Science.gov

Sample records for space group pc

  1. Adapting PC104Plus for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Larry; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the issues associated with adapting the commercial PC104Plus standard and its associated architecture to the requirements of space applications. In general, space applications exhibit extreme constraints on power, weight, and volume. EMI and EMC are also issues of significant concern. Additionally, space applications have to survive high radiation environment. Finally, NASA is always concerned about achieving cost effective solutions that are compatible with safety and launch constraints. Weight and volume constraints are directly related to high launch cost. Power on the other hand is not only related to the high launch costs, but are related to the problem of dissipating the resulting heat once in space. The article addresses why PC104Plus is an appropriate solution for the weight and volume issues. The article also addresses what NASA did electrically to reduce power consumption and mechanically dissipate the associated heat in a microgravity and vacuum environment, and how these solutions allow NASA to integrate various sizes of ruggedized custom PC104 boards with COTS, PC104 complaint boards for space applications. In addition to the mechanical changes to deal with thermal dissipation NASA also made changes to minimize EMI. Finally, radiation issues are addressed as well as the architectural and testing solutions and the implications for use of COTS PC104Plus boards.

  2. Optical transformations in three-space: Simulations with a PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Raymond G.; McCreary, Sean M.; Thompson, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Using Fourier transform and convolution techniques, it is illustrated how all aspects of Fraunhofer diffraction of virtually any aperture real or complex can be calculated and displayed in two- and three-space using an IBM-compatible PC. Details of program commands using software matlabTM are illustrated as well as results of plotting software, surferTM. Fresnel diffraction is illustrated using Fourier transformation.

  3. Polycomb Group (PcG) Proteins and Human Cancers: Multifaceted Functions and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate several crucial developmental and physiological processes in the cell. More recently, they have been found to play important roles in human carcinogenesis and cancer development and progression. The deregulation and dysfunction of PcG proteins often lead to blocking or inappropriate activation of developmental pathways, enhancing cellular proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and increasing the cancer stem cell population. Genetic and molecular investigations of PcG proteins have long been focused on their PcG functions. However, PcG proteins have recently been shown to exert non-polycomb functions, contributing to the regulation of diverse cellular functions. We and others have demonstrated that PcG proteins regulate the expression and function of several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a PcG-independent manner, and PcG proteins are associated with the survival of patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on PcG proteins, including both the polycomb-repressive and non-polycomb functions. We specifically focus on the mechanisms by which PcG proteins play roles in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Finally, we discuss the potential value of PcG proteins as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer, and as molecular targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26227500

  4. Revised Distances, Kinematics, and Classifications of the Nearest Stellar Groups within 100 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent interest in assigning membership of low-mass or substellar field objects to clusters of "known" age, a modern analysis of the distances, kinematics, memberships, and physicality of purported nearby young stellar groups is needed. Van Leeuwen (2007) recently published a new astrometric analysis of data from the Hipparcos mission. Here I use the revised Hipparcos astrometry to estimate updated distances and parameters for the young stellar groups with obvious nuclei previously reported to lie within 100 pc of the Sun (except for the Hyades and Coma Ber, which were reported by van Leeuwen). Among the highlights of the results reported are: (1) the revised mean distances to the nuclei of the following groups: AB Dor (20.1+-1.5 pc), Ursa Major (25.2+-0.3 pc), Carina-Near (32.7+-1.2 pc), Tucana (43.0+-1.0 pc), TW Hya (52.7+-3.0 pc), 32 Ori (92.9+-2.4 pc), and eta Cha (94.3+-1.2 pc), (2) the 5-Myr-old epsilon Cha group appears to be the nearest known group associated with molecular gas (117+-4 pc), (3) the 8 Myr-old eta Cha cluster is the densest cluster within 100 pc ( 36 Msun/pc3), (4) the convergent point for the AB Dor group nucleus appears to be near its geometric center, a phenomena unique among nearby kinematic groups, and (5) the intrinsic 1D velocity dispersions of the nuclei are all remarkably similar (all 1 km/s), and are larger than that predicted assuming the nuclei are virialized (typically <0.5 km/s). This discrepancy is likely to be due to stellar multiplicity affecting the projected photocentric motions of the nuclear members. I present evidence suggesting that the purported clusters Chereul 2, Chereul 3, Latyshev 2, and Polaris are probably unphysical. With refined kinematic parameters for the nearby stellar groups, one can now conduct a more refined membership analysis for others stars purported to be distant ``members'' of these groups.

  5. POTENTIAL MEMBERS OF STELLAR KINEMATICAL GROUPS WITHIN 20 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Fukagawa, Misato

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the kinematical histories of stars within 20 pc of the Sun, for which three-dimensional spatial coordinates and three-dimensional velocity vectors are available. From this sample, we extract members of stellar kinematical groups (SKGs) in the following manner. First, in the three-dimensional velocity space centered on the local standard of rest, we consider a sphere with a radius of 8 km s{sup -1} centered on the mean velocity vector of a particular SKG. Around each SKG velocity center, we have found a significant excess of stars compared to background stars. For each candidate, in the three-dimensional spatial coordinate space, its trajectory is traced back in time by the age of the relevant SKG, to estimate the distance from the SKG center at the time of the SKG's birth by the epicycle approximation and vertical harmonic motion. It often happens that a star is a candidate member of multiple SKGs. Then we rank the candidacy to multiple SKGs based on the smallness of distance separations. In this manner, we have kinematically selected 74 candidate members of SKGs out of a sample of 383 stars. If we take into account stellar properties, the number is reduced to 68.

  6. POTENTIAL MEMBERS OF STELLAR KINEMATIC GROUPS WITHIN 30 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Morino, Jun-Ichi

    2012-01-15

    We analyze the kinematic histories of stars within 30 pc of the Sun, for which three-dimensional spatial coordinates and three-dimensional velocity vectors are available. From this sample, we extract members of stellar kinematic groups (SKGs) in the following manner. First, we consider in the three-dimensional velocity space centered on the local standard of rest, a sphere with a radius of 8 km s{sup -1} centered on the mean velocity vector of a particular SKG. Around each SKG velocity center, we have found a significant excess of stars compared to background field stars. For each candidate, in the three-dimensional spatial coordinate space, its trajectory is traced back in time by the age of the relevant SKG to obtain the estimated distance from the SKG center at the time of the SKG's birth by the epicyclic approximation and harmonic vertical motion. It often happens that a star is a candidate member of multiple SKGs. Then we rank the candidacy to multiple SKGs based on the smallness of distance separations. In this manner, we have kinematically selected 238 candidates. We further impose at least one of the following qualitative criteria for being a member: spectral type A or B, variability, or EUV and X-ray emission. We have finally selected 137 candidate members of SKGs out of a sample of 966 stars.

  7. A pseudo oversampling-based C3PC algorithm for close space objects detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Dong, Fan; Cai, Shinie

    2015-12-01

    Target cluster brings about a light-spot which consists of several neighborhood pixels in image, therefore it is difficult to distinguish between the targets or locate them with sub-pixel accuracy. In this paper, a pseudo oversampling-based C3PC (Covariance Constrained Constructive Particle Clustering) method is proposed to solve the closely space objects problem. As a classical detection and location method, C3PC algorithm, presents a particle clustering decomposition technique. However, the particle distribution according to the pixel gray value yields pixel level accuracy, which will lead to location error. Thus, by using a particle distribution at sub-pixel level, substantially better position accuracy can be obtained. According the characteristic of oversampling, an improved interpolation algorithm which simulating the oversampling techniques of sensor is brought forward. Simulation experiment results show that the positioning accuracy of CSOs in our algorithm is higher than that of C3PC algorithm.

  8. Renormalization group in internal space

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.; Sailer, K.

    2005-01-15

    Renormalization group in the internal space consists of the gradual change of the coupling constants. Functional evolution equations corresponding to the change of the mass or the coupling constant are presented in the framework of a scalar model. The evolution in the mass which yields the functional generalization of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the one-particle irreducible effective action is given in its renormalized, cutoff-independent form. The evolution of the coupling constant generates an evolution equation for the two-particle irreducible effective action.

  9. The impact of Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) epigenetic factors in plant plasticity.

    PubMed

    de la Paz Sanchez, Maria; Aceves-Garca, Pamela; Petrone, Emilio; Steckenborn, Stefan; Vega-Len, Rosario; lvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; Garca-Ponce, Berenice

    2015-11-01

    Current advances indicate that epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in the regulatory networks involved in plant developmental responses to environmental conditions. Hence, understanding the role of such components becomes crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying the plasticity and variability of plant traits, and thus the ecology and evolution of plant development. We now know that important components of phenotypic variation may result from heritable and reversible epigenetic mechanisms without genetic alterations. The epigenetic factors Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) are involved in developmental processes that respond to environmental signals, playing important roles in plant plasticity. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of TrxG and PcG functions in different developmental processes in response to internal and environmental cues and we also integrate the emerging evidence concerning their function in plant plasticity. Many such plastic responses rely on meristematic cell behavior, including stem cell niche maintenance, cellular reprogramming, flowering and dormancy as well as stress memory. This information will help to determine how to integrate the role of epigenetic regulation into models of gene regulatory networks, which have mostly included transcriptional interactions underlying various aspects of plant development and its plastic response to environmental conditions. PMID:26037337

  10. IDENTIFYING THE YOUNG LOW-MASS STARS WITHIN 25 pc. II. DISTANCES, KINEMATICS, AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-10

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of {approx}<300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of {approx}<25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young ({approx}<3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and {beta} Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages {approx}<150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event.

  11. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escud, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of lsim300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of lsim25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young (lsim3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and ? Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages lsim150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  12. X-ray diffraction and foam film investigations of PC head group interaction in water/ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brezesinski, G; Mller, H J; Toca-Herrera, J L; Krustev, R

    2001-04-01

    The influence of ethanol on single phospholipid monolayers at the water/air interface and in foam films has been investigated. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction investigations (GIXD) of Langmuir monolayers from 1,2-distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) spread on water subphases with different amounts of ethanol were performed. The thickness and free specific energy of formation of foam films stabilized by 1,2-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) at different concentrations of ethanol in the film forming dispersions were measured. The GIXD investigations show that the tilt angle of the alkyl chains in the PC lipid monolayer decreases with increasing concentration of ethanol caused by a decrease of the diameter of the head groups. With increasing ethanol content of the solution also the thickness of the aqueous core of PC lipid foam films decreases. We assume that ethanol causes a decreasing probability for the formation of hydrogen bonds of water molecules to the PC head groups. The distinct difference between the effects of ethanol on lipid bilayers as described in the literature and on monolayers and foam films found in this study is discussed. Whereas PC monolayers at the water/air interface become unstable above 25 vol.% ethanol, the PC foam films are stable up to 50 vol.% ethanol. This is related to the decrease of the surface excess energy per lipid molecule by the interaction between the two film surfaces. PMID:11369327

  13. The representation group and its application to space groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Quan; Gao, Mei-Juan; Ma, Guang-Qun

    1985-01-01

    A so-called representation (rep) group G is introduced which is formed by all the |G| distinct operators (or matrices) of an abstract group Ĝ in a rep space L and which is an m-fold covering group of another abstract group g. G forms a rep of Ĝ. The rep group differs from an abstract group in that its elements are not linearly independent and thus the number n of its linearly independent class operators is less than its class number N. A systematic theory is established for the rep group based on Dirac's CSCO (complete set of commuting operators) approach in quantum mechanics. This theory also comprises the rep theory for abstract groups as a special case of m=1. Three kinds of CSCO, the CSCO-I, -II, and -III, are defined which are the analogies of J2, (J2,Jz), and (J2,Jz,J¯z), respectively, for the rotation group SO3, where J¯z is the component of angular momentum in the intrinsic frame. The primitive characters, the irreducible basis and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, and the irreducible matrices of the rep group G in any subgroup symmetry adaptation can be found by solving the eigenequations of the CSCO-I, -II, and -III of G, respectively, in appropriate vector spaces. It is shown that the rep group G has only n instead of N inequivalent irreducible representations (irreps), which are just the allowable irreps of the abstract group Ĝ in the space L. Therefore, the construction of the irreps of Ĝ in L can be replaced by that of G. The labor involved in the construction of the irreps of the rep group G with order |G| is no more than that for the group g with order |g|=|G|m, and thus tremendous labor can be saved by working with the rep group G instead of the abstract group Ĝ. Based on the rep-group theory, a new approach to the space-group rep theory is proposed, which is distinguished by its simplicity and applicability. Corresponding to each little group G(k), there is a rep group G'k. The n inequivalent irreps of G'k are essentially just the acceptable irreps of the little group G(k). Consequently the construction of the irreps of G(k) is almost as easy as that of the little co-group G0(k). An easily programmable algorithm is established for computing the Clebsch-Gordan series and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of a space group simultaneously.

  14. Aeritalia Space Systems Group, Turin, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Aeritalia has been involved in European space programs since the early 1960's. Space activities grew to the point that in 1984 Aeritalia established a separate Space Systems Group (SSG), located in Turin. Today, SSG is involved in dozens of projects, some of them jointly with NASA and U.S. aerospace companies. Here, several of the major projects, such as the Tethered Satellite system, HIPPARCOS, Columbus Pressurized Module, Italian Research Interim Stage, and others are briefly described.

  15. Distribution of mica polytypes among space groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    All the possible space groups for mica polytypes are deduced by making use of the characteristics of the mica unit layer and stacking mode. The algebraic properties of the vector-stacking symbol of Ross et al. (1966) are examined, and a simple algorithm for deducing the space group from this symbol is presented. A method considered for enumerating all possible stacking sequences of mica polytypes makes use of a computer.

  16. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  17. The functional group on (E)-4,4'-disubstituted stilbenes influences toxicity and antioxidative activity in differentiated PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Genevieve X; Larsen, Sean W; Pye, Cameron; Galbreath, Michael; Isovitsch, Ralph; Fradinger, Erica A

    2013-12-01

    This work probes the relationship between stilbene functional group and biological activity. The biological activity of synthesized stilbenes (E)-4,4'-dicyanostilbene, (E)-4,4'-diacetylstilbene, (E)-4,4'-diaminostilbene, a novel stilbene, 1,1'-(vinylenedi-p-phenylene)diethanol, and (E)-stilbene was assessed at biologically relevant nanomolar concentrations using the MTS cell viability assay in differentiated PC-12 cells under optimal culture conditions and conditions of oxidative stress. Under optimal culture conditions the synthesized stilbene derivatives were found to be non-toxic to cells at concentrations up to 10 ?g/ml. To mimic oxidative stress, the activity of these stilbene derivatives in the presence of 0.03% H2O2 was investigated. Stilbene derivatives with electron-withdrawing functional groups were 2-3 times more toxic than the H2O2 control, indicating that they may form toxic metabolites in the presence of H2O2. Fluorescence data supported that stilbene derivatives with electron-withdrawing functional groups, (E)-4,4'-dicyanostilbene and (E)-4,4'-diacetylstilbene, may react with H2O2. In contrast, the stilbene derivative with a strong electron-donating functional group, (E)-4,4'-diaminostilbene, rescued neurons from H2O2-induced toxicity. The DPPH assay confirmed that (E)-4,4'-diaminostilbene is able to scavenge free radicals. These data indicate that the Hammett value of the functional group correlates with the biological activity of (E)-4,4'-disubstituted stilbenes in differentiated PC-12 cells. PMID:24135726

  18. Actuator grouping optimization on flexible space reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Wang, K. W.; Fang, Houfei; Quijano, Ubaldo

    2011-03-01

    With the rapid advances in deployable membrane and mesh antenna technologies, the feasibility of developing large, lightweight reflectors has greatly improved. In order to achieve the required accuracy, precision surface control is needed on these lightweight reflectors. While studies have shown that domain control of space reflectors via Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) actuators is promising, the challenge is to realistically control a large number of distributed actuators with limited number of power supplies. In this research, a new En Mass Elimination method is synthesized to determine the optimal grouping of actuators when the actuator number exceeds the number of power supplies available. An analytical model is developed and the methodology is demonstrated numerically through system simulation on the derived model.

  19. UCLA IGPP Space Plasma Simulation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 years the UCLA IGPP Space Plasma Simulation Group has pursued its theoretical effort to develop a Mission Oriented Theory (MOT) for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. This effort has been based on a combination of approaches: analytical theory, large scale kinetic (LSK) calculations, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and self-consistent plasma kinetic (SCK) simulations. These models have been used to formulate a global interpretation of local measurements made by the ISTP spacecraft. The regions of applications of the MOT cover most of the magnetosphere: the solar wind, the low- and high-latitude magnetospheric boundary, the near-Earth and distant magnetotail, and the auroral region. Most recent investigations include: plasma processes in the electron foreshock, response of the magnetospheric cusp, particle entry in the magnetosphere, sources of observed distribution functions in the magnetotail, transport of oxygen ions, self-consistent evolution of the magnetotail, substorm studies, effects of explosive reconnection, and auroral acceleration simulations.

  20. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  1. Chain adaptation of space group representations and induced space group Clebsch-Gordan matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirl, R.; Davies, B. L.

    Specific subgroup chain adaptations of representations and corresponding CG-matrices are discussed. Simple applicable analytic formulas are derived which allow one to express supergroup CG-matrices in terms of subgroup CG-matrices. The results are applied to space groups.

  2. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  3. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  4. Retabulation of space group extinctions for electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, P.; Tanaka, M.

    The space group tables previously published by one of the authors and others are here presented in a revised and compacted form designed to make for compatability with existing tables for x ray diffraction. 136 of the 230 space groups are subject to dynamic extinctions due to glide planes and screw axes, and the observables from these space groups in specific settings are tabulated.

  5. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  6. Exceptional groups, symmetric spaces and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Cacciatori, Sergio L.

    2009-03-31

    In this article we provide a detailed description of a technique to obtain a simple parameterization for different exceptional Lie groups, such as G{sub 2}, F{sub 4} and E{sub 6}, based on their fibration structure. For the compact case, we construct a realization which is a generalization of the Euler angles for SU(2), while for the non compact version of G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) we compute the Iwasawa decomposition. This allows us to obtain not only an explicit expression for the Haar measure on the group manifold, but also for the cosets G{sub 2}/SO(4), G{sub 2}/SU(3), F{sub 4}/Spin(9), E{sub 6}/F{sub 4} and G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) that we used to find the concrete realization of the general element of the group. Moreover, as a by-product, in the simplest case of G{sub 2}/SO(4), we have been able to compute an Einstein metric and the vielbein. The relevance of these results in physics is discussed.

  7. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a

  8. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a…

  9. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  10. SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CENTRAL 14 pc OF NGC 3998: EVIDENCE FOR AN INFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, Nick

    2011-02-01

    Prior imaging of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 3998, with the Hubble Space Telescope revealed a small, highly inclined, nuclear ionized gas disk, the kinematics of which indicate the presence of a 270 million solar mass black hole. Plausible kinematic models are used to constrain the size of the broad emission line region (BELR) in NGC 3998 by modeling the shape of the broad H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} emission line profiles. The analysis indicates that the BELR is large with an outer radius {approx}7 pc, regardless of whether the kinematic model is represented by an accretion disk or a spherically symmetric inflow. The electron temperature in the BELR is {<=} 28,800 K consistent with photoionization by the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Indeed, the AGN is able to sustain the ionization of the BELR, albeit with a high covering factor ranging between 20% and 100% depending on the spectral energy distribution adopted for the AGN. The high covering factor favors a spherical distribution for the gas as opposed to a thin disk. If the gas density is {>=}7 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} as indicated by the broad forbidden [S II] emission line ratio, then interpreting the broad H{alpha} emission line in terms of a steady state spherically symmetric inflow leads to a rate {<=} 6.5 x 10{sup -2} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of a radiatively inefficient inflow by a factor of {<=}18.

  11. Actuator Grouping Optimization on Flexible Space Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Wang, K. W.; Fang, Houfei; Quijano, Ubaldo

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid advances in deployable membrane and mesh antenna technologies, the feasibility of developing large, lightweight reflectors has greatly improved. In order to achieve the required surface accuracy, precision surface control is needed on these lightweight reflectors. For this study, an analytical model is shown which combines a flexible Kapton reflector with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuators for surface control. Surface errors are introduced that are similar to real world scenarios, and a least squares control algorithm is developed for surface control. Experimental results on a 2.4 meter reflector show that while the analytical reflector model is generally correct, due to idiosyncrasies in the reflector it cannot be used for online control. A new method called the En Mass Elimination algorithm is used to determine the optimal grouping of actuators when the number of actuators in the system exceeds the number of power supplies available.

  12. Group structure and group process for effective space station astronaut teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, J. M.; Kagan, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Space Station crews will encounter new problems, many derived from the social interaction of groups working in space for extended durations. Solutions to these problems must focus on the structure of groups and the interaction of individuals. A model of intervention is proposed to address problems of interpersonal relationships and emotional stress, and improve the morale, cohesiveness, and productivity of astronaut teams.

  13. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ngendakumana, Ancille Todjihoundé, Leonard; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  14. Subcellular localization of blood group A substance produced by pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced in hamsters by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) and by its cell line (PC-1).

    PubMed

    Egami, H; Chaney, W G; Takiyama, Y; Pour, P M

    1991-03-01

    The subcellular localization and biochemical characteristics of blood group A antigen were studied by immunogold methods and by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting procedures in N-nitrosobis)2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic cancer (PC) in Syrian hamsters, in the pancreatic cancer cell line (PC-1) derived from a primary induced pancreatic cancer, and in intrapancreatic and subcutaneous transplants of PC-1 cells. Normal hamster duodenal epithelial cells expressing A antigen were compared with the normal hamster pancreas (lacking A antigen), human PC tissues from patients with blood group A and human PC cell lines. Blood group A antigen was present on the membrane of hamster duodenal cells, but was absent in the normal pancreatic cells. A antigen was localized mainly on the cell membrane of the hamster cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. Glycoproteins with blood group A specificity were observed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting procedures in the membrane fraction of PC-1 cells, with a major component of molecular mass of approximately 120 kd. Similar migration patterns were observed in the primary induced PC and in subcutaneous and intrapancreatic transplants of PC-1 cells. Membrane preparations from cell lines derived from two primary pancreatic cancers from patients of blood group A and from human pancreatic cell lines, CD11 and CD18, showed a major A reactive component with a molecular mass similar to that found in the hamster PC cells. These findings suggest that: (i) both the hamster and human PC cells in vitro produce glycoproteins with blood group A specificity of similar molecular masses; (ii) differences exist in the structure of the glycoprotein immunoreactive with the anti-A antigen between the normal and cancerous cells; and (iii) differences exist in the molecular mass of the anti-A reactive substance between hamsters and human PC cells and between tissues in vivo and in vitro. PMID:1672628

  15. Pile Groups Analysis in Layered Elastic Half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Baiyong; Xu, Guoping; Gao, Heng

    2010-05-01

    The classical Poulos's elastic theory method which based on the Mindlin solution in elastic half-space is only suitable for the analysis of pile groups in elastic half-space. It cannot take the layered soil into account. By using stress and displacement solutions of axisymmetric problem in layered elastic half-space, the interaction factor method is extended to the analysis of pile groups in layered elastic half-space. Solutions of single pile and interaction of two piles in layered elastic half-space are performed by finite difference method firstly. Then the vertical settlement analysis of pile groups in layered elastic half-space is presented by considering pile to pile interaction by Poulos's interaction factor method. Example analysis shows that calculation in two layered elastic half-space indicates that method of this paper is more rigorous that that of Poulos, and agreeable with BEM method of Chin and Chow whose method based on the accurate solution of two layered elastic half-space.

