumed to be excited by one or more modes corresponding to the modal distributions in circular waveguides of the same cross sections as the apertures. The apertures may be of different sizes and also of different polarizations. However, the program assumes that each aperture field contains the same modal distributions, and calculates the complex scattering matrix between all mode and aperture combinations. The scattering matrix can then be used to determine the complex modal field amplitudes for each aperture with a specified array excitation. CWG is written in VAX FORTRAN for DEC VAX series computers running VMS (LAR-15236) and IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS (LAR-15226). It requires 360K of RAM for execution. To compile the source code for the PC version, the NDP Fortran compiler and linker will be required; however, the distribution medium for the PC version of CWG includes a sample MS-DOS executable which was created using NDP Fortran with the -vms compiler option. The standard distribution medium for the PC version of CWG is a 3.5 inch 1.44Mb MS-DOS format diskette. The standard distribution medium for the VAX version of CWG is a 1600 BPI 9track magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. The VAX version is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. Both machine versions of CWG include an electronic version of the documentation in Microsoft Word for Windows format. CWG was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  19. G6PC2: A Negative Regulator of Basal Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Lynley D.; Oeser, James K.; O’Brien, Tracy P.; Wang, Yingda; Faulman, Chandler J.; Dadi, Prasanna K.; Jacobson, David A.; Hutton, John C.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Shiota, Masakazu; O’Brien, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular-associated mortality. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked polymorphisms in G6PC2 with variations in FBG and body fat, although not insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance. G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific, endoplasmic reticulum–resident glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. A combination of in situ perfused pancreas, in vitro isolated islet, and in vivo analyses were used to explore the function of G6pc2 in mice. G6pc2 deletion had little effect on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, whereas body fat was reduced in female G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice on both a chow and high-fat diet, observations that are all consistent with human GWAS data. G6pc2 deletion resulted in a leftward shift in the dose-response curve for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). As a consequence, under fasting conditions in which plasma insulin levels were identical, blood glucose levels were reduced in G6pc2 KO mice, again consistent with human GWAS data. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was reduced, whereas basal cytoplasmic calcium levels were elevated in islets isolated from G6pc2 KO mice. These data suggest that G6pc2 represents a novel, negative regulator of basal GSIS that acts by hydrolyzing glucose-6-phosphate, thereby reducing glycolytic flux. PMID:23274894

  20. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) and its role in stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Liang; Zou, Wenquan; Wang, Gongxian

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the physiological function of cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been developed by the generation of transgenic mice, however, the pathological mechanisms related to PrPC in prion diseases such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are still abstruse. Regardless of some differences, most studies describe the neuroprotective role of PrPC in environmental stresses. In this review, we will update the current knowledge on the responses of PrPC to various stresses, especially those correlated with cell signaling and neural degeneration, including ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy. PMID:26221369