  16. SHELXT - integrated space-group and crystal-structure determination.

    PubMed

    Sheldrick, George M

    2015-01-01

    The new computer program SHELXT employs a novel dual-space algorithm to solve the phase problem for single-crystal reflection data expanded to the space group P1. Missing data are taken into account and the resolution extended if necessary. All space groups in the specified Laue group are tested to find which are consistent with the P1 phases. After applying the resulting origin shifts and space-group symmetry, the solutions are subject to further dual-space recycling followed by a peak search and summation of the electron density around each peak. Elements are assigned to give the best fit to the integrated peak densities and if necessary additional elements are considered. An isotropic refinement is followed for non-centrosymmetric space groups by the calculation of a Flack parameter and, if appropriate, inversion of the structure. The structure is assembled to maximize its connectivity and centred optimally in the unit cell. SHELXT has already solved many thousand structures with a high success rate, and is optimized for multiprocessor computers. It is, however, unsuitable for severely disordered and twinned structures because it is based on the assumption that the structure consists of atoms. PMID:25537383

  17. PC6 acupoint stimulation for the prevention of postcardiac surgery nausea and vomiting: a protocol for a two-group, parallel, superiority randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire; Rapchuk, Ivan; Shekar, Kiran; Marshall, Andrea P; Comans, Tracy; Doi, Suhail; McDonald, John; Spooner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent but unwanted complications for patients following anaesthesia and cardiac surgery, affecting at least a third of patients, despite pharmacological treatment. The primary aim of the proposed research is to test the efficacy of PC6 acupoint stimulation versus placebo for reducing PONV in cardiac surgery patients. In conjunction with this we aim to develop an understanding of intervention fidelity and factors that support, or impede, the use of PC6 acupoint stimulation, a knowledge translation approach. Methods and analysis 712 postcardiac surgery participants will be recruited to take part in a two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to receive a wrist band on each wrist providing acupressure to PC six using acupoint stimulation or a placebo. Randomisation will be computer generated, use randomly varied block sizes, and be concealed prior to the enrolment of each patient. The wristbands will remain in place for 36?h. PONV will be evaluated by the assessment of both nausea and vomiting, use of rescue antiemetics, quality of recovery and cost. Patient satisfaction with PONV care will be measured and clinical staff interviewed about the clinical use, feasibility, acceptability and challenges of using acupressure wristbands for PONV. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval will be sought from appropriate Human Research Ethics Committee/s before start of the study. A systematic review of the use of wrist acupressure for PC6 acupoint stimulation reported minor side effects only. Study progress will be reviewed by a Data Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) for nausea and vomiting outcomes at n=350. Dissemination of results will include conference presentations at national and international scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a one-page lay-summary of results. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials RegistryACTRN12614000589684. PMID:25394818

  18. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space environment of the earth, (2) to perform plasma physics investigations not feasible in ground-based laboratories, and (3) to conduct investigations which are important in understanding planetary and cometary phenomena. The core instrumentation and laboratory configurations for conducting the investigations are defined.

  19. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 10: Space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) physics and chemistry laboratory, (4) contamination experiments, and (5) laser information/data transmission technology. The space technology mission model is presented in tabular form. The proposed experiments to be conducted by each test facility are described. Recommended approaches for user community interfacing are included.

  20. Gaussian distributions, Jacobi group, and Siegel-Jacobi space

    SciTech Connect

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2014-12-15

    Let N be the space of Gaussian distribution functions over ℝ, regarded as a 2-dimensional statistical manifold parameterized by the mean μ and the deviation σ. In this paper, we show that the tangent bundle of N, endowed with its natural Kähler structure, is the Siegel-Jacobi space appearing in the context of Number Theory and Jacobi forms. Geometrical aspects of the Siegel-Jacobi space are discussed in detail (completeness, curvature, group of holomorphic isometries, space of Kähler functions, and relationship to the Jacobi group), and are related to the quantum formalism in its geometrical form, i.e., based on the Kähler structure of the complex projective space. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [M. Molitor, “Remarks on the statistical origin of the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics,” Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 9(3), 1220001, 9 (2012); M. Molitor, “Information geometry and the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics,” e-print arXiv (2012); M. Molitor, “Exponential families, Kähler geometry and quantum mechanics,” J. Geom. Phys. 70, 54–80 (2013)], where we studied the quantum formalism from a geometric and information-theoretical point of view.

  1. Gaussian distributions, Jacobi group, and Siegel-Jacobi space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2014-12-01

    Let N be the space of Gaussian distribution functions over ?, regarded as a 2-dimensional statistical manifold parameterized by the mean ? and the deviation ?. In this paper, we show that the tangent bundle of N , endowed with its natural Khler structure, is the Siegel-Jacobi space appearing in the context of Number Theory and Jacobi forms. Geometrical aspects of the Siegel-Jacobi space are discussed in detail (completeness, curvature, group of holomorphic isometries, space of Khler functions, and relationship to the Jacobi group), and are related to the quantum formalism in its geometrical form, i.e., based on the Khler structure of the complex projective space. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [M. Molitor, "Remarks on the statistical origin of the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics," Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 9(3), 1220001, 9 (2012); M. Molitor, "Information geometry and the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics," e-print arXiv (2012); M. Molitor, "Exponential families, Khler geometry and quantum mechanics," J. Geom. Phys. 70, 54-80 (2013)], where we studied the quantum formalism from a geometric and information-theoretical point of view.

  2. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  3. Homology decompositions for classifying spaces of compact Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strounine, Alexei

    1998-08-01

    Let p be a prime number and G be a compact Lie group. A homology decomposition for the classifying space BG is a way of building BG up to mod p homology as a homotopy colimit of classifying spaces of subgroups of G. In this thesis we develop techniques for constructing such homology decompositions. Jackowski, McClure and Oliver construct a homology decomposition of BG by classifying spaces of p-stubborn subgroups of G. Their decomposition is based on the existence of a finite-dimensional mod p acyclic G-CW-complex with restricted set of orbit types. We apply our techniques to give a parallel proof of the p-stubborn decomposition of BG which does not use this geometric construction.

  4. System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.

  5. Ducting Characteristics of Pc 1-2 Waves at High Latitudes on the Ground and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M.

    2008-05-01

    Well-defined Pc 1-2 type geomagnetic pulsations and poleward ducting have been observed from a ground array of search-coil magnetometers in the morning sector of Antarctica. With extensive coverage from geomagnetic latitudes of 62 to 87 and good alignment along the magnetic meridian, the five search-coil magnetometers operating aboard American Automated Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) and British Antarctic Survey (BAS) showed very clear poleward ducting with spectral power attenuation of the ULF waves. Halley Station, located at the lowest latitude, observed the highest spectral wave power and well-defined band-limited signatures with the same wave event, showing less wave power, found at the other four remote stations at higher latitudes. This is a clear implication of the poleward ducting of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the ionospheric waveguide, which are generated from the equatorial magnetosphere along the geomagnetic field lines and transmitted to the ionosphere. Since the wave event was observed over a very wide range in latitude, the observation of the wave propagation will provide significant information on the ULF wave ducting in the waveguide and the source region. This study focuses on the ducting event by comparing the attenuation in the spectral power, the time-delays, and the polarization of the waves recorded from the ground stations. In addition, CHAMP satellite data analysis is also presented to validate the wave ducting.

  6. Differential calculus on quantum spaces and quantum groups

    SciTech Connect

    Zumino, B

    1992-12-10

    A review of recent developments in the quantum differential calculus. The quantum group GLq(n) is treated by considering it as a particular quantum space. Functions on SLq(n) are defined as a subclass of functions on GLq(n). The case of SOq(n) is also briefly considered. These notes cover part of a lecture given at the XIX International Conference on Group Theoretic Methods in Physics, Salamanca, Spain 1992.

  7. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  8. The Lorentzian oscillator group as a geodesic orbit space

    SciTech Connect

    Batat, W.; Gadea, P. M.; Oubina, J. A.

    2012-10-15

    We prove that the four-dimensional oscillator group Os, endowed with any of its usual left-invariant Lorentzian metrics, is a Lorentzian geodesic (so, in particular, null-geodesic) orbit space with some of its homogeneous descriptions corresponding to certain homogeneous Lorentzian structures. Each time that Os is endowed with a suitable metric and an appropriate homogeneous Lorentzian structure, it is a candidate for constructing solutions in d-dimensional supergravity with at least 24 of the 32 possible supersymmetries.

  9. Recommendations of the Space Interferometry Science Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D.

    1995-12-01

    The Space Interferometry Science Working Group (SISWG), soon to be disbanded, has spent four years helping with NASA's entry into space interferometry. The Working Group's initial charge was to help with the selection of the Astrometric Interferometry Mission (AIM) design and to advise on long term interferometry strategy. Events have overtaken the original goals. Programmatic concerns and the Future Mission Concepts reviews resulted in the focus landing on the Orbiting Stellar Interferometer (OSI) design. The rapidly developing roadmap for the detection and characterization of Earth-like planets has created a need for early technology development in interferometry. And the dramatic gains in the fields of adaptive optics and ground-based interferometry have shown that space is not the only location for high-spatial-resolution imaging and spectroscopy. Against this background, the science enabled by a 1000-fold improvement in wide angle positional accuracy (compared to Hipparchus) coupled with the major role in technology development, leaves the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM, an expanded OSI instrument) in a secure role. The narrowly focused, but electrifying science of the nulling IR interferometer/spectrometer designed for the planet search is correspondingly unique and secure. Funding of conceptual studies through the Future Missions Concepts program is allowing a close look at the potential of a mid-IR, 25m baseline, imaging interferometer (the Dilute Lens Imager) and of a widely Separated Spacecraft Interferometer (SSI) designed to test a highly dilute interferometer over baselines of up to 10 km. While not without complications, the birth of optical/IR interferometry in space seems well on schedule.

  10. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  11. Working Group 2 summary: Space charge effects in bending systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, C.L.; Emma, P.J.

    2000-02-01

    At the start of the Workshop, the authors asked the Working Group 2 participants to concentrate on three basic goals: (1) survey the status of how comprehensively the physics concerning space-charge effects in bends is understood and how complete is the available ensemble of analytic and computational tools; (2) guided by data from experiments and operational experience, identify sources of, and cures for, beam degradation; and (3) review space-charge physics in rings and the limitations it introduces. As the Workshop unfolded, the third goal naturally folded into the other two goals, and these goals, they believe, were fulfilled in that the Working Group was able to compile an end product consisting of a set of recommendations for potentially fruitful future work. This summary constitutes an overview of the deliberations of the Working Group, and it is their hope that the summary clarifies the motivation for the recommended work listed at the end. The summary is organized according to the two aforementioned goals, and the prime topics of discussion appear as subsections under these goals.

  12. PC - POLLUTANT ROUTING MODEL (PC-PROUTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PC - Pollutant Routing Model (PC-Proute) is a simple first order decay routing model that estimates aqueous pollutant concentrations on a reach by reach stream flow basis. PC-Proute is similar to the RGDS model; however it utilizes an improved method of estimating average rea...

  13. Grouping Miller-Nicely by linear vector space rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhlakoti, Suvrat; Allen, Jont B.; Larsen, Erik

    2001-05-01

    Human speech recognition has been studied using response to CV speech stimuli. Miller and Nicely (1955) studied such data in the form of confusion matrices to obtain insight into the psychological structure of the phone in noise. Here, the confusion matrices are modeled as phone coordinates in a high dimensional perceptual vector space. The model generalizes to an eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) [Allen (2004)]. This is followed by agglomerative hierarchical clustering of the transformed data, and an automated process is used to identify the main clusters. The resulting EVD clustering is very similar to other Miller-Nicely groupings, based on both production and MDS derived features, but is more model based. It was found that there is a gradual and highly consistent change in the clustering of sounds, independent of cluster size and configuration. By examining the change in similarity between various speech sounds, it is hoped that perceptual features may be uniquely identified.

  14. A structural group-connectome in standard stereotactic (MNI) space.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    A group connectome of 20 subjectshas been normalized into standard stereotactic (MNI) space. Data has been processed using the Gibbs' Tracking approach(Reisert et al., 2011) [11] and normalized into standard space using DARTEL(Ashburner, 2007) [1]. All data has been acquired within the scope of the study A. Horn, D. Ostwald, M. Reisert, F. Blankenburg, The structural-functional connectome and the default mode network of the human brain, NeuroImage 102 (2013) 142-151. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.09.069. The utility of this dataset can be described by the following points: In medical studies in which subject-specific dMRI is not available, a standardized connectome may help to gain some canonical insight into white-matter connectivity. The dataset enables scientists who use different modalities (like EEG, MEG etc.) without access to MRI, to combine studies obtained using other methodology with insights from the brain's inner structural formation. The dataset could also extend possible claims made by meta-analyzes/literature-based studies. PMID:26543893

  15. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours, with 30 s time resolution. IONOLAB-TEC values also include the receiver differential code bias (DCB) for each GPS station estimated uniquely by the IONOLAB-BIAS algorithm. The web based computation program is written in JAVA and it is provided both in Turkish and English at www.ionolab.org. The IONOLAB-TEC computation requires no installation or licensing on the client side. The application has a layered design. Developed components are modular that allows possible changes regarding the estimation method can be easily adapted. Same flexibility is also provided for the data access. Also, presentation of estimation data is architected to support different client types. Currently, the user can login to the IONOLAB-TEC web site and choose the desired location and dates on-line for TEC estimation. The carrier phase leveled TEC estimates of IONOLAB-TEC are provided for the chosen station/s and for the chosen day/s along with two-hourly GIM-TEC estimates of IGS centers. The output is provided in the user designated form either in graphs or an excel data sheet. The IONOLAB-TEC provides robust, reliable, and high resolution TEC estimates and provides a medium for comparison of the GIM-TEC values from the IGS centers.

  16. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 1: Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The space astronomy missions to be accomplished by the space shuttle are discussed. The principal instrument is the Large Space Telescope optimized for the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, but usable also in the infrared. Two infrared telescopes are also proposed and their characteristics are described. Other instruments considered for the astronomical observations are: (1) a very wide angle ultraviolet camera, (2) a grazing incidence telescope, (3) Explorer-class free flyers to measure the cosmic microwave background, and (4) rocket-class instruments which can fly frequently on a variety of missions. The stability requirements of the space shuttle for accomplishing the astronomy mission are defined.

  17. Student "Facebook" Groups as a Third Space: Between Social Life and Schoolwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaen, Janus; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines educational potentials of "Facebook" groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed "Facebook" groups as a "third space" between the institutional space of teacher-managed "Facebook" groups and the…

  18. Student "Facebook" Groups as a Third Space: Between Social Life and Schoolwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaen, Janus; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines educational potentials of "Facebook" groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed "Facebook" groups as a "third space" between the institutional space of teacher-managed "Facebook" groups and the

  19. Ferroelectric--paraelectric phase transitions with no group--supergroup relation between the space groups of both phases?

    PubMed

    Kroumova, E; Aroyo, M I; Prez-Mato, J M; Hundt, R

    2001-08-01

    The structures of Sr(3)(FeF(6))(2), beta-NbO(2), TlBO(2) and CrOF(3), previously reported as possible ferroelectrics with no group-supergroup relation between the ferroelectric and the paraelectric symmetries, have been carefully studied. We could not confirm any structural pseudosymmetry with respect to a space group which is not a supergroup of their room-temperature polar space group. In all cases, pseudosymmetry was indeed detected, but only for non-polar supergroups of the actual space groups of the structures. In this sense, the four compounds are possible ferroelectrics, but fulfilling the usual group-supergroup relation between the phase symmetries. PMID:11468387

  20. Complete derivation of space groups of magnetic symmetry of crystals by numerical construction

    SciTech Connect

    Palistrant, A. F.

    2007-11-15

    The solution is given to the problem regarding the derivation of the so-called space groups of magnetic symmetry with crystallographic angles of rotation of the spin vector, which was formulated as far back as the early 1970s. The crystallographic P-symmetries that should be used in the generalization with the three-dimensional space Fedorov groups G{sub 3} are revealed. The space groups G{sub 3} are generalized with each of these P-symmetries.

  1. Working Group 2 Summary:. Space Charge Effects in Bending Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Courtlandt L.; Emma, Paul J.

    2000-12-01

    Participants in Working Group 2 included: Y. Batygin, C. Bohn, B. Carlsten, J. Ellison, P. Emma, Z. Huang, A. Kabel, R. Kishek, R. Li, P. Musumeci, S. Nagaitsev, J. Qiang, M. Reiser, A. Ruggerio, R. Warnock, and M. Zeitlin.

  2. Group calls for space policies to transcend politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    At a 22 May briefing, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) called on Congress to establish space exploration policy goals which transcend partisan political differences. AIAA president and former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said the goal of establishing human capability to b e a space-faring species is not a short-term goal, nor is it a goal that belongs to only one political party. We will not reach long-term goals without a stable, coherent, sensible plan that transcends elections and leaders, said Griffin, who has provided advice to Republican U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Griffin pointed to NASA's 2008 authorization as providing the kind of vision needed for NASA. The act called for human return to the Moon and preparation for the capability for permanent bases on the Moon, among other things, he said. That's the kind of thing that we need. All of the goals espoused by the 2008 act were long-term, generational, strategic in scope, Griffin said, adding that the act, which had bipartisan support, demonstrated the kind of societal support, rather than political support, that I believe our space program deserves.

  3. Polyimides Containing Pendent Phosphine Oxide Groups for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Watson, K. A.; Connell, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    As part of an ongoing materials development activity to produce high performance polymers that are durable to the space environment, phosphine oxide containing polyimides have been under investigation. A novel dianhydride was prepared from 2,5-dihydroxyphenyldiphenylphosphine oxide in good yield. The dianhydride was reacted with commercially available diamines, and a previously reported diamine was reacted with commercially available dianhydrides to prepare isomeric polyimides. The physical and mechanical properties, particularly thermal and optical properties, of the polymers were determined. One material exhibited a high glass transition temperature, high tensile properties, and low solar absorptivity. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of these resins will be discussed.

  4. Marathons versus Spaced Groups: Skin Conductance and the Effects of Time Distribution on Encounter Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 41 students to 2 twice-weekly groups, which met for 3 hours eight times; 2 marathons, which met continuously for 24 hours; and nontreatment control group. Treatment groups had significant positive changes on 14 of 15 measured personality variables between pre- and post-test, and positive change on all dependent measures between…

  5. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 6: Communications and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Communications and Navigation working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The basic goals to be accomplished are to increase the use of space systems and to develop new space capabilities for providing communication and navigation services to the user community in the 1980 time period. Specific experiments to be conducted for improving space communication and navigation capabilities are defined. The characteristics of the experimental equipment required to accomplish the mission are discussed.

  6. MCMC-Particle-based group tracking of space objects within Bayesian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    With the intense increase in space objects, especially space debris, it is necessary to efficiently track and catalog the extensive dense clusters of space objects. As the main instrument for low earth orbit (LEO) space surveillance, ground-based radar system is usually limited by its resolution while tracking small space debris with high density. Thus, the obtained measurement information could have been seriously missed, which makes the traditional tracking method inefficient. To address this issue, we conceived the concept of group tracking. For group tracking, the overall tendency of the group objects is expected to be revealed, and the trajectories of individual objects are simultaneously reconstructed explicitly. According to model the interaction between the group center and individual trajectories using the Markov random field (MRF) within Bayesian framework, the objects' number and individual trajectory can be estimated more accurately in the condition of high miss alarm probability. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-Particle algorithm was utilized for solving the Bayesian integral problem. Furthermore, we introduced the mechanism for describing the behaviors of groups merging and splitting, which can expand the single group tracking algorithm to track variable multiple groups. Finally, simulation of the group tracking of space objects was carried out to validate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. Do the Pc+ pentaquarks have strange siblings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2015-12-01

    The recent LHCb discovery of states Pc+(4380 ), Pc+(4450 ), believed to be c c u u d pentaquark resonances, begs the question of whether equivalent states with c c ?s s exist, and how they might be produced. The precise analogue to the Pc+ discovery channel ?b?J /? K-p , namely, ?c?? ?0p , is feasible for this study and indeed is less Cabibbo suppressed, although its limited phase space suggests that evidence of a s s u u d resonance Ps+ would be confined to the kinematic end-point region.

  8. Unusual space-group pseudo symmetry in crystals of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, N.; Ealick, S.E.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphopantothenoylcysteine (PPC) decarboxylase is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A and catalyzes the decarboxylation of PPC to phosphopantetheine. Human PPC decarboxylase has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The Laue class of the diffraction data appears to be {bar 3}m, suggesting space group R32 with two monomers per asymmetric unit. However, the crystals belong to the space group R3 and the asymmetric unit contains four monomers. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement and refined to a current R factor of 29%. The crystal packing can be considered as two interlaced lattices, each consistent with space group R32 and with the corresponding twofold axes parallel to each other but separated along the threefold axis. Thus, the true space group is R3 with four monomers per asymmetric unit.

  9. SHELXT – Integrated space-group and crystal-structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    SHELXT automates routine small-molecule structure determination starting from single-crystal reflection data, the Laue group and a reasonable guess as to which elements might be present. The new computer program SHELXT employs a novel dual-space algorithm to solve the phase problem for single-crystal reflection data expanded to the space group P1. Missing data are taken into account and the resolution extended if necessary. All space groups in the specified Laue group are tested to find which are consistent with the P1 phases. After applying the resulting origin shifts and space-group symmetry, the solutions are subject to further dual-space recycling followed by a peak search and summation of the electron density around each peak. Elements are assigned to give the best fit to the integrated peak densities and if necessary additional elements are considered. An isotropic refinement is followed for non-centrosymmetric space groups by the calculation of a Flack parameter and, if appropriate, inversion of the structure. The structure is assembled to maximize its connectivity and centred optimally in the unit cell. SHELXT has already solved many thousand structures with a high success rate, and is optimized for multiprocessor computers. It is, however, unsuitable for severely disordered and twinned structures because it is based on the assumption that the structure consists of atoms.

  10. SHELXT – Integrated space-group and crystal-structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    The new computer program SHELXT employs a novel dual-space algorithm to solve the phase problem for single-crystal reflection data expanded to the space group P1. Missing data are taken into account and the resolution extended if necessary. All space groups in the specified Laue group are tested to find which are consistent with the P1 phases. After applying the resulting origin shifts and space-group symmetry, the solutions are subject to further dual-space recycling followed by a peak search and summation of the electron density around each peak. Elements are assigned to give the best fit to the integrated peak densities and if necessary additional elements are considered. An isotropic refinement is followed for non-centrosymmetric space groups by the calculation of a Flack parameter and, if appropriate, inversion of the structure. The structure is assembled to maximize its connectivity and centred optimally in the unit cell. SHELXT has already solved many thousand structures with a high success rate, and is optimized for multiprocessor computers. It is, however, unsuitable for severely disordered and twinned structures because it is based on the assumption that the structure consists of atoms. PMID:25537383

  11. Expanding Trauma through Space and Time: Mapping the Rhetorical Strategies of Trauma Carrier Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degloma, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I detail two rhetorical strategies that trauma carrier groups--including social movement organizations, professional mental health associations, and patient advocacy groups--use to expand the relevance of trauma and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) through space and time: the social transmission of trauma and the social

  12. A Hilbert Space Operator Representation of Abelian Po-Groups of Bilinear Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Ji?; Paseka, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a non-trivial singular positive bilinear form Simon (J. Funct. Analysis 28, 377-385 (1978)) yields that on an infinite-dimensional complex Hilbert space {{H}} the set of bilinear forms {{F}}({H}) is richer than the set of linear operators {{V}}({H}). We show that there exists an structure preserving embedding of partially ordered groups from the abelian po-group {{S}}D({H}) of symmetric bilinear forms with a fixed domain D on a Hilbert space {{H}} into the po-group of linear symmetric operators on a dense linear subspace of an infinite dimensional complex Hilbert space l 2( M). Moreover, if we restrict ourselves to the positive parts of the above mentioned po-groups, we can embed positive bilinear forms into corresponding positive linear operators.

  13. Current Activities and Capabilities of the Terrestrial Environment Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Batts, Wade

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designated Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the center of excellence for space transportation. The Aerospace Environments and Effects (AEE) team of the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch (EL23) in the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at MSFC, supports the center of excellence designation by providing near-Earth space, deep space, planetary, and terrestrial environments expertise to projects as required. The Terrestrial Environment (TE) group within the AEE team maintains an extensive TE data base. Statistics and models derived from this data are applied to the design and development of new aerospace vehicles, as well as performance enhancement of operational vehicles such as the Space Shuttle. The TE is defined as the Earth's atmospheric environment extending from the surface to orbital insertion altitudes (approximately 90 km).

  14. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  15. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R&D facilities planning for the U.S., and these are discussed in Section 4 of this volume.

  16. Correlation-skeleton method for space-time analysis of disturbances in the Pc4-5 period range during magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhatov, N. A.; Revunov, S. E.; Shadrukov, D. V.

    2015-09-01

    Special method of correlation-skeleton processing of long period MHD disturbed components of the geomagnetic field is developed. To analyze space-time distribution for field components recorded along the meridian 210 at different stages of geomagnetic storms it is applied. This method on the base of post-processing of space-time wavelet analysis of disturbances was performed. The proposal of spectra calculation results in the form of wavelet skeleton pictures is shown. The method allows to find synchronization of oscillatory processes along the geomagnetic meridian and use it as indication of a global magnetic disturbance. Developed algorithm as a diagnostic tool state of the magnetosphere can also be used.

  17. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2016-03-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at https://webmail.chpnet.org/owa/redir.aspx?C=ae2e0d47fa6f479a8024736a8d3c95b1&URL=mailto%3apc-facs%40aahpm.orgpc-facs@aahpm.org. PMID:26854996

  18. A simple assay to study social behavior in Drosophila: measurement of social space within a group.

    PubMed

    Simon, A F; Chou, M-T; Salazar, E D; Nicholson, T; Saini, N; Metchev, S; Krantz, D E

    2012-03-01

    We have established a new simple behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to determine how genes and the environment influence the behavior of flies within a social group. Specifically, we measure social space as the distance between two flies. The majority of Canton-s flies, regardless of their gender, are within two body lengths from each other. Their social experience affects this behavior, with social isolation reducing and mating enhancing social space respectively, in both males and females. Unlike several other social behaviors in the fly, including the formation of social groups themselves (a well-described behavior), social space does not require the perception of the previously identified aggregation pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate. Conversely, performance of the assay in darkness or mutations in the eye pigmentation gene white increased social space. Our results establish a new assay for the genetic dissection of a fundamental mode of social interaction. PMID:22010812

  19. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 3: High energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the High Energy Astrophysics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives to be accomplished during space shuttle missions are defined as: (1) X-ray astronomy, (2) hard X-ray and gamma ray astronomy, and (3) cosmic ray astronomy. The instruments and test equipment required to accomplish the mission are identified. Recommendations for managing the installation of the equipment and conducting the missions are included.

  20. Beware the PC Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Lynne V.

    1992-01-01

    Decries the prevalence of "racism,""sexual harassment," and "speciesism" labels applied to supposed violators of "political correctness" (PC). When freedom of speech on college campuses is held hostage to political correctness, K-12 education is bound to be affected. This new brand of McCarthyism cheapens the concept of discrimination and stifles

  1. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts as well as performing major probabilistic assessments used to support flight rationale and help establish program requirements. During 2008, the Analysis Group performed more than 70 assessments. Although all these assessments were important, some were instrumental in the decisionmaking processes for the Shuttle and Constellation Programs. Two of the more significant tasks were the Space Transportation System (STS)-122 Low Level Cutoff PRA for the SSP and the Orion Pad Abort One (PA-1) PRA for the CxP. These two activities, along with the numerous other tasks the Analysis Group performed in 2008, are summarized in this report. This report also highlights several ongoing and upcoming efforts to provide crucial statistical and probabilistic assessments, such as the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) PRA for the Hubble Space Telescope service mission and the first fully integrated PRAs for the CxP's Lunar Sortie and ISS missions.

  2. The Local Population of White Dwarfs within 25 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, Jay B.; Oswalt, Terry D.; Sion, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We have extended the detailed survey of the local white dwarf population from 20 pc to 25 pc, effectively doubling the sample volume to now include 231 stars. The present 25 pc has an estimated completeness of 70% (the corresponding 20 pc sample is now 85% complete). The space density of white dwarfs remains at 4.8 0.5 x 10-3 pc-3. There exists a curious excess of single stars in the sample 70% vs 30% in systems with one or more companions. A pronounced apparent deficiency remains between the eleven known Sirius-like systems present in the 20 pc sample and only a single such system presently known in the extended 25 pc sample. Also demonstrated, using explicit individual white dwarf cooling ages, is the feasibility of estimating the white dwarf birth rates over the last ~ 5 Gyr.This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1413537

  3. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAAas well as the IISLsession dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  4. INFLUENCE OF SPAWNING GROUP SIZE AND SPACE ON REPRODUCTION BY SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cripe, G.M., R.L. Hemmer and L.R. Goodman. In press. Influence of Spawning Group Size and Space on Reproduction Variability of Sheepshead Minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB...

  5. School Mathematics Study Group, Unit Number One. Chapter 1 - Structuring Space. Chapter 2 - Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    This is the first unit of a 15-unit School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG) mathematics text for high school students. Topics presented in the first chapter (Structuring Space) include: lines and points; planes; intersections; intersections of lines and planes; betweenness and segments; separation; angles; locating positions and points; coordinates;

  6. School Mathematics Study Group, Unit Number One. Chapter 1 - Structuring Space. Chapter 2 - Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    This is the first unit of a 15-unit School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG) mathematics text for high school students. Topics presented in the first chapter (Structuring Space) include: lines and points; planes; intersections; intersections of lines and planes; betweenness and segments; separation; angles; locating positions and points; coordinates;…

  7. Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

  8. Definition of spacecraft standard interfaces by the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radtke, Robert; Woolley, Charles; Arnold, Lana

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG) is to study enabling technologies for on-orbit spacecraft maintenance and servicing. One key technology required for effective space logistics activity is the development of standard spacecraft interfaces, including the 'Basic Set' defined by NASA, the U.S. Space Command, and industry panelists to be the following: (1) navigation aids; (2) grasping, berthing, and docking; and (3) utility connections for power, data, and fluids. Draft standards have been prepared and referred to professional standards organizations, including the AIAA, EIA, and SAE space standards committee. The objective of the SASWG is to support these committees with the technical expertise required to prepare standards, guidelines, and recommended practices which will be accepted by the ANSI and international standards organizations, including the ISO, IEC, and PASC.

  9. PC based leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Mactaggart, R.H.; Myers, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Software based leak detection has a reputation of being very complex and requiring large amounts of computing power to be effective. This makes it impractical for application on small pipelines. This paper will discuss implementation of a software based leak detection system on a small crude oil gathering pipeline. The leak detection system uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system.

  10. Algorithms for deriving crystallographic space-group information. II: Treatment of special positions

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.

    2001-10-05

    Algorithms for the treatment of special positions in 3-dimensional crystallographic space groups are presented. These include an algorithm for the determination of the site-symmetry group given the coordinates of a point, an algorithm for the determination of the exact location of the nearest special position, an algorithm for the assignment of a Wyckoff letter given the site-symmetry group, and an alternative algorithm for the assignment of a Wyckoff letter given the coordinates of a point directly. All algorithms are implemented in ISO C++ and are integrated into the Computational Crystallography Toolbox. The source code is freely available.

  11. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  12. Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

  13. Group and individual sow behavior is altered in early gestation by space allowance in the days immediately following grouping.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, E C; Plush, K J; van Wettere, W H E J; Hughes, P E

    2016-01-01

    Aggression between domestic sows is greatest when sows are first introduced to each other and hierarchies form. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a spacious "mixing pen" on sow aggression and stress. Sows were mixed into groups of 6 and allowed 2 (LOW; 8 groups and 48 sows), 4 (MED; 7 groups and 42 sows), or 6 m/sow (HIGH; 7 groups and 42 sows) for 4 d after mixing, at which point all pens were equalized to 2 m/sow. Salivary cortisol concentration and injury counts were measured on d -1, 0, 1, 3, and 4 relative to mixing, and behavior was also recorded on each of these days following mixing. Reproductive performance was assessed at farrowing. A linear mixed model was applied to the data. Data are presented as least squares means and standard error of the mean. Where transformations occurred, nontransformed adjusted means are presented in parentheses following the presentation of transformed data. In the primary analyses where measures were considered at the pen level, there were no effect of space allowance on fight number per sow, duration of fights, percentage of total time spent fighting, displacements, bites, knocks, and lunges ( > 0.05). These measures were higher on d 0 (i.e., fight number 1.0 0.1 [13.8]) compared with d 1 (0.4 0.1 [4.2]), 3 (0.7 0.1 [5.3]), and 4 (0.7 0.1 [5.5]; < 0.05), with no increase in aggression on d 4 when pen sizes were standardized ( > 0.05). There was increased percentage of time spent active (1.5 0.02 [33.7] for LOW, 1.5 0.02 [36.5] for MED, and 1.6 0.02 [43.4] for HIGH) and time spent exploring (1.8 0.1 [3.5] for LOW, 2.0 0.1 [4.0] for MED, and 2.3 0.1 [5.7] for HIGH) and number of nonaggressive sow-sow contacts (0.3 0.09 [2.2] for LOW, 0.4 0.07 [3.2] for MED, and 0.5 0.07 [4.5] for HIGH) in HIGH compared with LOW ( < 0.05). Farrowing rate and total piglets born were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). A secondary analysis was conducted that examined individual sow behavior within each pen, and this identified increased injury number in the lowest ranked sows (involved in no fights on d 0 and no displacements on d0 to d4) in LOW (9.3 1.2 [107.9] for LOW, 6.2 0.8 [53.0] for MED, and 5.1 0.8 [28.1] for HIGH) and also decreased fight number and duration in HIGH compared with LOW on d 0 and 1 ( < 0.05). Our primary data analysis demonstrates positive exploratory and social behaviors with increased space and suggests that a reduction in space following hierarchy formation is not a significant stressor. Additionally, there is some evidence at an individual sow level that increased space at mixing benefits sow welfare parameters, especially for low-ranked sows. PMID:26812343

  14. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 7: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Earth Observations working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Earth Observation experiments are: (1) establishment of quantitative relationships between observable parameters and geophysical variables, (2) development, test, calibration, and evaluation of eventual flight instruments in experimental space flight missions, (3) demonstration of the operational utility of specific observation concepts or techniques as information inputs needed for taking actions, and (4) deployment of prototype and follow-on operational Earth Observation systems. The basic payload capability, mission duration, launch sites, inclinations, and payload limitations are defined.

  15. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few ?E{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  16. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: density matrix renormalization group algorithm.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shane M; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-01

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few ?E(h) or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation. PMID:25481122

  17. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 8: Earth and ocean physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Earth and Ocean Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The requirements for the space shuttle mission are defined as: (1) precision measurement for earth and ocean physics experiments, (2) development and demonstration of new and improved sensors and analytical techniques, (3) acquisition of surface truth data for evaluation of new measurement techniques, (4) conduct of critical experiments to validate geophysical phenomena and instrumental results, and (5) development and validation of analytical/experimental models for global ocean dynamics and solid earth dynamics/earthquake prediction. Tables of data are presented to show the flight schedule estimated costs, and the mission model.

  18. The IBM PC at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peredo, James P.

    1988-01-01

    Like many large companies, Ames relies very much on its computing power to get work done. And, like many other large companies, finding the IBM PC a reliable tool, Ames uses it for many of the same types of functions as other companies. Presentation and clarification needs demand much of graphics packages. Programming and text editing needs require simpler, more-powerful packages. The storage space needed by NASA's scientists and users for the monumental amounts of data that Ames needs to keep demand the best database packages that are large and easy to use. Availability to the Micom Switching Network combines the powers of the IBM PC with the capabilities of other computers and mainframes and allows users to communicate electronically. These four primary capabilities of the PC are vital to the needs of NASA's users and help to continue and support the vast amounts of work done by the NASA employees.

  19. Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group 88th Meeting: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Task Report, 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2004-01-01

    Supported Return-to-Flight activities by providing surface climate data from Kennedy Space Center used primarily for ice and dew formation studies, and upper air wind analysis primarily used for ascent loads analyses. The MSFC Environments Group's Terrestrial and Planetary Environments Team documented Space Shuttle day-of-launch support activities by publishing a document in support of SSP Return-to-Flight activities entitled "Space Shuttle Program Flight Operations Support". The team also formalized the Shuttle Natural Environments Technical Panel and chaired the first special session of the SSP Natural Environments Panel meeting at KSC, November 4-7,2003.58 participants from NASA, DOD and other government agencies from across the country attended the meeting.

  20. The NASA EEE parts assurance group (NEPAG) - An evolving approach to maximizing space parts assurance resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Assurance Group (NEPAG) in its role as a resource sharing and coordinating force in EEE Parts assurance for space flight missions. NEPAG is a new organization, barely two years old. The EEE parts world for space applications faces a number of challenges as we enter the 21st Century but the most significant is clearly the economic incorporation of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) parts without sacrificing reliability. NEPAG has collaborated in designing a NASA-funded evaluation plan to take a comprehensive look at COTS. A cost/benefit study has been performed to compare the cost of ownership of the US MIL parts NASA has traditionally used with COTS parts screened to an equivalent reliability level.

  1. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  2. Testing the accuracy of redshift-space group-finding algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederic, James J.

    1995-04-01

    Using simulated redshift surveys generated from a high-resolution N-body cosmological structure simulation, we study algorithms used to identify groups of galaxies in redshift space. Two algorithms are investigated; both are friends-of-friends schemes with variable linking lengths in the radial and transverse dimenisons. The chief difference between the algorithms is in the redshift linking length. The algorithm proposed by Huchra & Geller (1982) uses a generous linking length designed to find 'fingers of god,' while that of Nolthenius & White (1987) uses a smaller linking length to minimize contamination by projection. We find that neither of the algorithms studied is intrinsically superior to the other; rather, the ideal algorithm as well as the ideal algorithm parameters depends on the purpose for which groups are to be studied. The Huchra & Geller algorithm misses few real groups, at the cost of including some spurious groups and members, while the Nolthenius & White algorithm misses high velocity dispersion groups and members but is less likely to include interlopers in its group assignments. Adjusting the parameters of either algorithm results in a trade-off between group accuracy and completeness. In a companion paper we investigate the accuracy of virial mass estimates and clustering properties of groups identified using these algorithms.

  3. Methods of space-group determination - a supplement dealing with twinned crystals and metric specialization.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2015-10-01

    Tables for the determination of space group for single crystals, twinned crystals and crystals with a specialized metric are presented in the form of a spreadsheet for use on a computer. There are 14 tables, one for each of the Bravais-lattice types. The content of the tables is arranged so that at the intersection of rows, displaying the conditions for reflection, and of columns, displaying the Laue and crystal classes, one finds those space groups compatible with the observed Bravais-lattice type, the conditions for reflection and the Laue and crystal classes. The tables are intended to be of direct use to an experimentalist working with an unknown structure. PMID:26422223

  4. Exploiting space-group symmetry in fragment-based molecular crystal calculations.

    PubMed

    Heit, Yonaton; Beran, Gregory J O

    2014-11-15

    Recent developments in fragment-based methods make it increasingly feasible to use high-level ab initio electronic structure techniques to molecular crystals. Such studies remain computationally demanding, however. Here, we describe a straightforward algorithm for exploiting space-group symmetry in fragment-based methods which often provides computational speed-ups of several fold or more. This algorithm does not require a priori specification of the space group or symmetry operators. Rather, the symmetrically equivalent fragments are identified automatically by aligning the individual fragments along their principle axes of inertia and testing for equivalence with other fragments. The symmetry operators relating equivalent fragments can then be worked out easily. Implementation of this algorithm for computing energies, nuclear gradients with respect to both atomic coordinates and lattice parameters, and the nuclear hessian is described. PMID:25270380

  5. Fredholm and spectral properties of Toeplitz operators on H{sup p} spaces over ordered groups

    SciTech Connect

    Mirotin, Adolf R

    2011-05-31

    We consider Toeplitz operators on the spaces H{sup p}(G), 1< p<{infinity}, associated with a compact connected Abelian group G whose character group is ordered and, in the case of total order, prove a theorem on the Fredholm index for those operators which have continuous symbols which generalizes the classical Gohberg-Krein theorem. The results thus obtained are applied to the spectral theory of Toeplitz operators and examples where the index is evaluated explicitly are considered. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  6. Charge density wave depinning transition: a real space renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglioti, E.; Celino, M.

    1993-01-01

    We study analytically and numerically the depinning transition of a pinned charge density wave. We introduce a real space renormalization group approach with the method of decimation, which allows to determine the threshold both in the strong and weak pinning limit. We also perform a numerical renormalization of the system that allows to avoid the difficulties due to the large fluctuations in the weak pinning limit. The analytical results turn out to be in good agreement with the simulations.

  7. Cohomologies of Configuration Spaces and Higher-Dimensional Polylogarithms in Renormalization Group Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolov, Nikolay M.

    2010-06-17

    The deviation from commutativity of the renormalization and the action of all linear partial differential operators is the main source of the anomalies in quantum field theory, including the renormalization group action. This deviation is characterized by certain 'renormalization cocycles' that are related to cohomologies of the so called (ordered) configuration spaces. Cohomological differential equations that determine the renormalization cocycles up to the renormalization freedom are obtained. The solution of these equations requires introducing transcendental extensions related to higher-dimensional polylogarithms.

  8. Report from the MPP Working Group to the NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James R.; Grosch, Chester; Mcanulty, Michael; Odonnell, John; Storey, Owen

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) gave a select group of scientists the opportunity to test and implement their computational algorithms on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) located at Goddard Space Flight Center, beginning in late 1985. One year later, the Working Group presented its report, which addressed the following: algorithms, programming languages, architecture, programming environments, the way theory relates, and performance measured. The findings point to a number of demonstrated computational techniques for which the MPP architecture is ideally suited. For example, besides executing much faster on the MPP than on conventional computers, systolic VLSI simulation (where distances are short), lattice simulation, neural network simulation, and image problems were found to be easier to program on the MPP's architecture than on a CYBER 205 or even a VAX. The report also makes technical recommendations covering all aspects of MPP use, and recommendations concerning the future of the MPP and machines based on similar architectures, expansion of the Working Group, and study of the role of future parallel processors for space station, EOS, and the Great Observatories era.

  9. The redshift-space neighborhoods of 36 loose groups of galaxies. 1: The data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Hurchra, John P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We have selected 36 loose groups of galaxies (RGH89) with at least five members, and with mean redshift average value of CZ is greater than 3200 km/s. These groups all lie within the first two slices of the CfA redshift survey 8(sup h) less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 17(sup h) and 26.5 deg less than or equal to delta less than or equal to 38.5 deg). For each of these groups, we define the redshift-space neighborhood as a region centered on the group coordinates and delimited by a circle of projected radius R(sub cir) = 1.5/h Mpc on the sky, and by a velocity interval delta (sub cz) = 3000 km/s. Here we give the redshifts of 334 galaxies in these redshift-space neighborhoods. For completeness, we also give the redshifts of the 232 original members. These data include 199 new redshifts. We demonstrate that these samples of fainter galaxies significantly increase the number of members.

  10. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  11. ORPLOT. PC: a graphic utility for ORMGEN. PC and ORVIRT. PC

    SciTech Connect

    Inversini, C.; Bryson, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    ORPLOT.PC is an interactive graphic utility for ORMGEN.PC and ORVIRT.PC. It executes on an IBM PC/XT or PC/AT equipped with hard disk, graphic card, and 512K minimum memory. The program is capable of: (1) displaying finite-element meshes generated by ORMGEN.PC complete with node numbers, element numbers, and boundary conditions; and (2) generating deformed mesh plots, contour plots, line (X-Y) plots, and developed surface plots of ORVIRT.PC output. A zooming feature allows detailed inspection of any subregion. Because simplicity and ease of use were important objectives during program development, all commands are entered interactively using free format. The option of automatic or user-defined scaling for most plots is another convenience. Plot files may be created and written to hard disk for subsequent hardcopy to printer or plotter. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  12. A Perceptual Phonetic Similarity Space for Languages: Evidence from Five Native Language Listener Groups1

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann; Clopper, Cynthia; Smiljanic, Rajka; Walter, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to devise a means of representing languages in a perceptual similarity space based on their overall phonetic similarity. In Experiment 1, native English listeners performed a free classification task in which they grouped 17 diverse languages based on their perceived phonetic similarity. A similarity matrix of the grouping patterns was then submitted to clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses. In Experiment 2, an independent group of native English listeners sorted the group of 17 languages in terms of their distance from English. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 2 with four groups of non-native English listeners: Dutch, Mandarin, Turkish and Korean listeners. Taken together, the results of these three experiments represent a step towards establishing an approach to assessing the overall phonetic similarity of languages. This approach could potentially provide the basis for developing predictions regarding foreign-accented speech intelligibility for various listener groups, and regarding speech perception accuracy in the context of background noise in various languages. PMID:21179563

  13. GFI - EASY PC GRAPHICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Easy PC Graphics (GFI) is a graphical plot program that permits data to be easily and flexibly plotted. Data is input in a standard format which allows easy data entry and evaluation. Multiple dependent axes are also supported. The program may either be run in a stand alone mode or be embedded in the user's own software. Automatic scaling is built in for several logarithmic and decibel scales. New scales are easily incorporated into the code through the use of object-oriented programming techniques. For the autoscale routines and the actual plotting code, data is not retrieved directly from a file, but a "method" delivers the data, performing scaling as appropriate. Each object (variable) has state information which selects its own scaling. GFI is written in Turbo Pascal version 6.0 for IBM PC compatible computers running MS-DOS. The source code will only compile properly with the Turbo Pascal v. 6.0 or v. 7.0 compilers; however, an executable is provided on the distribution disk. This executable requires at least 64K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher, as well as an HP LaserJet printer to print output plots. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium in ASCII format. GFI was developed in 1993.

  14. Toward a standardized structural-functional group connectome in MNI space.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the structural architecture of the human brain in terms of connectivity between its subregions has provided profound insights into its underlying functional organization and has coined the concept of the "connectome", a structural description of the elements forming the human brain and the connections among them. Here, as a proof of concept, we introduce a novel group connectome in standard space based on a large sample of 169 subjects from the Enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (eNKI-RS). Whole brain structural connectomes of each subject were estimated with a global tracking approach, and the resulting fiber tracts were warped into standard stereotactic (MNI) space using DARTEL. Employing this group connectome, the results of published tracking studies (i.e., the JHU white matter and Oxford thalamic connectivity atlas) could be largely reproduced directly within MNI space. In a second analysis, a study that examined structural connectivity between regions of a functional network, namely the default mode network, was reproduced. Voxel-wise structural centrality was then calculated and compared to others' findings. Furthermore, including additional resting-state fMRI data from the same subjects, structural and functional connectivity matrices between approximately forty thousand nodes of the brain were calculated. This was done to estimate structure-function agreement indices of voxel-wise whole brain connectivity. Taken together, the combination of a novel whole brain fiber tracking approach and an advanced normalization method led to a group connectome that allowed (at least heuristically) performing fiber tracking directly within MNI space. Such an approach may be used for various purposes like the analysis of structural connectivity and modeling experiments that aim at studying the structure-function relationship of the human connectome. Moreover, it may even represent a first step toward a standard DTI template of the human brain in stereotactic space. The standardized group connectome might thus be a promising new resource to better understand and further analyze the anatomical architecture of the human brain on a population level. PMID:26327244

  15. A Bruhat decomposition for the loop space of a compact group: A new approach to results of Bott

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Howard; Raghunathan, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    We give a new proof of Bott's result, that the loop space of a compact, simply connected, simple Lie group has a cellular decomposition of a certain type. In particular, one obtains the Poincar polynomial for the loop space and Bott periodicity for the unitary group. PMID:16592292

  16. Operator evolution in the three-body space via the similarity renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Micah; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin; Jurgenson, Eric; Navratil, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Performing quantitative calculations of nuclear observables in terms of nucleons interacting through two- and three-nucleon forces is a guiding principle of ab initio nuclear theory. Computationally, this is complicated by the large model spaces needed to reach convergence in many-body approaches, such as the no-core shell model (NCSM). In recent years, the similarity renormalization group (SRG) has provided a powerful tool to soften interactions for ab initio structure calculations, thus leading to convergence within smaller model spaces. SRG has been very successful when applied to the Hamiltonian of the nuclear system. However, when computing observables other than spectra, one must evolve the relevant operators using the same transformation that was applied to the Hamiltonian. Here we compute the root mean square (RMS) radius of 3H to show that evolving the \\rcirc2 operator in the three-body space, thus including two- and three-body SRG induced terms, will yield an exactly unitary transformation. We then extend our calculations to 4He and compute the RMS radius and total strength of the dipole transition using operators evolved in the three-body space. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support came from U.S. DOE/SC/NP (work proposal SCW1158), IMRR: LLNL-ABS-647982.

  17. Quantum scalar fields in de Sitter space from the nonperturbative renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilleux, Maxime; Serreau, Julien

    2015-10-01

    We investigate scalar field theories in de Sitter space by means of nonperturbative renormalization group techniques. We compute the functional flow equation for the effective potential of O (N ) theories in the local potential approximation and we study the onset of curvature-induced effects as quantum fluctuations are progressively integrated out from subhorizon to superhorizon scales. This results in a dimensional reduction of the original action to an effective zero-dimensional Euclidean theory. We show that the latter is equivalent both to the late-time equilibrium state of the stochastic approach of Starobinsky and Yokoyama and to the effective theory for the zero mode on Euclidean de Sitter space. We investigate the immediate consequences of this dimensional reduction: symmetry restoration and dynamical mass generation.

  18. Group-galaxy correlations in redshift space as a probe of the growth of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, F. G.; de la Torre, S.; Bianchi, D.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the use of the cross-correlation between galaxies and galaxy groups to measure redshift-space distortions (RSD) and thus probe the growth rate of cosmological structure. This is compared to the classical approach based on using galaxy auto-correlation. We make use of realistic simulated galaxy catalogues that have been constructed by populating simulated dark matter haloes with galaxies through halo occupation prescriptions. We adapt the classical RSD Dispersion model to the case of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function and estimate the RSD parameter β by fitting both the full anisotropic correlation function ξs(rp, π) and its multipole moments. In addition, we define a modified version of the latter statistics by truncating the multipole moments to exclude strongly non-linear distortions at small transverse scales. We fit these three observable quantities in our set of simulated galaxy catalogues and estimate statistical and systematic errors on β for the case of galaxy-galaxy, group-group, and group-galaxy correlation functions. When ignoring off-diagonal elements of the covariance matrix in the fitting, the truncated multipole moments of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function provide the most accurate estimate, with systematic errors below 3% when fitting transverse scales larger than 10 h-1Mpc. Including the full data covariance enlarges statistical errors but keep unchanged the level of systematic error. Although statistical errors are generally larger for groups, the use of group-galaxy cross-correlation can potentially allow the reduction of systematics while using simple linear or Dispersion models.

  19. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  20. Unfolding of electronic structure through induced representations of space groups: Application to Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomi?, Milan; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valent, Roser

    2014-11-01

    We revisit the problem that relevant parts of band structures for a given cell choice can reflect exact or approximate higher symmetries of subsystems in the cell and can therefore be significantly simplified by an unfolding procedure that recovers the higher symmetry. We show that band-structure unfolding can be understood as projection onto induced irreducible representations of a group obtained by extending the original group of translations with a number of additional symmetry operations. The resulting framework allows us to define a generalized unfolding procedure that includes the point group operations and can be applied to any quantity in the reciprocal space. The unfolding of the Brillouin zone follows naturally from the properties of the induced irreducible representations. In this context, we also introduce a procedure to derive tight-binding models of reduced dimensionality by making use of point group symmetries. Further, we show that careful consideration of unfolding has important consequences on the interpretation of angle-resolved photoemission experiments. Finally, we apply the unfolding procedure to various representative examples of Fe-based superconductor compounds and show that the one-iron picture arises as an irreducible representation of the glide-reflection group, and we comment on the consequences for the interpretation of one-iron versus two-iron Brillouin zone representations.

  1. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  2. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 4: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Life Sciences working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Life Sciences investigations are: (1) to continue the research directed at understanding the origin of life and the search for extraterrestrial evidence of life, (2) biomedical research to understand mechanisms and provide criteria for support of manned flight, (3) technology development for life support, protective systems, and work aids for providing environmental control, and (4) to study basic biological functions at all levels or organization influenced by gravity, radiation, and circadian rhythms. Examples of candidate experimental schedules and the experimental package functional requirements are included.

  3. Pressure and equilibrium measures for actions of amenable groups on the space of configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetov, Aleksei I

    2011-03-31

    The model of statistical physics on a countable amenable group G is considered. For the natural action of G on the space of configurations S{sup G}, |S|<{infinity}, and for any closed invariant set X subset of S{sup G} we prove that there exists pressure which corresponds to a potential with finite norm on X (in the sense of the limit with respect to any Foelner sequence of sets in G). The existence of an equilibrium measure is established. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  4. Real space renormalization group and totalitarian paradox of majority rule voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2000-09-01

    The effect of majority rule voting in hierarchical structures is studied using the basic concepts from real space renormalization group. It shows in particular that a huge majority can be self-eliminated while climbing up the hierarchy levels. This majority democratic self-elimination articulates around the existence of fixed points in the voting flow. An unstable fixed point determines the critical threshold to full and total power. It can be varied from 50% up to 77% of initial support. Our model could shed new light on the last century eastern European communist collapse.

  5. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 5: Solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Solar Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The areas to be investigated by the solar physics experiments are: (1) the production of mechanical energy in the subphotospheric layers and its transport and dissipation in the upper layers of the atmosphere, (2) the mass flux from the subphotospheric layers into the chromosphere and corona and beyond the solar wind, (3) solar activity and its relationship to magnetic fields, and (4) the production of solar flares. The approach to be followed in conducting the experiments and the equipment required are defined.

  6. Structure-dependent exchange in the organic magnets Cu(II)Pc and Mn(II)Pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Kerridge, A.; Harker, A. H.; Fisher, A. J.

    2008-05-01

    We study exchange couplings in the organic magnets copper(II) phthalocyanine [Cu(II)Pc] and manganese(II) phthalocyanine [Mn(II)Pc] by a combination of Greens function perturbation theory and ab initio density-functional theory (DFT). Based on the indirect exchange model, our perturbation-theory calculation of Cu(II)Pc qualitatively agrees with the experimental observations. DFT calculations performed on Cu(II)Pc dimer show a very good quantitative agreement with exchange couplings that our theoretical group extracts by using a global fitting for the magnetization measurements to a spin- (1)/(2) Bonner-Fisher model. These two methods give us remarkably consistent trends for the exchange couplings in Cu(II)Pc when changing the stacking angles. The situation is more complex for Mn(II)Pc owing to the competition between superexchange and indirect exchange.

  7. Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vivoli, Mirella; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Martnez-Mayorga, Karina; Johnson, Alan T.; Jiao, Guan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes. PMID:22169851

  8. Density-matrix renormalization group algorithm with multi-level active space.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingjin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Haibo

    2015-07-21

    The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method, which can deal with a large active space composed of tens of orbitals, is nowadays widely used as an efficient addition to traditional complete active space (CAS)-based approaches. In this paper, we present the DMRG algorithm with a multi-level (ML) control of the active space based on chemical intuition-based hierarchical orbital ordering, which is called as ML-DMRG with its self-consistent field (SCF) variant ML-DMRG-SCF. Ground and excited state calculations of H2O, N2, indole, and Cr2 with comparisons to DMRG references using fixed number of kept states (M) illustrate that ML-type DMRG calculations can obtain noticeable efficiency gains. It is also shown that the orbital re-ordering based on hierarchical multiple active subspaces may be beneficial for reducing computational time for not only ML-DMRG calculations but also DMRG ones with fixed M values. PMID:26203012

  9. Intraspecific variation in space use, group size, and mating systems of caviomorph rodents

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Christine R.; Burger, Joseph Robert

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in social systems is widely recognized across many taxa, and specific models, including polygamy potential, resource defense, and resource dispersion, have been developed to explain the relationship between ecological variation and social organization. Although mammals from temperate North America and Eurasia have provided many insights into this relationship, rodents from the Neotropics and temperate South America have largely been ignored. In this review we focus on reports documenting intraspecific variation in spacing systems, group size, and mating systems of caviomorphs. This large group of New World hystricognath rodents occupies a diverse array of habitats; thus, members of the same species potentially exhibit different social systems in response to different ecological conditions. Spatial patterns vary in response to a diverse array of factors, including predation, food availability, population density, and soil characteristics. Changes in group size typically correlate with changes in resource availability, particularly food. Mating systems generally reflect the ability of males to control access to females, which may depend on population density or food distribution. In general, social organization in caviomorphs fits predictions of resource-based models; however, most studies have been purely observational, involving small numbers of animals over short time periods and reporting qualitative rather than quantitative levels of ecological correlates. In future studies the use of molecular techniques and controlled, experimental manipulations can increase our understanding of intraspecific variation in caviomorph social systems. This understudied group of rodents offers excellent opportunities to provide insights into the influence of ecological conditions on behavior such as social systems. PMID:22328790

  10. NASA PC software evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kuan, Julie C.

    1986-01-01

    The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

  11. Wanted: A Solid, Reliable PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses PC reliability, one of the most pressing issues regarding computers. Nearly a quarter century after the introduction of the first IBM PC and the outset of the personal computer revolution, PCs have largely become commodities, with little differentiating one brand from another in terms of capability and performance. Most of

  12. Real-space renormalization group method for quantum 1/2 spins on the pyrochlore lattice.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Adeva, Angel J

    2014-04-01

    A simple phenomenological real-space renormalization group method for quantum Heisenberg spins with nearest and next nearest neighbour interactions on a pyrochlore lattice is presented. Assuming a scaling law for the order parameter of two clusters of different sizes, a set of coupled equations that gives the fixed points of the renormalization group transformation and, thus, the critical temperatures and ordered phases of the system is found. The particular case of spins 1/2 is studied in detail. Furthermore, to simplify the mathematical details, from all the possible phases arising from the renormalization group transformation, only those phases in which the magnetic lattice is commensurate with a subdivision of the crystal lattice into four interlocked face-centred cubic sublattices are considered. These correspond to a quantum spin liquid, ferromagnetic order, or non-collinear order in which the total magnetic moment of a tetrahedral unit is zero. The corresponding phase diagram is constructed and the differences with respect to the classical model are analysed. It is found that this method reproduces fairly well the phase diagram of the pyrochlore lattice under the aforementioned constraints. PMID:24625859

  13. Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin; Ullal, Chaitanya K; Carter, W Craig; Thomas, Edwin L

    2003-10-01

    The promise of photonic crystals and their potential applications has attracted considerable attention towards the establishment of periodic dielectric structures that in addition to possessing robust complete bandgaps, can be easily fabricated with current techniques. A number of theoretical structures have been proposed. To date, the best complete photonic bandgap structure is that of diamond networks having Fd3m symmetry (2-3 gap). The only other known complete bandgap in a face-centred-cubic (f.c.c.) lattice structure is that of air spheres in a dielectric matrix (8-9 gap; the so called 'inverse-opal' structure). Importantly, there is no systematic approach to discovering champion photonic crystal structures. Here we propose a level-set approach based on crystallography to systematically examine for photonic bandgap structures and illustrate this approach by applying it to the 11 f.c.c. groups. This approach gives us an insight into the effects of symmetry and connectivity. We classify the F-space groups into four fundamental geometries on the basis of the connectivity of high-symmetry Wyckoff sites. Three of the fundamental geometries studied display complete bandgaps--including two: the F-RD structure with Fm3m symmetry and a group 216 structure with F43m symmetry that have not been reported previously. By using this systematic approach we were able to open gaps between the 2-3, 5-6 and 8-9 bands in the f.c.c. systems. PMID:12970758

  14. A PC based fault diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Status Assessment (ISA) prototype expert system performs system level fault diagnosis using rules and models created by the user. The ISA evolved from concepts to a stand-alone demonstration prototype using OPS5 on a LISP Machine. The LISP based prototype was rewritten in C and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) to run on a Personal Computer (PC) and a graphics workstation. The ISA prototype has been used to demonstrate fault diagnosis functions of Space Station Freedom's Operation Management System (OMS). This paper describes the development of the ISA prototype from early concepts to the current PC/workstation version used today and describes future areas of development for the prototype.

  15. Velocity space diffusion and nongyrotropy of pickup water group ions at comet Grigg-Skjellerup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.; Wilken, B.; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion of water group cometary ions in velocity space at comet Grigg-Skjellerup was measured during the Giotto spacecraft encounter. The evolution of the collapsed pitch angle and energy distributions during the inbound and outbound passes shows that the timescale for energy diffusion may be similar to that for pitch angle diffusion. Fully isotropic pitch angle distributions were never seen. Also the bulk parameters of the three-dimensional distributions are examined. Transformation of these parameters into a field-aligned solar wind frame allows us to test the gyrotropy of the distributions. These observations imply that there were deviations from gyrotropy throughout the encounter becoming most important near to closest approach.

  16. Fisher's Zeros as the Boundary of Renormalization Group Flows in Complex Coupling Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Denbleyker, A.; Du Daping; Liu Yuzhi; Meurice, Y.; Zou Haiyuan

    2010-06-25

    We propose new methods to extend the renormalization group transformation to complex coupling spaces. We argue that Fisher's zeros are located at the boundary of the complex basin of attraction of infrared fixed points. We support this picture with numerical calculations at finite volume for two-dimensional O(N) models in the large-N limit and the hierarchical Ising model. We present numerical evidence that, as the volume increases, the Fisher's zeros of four-dimensional pure gauge SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a Wilson action stabilize at a distance larger than 0.15 from the real axis in the complex {beta}=4/g{sup 2} plane. We discuss the implications for proofs of confinement and searches for nontrivial infrared fixed points in models beyond the standard model.

  17. Real-space renormalization-group studies of low-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Lepetit, M. ); Manousakis, E. )

    1993-07-01

    We study the ground state of one- and two-dimensional (square-lattice) spin-1/2 quantum antiferromagnets using a numerical real-space renormalization-group (RG) approach. In our RG approach we consider blocks of various sizes but with an odd number of sites; we retain only the doublet ground state and we integrate out the higher-energy states by means of second-order quasidegenerate perturbation theory. That is, we assume that the role of the excited states of a block, in the RG iteration process, is to renormalize the effective coupling parameters between blocks. We compute the ground-state energy of a spin-1/2 linear chain for various block sizes and find close agreement with the Bethe-ansatz exact solution. In the case of the spin-1/2 square-lattice quantum antiferromagnet, the obtained ground-state energy is in reasonable agreement with the available numerical estimates.

  18. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  19. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  20. Outreach of Astronomy with emphasis to the Solar System by the Space group in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussas, X.; Dialynas, K.; Babasides, G.; Fasoulopoulos, G.; Dimitropoulou, V.; Prassopoulos, D.; Kouphos, S.; Spandagos, E.; Strikis, J.

    We have a long tradition in Space and Solar System outreach at the University of Athens (Space Group). We have contributed with many popular science articles in encyclopaedias (a total of some 200000 words), magazines and newspapers, public lectures around Greece and radio and TV programmes. We contribute in exhibitions for the public on many occasions (e.g. The British Exploration of the Planets, an exhibition organized by the British Council, at Eugenides Foundation and The Planetarium, where I prepared some 15 posters). We are preparing an outreach site of Astrophysics with sections for the planets, the exploration of the solar system and solar terrestrial relations. I am preparing several posters for the planets. We organize with the Hellenic Physical Union a series of Astrophysics Lectures at the University of Athens. Together with the Hellenic Physical Union we are planning to produce a theatrical play and CD or DVD concerning the planets. We have excellent collaboration with the amateur astronomers allover Greece and Cyprus. We organize, together with Physics or mathematics teachers in high schools several events related to astronomical observations (e.g. Venus transit, solar eclipe, astronomy nights). 1 We also organize popular science programmes in TV channels. I brief we consider Astronomy and especially the planetary system as a "Great Attractor" of pupil and the general public to science and we use it on every occasion for the benefit of the pupil and science. 2

  1. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  2. Application of the renormalization group to the calculation of the vacuum decay rate in flat and curved space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Metaxas, Dimitrios

    2007-02-15

    I show that an application of renormalization group arguments may lead to significant corrections to the vacuum decay rate for phase transitions in flat and curved space-time. It can also give some information regarding its dependence on the parameters of the theory, including the cosmological constant in the case of decay in curved space-time.

  3. Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Steinacker, H

    1997-05-23

    Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group U{sub q}(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin {ge} 1, {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of {open_quotes}pure gauges{close_quotes}, as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of U{sub q}(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of U{sub q}(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin {ge} 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard {open_quotes}truncated{close_quotes} tensor product as well as many-particle representations.

  4. Group space allowance has little effect on sow health, productivity, or welfare in a free-access stall system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-access stalls allow sows to choose the protection of a stall or use of a shared group space. This study investigated the effect of group space width: 0.91 (SS), 2.13 (IS), and 3.05 (LS) m on the health, production, behavior, and welfare of gestating sows. At gestational day (GD) 35.4 ± 2.3, 21 ...

  5. Personal Computer (PC) thermal analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, James M.; Holzhauer, Douglas J.; Yaworsky, Paul S.

    1990-03-01

    Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has developed an expert system based design verification tool to increase the efficiency of calculating device junction temperatures on printed circuit boards (PCBs). This tool, the Personal Computer (PC) Thermal Analyzer, was developed for reliability and electronic design engineers for use during the computer-aided design (CAD) phase. The PC Thermal Analyzer was developed through the combination of two technical areas, thermal analysis and expert systems. This intelligent analyzer is a more effective verification tool because traditional tools require much time and knowledge of thermal analysis, while the PC Thermal Analyzer is quick, requires no expertise in thermal analysis, and provides useful results during the CAD phase.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Search for Planetary Nebulae in Globular Clusters of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    2015-04-01

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  7. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study commercialization working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The benefits for each of the following commercial areas was investigated: communications, remote sensing, materials processing in space, low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite assembly, testing, and servicing, and space tourism. In each case, where economic benefits are derived, the costs for accomplishing tasks with the Space Station are compared with the cost with the Space Transportation System only.

  8. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary concepts.

  9. On the reflection type decomposition of the adjoint reduced phase space of a compact semisimple Lie group

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, M.; Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.

    2013-08-15

    We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

  10. On the reflection type decomposition of the adjoint reduced phase space of a compact semisimple Lie group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.

    2013-08-01

    We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

  11. Lost in Transmission: Using Study Groups to Provide Space for Creativity and Reflexivity in an Instrumentalist University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Jane; Crouch, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Since independent study groups can be important in providing spaces for students in creative disciplines to develop a critically reflexive approach to their creative practice, tutors in an Australian university introduced independent group learning to students studying in creative disciplines. However, student responses to the experience of

  12. A Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Study of Star-forming Regions in the Local Group. II. Young Stellar Populations in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Efremova, Boryana; Hodge, Paul; Kang, Yongbeom

    2012-11-01

    We studied the young stellar populations of 22 star-forming regions in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-band imaging from far-UV to I. The regions were selected from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) wide-field far-UV imaging; they sample different environments and galactocentric distances from 6 to 22 kpc. They were imaged with 30 HST fields (360 distinct images, in six bandpasses), with a pixel scale of 0.38 pc projected on the sky, at the distance of M31. This study is part of HST treasury survey program HST-GO-11079, which includes star-forming regions in eight Local Group galaxies. We provide a merged catalog of six-band stellar photometry in the 30 M31 fields, containing 118,036 sources brighter than V and B ~ 23 mag. Each HST field covers about 0.3 kpc2 in M31, and contains up to ~7000 stars, of which the number varies by a factor of >7 among the target regions; a large fraction of the sample are hot massive stars, due to our choice of filters and exposures. We derived stellar physical parameters and interstellar extinction for individual sources by spectral energy distribution analysis with model-atmosphere colors, and used the results to infer ages, massive stars content, and extinction of the star-forming regions. Reddening is up to E(B - V) <~ 0.6 mag in some OB associations, and lowest in the outermost regions (average of lsim0.12 mag in OB184 at 21.9 kpc). We examined the spatial distribution (clustering) of the hot massive stars, and defined OB associations on various spatial scales from compact to wider, more spread out ones. A hierarchical structuring is observed, with small compact groups arranged within large complexes. Their areas vary from less than 10 to 105 pc2, and masses are up to ?105 M ?, in the scales sampled by our analysis. Their cumulative mass distribution follows a power law, at least in part of the sampled regime. Hot-star counts in the young regions compare very well with integrated measurements of UV flux from GALEX.

  13. Marital sexual relationships and birth spacing among two Yoruba sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Adeokun, L A

    1982-01-01

    Discussion focuses on the marital sexual relationships (MSR) and the timing of the next child among the Ekiti and Ikale subgroups of the Yoruba (Nigeria). Contrasts in postpartum sexual practices between the 2 groups allows for demonstration of the importance of parents' perception of their child's growth and their observance of prohibitions on sexual intercourse during the wife's lactation as factors shaping their decision to have another child. It is argued that the similarity in birth spacing among the 2 groups, derived from contrasting attitudes to postpartum abstinence, is evidence of an explicit decision on the timing of the next child. Such a decision considers the role of the child's growth and social development as it affects adults in the performance of their daily social and economic routines and goes beyond an unquestioned response to quasi-religious taboos. A questionnaire was administered in the local dialect to 535 Ekiti women and 460 Ikale women, currently married and aged 14-49 years. Appropriately modified male questionnaires were completed for 398 and 380 husbands of eligible women in the respective locations. Due in part to conservatism in sexual behavior and family formation, the main features of Yoruba postpartum practices such as extended and demand breastfeeding, the taboo on sexual intercourse during lactation, and the devotion to child welfare are believed to, and do, occur in Ekiti. Socioeconomic development has brought many changes, but the combination of these practices with the high infant mortality resulting from limited access to modern health care and the lack of basic amenities assures that children are born at substantial ages apart. The need for the surviving child to reach a consciously determined age and/or stage of growth and development assures the adequacy and rationality of child spacing in this age conscious society. The Ikale are an exception to the general rule concerning sexual abstinence during lactation. The theme of a mother's trials and concern over her children is also valid with the Ikale. The Ikale mother supplements the natural protection offered by postpartum amenorrhea with the use of traditional methods of contraception, most notably the rhythm method. The crude birthrates for the 2 groups were hardly different--54.7 in Ekiti and 54.4 in Ikale. There was only a negligible difference in fertility rates. In both groups only negligible proportions of women would breastfeed for less than 6 months. Only 7.4% of Ikale women would breastfeed beyond 2 years, but 12.9% of Ekiti women were breastfeeding that long. In Ikale there was a higher awareness of the association between extended breastfeeding and the delay in the onset of menstruation. The main implication of this discussion is to challenge the emphasis on lactational abstinence as the main determinant of changes in fertility behavior. The Ikale case shows that such an assumption is not valid. PMID:12264950

  14. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  15. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  16. Effects of incentives on psychosocial performances in simulated space-dwelling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.; Emurian, Henry H.

    Prior research with individually isolated 3-person crews in a distributed, interactive, planetary exploration simulation examined the effects of communication constraints and crew configuration changes on crew performance and psychosocial self-report measures. The present report extends these findings to a model of performance maintenance that operationalizes conditions under which disruptive affective responses by crew participants might be anticipated to emerge. Experiments evaluated the effects of changes in incentive conditions on crew performance and self-report measures in simulated space-dwelling groups. Crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crew performance effectiveness was unaffected by either positive or negative incentive conditions, while self-report measures were differentially affectednegative incentive conditions produced pronounced increases in negative self-report ratings and decreases in positive self-report ratings, while positive incentive conditions produced increased positive self-report ratings only. Thus, incentive conditions associated with simulated spaceflight missions can significantly affect psychosocial adaptation without compromising task performance effectiveness in trained and experienced crews.

  17. Gas and dust in the beta Pictoris moving group as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Barrado, D.; Montesinos, B.; Duchêne, G.; Bouy, H.; Pinte, C.; Menard, F.; Donaldson, J.; Eiroa, C.; Krivov, A. V.; Kamp, I.; Mendigutía, I.; Dent, W. R. F.; Lillo-Box, J.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Debris discs are thought to be formed through the collisional grinding of planetesimals, and then can be considered as the outcome of planet formation. Understanding the properties of gas and dust in debris discs can help us comprehend the architecture of extrasolar planetary systems. Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared (IR) photometry and spectroscopy have provided a valuable dataset for the study of debris discs gas and dust composition. This paper is part of a series of papers devoted to the study of Herschel-PACS observations of young stellar associations. Aims: This work aims at studying the properties of discs in the beta Pictoris moving group (BPMG) through far-IR PACS observations of dust and gas. Methods: We obtained Herschel-PACS far-IR photometric observations at 70, 100, and 160 μm of 19 BPMG members, together with spectroscopic observations for four of them. These observations were centred at 63.18 μm and 157 μm, aiming to detect [OI] and [CII] emission. We incorporated the new far-IR observations in the SED of BPMG members and fitted modified blackbody models to better characterise the dust content. Results: We have detected far-IR excess emission towards nine BPMG members, including the first detection of an IR excess towards HD 29391.The star HD 172555, shows [OI] emission, while HD 181296 shows [CII] emission, expanding the short list of debris discs with a gas detection. No debris disc in BPMG is detected in both [OI] and [CII]. The discs show dust temperatures in the range 55-264 K, with low dust masses (<6.6 × 10-5 M⊕ to 0.2 M⊕) and radii from blackbody models in the range 3 to ~82 AU. All the objects with a gas detection are early spectral type stars with a hot dust component. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. Bilateral deep neck space infection in the paediatric age group: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Songu, M; Demiray, U; Adibelli, Z H; Adibelli, H

    2011-06-01

    Deep neck space infections can occur at any age but require more intimate management in the paediatric age group because of their rapidly progressive nature. Concurrent abscess in distinct neck spaces has rarely been reported in healthy children. Herewith, a rare case of bilateral neck abscess is reported in a 16-month-old female and the clinical presentation and management are discussed with a review of the literature. PMID:22058596

  19. Rigidity of automorphism groups of invariant domains in homogeneous Stein spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, F.; Zhou, X. Yu

    2014-02-01

    For a large class of Stein manifolds which are homogeneous under a complex reductive Lie group, we prove a rigidity property of the automorphism groups of domains invariant with respect to a compact form of this complex group.

  20. Overview of the Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG) strategic planning support efforts for earth to orbit transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankhoff, Walter F.; Hope, William P., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    An essential requirement of a successful space program is the assurance of a safe affordable routine access to space. In view of this, a national organization known as the Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG) has been directed for the past two years toward supporting strategic planning for earth-to-orbit space transportation and propulsion systems. This paper presents a short description of the approach the SPSG followed in their space transportation and propulsion systems strategic planning support activities. The SPSG study emphasized the identification of the transportation systems users/customers and the characteristics of attributes most valued by them in earth-to-LEO payload transportation services. The study initiated the process known as Quality Function Deployment to ensure that the customer/user real requirements and needs are properly addressed and that the transportation system concepts advocated had the greatest probability of satisfying the custosmer's requirements and desired attributes.

  1. Proceedings of the Space Shuttle Sortie Workshop. Volume 2: Working group reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Details are presented on the mission planning progress in each of the working paper reports. The general topics covered are the following: space technology; materials processing and space manufacturing; communications and navigation; earth and ocean physics; oceanography; earth resources and surface environmental quality; meteorology and atmospheric environmental quality; life sciences; atmospheric and space physics; solar physics; high energy cosmic rays; X-ray and gamma ray astronomy; ultraviolet-optical astronomy; planetary astronomy; and infrared astronomy.

  2. Predicting stable stoichiometries of compounds via evolutionary global space-group optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Freeman, Arthur J.; Zunger, Alex

    2009-09-01

    Whereas the Daltonian atom-to-atom ratios in ordinary molecules are well understood via the traditional theory of valence, the naturally occurring stoichiometries in intermetallic compounds ApBq , as revealed by phase-diagram compilations, are often surprising. Even equal-valence elements A and B give rise to unequal (p,q) stoichiometries, e.g., the 1:2, 2:1, and 3:1 ratios in AlpScq . Moreover, sometimes different stoichiometries are associated with different lattice types and hence rather different physical properties. Here, we extend the fixed-composition global space-group optimization (GSGO) approach used to predict, via density-functional calculations, fixed-composition lattice types [G. Trimarchi and A. Zunger, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 295212 (2008)] to identify simultaneously all the minimum-energy lattice types throughout the composition range. Starting from randomly selected lattice vectors, atomic positions and stoichiometries, we construct the T=0 convex hull of energy vs composition. Rather than repeat a set of GSGO searches over a fixed list of stoichiometries, we minimize the distance to the convex hull. This approach is far more efficient than the former one as a single evolutionary search sequence simultaneously identifies the lowest-energy structures at each composition and among these it selects those that are ground states. For Al-Sc we correctly identify the stable stoichiometries and relative structure types: AlSc2-B82 , AlSc-B2, and Al2Sc-C15 in the Nat=6 periodic cells, and Al2Sc6-D019 , AlSc-B2, and Al3Sc-L10 in the Nat=8 periodic cells. This extended evolutionary GSGO algorithm represents a step toward a fully ab initio materials synthesis, where compounds are predicted starting from sole knowledge of the chemical species of the constituents.

  3. Group theoretical quantization of a phase space S1×R+ and the mass spectrum of Schwarzschild black holes in D space-time dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, M.; Kastrup, H. A.; Schramm, F.; Strobl, T.

    2000-08-01

    The symplectic reduction of pure spherically symmetric (Schwarzschild) classical gravity in D space-time dimensions yields a two-dimensional phase space of observables consisting of the mass M (>0) and a canonically conjugate (Killing) time variable T. Imposing (mass-dependent) periodic boundary conditions in time on the associated quantum-mechanical plane waves which represent the Schwarzschild system in the period just before or during the formation of a black hole yields an energy spectrum of the hole which realizes the old Bekenstein postulate that the quanta of the horizon AD-2 are multiples of a basic area quantum. In the present paper it is shown that the phase space of such Schwarzschild black holes in D space-time dimensions is symplectomorphic to a symplectic manifold S=\\{(φ∈R mod 2π, p~AD-2∈R+)\\} with the symplectic form dφ∧dp. As the action of the group SO↑(1,2) on that manifold is transitive, effective and Hamiltonian, it can be used for a group theoretical quantization of the system. The area operator p⁁ for the horizon corresponds to the generator of the compact subgroup SO(2) and becomes quantized accordingly: The positive discrete series of the irreducible unitary representations of the group SO↑(1,2) yields an (horizon) area spectrum ~(k+n), where k=1,2,..., characterizes the representation and n=0,1,2,..., the number of area quanta. If one employs the unitary representations of the universal covering group of SO↑(1,2), the number k can take any fixed positive real value (θ parameter). The unitary representations of the positive discrete series provide concrete Hilbert spaces for quantum Schwarzschild black holes.

  4. Melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate in PC/zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang

    The effects of zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (ZnSPS) on the melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) were investigated. Melt crystallization of pure PC is extremely slow due to its rigid chain. In the blend of PC and ZnSPS (PC-ZnSPS), the melt crystallization rate of PC can be enhanced. DSC was used to study the crystallization kinetics of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. The crystallization of PC at 190C increased in both partially miscible and miscible blends with ZnSPS. For PC-ZnSPS blend with same PC composition as 80%, the crystallization rate was affected by the sulfonation level of ZnSPS. The induction time of crystallization for a partially miscible blend PC-ZnSPS9.98 (80/20) was 40 minutes, and the crystallization reaches 27% crystallinity within 14 hrs. The induction time for pure PC with the same thermal history was more than 24 hrs. The crystal structure of PC crystal formed in PC-ZnSPS blend was studied by WAXD, which showed no difference from the reported WAXD pattern for pure PC. Molecular weight change of PC was found during the thermal annealing of PC-ZnSPS blend at 190C, but molecular weight alone cannot explain the change of crystallization rate of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. Discussion was made to address the mechanisms that are responsible for the crystallization rate enhancement of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. In order to understand and elucidate the reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend and its effect on the crystallization of PC, TG, GPC and GC-MS were used to investigate the stability of PC-ZnSPS blend and mixtures of PC with sodium tosylate (NaTS), zinc tosylate (ZnTS) and sodium benzoate (NaBZ). ZnSPS, NaTS and ZnTS undergo desulfonation of the sulfonate group at temperatures above 350C. The desulfonation process can destabilize PC and lower the maximum mass loss rate temperature of PC for more than 70C. NaTS, ZnTS and NaBZ have quite different effect on the thermal stability of PC at temperatures below 250C. NaBZ can significantly degrade PC both at 190C and 250C. PC does not show any molecular weight (M w) change in the presence of NaTS at 250C and 190C for up to 1hr and 16 hrs respectively. ZnTS can also cause Mw change of PC at 250C and 190C, but the changing of Mw of PC in the presence of ZnTS is less than that in the presence of NaBZ. The reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend can be explained based on Davis's ionic ester exchange reaction mechanism.

  5. Canonical Groups for Quantization on the Two-Dimensional Sphere and One-Dimensional Complex Projective Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sumadi A. H.; H, Zainuddin

    2014-11-01

    Using Isham's group-theoretic quantization scheme, we construct the canonical groups of the systems on the two-dimensional sphere and one-dimensional complex projective space, which are homeomorphic. In the first case, we take SO(3) as the natural canonical Lie group of rotations of the two-sphere and find all the possible Hamiltonian vector fields, and followed by verifying the commutator and Poisson bracket algebra correspondences with the Lie algebra of the group. In the second case, the same technique is resumed to define the Lie group, in this case SU (2), of CP'.We show that one can simply use a coordinate transformation from S2 to CP1 to obtain all the Hamiltonian vector fields of CP1. We explicitly show that the Lie algebra structures of both canonical groups are locally homomorphic. On the other hand, globally their corresponding canonical groups are acting on different geometries, the latter of which is almost complex. Thus the canonical group for CP1 is the double-covering group of SO(3), namely SU(2). The relevance of the proposed formalism is to understand the idea of CP1 as a space of where the qubit lives which is known as a Bloch sphere.

  6. Responding to the Concerns of Student Cultural Groups: Redesigning Spaces for Cultural Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Anise Mazone; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the engagement of a student committee in redesigning an entire floor of a university union to accommodate student cultural centers and provide space in a fair and equitable manner. The reorganization focused on the process as well as the task of allocating space, with an emphasis on the opportunity to foster the development of…

  7. D2PC sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.P.

    1992-08-01

    The Chemical Hazard Prediction Model (D2PC) developed by the US Army will play a critical role in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program by predicting chemical agent transport and dispersion through the atmosphere after an accidental release. To aid in the analysis of the output calculated by D2PC, this sensitivity analysis was conducted to provide information on model response to a variety of input parameters. The sensitivity analysis focused on six accidental release scenarios involving chemical agents VX, GB, and HD (sulfur mustard). Two categories, corresponding to conservative most likely and worst case meteorological conditions, provided the reference for standard input values. D2PC displayed a wide variety of sensitivity to the various input parameters. The model displayed the greatest overall sensitivity to wind speed, mixing height, and breathing rate. For other input parameters, sensitivity was mixed but generally lower. Sensitivity varied not only with parameter, but also over the range of values input for a single parameter. This information on model response can provide useful data for interpreting D2PC output.

  8. Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Thévenin, Annelyse; Ein-Dor, Liat; Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Genomes undergo changes in organization as a result of gene duplications, chromosomal rearrangements and local mutations, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often organized in operons and reside contiguously along the genome, most eukaryotes show much weaker clustering of genes by function, except for few concrete functional groups. We set out to check systematically if there is a relation between gene function and gene organization in the human genome. We test this question for three types of functional groups: pairs of interacting proteins, complexes and pathways. We find a significant concentration of functional groups both in terms of their distance within the same chromosome and in terms of their dispersal over several chromosomes. Moreover, using Hi-C contact map of the tendency of chromosomal segments to appear close in the 3D space of the nucleus, we show that members of the same functional group that reside on distinct chromosomes tend to co-localize in space. The result holds for all three types of functional groups that we tested. Hence, the human genome shows substantial concentration of functional groups within chromosomes and across chromosomes in space. PMID:25056310

  9. Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond HST Conference (Origins Conference and UV-Optical Working Group Support)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Morse, Jon

    2001-01-01

    This grant supported three major activities, from 1997-2001. (1) Origins Conference. The funds from this grant were used, initially, to support a Conference on "Origins", held May 19-23, 1997 at Estes Park, CO and attended by a wide range of astronomers, planetary scientists, and astrobiologists. The scientific proceedings of this meeting were published in 1998 by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific: "Origins" (1998) "Proceedings of the International Origins Conference". (2) UV-Optical Space Astronomy. Conference Additional funds provided by the NASA Office of Space Science were used to support a meeting held August 5-7, 1998 at Boulder, CO and attended by ultraviolet and optical astronomers and instrumentalists interested in a UV-O successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. The scientific proceedings of this meeting were published in 1999: "Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope" (1999), NASA provided funds and commissioned the UVOWG (Ultraviolet-Optical Working Group), charged with recommending a set of fundamental scientific problems and new space missions in the UV/Optical wavelength bands. The working group was chaired by J. M. Shull, and included ten other astrophysicists. Their report was published as a "White Paper" (Nov. 1999) entitled "The Emergence of the Modern Universe: Tracing the Cosmic Web" available. The results of this report were used in the NASA Strategic Planning ("Roadmap") exercise and by the NRC Astronomy/Astrophysics Decade Committee.

  10. Glide reflection symmetry, Brillouin zone folding, and superconducting pairing for the P 4 /n m m space group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Emilian M.; Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the studies of the superconducting pairing states in the iron-based superconductors, we analyze the effects of Brillouin zone folding procedure from a space-group symmetry perspective for a general class of materials with the P 4 /n m m space group. The Brillouin zone folding amounts to working with an effective 1-Fe unit cell, instead of the crystallographic 2-Fe unit cell. We show that the folding procedure can be justified by the validity of a glide reflection symmetry throughout the crystallographic Brillouin zone and by the existence of a minimal double degeneracy along the edges of the latter. We also demonstrate how the folding procedure fails when a local spin-orbit coupling is included although the latter does not break any of the space-group symmetries of the bare Hamiltonian. In light of these general symmetry considerations, we further discuss the implications of the glide reflection symmetry for the superconducting pairing in an effective multiorbital t -J1-J2 model. We find that, for spin-singlet pairing states, the P4/n m m space-group symmetry allows only even parity under the glide reflection and zero total momentum.

  11. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  12. Clustering and group selection of multiple criteria alternatives with application to space-based networks.

    PubMed

    Malakooti, Behnam; Yang, Ziyong

    2004-02-01

    In many real-world problems, the range of consequences of different alternatives are considerably different. In addition, sometimes, selection of a group of alternatives (instead of only one best alternative) is necessary. Traditional decision making approaches treat the set of alternatives with the same method of analysis and selection. In this paper, we propose clustering alternatives into different groups so that different methods of analysis, selection, and implementation for each group can be applied. As an example, consider the selection of a group of functions (or tasks) to be processed by a group of processors. The set of tasks can be grouped according to their similar criteria, and hence, each cluster of tasks to be processed by a processor. The selection of the best alternative for each clustered group can be performed using existing methods; however, the process of selecting groups is different than the process of selecting alternatives within a group. We develop theories and procedures for clustering discrete multiple criteria alternatives. We also demonstrate how the set of alternatives is clustered into mutually exclusive groups based on 1) similar features among alternatives; 2) ideal (or most representative) alternatives given by the decision maker; and 3) other preferential information of the decision maker. The clustering of multiple criteria alternatives also has the following advantages. 1) It decreases the set of alternatives to be considered by the decision maker (for example, different decision makers are assigned to different groups of alternatives). 2) It decreases the number of criteria. 3) It may provide a different approach for analyzing multiple decision makers problems. Each decision maker may cluster alternatives differently, and hence, clustering of alternatives may provide a basis for negotiation. The developed approach is applicable for solving a class of telecommunication networks problems where a set of objects (such as routers, processors, or intelligent autonomous vehicles) are to be clustered into similar groups. Objects are clustered based on several criteria and the decision maker's preferences. PMID:15369049

  13. Space station needs attributes and architectural options study costing working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Individuals in the United States who understand the promise of materials processing in space and who also are senior technical personnel associated with commercial firms that process materials: (1) endorsed the concept of a space station as a desirable national asset; (2) stated that a commercial MPS research program is mandatory to extend commericalization of space for materials processing; and (3) described in general terms a national research laboratory and free flying facilities that are needed. Participants agreed that industry R&D is motivated largely by market pull rather than by technology push, that initial interest is low-g materials research; and that to farther, commercial market assurance (a salable product) is a must.

  14. Holographic phase space: c-functions and black holes as renormalization group flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulos, Miguel F.

    2011-05-01

    We construct a mathcal{N} -function for Lovelock theories of gravity, which yields a holographic c-function in domain-wall backgrounds, and seemingly generalizes the concept for black hole geometries. A flow equation equates the monotonicity properties of mathcal{N} with the gravitational field, which has opposite signs in the domain-wall and black hole backgrounds, due to the presence of negative/positive energy in the former/latter, and accordingly mathcal{N} monotonically decreases/increases from the UV to the IR. On AdS spaces the mathcal{N} -function is related to the Euler anomaly, and at a black hole horizon it is generically proportional to the entropy. For planar black holes, mathcal{N} diverges at the horizon, which we interpret as an order N 2 increase in the number of effective degrees of freedom. We show how mathcal{N} can be written as the ratio of the Wald entropy to an effective phase space volume, and using the flow equation relate this to Verlinde's notion of gravity as an entropic force. From the effective phase space we can obtain an expression for the dual field theory momentum cut-off, matching a previous proposal in the literature by Polchinski and Heemskerk. Finally, we propose that the area in Planck units counts states, not degrees of freedom, and identify it also as a phase space volume. Written in terms of the proper radial distance ?, it takes the suggestive form of a canonical partition function at inverse temperature ?, leading to a "mean energy" which is simply the extrinsic curvature of the surface. Using this we relate this definition of holographic phase space with the effective phase space appearing in the mathcal{N} -function.

  15. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  16. Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.

    2008-12-01

    In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains M. Lewis and W. Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) on an exploration that would become an everlasting part of US national history and pride. Looking back at the events of this exploration, there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond (NASA Vision for Space Exploration, 2004): The Lewis and Clark Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean; The Expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in the early 18th century; The Expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew; Supplies brought on the mission were limited (mainly a mass/weight issue rather than cost), therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization approach, including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty) was necessary for crew survival. The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar to what Lewis and Clark's crew experienced, as environments will be hostile and unforgiving if problems arise and aren't resolved quickly. The analysis provided in this research paper is relevant because the Lewis and Clark Expedition needed to move extensively and with minimal supplies. Polar remote settings, which were analyzed extensively, were different from this expedition due to the fact that these missions did not encompass extensive movement of crew facilities and supplies and were more like space missions orbiting the Earth. Using past space station results of performance on orbit in correlation with a suggested distinguishable mission phase model, the Lewis and Clark Expedition will be analyzed for similarities to these space findings. Factors of consideration in support of this analysis involve an understanding of the leadership qualities of Lewis and Clark (and relations established and maintained with one another), the selection and diversity of their crew, and the group dynamics that were developed and maintained so carefully during the expedition. With this knowledge and understanding one can gain enormous insights useful in the planning and preparation for future long-duration space exploratory missions with high level of autonomy, mobility, minimal primary life support supply and high dependence on material re-circulation and In-Situ Resource Utilization approach.

  17. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe…

  18. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe

  19. Working group report on advanced high-voltage high-power and energy-storage space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, H. A.; Cooke, D. L.; Evans, R. W.; Hastings, D.; Jongeward, G.; Laframboise, J. G.; Mahaffey, D.; Mcintyre, B.; Pfizer, K. A.; Purvis, C.

    1986-01-01

    Space systems in the future will probably include high-voltage, high-power energy-storage and -production systems. Two such technologies are high-voltage ac and dc systems and high-power electrodynamic tethers. The working group identified several plasma interaction phenomena that will occur in the operation of these power systems. The working group felt that building an understanding of these critical interaction issues meant that several gaps in our knowledge had to be filled, and that certain aspects of dc power systems have become fairly well understood. Examples of these current collection are in quiescent plasmas and snap over effects. However, high-voltage dc and almost all ac phenomena are, at best, inadequately understood. In addition, there is major uncertainty in the knowledge of coupling between plasmas and large scale current flows in space plasmas. These gaps in the knowledge are addressed.

  20. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma: reviewing the role of church groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Gibbs, A

    2011-08-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  1. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  2. PC-based Astronomical Image Processing with pcIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Piskunov, N. E.

    Modern 486-based PCs are fast enough for many serious image processing applications, and inexpensive enough even for amateur astronomers. Our pcIPS image processing system runs on these platforms and satisfies a broad range of data analysis needs, while providing maximum expandability. It supports large format 1D and 2D images in any numeric type, from 8-bit integer to 64-bit floating point. pcIPS includes a set of visualization tools as part of an intuitive graphical user interface that employs buttons, pop-up menus, and a mouse. It is extremely expandable, because all of the image processing functionality is provided by external modules ( applications ), with new ones constantly being developed. The basic application package includes ones for elementary arithmetics and statistics, geometric transformations, and import/export of various data formats (FITS, plain ASCII, Photometrics, binary, GIF, etc.); specialized astronomy-oriented packages will be demonstrated. An API lets the user create his own applications in C and FORTRAN. The demo will show the latest version of the system, as well as some of its recently-created applications. The newest of them is a port of the DAOPHOTII stellar photometry program, and a Fourier analysis package. A CCD/Echelle processing package (location of echelle orders, geometric correction and extraction of orders, flat field correction, etc.) and a Spectral package (generation of dispersion curve, continuum fitting, wavelength calibration, multiple simultaneous line profile fits) will also be shown.

  3. The redshift-space neighborhoods of 36 loose groups. 2: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Hurchra, John P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We explore the kinematics of 36 rich RGH89 groups identified from the first two complete slices of the CfA redshift survey. These groups have more than five members identified by a friends-of-friends algorithm at a number density contrast delta rho/rho greater than or equal to 80. To examine the stability of the determination of the velocity dispersion for these systems, we compare results for the original 232 members with results for a larger redshift sample, including 334 fainter members in the redshift neighborhoods. On average, we double the number of group members in each system. The observed distribution of velocity dispersions is stable. In fact, the velocity dispersion based on the original members identified in the CfA redshift survey is a reliable predictor of the value for the enlarged sample in an individual group. The velocity dispersion is thus a stable physical parameter for discrimination among systems galaxies. A larger sample of groups, particularly one selected from a distance limited catalog, should provide an interesting constraint on models for the formation of large-scale structure. We take H(sub 0) = km/s/Mpc.

  4. Social organization and space use of a wild mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) group.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Kappeler, Peter M; Willaume, Eric; Benoit, Laure; Mboumba, Sylvre; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2015-10-01

    Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are enigmatic Old World primates whose social organization and ecology remain poorly known. Previous studies indicated, for example, that groups are composed of only adult females and their young or that several units composed of one adult male and several females make up larger permanent social units. Here, we present the first data on group composition and male ranging patterns from the only habituated wild mandrill group and examine how home range size and daily path length varied with environmental and demographic factors over a 15-month period. Our study site is located in southern Gabon where we followed the group on a daily basis, collecting data on presence, ranging, behavior, and parasite load of its individual members. Throughout the study, the group was made up of about 120 individuals, including several non-natal and natal adult and sub-adult males. One-male units were never observed. The mandrills traveled an estimated 0.44-6.50?km/day in a home range area of 866.7?ha. Exploratory analyses revealed that precipitation, the number of adult males present, and the richness of protozoan parasites were all positively correlated with daily path length. These results clarify the social system of mandrills and provide first insights into the factors that shape their ranging patterns. PMID:26235675

  5. Creating Spaces for Critical Transformative Dialogues: Legitimising Discussion Groups as Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards-Groves, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Focussed dialogue (as lived and living practices) can have a powerful role in renewing professional practice, advancing its sustainability and development as administrative and political systems colonise the practices of teachers and teacher educators. However, participating in discussion groups for many teachers, including those in academia, is

  6. Finding a Space for Professional Development: Creating Thirdspace through After-School Writing Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Robert; Coyle, Deborah; Walden, Anne; Healey, Conniem; Larson, Kim; Laughridge, Virginia; Ridder, Kim; Williams, Molly; Williams, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a teacher study group focusing on After School Writing Circles for elementary students as a site of Thirdspace professional development. Borrowing the concept of Thirdspace from postmodern geographer Edward Soja, the authors argue that professional development works best when teachers engage in the dual work of imagining and

  7. Learning in Large Learning Spaces: The Academic Engagement of a Diverse Group of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Teaching larger groups of students is a growing phenomenon in HE and this brings with it its own challenges, not least for the students themselves but also for their lecturers. Demographic factors as well as the experiences that characterise us as individuals will impact upon our ability to learn. The pilot study reported here considered the

  8. Integral group actions on symmetric spaces and discrete duality symmetries of supergravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Lisa; Murray, Scott H.; Sati, Hisham

    2015-10-01

    For G = G(?), a split, simply connected, semisimple Lie group of rank n and K the maximal compact subgroup of G, we give a method for computing Iwasawa coordinates of K?G using the Chevalley generators and the Steinberg presentation. When K?G is a scalar coset for a supergravity theory in dimensions ?3, we determine the action of the integral form G(?) on K?G. We give explicit results for the action of the discrete U-duality groups SL2(?) and E7(?) on the scalar cosets SO(2)?SL2(?) and [SU(8)/{ Id}]?E7(+7)(?) for type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions and 11-dimensional supergravity reduced to D = 4 dimensions, respectively. For the former, we use this to determine the discrete U-duality transformations on the scalar sector in the Borel gauge and we describe the discrete symmetries of the dyonic charge lattice. We determine the spectrum-generating symmetry group for fundamental BPS solitons of type IIB supergravity in D = 10 dimensions at the classical level and we propose an analog of this symmetry at the quantum level. We indicate how our methods can be used to study the orbits of discrete U-duality groups in general.

  9. Individual and grouping track pits etched in the exposed in a free space plastic track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, L.; Bazhutov, Yu

    2013-02-01

    New results concerned to the investigation of depth-dependent the pit-like surface-average and the grouping track-density distributions in the cosmic ray exposed column of CN-85 and CR-39 plastic solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are presented. Two main sources: solar cosmic ray protons and recoil nuclei for very short (length <3 μm) track-pit formation are considered. Theoretical estimation of the total, uniform track-pit density indicates on failure of evidence of some additional radiation effects, partially, hypothetically conditioned with the Erzion theory. Some quantitative proofs of this hypothesis have been obtained in the measurements of the pit-groups. Totally, up to this time it was registered near of 30 pit groups with the surface pit-density in the interval of (1-15) × 106 cm2, that is two-three orders of magnitude higher than uniformly distributed track-pits on the same CR-39 plate surface. As a result of layer-by-layer investigation of the exposed CN-85 stock arrangement three pit swarms exactly correlated with the end point of high ionizing primary charge particle tracks were observed. Obtained data are considered in according to submission based on the probability of detection for the negative charged cosmic ray Erzion particles stopping events.

  10. Working Group 4 of international standardization organization Experience of developing the standards of space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade space environment international standards have been developed within the scope of ISO WG4 activities. This has been the first attempt to develop international standards of physical phenomena of natural environment such as galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, the Earths magnetic field, the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, etc. The main difficulty faced when developing the international standards is the lack of common methods for characterizing many natural phenomena. However, if methods have been successfully developed, such standards can play an outstanding role in the engineering requirements for spacecraft designs. This report is a survey of the current status of the international standards under development within the scope of the WG4 activity plan.

  11. Velocity space diffusion of pickup ions from the water group at Comet Halley

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, A.J.; Johnstone, A.D. ); Wilken, B.; Jockers, K. ); Glassmeier, K.H. )

    1989-08-01

    The authors have studied the diffusion in velocity space of cometary ions using the distributions of ions measured by the implanted ion spectrometer on Giotto during the inbound pass. The measurements were transformed into a frame comoving with the solar wind and oriented with the magnetic field. The observations show the evolution of the pitch angle distribution in the solar wind turbulence to form a shell from the initial ring. Diffusion in energy takes place simultaneously but on a longer time scale. Comparison with theory is inhibited by the lack of a suitable spatial model, but the simple arguments they can make indicate that pitch angle diffusion, and the process of parallel pickup, take place more slowly than theory suggests.

  12. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of stress. Nevertheless, the confinement and isolation were experienced as the major stress factors. The crew members described themselves as a heterogeneous but harmonious group that was successful in their mission. In fact, the team maintained its cohesion by opposing external authority, using management as a scapegoat. Occasionally, in times of crisis, they also criticized ground crew. The Commander supported this attitude. Strongly differences in personality and behavior were noted. Analysis of the sociometric data showed that the asserted harmony was more apparent than real. It is questionable whether the group cohesion would have persisted in a life threatening crisis or even in a prolongation of the experiment. The most reliable instruments for this type of survey seem to be: group methods, non-obstructive tests, indirect instruments, and qualitative tools. The least reliable are: strictly quantitative methods, self-evaluations, standard debriefing techniques, since these reinforced in most cases subjects' defenses in an unconscious avoidance of criticism. Several recommendations were made for the organization, definition of objectives, experiment selection, crew selection, roles of external management and personnel. In particular, it is felt to be necessary to explain the aims of the mission to the subjects, to give clear and complete information, to establish confident and cooperative relations with the crew. It is essential to allow dialogue, to take opinions and suggestions of the crew seriously, and to establish clear rules of confidentiality. PMID:8814802

  13. Assessment of various natural orbitals as the basis of large active space density-matrix renormalization group calculations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingjin; Ma, Haibo

    2013-06-14

    It is well-known that not only the orbital ordering but also the choice of the orbitals itself as the basis may significantly influence the computational efficiency of density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In this study, for assessing the efficiency of using various natural orbitals (NOs) as the DMRG basis, we performed benchmark DMRG calculations with different bases, which included the NOs obtained by various traditional electron correlation methods, as well as NOs acquired from preliminary moderate DMRG calculations (e.g., preserved states less than 500). The tested systems included N2, transition metal Cr2 systems, as well as 1D hydrogen polyradical chain systems under equilibrium and dissociation conditions and 2D hydrogen aggregates. The results indicate that a good compromise between the requirement for low computational costs of acquiring NOs and the demand for high efficiency of NOs as the basis of DMRG calculations may be very dependent on the studied systems' diverse electron correlation characteristics and the size of the active space. It is also shown that a DMRG-complete active space configuration interaction (DMRG-CASCI) calculation in a basis of carefully chosen NOs can provide a less expensive alternative to the standard DMRG-complete active space self-consistent field (DMRG-CASSCF) calculation and avoid the convergence difficulties of orbital optimization for large active spaces. The effect of different NO ordering schemes on DMRG-CASCI calculations is also discussed. PMID:23781781

  14. Group 11 metal chemistry of a tetradentate ligand, phenylene-1,4-diaminotetra(phosphonite), p-C6H4[N{P(OC6H4OMe-o)2}2]2.

    PubMed

    Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Balakrishna, Maravanji S; Mague, Joel T

    2009-04-20

    The Cu(I), Ag(I), and Au(I) chemistry of a tetradentate ligand (phenylene-1,4-diaminotetra(phosphonite), p-C(6)H(4)[N{P(OC(6)H(4)OMe-o)(2)}(2)](2) (P(2)NPhiNP(2)) (1)) is described. The flexional conformations in 1 leads to interesting structural variations in transition-metal complexes. The reaction of 1 with 4 equiv of CuX (where X = Br and I) produce the tetranuclear complexes, [{Cu(2)(mu-X)(2)(NCCH(3))(2)}(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))] (where X = Br (2) or X = I (3)) in quantitative yield. Treatment of 3 with an excess of pyridine, 2-(piperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine, and pyrazole yielded the tetra-substituted derivatives, [{Cu(2)(mu-I)(2)(L)(2)}(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))] (where L = pyridine (4), 2-(piperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine (5), or pyrazole (6)). Similar reactions of 3 with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 2,2'-bipyridine in a 1:2 molar ratio afford the disubstituted derivatives, [(Cu(2)(mu-I))(2)I(2)(phen)(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))] (7) and [(Cu(2)(mu-I))(2)I(2)(bipy)(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))] (8). The o-methoxyphenoxy substituents on phosphorus in complexes 5 and 7 adopt approximately parallel planar conformations and contain lattice solvents. The reaction of 3 with 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) in a 1:2 molar ratio in a dichloromethane-acetonitrile mixture leads to the formation of an ionic complex [N(CH(2)CH(2))(3)N(+)CH(2)Cl](2)[(Cu(2)(Cl)(I)(2))(2)(NCCH(3))(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))](2-) (9), as a result of the chloromethylation of DABCO. Treatment of 1 with 4 equiv of AgClO(4) produces [{Ag(2)(mu-ClO(4))(2))(2)(C(4)H(8)O)(2)}(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))] (10). Displacement of perchlorate ions in 10 by PhN{P(OC(6)H(4)OMe-o)(2)}(2) (PNP) or 2,2'-bipyridine yielded [(mu-PNP)(2)Ag(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))Ag(2)(mu-PNP)(2)](ClO(4))(4) (11) and [{Ag(2)(bipy)(2)}(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))](ClO(4))(4) (12), respectively. The similar reaction of 1 with 2 equiv of AgOTf, in the presence of 4,4'-bipyridine, gave a three-dimensional Ag(I) coordination polymer, [{Ag(2)(C(10)H(8)N(2))(2)(CH(3)CN)(2)}(2)(P(2)NPhiNP(2))](n)(OTf)(4n) (13). The reactions of 1 with [AuCl(SMe(2))], in appropriate ratios, afford the tetranuclear and dinuclear complexes, [(Au(2)Cl(2))(2)(mu-P(2)NPhiNP(2))] (14) and [(AuCl)(2)(P(2)NPhiNP(2))] (15). Complex 14 undergoes moisture-assisted P-N bond cleavage in the presence of PhN{P(OC(6)H(4)OMe-o)(2)}(2) to give [p-NH(2)C(6)H(4)N{P(OC(6)H(4)OMe-o)(2)}(2)Au(2)Cl(2)] (17) and [PhN{P(OC(6)H(4)OMe-o)(2)}(2)Au(2)Cl(2)]. The structures of the complexes 5, 7-10, 12-15, and 17 are confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:19317408

  15. Real-space renormalization group for spectral properties of hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan

    2015-10-01

    We derive the determinant of the Laplacian for the Hanoi networks and use it to determine their number of spanning trees (or graph complexity) asymptotically. While spanning trees generally proliferate with increasing average degree, the results show that modifications within the basic patterns of design of these hierarchical networks can lead to significant variations in their complexity. To this end, we develop renormalization group methods to obtain recursion equations from which many spectral properties can be obtained. This provides the basis for future applications to explore the physics of several dynamic processes.

  16. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  17. Low cost PC based scanning Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; Estrup, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a novel, low cost, scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) system that can measure work function (wf) and surface potential (sp) topographies to within 1 meV energy resolution. The control and measurement subcomponents are PC based and incorporate a flexible user interface, permitting software control of major parameters and allowing easy user implementation via automatic setup and scanning procedures. We review the mode of operation and design features of the SKP including the digital oscillator, the compact ambient voice-coil head-stage, and signal processing techniques. This system offers unique tip-to-sample spacing control (to within 40 nm) which provides a method of simultaneously imaging sample height topographies and is essential to avoid spurious or "apparent" wf changes due to scanning-induced spacing changes. We illustrate SKP operation in generating high resolution wf/sp profiles of metal interfaces (as a tip characterization procedure) and operational electronic devices. The SKP potentially has a very wide range of applications ranging from semiconductor quality control thin film and surface analyses to corrosion and biopotential imaging.

  18. Building a research group of Space Physics at UAHuntsville -- the impact of an NSF career award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.

    2011-12-01

    G. Li (1,2) (1) Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35899 (2) CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35899 The author joined the faculty of the department of Physics at University of Alabama in Huntsville in August 2008. He was awarded the NSF Career award ATM-0847719 in 2009. To date, the Career award has provided partial supports to one postdoc, two graduate students and three undergraduate students for a variety of periods. Three publications came out as a result of the award (one of which is first authored by one undergraduate). Another two publications are in preparation. The award also helped the PI to be further recognized by the field of space plasma physics and cosmic ray physics. For example, in July 2009, the PI was awarded the Young Scientist Medal by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP); in April 2010, the PI won an Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) 2010 Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award. In short, the NSF CAREER has helped the PI to start his career at a level without which, will be impossible.

  19. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  20. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  1. Localization properties of random-mass Dirac fermions from real-space renormalization group.

    PubMed

    Mkhitaryan, V V; Raikh, M E

    2011-06-24

    Localization properties of random-mass Dirac fermions for a realization of mass disorder, commonly referred to as the Cho-Fisher model, are studied on the D-class chiral network. We show that a simple renormalization group (RG) description captures accurately a rich phase diagram: thermal metal and two insulators with quantized ?(xy), as well as transitions (including critical exponents) between them. Our main finding is that, even with small transmission of nodes, the RG block exhibits a sizable portion of perfect resonances. Delocalization occurs by proliferation of these resonances to larger scales. Evolution of the thermal conductance distribution towards a metallic fixed point is synchronized with evolution of signs of transmission coefficients, so that delocalization is accompanied with sign percolation. PMID:21770661

  2. The Exploration Atmospheres Working Group's Report on Space Radiation Shielding Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Thibeault, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    This part of Exploration Atmospheres Working Group analyses focuses on the potential use of nonmetallic composites as the interior walls and structural elements exposed to the atmosphere of the spacecraft or habitat. The primary drive to consider nonmetallic, polymer-based composites as an alternative to aluminum structure is due to their superior radiation shielding properties. But as is shown in this analysis, these composites can also be made to combine superior mechanical properties with superior shielding properties. In addition, these composites can be made safe; i.e., with regard to flammability and toxicity, as well as "smart"; i.e., embedded with sensors for the continuous monitoring of material health and conditions. The analysis main conclusions are that (1) smart polymer-based composites are an enabling technology for safe and reliable exploration missions, and (2) an adaptive, synergetic systems approach is required to meet the missions requirements from structure, properties, and processes to crew health and protection for exploration missions.

  3. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between groups occurs, the circumstances in which social spaces are or need to be negotiated and the way divides are bridged. The study's limitations are that it is bounded by the focus of attention and the search terms used and there is yet to be developed a probabilistic, predictive model for gaps and how to connect them. Conclusions Gaps offer insights into social structures, and how real world behaviours of participants in workplaces, organisations and institutions are fragile. The paper highlights the circumstances in which network disjunctures and group divides manifest. Knowledge of these phenomenon provides opportunities for working out ways to improve health sector organisational communications, knowledge transmission and relationships. PMID:21134295

  4. Inter-Agency Consultative Group for Space Science (IACG): Handbook of Missions and Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ACE spacecraft design is based on the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) built by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the Applied Physics Lab (APL) for the AMPTE program. ACE is designed as a spinning spacecraft with its spin axis aligned to the Earth-Sun axis. The ACE launch weight will be approx. 633 kg, including 105 kg of scientific instruments and 184 kg of propellant. Using a Delta-class expendable launch vehicle, ACE will be launched into an L1 libration point (240 R(sub e)) orbit. Telemetry will be 6.7 kbps average, using tape recorder storage with daily readout to DSN. The experiment power requirement is approximately 76 W nominal and 96 W peak. The prime objective of the ACE mission is: (1) to determine accurate elemental and isotropic abundances including solar matter, local interstellar matter and local galactic matter; (2) to study the origin of elements and evolutionary processing in galactic nucleosynthesis, galactic evolution, origin and evolution of the solar system; (3) to study coronal formation and solar-wind acceleration processes; and (4) to study particle acceleration and transport, including coronal shock acceleration, stochastic flare acceleration, interplanetary shock acceleration, and interstellar acceleration and propagation. To accomplish this objective, ACE will perform comprehensive and coordinated determinations of the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic nuclei accelerated on the Sun, in interplanetary space, and from galactic sources. These observations will span five decades in energy, from solar wind to galactic cosmic ray energies, and will cover the element range from H-1 to Zr-40. Comparison of these samples of matter will be used to study the origin and subsequent evolution of both solar system and galactic material by isolating the effects of fundamental processes that include nucleosynthesis, charged and neutral particle separation, bulk plasma acceleration, and the acceleration of suprathermal and high-energy particles.

  5. Behavioral and biological effects of autonomous versus scheduled mission management in simulated space-dwelling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roma, Peter G.; Hursh, Steven R.; Hienz, Robert D.; Emurian, Henry H.; Gasior, Eric D.; Brinson, Zabecca S.; Brady, Joseph V.

    2011-05-01

    Logistical constraints during long-duration space expeditions will limit the ability of Earth-based mission control personnel to manage their astronaut crews and will thus increase the prevalence of autonomous operations. Despite this inevitability, little research exists regarding crew performance and psychosocial adaptation under such autonomous conditions. To this end, a newly-initiated study on crew management systems was conducted to assess crew performance effectiveness under rigid schedule-based management of crew activities by Mission Control versus more flexible, autonomous management of activities by the crews themselves. Nine volunteers formed three long-term crews and were extensively trained in a simulated planetary geological exploration task over the course of several months. Each crew then embarked on two separate 3-4 h missions in a counterbalanced sequence: Scheduled, in which the crews were directed by Mission Control according to a strict topographic and temporal region-searching sequence, and Autonomous, in which the well-trained crews received equivalent baseline support from Mission Control but were free to explore the planetary surface as they saw fit. Under the autonomous missions, performance in all three crews improved (more high-valued geologic samples were retrieved), subjective self-reports of negative emotional states decreased, unstructured debriefing logs contained fewer references to negative emotions and greater use of socially-referent language, and salivary cortisol output across the missions was attenuated. The present study provides evidence that crew autonomy may improve performance and help sustain if not enhance psychosocial adaptation and biobehavioral health. These controlled experimental data contribute to an emerging empirical database on crew autonomy which the international astronautics community may build upon for future research and ultimately draw upon when designing and managing missions.

  6. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  7. The effect of spacing transverse to the wave direction on the Morison force coefficients in two cylinder groups

    SciTech Connect

    Haritos, N.; Smith, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides some results from an experimental study currently being carried out in the Michell laboratory at the University of Melbourne. The principal purpose of the study is to investigate the Morison in-line hydrodynamic force characteristics of slender surface-piercing multi-cylinder structures. The test program has been tailored to provide more detailed observations within the close-spaced region (Separation/Diameter ratio, s/D < 2) of the group interference effect in such multi-cylinder structures over the Keulegan Carpenter range 0 < KC < 20 which encompasses the inertia force dominant Morison regime (KC < 5), as well as the so-called troublesome region (5 < KC < 15) where both drag and inertia force components are significant. Results currently in hand for the side-by-side two-cylinder group configuration are presented which clearly depict the characteristics of this interference effect.

  8. Peculiarities of a Group Response of Cardiovascular System of Volunteers at Different Latitudes to Changes of Space Weather Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Samsonov, S. N.; Manykina, V. I.; Afanasyeva, T. N.; Vishnevsky, V. V.; Petrova, P. G.; Petrova, V. D.; Strekalovskaya, A. A.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Kaplanova, T. I.; Potapova, M. V.

    A simultaneous monitoring in evaluating of the response of a cardiovascular system of healthy volunteers was performed. The research was oriented to changes of a space weather parameters in aurural (Tixie), subauroral (Yakutsk) and medium (Saratov) areas. In each of the experimental groups there was revealed an effect of synchronization between repolarization processes of ventrical myocard responding (according to a T-wave symmetry coefficient of a cardiogram) and geomagnetic activity (according Kp-index). At rest the group effect of synchronization (GES) of myocard in geomagnetic activity change was noticed in 33,3%-61,3% of the respondents. The origin of GES has features depending on the area of habitation and an age of the volunteers. The study is performed with the partial financial support in partnership with Russian-Ukrainian grant RFFI ?14-02-90424 ukr_a.

  9. Prediction of molecular crystal structures by a crystallographic QM/MM model with full space-group symmetry.

    PubMed

    Mrschel, Philipp; Schmidt, Martin U

    2015-01-01

    A crystallographic quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical model (c-QM/MM model) with full space-group symmetry has been developed for molecular crystals. The lattice energy was calculated by quantum-mechanical methods for short-range interactions and force-field methods for long-range interactions. The quantum-mechanical calculations covered the interactions within the molecule and the interactions of a reference molecule with each of the surrounding 12-15 molecules. The interactions with all other molecules were treated by force-field methods. In each optimization step the energies in the QM and MM shells were calculated separately as single-point energies; after adding both energy contributions, the crystal structure (including the lattice parameters) was optimized accordingly. The space-group symmetry was maintained throughout. Crystal structures with more than one molecule per asymmetric unit, e.g. structures with Z' = 2, hydrates and solvates, have been optimized as well. Test calculations with different quantum-mechanical methods on nine small organic molecules revealed that the density functional theory methods with dispersion correction using the B97-D functional with 6-31G* basis set in combination with the DREIDING force field reproduced the experimental crystal structures with good accuracy. Subsequently the c-QM/MM method was applied to nine compounds from the CCDC blind tests resulting in good energy rankings and excellent geometric accuracies. PMID:25537386

  10. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  11. Space-group symmetry fractionalization in a family of exactly solvable models with Z2 topological order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hao; Hermele, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We study square lattice space-group symmetry fractionalization in a family of exactly solvable models with Z2 topological order in two dimensions. In particular, we have obtained a complete understanding of which distinct types of symmetry fractionalization (symmetry classes) can be realized within this class of models, which are generalizations of Kitaev's Z2 toric code to arbitrary lattices. This question is motivated by earlier work of Essin and one of us (M. H.) [Phys. Rev. B 87, 104406 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.104406], where the idea of symmetry classification was laid out, and which, for square lattice symmetry, produces 2080 symmetry classes consistent with the fusion rules of Z2 topological order. This approach does not produce a physical model for each symmetry class, and indeed there are reasons to believe that some symmetry classes may not be realizable in strictly two-dimensional systems, thus raising the question of which classes are in fact possible. While our understanding is limited to a restricted class of models, it is complete in the sense that for each of the 2080 possible symmetry classes, we either prove rigorously that the class cannot be realized in our family of models, or we give an explicit model realizing the class. We thus find that exactly 487 symmetry classes are realized in the family of models considered. With a more restrictive type of symmetry action, where space-group operations act trivially in the internal Hilbert space of each spin degree of freedom, we find that exactly 82 symmetry classes are realized. In addition, we present a single model that realizes all 26=64 types of symmetry fractionalization allowed for a single anyon species (Z2 charge excitation), as the parameters in the Hamiltonian are varied. The paper concludes with a summary and a discussion of two results pertaining to more general bosonic models.

  12. Incorporating Space Science Content Into the Undergraduate Curriculum by the NASA Education Forums' Higher Education Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Fraknoi, A.; Moldwin, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Low, R.; Schultz, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NASA Education Forums, the Higher Education Working Group (HEWG) strives to support undergraduate science education through a variety of activities. These activities include: providing resource that incorporate space science topics into the existing undergraduate curriculum, understanding the role that community colleges play in STEM education and preparing STEM teachers, and identifying issues in diversity related to STEM education. To assess the best way of including space science into the undergraduate curriculum, the HEWG held a series of workshops and conducted surveys of undergraduate faculty who are conducting research in space science. During this engagement, the faculty expressed a need for a centralized repository of materials that can be used as part of already existing undergraduate courses in astronomy, physics, and earth science. Such a repository has since been developed, the 'EarthSpace Higher Education Clearing House (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/) and it is still growing. Additional community tools, such as a newsletter, are provided through this website. To better understand the role and needs of community colleges, the HEWG undertook and extensive survey of community college STEM faculty. 187 faculty responded to the survey and the results show the extensive teaching load these faculty have, as well as the diverse demographics and the extent to which STEM teachers begin their preparation at 2 year institutions. Finally, the HEWG has begun to work on understanding the issues faced in increasing the diversity of the STEM work force. Progress and results of all this work will be summarized in this presentation.

  13. Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  14. Large-Scale PC Management and Configuration for SNS Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Darryl J.; Purcell, J. David

    2004-11-10

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project's diagnostics group has begun its implementation of more than 300 PC-based Network Attached Devices (NADs). An implementation of this size creates many challenges, such as distribution of patches and software upgrades; virus/worm potentials; and the configuration management, including interaction with the SNS relational database. As part of the initial solution, a base operating system (OS) configuration has been determined and computer management software has been implemented. Each PC requires a unique configuration, but all are based on a common OS and supporting applications. The diagnostics group has started with an implementation of an XP Embedded (XPe) OS and uses Altiris registered eXpress Deployment Solution{sup TM}. The use of XPe and Altiris gives the diagnostics group the ability to easily configure, distribute, and manage software on a large scale. This paper describes the initial experience and discusses plans for the future.

  15. PC-based fault finder

    SciTech Connect

    Bengiamin, N.N. ); Jensen, C.A. . Electrical Engineering Dept. Otter Tail Power Co., Fergus Falls, MN . System Protection Group); McMahon, H. )

    1993-07-01

    Electric utilities are continually pressed to stay competitive while meeting the increasing demand of today's sophisticated customer. Advances in electron equipment and the improved array of electric driven devices are setting new standards for improved reliability and quality of service. Besides the specifications on voltage and frequency regulation and the permitted harmonic content, to name a few, the number and duration of service interruptions have a dramatic direct effect on the customer. Accurate fault locating reduces transmission line patrolling and is of particular significance in repairing long lines in rough terrain. Shortened outage times, reduced equipment degrading and stress on the system, fast restored service, and improved revenue are immediate outcomes of fast fault locating which insure minimum loss of system security. This article focuses on a PC-based (DOS) computer program that has unique features for identifying the type of fault and its location on overhead transmission/distribution lines. Balanced and unbalanced faults are identified and located accurately while accounting for changes in conductor sizes and network configuration. The presented concepts and methodologies have been spurred by Otter Tail Power's need for an accurate fault locating scheme to accommodate multiple feeders with mixed lone configurations. A case study based on a section of the Otter Tail network is presented to illustrate the features and capabilities of the developed software.

  16. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on the PC-5 and PC-6 Points Alleviated Hypotension after Epidural Anaesthesia, Depending on the Stimulus Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Young-Chang P.; Ito, Akihiro; Ohshima, Kenji; Hibino, Soki; Niwa, Sinnosuke; Kawanishi, Jun; Numanami, Hiroki; Sakakima, Yoshikazu; Mizuno, Shouji; Tawada, Yusuke; Maruyama, Yuki; Sato, Jun; Nishihara, Makoto; Inoue, Shinsuke; Ushida, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Neuraxial blockade causes arterial hypotension. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at the Neiguan (PC-6) and Jianshi (PC-5) reduces the severity of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia, but did not clarify the optimal stimulus frequency. We hypothesized that the stimulus frequency of TENS at the PC-6 and PC-5 points would influence the severity of hypotension after epidural anaesthesia. 65 ASA I or II male patients presenting for inguinal hernia repair were randomized to five groups: the control group received no treatment; the 2?Hz, 10?Hz, 20?Hz, and 40?Hz groups received TENS at a frequency of 2?Hz, 10?Hz, 20?Hz, and 40?Hz, respectively. The lowest SBP was significantly higher in the 40?Hz group [the control, 84 (74110)?mmHg; the 2?Hz, 96 (62116)?mmHg; the 10?Hz, 100 (68110)?mmHg; the 20?Hz, 96 (64115)?mmHg; the 40?Hz, 104 (75140)?mmHg: P = 0.004]. Significantly less patients experienced hypotension in the 40?Hz group [the control, 78%; the 2?Hz, 43%; the 10?Hz, 38%; the 20?Hz, 38%; the 40?Hz, 8%: P = 0.008]. TENS on the PC-6 and PC-5 points reduced the severity and incidence of hypotension after epidural anaesthesia, depending on the stimulus frequency. PMID:22611431

  17. Hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P21/n) structure. The results indicate that PC61BM combines into C-H⋯Od bonded molecular chains, where Od denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C-H⋯Os bonds, where Os denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC61BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P21/n) PC61BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C-H⋯Od bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC61BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC61BM.

  18. Theoretical and experimental comparison of SnPc, PbPc, and CoPc adsorption on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, J. D.; Larsson, J. A.; Woolley, R. A. J.; Cong, Yan; Moriarty, P. J.; Cafolla, A. A.; Schulte, K.; Dhanak, V. R.

    2010-02-01

    A combination of normal-incidence x-ray standing-wave (NIXSW) spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density-functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the interaction of a number of phthalocyanine molecules (specifically, SnPc, PbPc, and CoPc) with the Ag(111) surface. The metal-surface distances predicted by the DFT calculations for SnPc/Ag(111) (2.48Å) and CoPc/Ag(111) (2.88Å) are in good agreement with our NIXSW experimental results for these systems ( 2.31±0.09 and 2.90±0.05Å , respectively). Good agreement is also found between calculated partial density-of-states plots and STM images of CoPc on Ag(111). Although the DFT and Pb4f NIXSW results for the Pb-Ag(111) distance are similarly in apparently good agreement, the Pb4f core-level data suggest that a chemical reaction between PbPc and Ag(111) occurs due to the annealing procedure used in our experiments and that the similarity of the DFT and Pb4f NIXSW values for the Pb-Ag(111) distance is likely to be fortuitous. We interpret the Pb4f XPS data as indicating that the Pb atom can detach from the PbPc molecule when it is adsorbed in the “Pb-down” position, leading to the formation of a Pb-Ag alloy and the concomitant reduction in Pb from a Pb2+ state (in bulklike films of PbPc) to Pb0 . In contrast to SnPc, neither PbPc nor CoPc forms a well-ordered monolayer on Ag(111) via the deposition and annealing procedures we have used. Our DFT calculations show that each of the phthalocyanine molecules donate charge to the silver surface, and that back donation from Ag to the metal atom (Co, Sn, or Pb) is only significant for CoPc.

  19. Cooperation between SMYD3 and PC4 drives a distinct transcriptional program in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Kyunghwan; Schmidt, Thomas; Punj, Vasu; Tucker, Haley; Rice, Judd C.; Ulmer, Tobias S.; An, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    SET and MYND domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase, which has been implicated in cell growth and cancer pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that SMYD3 can influence distinct oncogenic processes by acting as a gene-specific transcriptional regulator. However, the mechanistic aspects of SMYD3 transactivation and whether SMYD3 acts in concert with other transcription modulators remain unclear. Here, we show that SMYD3 interacts with the human positive coactivator 4 (PC4) and that such interaction potentiates a group of genes whose expression is linked to cell proliferation and invasion. SMYD3 cooperates functionally with PC4, because PC4 depletion results in the loss of SMYD3-mediated H3K4me3 and target gene expression. Individual depletion of SMYD3 and PC4 diminishes the recruitment of both SMYD3 and PC4, indicating that SMYD3 and PC4 localize at target genes in a mutually dependent manner. Artificial tethering of a SMYD3 mutant incapable of binding to its cognate elements and interacting with PC4 to target genes is sufficient for achieving an active transcriptional state in SMYD3-deficient cells. These observations suggest that PC4 contributes to SMYD3-mediated transactivation primarily by stabilizing SMYD3 occupancy at target genes. Together, these studies define expanded roles for SMYD3 and PC4 in gene regulation and provide an unprecedented documentation of their cooperative functions in stimulating oncogenic transcription. PMID:26350217

  20. Structure of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase R2 in space group P6[subscript 1]22

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerhalter, Monika; Saleh, Lana; Bollinger Jr., J. Martin; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-07-20

    A new crystal form of wild-type ribonucleotide reductase R2 from Escherichia coli was obtained. Crystals grow in space group P6{sub 1}22 with one R2 monomer in the asymmetric unit. A twofold crystallographic symmetry axis generates the physiological dimeric form of R2. Co-crystallization with CoCl{sub 2} or MnCl{sub 2} results in full occupancy of the dinuclear metal site. The structure of the Mn{sup II}-loaded form was determined to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution by molecular replacement. The crystallization conditions, backbone conformation, crystal-packing interactions and metal centers are compared with those of previously determined crystal forms.

  1. Inorganic structures in space group P3m1; coordinate analysis and systematic prediction of new ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, S C

    2008-08-01

    ICSD Release 2007/1 contains 47 families of inorganic crystal structures, some single-member only, within the 311 entries listed under the polar space group P3m1. Coordinate analysis reveals 12 such families to be candidate ferroelectrics, over a range of confidence levels. Selection is based on the detection of an approach to nonpolar supergroup symmetry, within specified limits, by the atomic arrangement as reported in a confirmed polar space group. The primary source of uncertainty in such predictions is the reliability of the underlying structural determination. The candidates include In(2)ZnS(4), TlSn(2)F(5), Cu(7)Te(4), NaMnSe(2), Na(2)In(2)(Mo(3)O(8))(MoO(4))(2), Nb(3)Br(7)S, Nb(3)TeI(7), fencooperite, Bi(HCOO)(3), Li(NpO(2))(CO(3))(H(2)O)(2), LiPtD(0.66) and Ag(3)(MoO(3)F(3))(Ag(3)(MoO(4))Cl). A total of 20 structures examined are likely to be nonpolar, a further 20 have reduced predictive properties and three others are more likely to retain P3m1 symmetry over a wide thermal range. Substantial uncertainties associated with many of the listed 163 CdI(2), 69 ZnS and 10 SiC polytype structures, together with their low potential for use as possible ferroelectrics, led to their exclusion from fuller analysis. PMID:18641444

  2. IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

  3. Dispersive Pc1 bursts observed by Freja

    SciTech Connect

    Mursula, K.; Braeysy, T.; Rasinkangas, R.; Tanskanen, P.; Blomberg, L.G.; Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.

    1994-08-15

    The authors report on observation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (Pc1 pulsations) by the Freja satellite on November 18, 1992. These observations are coincident with ground based observation of such pearl like Pc1 pulsations extending over a 12 hour period. This is the first observation by a satellite above the ionosphere of such phenomena. The wave pulsations were observed to come in 10 to 25 second pulses, and to be clearly dispersive in nature. Two spectral bands were observed in all Pc1 pearls. In the longer bursts, the authors observed time differences between the two distinct spectral bands.

  4. GOMER: a PC-based expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrell, G.D.

    1986-04-01

    The algorithm for a PC-based expert system for interpretation of seismic data from remote sensors is described. The original expert system was written on a Symbolics computer using Zeta LISP. The PC version is written in Pascal and runs on the IBM PC or on any IBM-compatible computer. The Pascal source code is included with this report. To date the software has been used only on simulated sensor data but will be modified to accept data from fielded sensors. Extensive field testing will be required to refine the program's knowledge base. 8 figs.

  5. Scale-PC shielding analysis sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    The SCALE computational system is a modular code system for analyses of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. With the release of SCALE-PC Version 4.3, the radiation shielding analysis community now has the capability to execute the SCALE shielding analysis sequences contained in the control modules SAS1, SAS2, SAS3, and SAS4 on a MS- DOS personal computer (PC). In addition, SCALE-PC includes two new sequences, QADS and ORIGEN-ARP. The capabilities of each sequence are presented, along with example applications.

  6. LiB12PC, the first boron-rich metal boride with phosphorus--synthesis, crystal structure, hardness, spectroscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Vojteer, Natascha; Sagawe, Vanessa; Stauffer, Julia; Schroeder, Melanie; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2011-03-01

    We present synthesis, crystal structure, hardness, and IR/Raman and UV/Vis spectra of a new compound with the mean composition LiB(12)PC. Transparent single crystals were synthesised from Ga, Li, B, red phosphorus and C at 1500?C in boron nitride crucibles welded in Ta ampoules. Depending on the type of boron used for the synthesis we obtained colourless, brown and red single crystals with slightly different P/C ratios. Colourless LiB(12)PC crystallizes orthorhombic in the space group Imma (No. 74) with a=10.188(2)?, b=5.7689(11)?, c=8.127(2)? and Z=4. Brown LiB(12)P(0.89)C(1.11) is very similar, but with a lower P content. Red single crystals of LiB(12)P(1.13)C(0.87) have a larger unit cell with a=10.4097(18)?, b=5.9029(7)?, c=8.2044(12)?. EDX measurements confirm that the red crystals contain more phosphorus than the other ones. The crystal structure is characterized by a covalent network of B(12) icosahedra connected by exohedral B-B bonds and P-P, P-C or C-C units. Li atoms are located in interstitials. The structure is closely related to MgB(7), LiB(13)C(2) and ScB(13)C. LiB(12)PC fulfils the electron counting rules of Wade and also Longuet-Higgins. Measurements of Vickers micro-hardness (H(V)=27?GPa) revealed that LiB(12)PC is a hard material. The optical band gaps obtained from UV/Vis spectra match the colours of the crystals. Furthermore we report on the IR and Raman spectra. PMID:21308812

  7. Complete active space second-order perturbation theory with cumulant approximation for extended active-space wavefunction from density matrix renormalization group.

    PubMed

    Kurashige, Yuki; Chalupský, Jakub; Lan, Tran Nguyen; Yanai, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    We report an extension of our previous development that incorporated quantum-chemical density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) into the complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) [Y. Kurashige and T. Yanai, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094104 (2011)]. In the previous study, the combined theory, referred to as DMRG-CASPT2, was built upon the use of pseudo-canonical molecular orbitals (PCMOs) for one-electron basis. Within the PCMO basis, the construction of the four-particle reduced density matrix (4-RDM) using DMRG can be greatly facilitated because of simplicity in the multiplication of 4-RDM and diagonal Fock matrix in the CASPT2 equation. In this work, we develop an approach to use more suited orbital basis in DMRG-CASPT2 calculations, e.g., localized molecular orbitals, in order to extend the domain of applicability. Because the multiplication of 4-RDM and generalized Fock matrix is no longer simple in general orbitals, an approximation is made to it using the cumulant reconstruction neglecting higher-particle cumulants. Also, we present the details of the algorithm to compute 3-RDM of the DMRG wavefunction as an extension of the 2-RDM algorithm of Zgid et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 144115 (2008)] and Chan et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 144117 (2008)]. The performance of the extended DMRG-CASPT2 approach was examined for large-scale multireference systems, such as low-lying excited states of long-chain polyenes and isomerization potential of {[Cu(NH3)3]2O2}(2+). PMID:25381506

  8. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  9. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiwen; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009; Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 ; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 ; Liu, Zongping; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  10. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes.

    PubMed

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro; Lanzuolo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors--and how this cross talk influences physiological processes--is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein-mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein-mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors. PMID:26553927

  11. [Functions of prion protein PrPc].

    PubMed

    Cazaubon, Sylvie; Viegas, Pedro; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier

    2007-01-01

    It is now well established that both normal and pathological (or scrapie) isoforms of prion protein, PrPc and PrPsc respectively, are involved in the development and progression of various forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or "mad cow disease") and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human, collectively known as prion diseases. The protein PrPc is highly expressed in the central nervous system in neurons and glial cells, and also present in non-brain cells, such as immune cells or epithelial and endothelial cells. Identification of the physiological functions of PrPc in these different cell types thus appears crucial for understanding the progression of prion diseases. Recent studies highlighted several major roles for PrPc that may be considered in two major domains : (1) cell survival (protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis) and (2) cell adhesion. In association with cell adhesion, distinct functions of PrPc were observed, depending on cell types : neuronal differentiation, epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity, transendothelial migration of monocytes, T cell activation. These observations suggest that PrPc functions may be particularly relevant to cellular stress, as well as inflammatory or infectious situations. PMID:17875293

  12. Endoplasmic oleoyl-PC desaturase references the second double bond.

    PubMed

    Schwartzbeck, J L; Jung, S; Abbott, A G; Mosley, E; Lewis, S; Pries, G L; Powell, G L

    2001-07-01

    The regiospecificity for the gene product of fad2,(1) the microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturase from higher plants, differs from some previous suggestions. Rather than only referencing the carboxyl group (a Delta(12) desaturase) or the methyl terminus (an omega-6 desaturase), this desaturase locates the second double bond in its substrates by first referencing the existing double bond. This specificity was demonstrated for the oleoyl-PC desaturase cDNA from the developing seeds of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae). The expressed enzyme was capable of desaturating monounsaturated fatty acyl groups in membrane lipids. Endogenous palmitoleate was desaturated to cis, cis 9,12 hexadecadienoate (9(Z)12(Z)C16:2), endogenous oleate to linoleate (9(Z)12(Z) octadecadienoate), and cis 10-nonadecenoate (provided as a supplement in the growth medium) to 10(Z)13(Z)C19:2. The rule, Delta(x+3) where x=9 is the double bond location in the substrate, best describes the consistent placement of the second double bond in the above monounsaturated substrates for the oleoyl-PC desaturase of higher plants. PMID:11397429

  13. "I am a waste of breath, of space, of time": metaphors of self in a pro-anorexia group.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carolina Figueras

    2015-02-01

    According to recent research on eating disorders, heavy users of pro-anorexia (pro-ana) sites show higher levels of disordered eating and more severe impairment of quality of life than non-heavy users. A better understanding of how pro-ana members self-present in the virtual world could shed some light on these offline behaviors. Through discourse analysis, I examined the metaphors the members of a pro-ana group invoked in their personal profiles on a popular social networking site, to talk about the self. I applied the Metaphor Identification Procedure to 757 text profiles. I identified four key metaphorical constructions in pro-ana members' self-descriptions: self as space, self as weight, perfecting the self, and the social self. These four main metaphors represented discourse strategies, both to create a collective pro-ana identity and to enact an individual identity as pro-ana. In this article, I discuss the implications of these findings for the treatment of eating disorders. PMID:25225049

  14. Management and transmission of DICOM files using PC to PC multicasting methodology.

    PubMed

    Kim, I K; Kwon, G B; Choi, W K; Cho, H; Kwak, Y S

    2001-01-01

    The PACS system built and used in hospitals nowadays has quite significant overload on its central server because of both treatment of very large data and full management of medical images. We suggest a distributed communication and management methodology using PC to PC multicasting strategy for efficient management of medical images produced by DICOM modalities. It is absolutely necessary for reducing strict degradation of PACS system due to large size of medical images and its very high transport rates. DICOM PC to PC component is composed a service manager to execute requested queries, a communication manager to take charge of file transmission, and a DICOM manager to manage stored data and system behavior. Each manager itself is a component to search for requested file by interaction or transmit the file to other PCs. Distributed management and transformation of medical information based on PC to PC multicasting methodology will enhance performance of central server and network capacity reducing overload on them. PMID:11604865

  15. Structure Determination of a Complex Tubular Uranyl Phenylphosphonate, (UO(2))(3)(HO(3)PC(6)H(5))(2)(O(3)PC(6)H(5))(2).H(2)O, from Conventional X-ray Powder Diffraction Data.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Damodara M.; Cabeza, Aurelio; Aranda, Miguel A. G.; Bruque, Sebastian; Clearfield, Abraham

    1996-03-13

    The three-dimensional structure of a complex tubular uranyl phosphonate, (UO(2))(3)(HO(3)PC(6)H(5))(2)(O(3)PC(6)H(5))(2).H(2)O, was determined ab initio from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and refined by the Rietveld method. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 17.1966(2) , b = 7.2125(2) , c = 27.8282(4) , and Z = 4. The structure consists of three independent uranium atoms, among which two are seven-coordinated and the third is eight-coordinated. These metal atoms are connected by four different phosphonate groups to form a one-dimensional channel structure along the b axis. The phenyl groups are arranged on the outer periphery of the channels, and their stacking forces keep the channels intact in the lattice. The determination of this structure which contains 50 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit, from conventional X-ray powder data, represents significant progress in the application of powder techniques to structure solution of complex inorganic compounds, including organometallic compounds. PMID:11666360

  16. GPS TEC response to Pc4 "giant pulsations"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Chris; Jayachandran, P. T.; Singer, Howard J.; Redmon, Robert J.; Danskin, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Variations in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) associated with ultralow frequency (ULF) magnetic field variations in the Pc4 (6.7-22.0 mHz) frequency band were observed in the early morning sector. TEC variations were observed by the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in Sanikiluaq, Nunavut (56.54°N, 280.77°E), which is located near the equatorward edge of the auroral region. Small-amplitude Pc4 ULF waves were observed by the Sanikiluaq ground magnetometer and by the geosynchronous GOES 13 satellite. TEC and magnetic field both exhibited narrowband, highly regular, quasi-sinusoidal waveforms, with high correlation and coherence indicating a clear link between TEC variations and Pc4 ULF activity. Variations in TEC and 30-50 keV electron flux observed by GOES 13 were also highly correlated and coherent. TEC variations observed directly above Sanikiluaq were in antiphase with eastward magnetic field variations on the ground, while TEC variations observed at the footprint of the GOES 13 satellite were in phase with GOES radial magnetic field and 30-50 keV electron flux. Intermittent occurrence of TEC variations observed by multiple GPS satellites indicated a localized ionospheric response to the Pc4 activity. This is the first clear evidence of a TEC response to these so called "giant pulsations (Pgs)." By applying a multisatellite triangulation technique, the phase velocity, group velocity, and azimuthal wave number of TEC variations were also calculated for an interval of highly coherent measurements. The phase and group propagation velocities were 2-7 km/s and 1-3 km/s north and westward, respectively, while the azimuthal wave number ranged from -35 to -310.

  17. AUTOPLAN - A PC-based automated mission planning tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank C.; Allen, Marc S.; Lawrence, George F.

    1987-01-01

    A PC-based automated mission and resource planning tool, AUTOPLAN, is described, with application to small-scale planning and scheduling systems in the Space Station program. The input is a proposed mission profile, including mission duration, number of allowable slip periods, and requirement profiles for one or more resources as a function of time. A corresponding availability profile is also entered for each resource over the whole time interval under study. AUTOPLAN determines all integrated schedules which do not require more than the available resources.

  18. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  19. TSUBASA (MDS-1) Observations of Pc5 Pulsations in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, M.; Koshiishi, H.; Lui, H.; Koga, K.; Goka, T.

    2002-12-01

    Although it is known that variations of relativistic electron flux in the outer radiation belt correlate reasonably well with Pc5 pulsation power, we need more observational and theoretical supports in order to examine whether the Pc5 pulsations cause relativistic electron flux enhancements. In particular, we need to investigate spatial characteristics of Pc5 pulsations in space, since previous studies have focused on observations on the ground and at geostationary orbit. In order to approach this subject, we address Pc5 pulsations associated with enhanced relativistic electron flux by using data from the TSUBASA (MDS-1) satellite at geo-transfer orbit (500-36000km). The data includes high-energy charged particle flux (electron: 0.4-50MeV; proton: 0.9-250MeV) and high-resolution three vector components of magnetic field. We also compare these data with data from ground magnetometer networks and other satellites. The analyses showed that the relativistic electron flux depends on the L-shell parameter and time, and that drastic increases of the relativistic electron flux at L~5-7 correlate closely with occurrence of troidal-mode Pc5 pulsations with large amplitude. This is particularly noticeable when Pc5 pulsation activity is high because of interplanetary CME arrival at the Earth. The results imply that these Pc5 pulsations are a possible source accelerating energetic electrons in the regions.

  20. Charge transfer excitations in water-soluble sulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS) donor molecules coupled to C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zope, Rajendra; Basurto, Luis; Olguin, Marco; Baruah, Tunna

    2013-03-01

    We present a study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a recently synthesized group of water-soluble sulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS) donor molecules coupled to C60. The ZnPcS donors (ZnPcS2, ZnPcS3, and ZnPcS4) are promising materials for achieving solar cell device production with the photoactive area prepared from aqueous solution. Experimentally, decreasing the number of sulfonate substituent groups for ZnPc increased the photocurrent and lowered the open circuit voltage VOC. Measurements show that the VOC is largest for ZnPc-S4/C60 and lowest for ZnPc-S3/C60. The degree of sulfonation and the measured device VOC does not result in the expected pattern of values based on donor-acceptor HOMO/LUMO energy differences. Variations in film morphology may account for the unexpected pattern of VOC values. Our charge transfer excited state calculations show that the lowest CT excitation energy among the group of ZnPcS/C60 donor-acceptor pairs corresponds to the disulfonated ZnPc/C60 system. The largest CT excited state energies belong to the tetrasulfonated ZnPc/C60 complex. We also examine the effect of geometrical orientation on the CT energies for the ZnPcS donor-acceptor pairs.

  1. D-Side: A Facility and Workforce Planning Group Multi-criteria Decision Support System for Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2005-01-01

    "To understand and protect our home planet, to explore the universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers" is NASA's mission. The Systems Management Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is searching for methods to effectively manage the Center's resources to meet NASA's mission. D-Side is a group multi-criteria decision support system (GMDSS) developed to support facility decisions at JSC. D-Side uses a series of sequential and structured processes to plot facilities in a three-dimensional (3-D) graph on the basis of each facility alignment with NASA's mission and goals, the extent to which other facilities are dependent on the facility, and the dollar value of capital investments that have been postponed at the facility relative to the facility replacement value. A similarity factor rank orders facilities based on their Euclidean distance from Ideal and Nadir points. These similarity factors are then used to allocate capital improvement resources across facilities. We also present a parallel model that can be used to support decisions concerning allocation of human resources investments across workforce units. Finally, we present results from a pilot study where 12 experienced facility managers from NASA used D-Side and the organization's current approach to rank order and allocate funds for capital improvement across 20 facilities. Users evaluated D-Side favorably in terms of ease of use, the quality of the decision-making process, decision quality, and overall value-added. Their evaluations of D-Side were significantly more favorable than their evaluations of the current approach. Keywords: NASA, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Decision Support System, AHP, Euclidean Distance, 3-D Modeling, Facility Planning, Workforce Planning.

  2. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  3. Emissions tracking system (ETS-PC) software

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherbee, J. Jr.; Kress, T.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. EPA Acid Rain Division developed and is maintaining the Emissions Tracking System (ETS) to receive, store and analyze data from continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) submitted by utilities affected by the 1990 Clean Air Act. This paper will describe ETS-PC, a PC application developed by EPA to assist utilities in analyzing and submitting emission data files each quarter. ETS-PC includes quality assurance software which helps utilities identify possible errors in their quarterly data files (QDFs) prior to submission. It also includes communications software which allows utilities to transfer QDFs via modem directly to the EPA mainframe computer located in Research Triangle Park, NC. After a file is transferred, users are provided with immediate feedback from the mainframe in the form of a file transfer receipt and summary.

  4. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF... Archives at College Park, Md 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF... Archives at College Park, Md 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  6. PC Games and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of PC games in the history classroom might be relatively new, the ideas for these assignments and the theory behind their use borrows heavily from a number of areas and combines different pedagogical techniques. Using computer games allows teachers to recombine disparate teaching threads into something novel that will serve…

  7. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated

  8. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus (USB); "Firewire,"…

  9. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment. PMID:18497164

  10. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus (USB); "Firewire,"

  11. PC Based Video on Demand Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Philip; Durran, Jennifer

    Many educational institutions have a substantial personal computer (PC) network that can be adapted to provide digital video on demand, as well as PCs that can be used as video on demand clients. To gain insight into the issues involved in using this technology in an educational environment that relies heavily on video, a simple, low cost video on

  12. Experience in setting up a PC cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhang, Mei

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we summary and present our thinking and experience in setting up a PC cluster, with a consideration that the described thinking and experience may be relevant to or useful for those who intend to buy a similar cluster in the near future.

  13. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on

  14. PC Games and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of PC games in the history classroom might be relatively new, the ideas for these assignments and the theory behind their use borrows heavily from a number of areas and combines different pedagogical techniques. Using computer games allows teachers to recombine disparate teaching threads into something novel that will serve

  15. Stretch Your PC Dollars--Buy Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    True, John

    1986-01-01

    Relates how the story of how San Francisco State University evaluated IBM PC look-alikes, considered some of the risks involved, and decided to purchase over 100 of them. Questions of compatibility, vendor longevity, support, and other risk management issues are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  16. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir. PMID:23546826

  17. Fabrication of ZnPc/protein nanohorns for double photodynamic and hyperthermic cancer phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Murakami, Tatsuya; Ajima, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Ito, Osamu; Iijima, Sumio; Yudasaka, Masako

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctionalization of carbon nanotubules is easily achieved by attaching functional molecules that provide specific advantages for microscopic applications. We fabricated a double photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photohyperthermia (PHT) cancer phototherapy system that uses a single laser. Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was loaded onto single-wall carbon nanohorns with holes opened (SWNHox), and the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was attached to the carboxyl groups of SWNHox. In this system, ZnPc was the PDT agent, SWNHox was the PHT agent, and BSA enhanced biocompatibility. The double phototherapy effect was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. When ZnPc-SWNHox-BSA was injected into tumors that were subcutaneously transplanted into mice, the tumors almost disappeared upon 670-nm laser irradiation. In contrast, the tumors continued to grow when only ZnPc or SWNHox-BSA was injected. We conclude that carbon nanotubules may be a valuable new tool for use in cancer phototherapy. PMID:18815374

  18. Bifurcation Diagrams and Quotient Topological Spaces Under the Action of the Affine Group of a Family of Planar Quadratic Vector Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerba Diaconescu, Oxana; Schlomiuk, Dana; Vulpe, Nicolae

    In this article, we consider the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, &boldsymbol; ? } of all real quadratic differential systems (dx)/(dt) = p(x, y), (dy)/(dt) = q(x, y) with gcd(p, q) = 1, having invariant lines of total multiplicity four and two complex and one real infinite singularities. We first construct compactified canonical forms for the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, &boldsymbol; ? } so as to include limit points in the 12-dimensional parameter space of this class. We next construct the bifurcation diagrams for these compactified canonical forms. These diagrams contain many repetitions of phase portraits and we show that these are due to many symmetries under the group action. To retain the essence of the dynamics we finally construct the quotient spaces under the action of the group G = Aff(2, ?) ?* of affine transformations and time homotheties and we place the phase portraits in these quotient spaces. The final diagrams retain only the necessary information to capture the dynamics under the motion in the parameter space as well as under this group action. We also present here necessary and sufficient conditions for an affine line to be invariant of multiplicity k for a quadratic system.

  19. Possible effects of ionospheric beating for the formation of Pc1 pearl structures based on 6-year ground observations in Canada, Russia and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, C. W.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I.; Poddelsky, I.; Shevtsov, B.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate pearl structures (amplitude modulation) of Pc1 pulsations simultaneously observed at Athabasca (ATH, 54.7N, 246.7E, L=4.3) in Canada, Magadan (MGD, 60.1N, 150.7E, L=2.6) in Russia, and Moshiri (MOS, 44.4N, 142.3E, L=1.5) in Japan. From a 6-year period of ground observations, from 2008 to 2013, we selected 150 events at longitudinally separated stations (ATH and MGD, group 1), 782 at latitudinally separated stations (MGD and MOS, group 2), all with high coherence of Pc1 waveforms (r > 0.5). As a result, we found that the peak occurrence rates of simultaneous Pc1 events were at 12-18 UT in group1, when ATH was in the morning sector and MGD in the midnight sector. In group 2, the peak was at 18-21 UT, with MGD and MOS in the morning sector. Using cross-correlation analysis, we confirmed the similarity of Pc1 pearl structures at different stations during Pc1 event timing. 82 % of Pc1 events in group 1 were less than 40 % of similarity of Pc1 pearl structures. In addition, 18 % of Pc1 events in group 1, which are over than 40 % of similarity of Pc1 pearl structures, were concentrated at 10-18 UT. According to polarization angle distribution in group 1, 57 % of Pc1 events occurred between ATH and MGD. Most of those events had high similarity of Pc1 amplitude envelopes. We investigated the relationship between the similarity of Pc1 pearl structures and geomagnetic activities (AE and SYM-H indices). The AE index seemed suddenly to start decreasing before the Pc1 onset and increasing after 80 min. The variation of SYM-H index was increasing 2 hours before Pc1 onset. From our statistical analysis, we suggest that the beating process in the ionosphere could be the dominant generation mechanism of Pc1 pearl structures in the ionosphere. It seems that the ionospheric duct in dawn sector of the ionosphere is well-defined during Pc1 pulsation propagating from ionospheric sources to stations. In order to understand the beating process in the ionosphere more clearly, we are going to take into account the possible effects such as distributed ionospheric source, attenuation effect in the ionosphere, dispersive propagation in the ionosphere and Pc1 source amplitude. Using the same procedure, we will also investigate Pc1 pearl structures simultaneously observed at latitudinally separated ground stations (MGD and MOS).

  20. Young Stars near Earth: The Octans-Near Association and Castor Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura; Song, Inseok; Schneider, Adam

    2013-11-01

    All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages <=100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a "good box" with dimensions ~20 km s-1 on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age "20 Myr?" and located ~140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity -3.6 km s-1 that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call "Octans-Near"; these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages <=200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg6.2 pc from Earth with likely age <=100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ~200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor groupif it exists at allare mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

  1. Talk in Blended-Space Speech Communities: An Exploration of Discursive Practices of a Professional Development Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Tabitha Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study is an exploration of alternative teacher professional development. While using symbolic interactionism for a research lens, it characterizes the discursive practices commonly found in formal, informal, and blended-space speech communities based on the talk within a leadership-development program comprised of five female, church-based

  2. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  3. Talk in Blended-Space Speech Communities: An Exploration of Discursive Practices of a Professional Development Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Tabitha Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study is an exploration of alternative teacher professional development. While using symbolic interactionism for a research lens, it characterizes the discursive practices commonly found in formal, informal, and blended-space speech communities based on the talk within a leadership-development program comprised of five female, church-based…

  4. Using Innovative Outliers to Detect Discrete Shifts in Dynamics in Group-Based State-Space Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Outliers are typically regarded as data anomalies that should be discarded. However, dynamic or "innovative" outliers can be appropriately utilized to capture unusual but substantively meaningful shifts in a system's dynamics. We extend De Jong and Penzer's 1998 approach for representing outliers in single-subject state-space models to a

  5. Group-theoretical approach to the construction of bases in 2{sup n}-dimensional Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.; Romero, J. L.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-06-15

    We propose a systematic procedure to construct all the possible bases with definite factorization structure in 2{sup n}-dimensional Hilbert space and discuss an algorithm for the determination of basis separability. The results are applied for classification of bases for an n-qubit system.

  6. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are targeted to dense core secretory granules by a common mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Mercure, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Jose; Seidah, Nabil G; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2007-08-01

    There are seven members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family of secreted serine proteases that cleave their substrates at basic amino acids, thereby activating a variety of hormones, growth factors, and viruses. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are the only members of the PC family that are targeted to dense core secretory granules, where they carry out the processing of proteins that are secreted from the cell in a regulated manner. Previous studies have identified alpha-helices in the C-termini of the PC1/3 and PC2 proteases that are required for this subcellular targeting. In the current study, we demonstrate that a predicted alpha-helix in the C-terminus of PC5/6A is also critical for the ability of this domain to target a heterologous protein to the regulated secretory pathway of mouse endocrine AtT-20 cells. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal domains of PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A confirmed that all three domains have the capacity to redirect a constitutively secreted protein to the granule-containing cytoplasmic extensions. Analysis of the predicted structures formed by these three granule-sorting helices shows a correlation between their granule-sorting efficiency and the clustering of hydrophobic amino acids in their granule-targeting helices. PMID:17645548

  7. IBM PC enhances the world's future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Jozelle

    1988-01-01

    Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

  8. PC-SEAPAK user's guide, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Fu, Gary; Darzi, Michael; Firestone, James K.

    1992-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is designed to provide a complete and affordable capability for processing and analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. Since the release of version 3.0 over a year ago, significant revisions were made to the AVHRR and CZCS programs and to the statistical data analysis module, and a number of new programs were added. This new version has 114 procedures listed in its menus. The package continues to emphasize user-friendliness and interactive data analysis. Additionally, because the scientific goals of the ocean color research being conducted have shifted to larger space and time scales, batch processing capabilities were enhanced, allowing large quantities of data to be easily ingested and analyzed. The development of PC-SEAPAK was paralled by two other activities that were influential and assistive: the global CZCS processing effort at GSFC and the continued development of VAX-SEAPAK. SEAPAK incorporates the instrument calibration and support all levels of data available from the CZCS archive.

  9. First-principles study for the adsorption of segments of BPA-PC on ?-Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomqvist, Janne; Salo, Petri

    2011-10-01

    We have studied the adsorption of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) on the ?-Al2O3(0001) surface using density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals (vdW) corrections. The BPA-PC polymer can be divided into its chemical fragments, which are phenylene, carbonate, and isopropylidene groups. We have calculated the adsorption energy and geometry of the BPA-PC segments that consist of two to three adjacent groups of the polymer. Our DFT results show that the adsorption is dominated by the vdW interaction. It is also important to include the interaction of nearest-neighbor groups in order to provide a realistic environment for the adsorption of the polymer onto the surface. Our results also show that the BPA-PC molecule attaches to the alumina surface via the carbonate group located in the middle of the molecule chain.

  10. A 2.2? resolution structure of the USP7 catalytic domain in a new space group elaborates upon structural rearrangements resulting from ubiquitin binding

    PubMed Central

    Molland, Katrina; Zhou, Qing; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    A sparse-matrix screen for new crystallization conditions for the USP7 catalytic domain (USP7CD) led to the identification of a condition in which crystals grow reproducibly in 2448?h. Variation of the halide metal, growth temperature and seed-stock concentration resulted in a shift in space group from P21 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit to C2 with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Representative structures from each space group were determined to 2.2? resolution and these structures support previous findings that the catalytic triad and switching loop are likely to be in unproductive conformations in the absence of ubiquitin (Ub). Importantly, the new structures reveal previously unobserved electron density for blocking loop 1 (BL1) residues 410419. The new structures indicate a distinct rearrangement of the USP7 BL1 compared with its position in the presence of bound Ub. PMID:24598911

  11. A 2.2 Å resolution structure of the USP7 catalytic domain in a new space group elaborates upon structural rearrangements resulting from ubiquitin binding.

    PubMed

    Molland, Katrina; Zhou, Qing; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2014-03-01

    A sparse-matrix screen for new crystallization conditions for the USP7 catalytic domain (USP7CD) led to the identification of a condition in which crystals grow reproducibly in 24-48 h. Variation of the halide metal, growth temperature and seed-stock concentration resulted in a shift in space group from P21 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit to C2 with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Representative structures from each space group were determined to 2.2 Å resolution and these structures support previous findings that the catalytic triad and switching loop are likely to be in unproductive conformations in the absence of ubiquitin (Ub). Importantly, the new structures reveal previously unobserved electron density for blocking loop 1 (BL1) residues 410-419. The new structures indicate a distinct rearrangement of the USP7 BL1 compared with its position in the presence of bound Ub. PMID:24598911

  12. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  13. User's manual for FERD-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, B.D.

    1989-04-01

    FERD-PC is a modified version of the unfolding code FERD, rewritten in Microsoft FORTRAN and optimized for use on an IBM-PC or compatible computer. It can be used to correct observed pulse-height distributions for the nonideal response of a pulse-height spectrometer and has been successfully applied to the analysis of data from the Tower Shielding Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Modifications to the original code have been incorporated to optimize program execution and run time, while still maintaining most input and output options supported by the original code. In addition, several changes have been made to include an interactive binning code, a flux integration code, and a plotting utility, which supports enhanced color graphics (EGA) and a HP 7475A or equivalent plotter. This manual describes these changes and enhancements, and covers essential information to set up and run FERD-PC. Sample problems are included to illustrate input and output procedures using various options of the code. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  14. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working Group Summary. 5: Propulsion (P-1). A. Summary Statement. B. Technology Needs (Form 1). C. Priority Assessments (Form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    All themes require some form of advanced propulsion capabilities to achieve their stated objectives. Requirements cover a broad spectrum ranging from a new generation of heavy lift launch vehicles to low thrust, long lift system for on-orbit operations. The commonality extant between propulsive technologies was established and group technologies were grouped into vehicle classes by functional capability. The five classes of launch vehicles identified by the space transportation theme were augmented with a sixth class, encompassing planetary and on-orbit operations. Propulsion technologies in each class were then ranked, and assigned priority numbers. Prioritized technologies were matched to theme requirements.

  15. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  16. ISO-PC Version 1.98: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    This document describes how to use Version 1.98 of the shielding program named ISO-PC. Version 1.98 corrects all known errors in ISOSHLD-II. In addition, a few numeric problems have been eliminated. There are three new namelist variables, 25 additional shielding materials, and 5 more energy groups. The two major differences with the original ISOSHLD-II are the removal of RIBD(radioisotope buildup and decay) source generator, and the removal of the non-uniform source distribution parameter, SSV1. This version of ISO-PC works with photon energies from 10 KeV to 10 MeV using 30 energy groups.

  17. The inner ˜ 40 pc radial distribution of the star formation rate for a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li-Ling; Jiang, Xiao-Lei; He, Zhi-Cheng; Bian, Wei-Hao

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved specific star formation rate (SSFR) in the inner ˜40 pc for a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy, M51 (NGC 5194) by analyzing spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). We present 24 radial spectra measured along the STIS long slit in M51, extending ˜ 1″ from the nucleus (i.e., -41.5 pc to 39.4 pc). By simple stellar population synthesis, the stellar contributions in these radial optical spectra are modeled. It is found that the mean flux fraction of young stellar populations (younger than 24.5 Myr) is about 9%. Excluding some regions with zero young flux fraction near the center (from -6 pc to 2 pc), the mean mass fraction is about 0.09%. The young stellar populations are not required in the center inner ˜8 pc in M51, suggesting a possible SSFR suppression in the circumnuclear region (˜ 10 pc) from the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The radial distribution of SSFR in M51 is not symmetrical with respect to the long slit in STIS. This unsymmetrical SSFR distribution is possibly due to the unsymmetrical AGN feedback in M51, which is related to its jet. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  18. Synchronization of heart rate indices of human and Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic quiet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenchenko, Tatiana

    Geomagnetic pulsations with duration of the period over 150 seconds (Pc5-6) are present in the magnetosphere almost constantly. Unlike other types of geomagnetic pulsations, they are characterized by high amplitudes reaching in auroral latitudes 30-100 nT, and even 300 - 600 nT in time of significant geomagnetic disturbances [1]. To date, it is generally accepted that the classic morning and afternoon Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere are toroidal Alfven resonance vibrations of the geomagnetic field lines [2, 3]. It was revealed that the basic oscillation periods, presented in heart rate variability of healthy subjects, in conditions of rest, at each time point substantially coincide with the periods of oscillation of the X-vector components of the geomagnetic field in the frequency range of Pc5-6 pulsations. Synchronization effect was observed in approximately 60% of cases [4]. The above statement is based on the results of more than 100 experiments (recording time from 60 to 200 min), conducted in the period 2011-2013 in various research groups [4]. In total, 37 volunteers in the age range 18-65 yrs took part in the experiments. Experiments were performed in Pushchino and Khimki (Moscow region), Arkhangelsk, Tomsk, Sofia (Bulgaria), as well as at the station Starorusskaya (Leningrad region). The geomagnetic data were obtained from INTERMAGNET network (http://ottawa.intermagnet.org/Welcom_e.php). From a biophysical point of view, the observed effects of timing fluctuations of heart rate of healthy subjects with the oscillations of the magnetic induction vector of the GMF could be an effective tool for solving one of the most actual problems in heliobiophysics, namely the identification of specific physiological mechanisms of biosystems response to low-intensity variations external factors. 1. Pilipenko V.A., Kleimenova N.G., Kozyreva O.V., Yumoto K., Bitterly G. Geomagnetism and aeronomy, 1997, V. 37, ?.3, P. 64-76 2. Chen L. and Hasegawa A. J.Geophys. Res. 1974. Vol.79,P.1024-1032 3. Southwood D.J. Planet. Space Sci. 1974. Vol.22, P.483-491. 4.Zenchenko T.A., Medvedeva A.A., Khorseva N.I., Breus T.K. // Geophysical Processes and Biosphere. 2013. V. 12. ? 4. P. 73-84

  19. Crystals of the Arp2/3 complex in two new space groups with structural information about actin-related protein 2 and potential WASP binding sites.

    PubMed

    Jurgenson, Christopher T; Pollard, Thomas D

    2015-09-01

    Co-crystals of the bovine Arp2/3 complex with the CA motif from N-WASP in two new space groups were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The crystals in the orthorhombic space group P212121 contained one complex per asymmetric unit, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.48, b = 156.71, c = 177.84?, and diffracted to 3.9? resolution. The crystals in the tetragonal space group P41 contained two complexes per asymmetric unit, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 149.93, c=265.91?, and diffracted to 5.0? resolution. The electron-density maps of both new crystal forms had densities for small segments of subdomains 1 and 2 of Arp2. Both maps had density at the binding site on Arp3 for the C-terminal EWE tripeptide from N-WASP and a binding site proposed for the C motif of N-WASP in the barbed-end groove of Arp2. The map from the tetragonal crystal form had density near the barbed end of Arp3 that may correspond to the C helix of N-WASP. The noise levels and the low resolution of the maps made the assignment of specific molecular structures for any of these CA peptides impossible. PMID:26323303

  20. Summary Report of the NASA Management Study Group: Recommendations to the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Samuel C.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Management Study Group (NMSG) was established under the auspices of the National Acedamy of Public Administration at the request of the Administrator of NASA to assess NASA's management practices and to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA organization. This report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the NMSG on the overall management and organization of NASA.

  1. Estimation of the radial diffusion coefficient using REE-associated ground Pc 5 pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, A.; Yumoto, K.

    2010-12-01

    Pc 5 pulsations with frequencies between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz are believed to contribute to the REE in the outer radiation belt during magnetic storms, by means of the observations [Baker et al., 1998; Rostoker et al., 1998; Mathie and Mann, 2000; O'Brien et al., 2001, 2003] and several theoretical studies. The latter studies are roughly categorized into two themes: in-situ acceleration at L lower than 6.6 by wave-particle interactions [Liu et al., 199 9; Summers et al., 1999; Summers and Ma, 2000] and acceleration by radial diffusion from the outer to the inner magnetosphere [Elkington et al., 1999, 2003; Hudson et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2001]. One possible acceleration mechanism is the resonant interaction with Pc 5 toroidal and poloidal pulsations, referred as the radial diffusion mechanism. One of unsolved problems is where and which Pc 5 pulsation mode (toroidal and/or poloidal) play effective role in the radial diffusion process. In order to verify Pc 5 pulsation as the major roles for REEs, we have to examine the time variation of electron phase space density (cf. Green et al., 2004). Electron phase space density is not directly measured, but we can estimate radial diffusion coefficients which determine the electron transportation efficiency, using ground-based magnetic field data. We estimated the radial diffusion coefficient of ground Pc 5 pulsations associated with the Relativistic Electron Enhancement (REE) in the geosynchronous orbit. In order to estimate the radial diffusion coefficient D_LL, we need the value of in-situ Pc 5 electric field power spectral density. In this paper, however, we estimated the equatorial electric field mapped from Pc 5 pulsations power spectral density on the ground. Reciprocal of radial diffusion coefficient describes the timescale T_LL for an electron to diffuse 1 Re. Applying a superposed epoch analysis about timescales T_LL of the radial diffusion for 12 REE events in 2008, we found that when the relativistic electron enhancements occur, T_LL at higher latitude (L larger than 5) is predominantly diffusional, whereas T_LL at lower latitude (L less than 4) is mainly convectional. We concluded that higher-latitude Pc 5 pulsations play more effective roles than lower latitude Pc 5 pulsations in the radial diffusion process.

  2. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to make payments for postage...

  3. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501... DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is..., and the Postal Service, with an opinion on the design and operating effectiveness of the...

  4. The USL NASA PC R and D development environment standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM PC/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the PC's are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling PC resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.

  5. Trending in Pc Measurements via a Bayesian Zero-Inflated Mixed Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, Jonathon; Hejduk, Matthew; Stamey, James

    2015-01-01

    Two satellites predicted to come within close proximity of one another, usually a high-value satellite and a piece of space debris moving the active satellite is a means of reducing collision risk but reduces satellite lifetime, perturbs satellite mission, and introduces its own risks. So important to get a good statement of the risk of collision in order to determine whether a maneuver is truly necessary. Two aspects of this Calculation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) based on the most recent set of position velocity and uncertainty data for both satellites. Examination of the changes in the Pc value as the event develops. Events should follow a canonical development (Pc vs time to closest approach (TCA)). Helpful to be able to guess where the present data point fits in the canonical development in order to guide operational response.

  6. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  7. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  8. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical

  9. Working group 4 of the International Standardization Organization - experience of developing standards in the space environment field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M.

    Over the past few years, space environment standards have been under development in the scope of ISO WG4 activities. This is the first attempt to develop standards of physical phenomena of the natural environment such as galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles (SEP), the Earth's magnetic field, the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, etc. The major difficulties associated with the development of such standards is the absence of widely recognized models for many natural phenomena. However, in the case of successful development, such standards can play an important role in engineering estimates, required for spacecraft design. This report will contain an overview of the current status of the standards being developed in scope of the WG4 activity plan.

  10. A PC-interactive stereonet plotting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, Walter L.

    The computer program here described allows the structural geologist to rotate and revolve structural data interactively (strike dip: trend plunge). These actions can remove the effects of dip and plunge. Once a final screen plot is obtained, it may be printed on an associated graphics printer. This program requires an IBM PC/XT AT or compatible equipped with the color graphics (CGA) card. It also works satisfactorily on compatible PCs such as the COMPAQ or AT&T 6300 (which use a combination mono CGA screen). The addition of a math coprocessor (8087 or 80287) greatly speeds up the response time but is not required.

  11. Securing your PC and protecting your privacy.

    PubMed

    Schloman, Barbara F

    2005-01-01

    Working in a networked information environment brings new opportunities for getting and sharing information. Regrettably, these benefits of the Internet are challenged by forces that would interfere to satisfy their own profit or malevolent motives. Your networked computer can be infected by viruses, worms, or Trojan horses or infiltrated by spyware, adware, or pop-ups. Without being aware of the dangers and taking precautionary steps, your PC is susceptible to being compromised and your privacy invaded. This column will highlight some of the dangers and offer basic steps for securing your computer and protecting your privacy. PMID:15727543

  12. Theory of electronic and structural properties of materials: Novel group-IV materials and real space methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peihong

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first part employs existing computational techniques to study the electronic, and structural properties of novel group-IV and related materials, namely, carbon nanotubes, boron nitride nanotubes, and crystalline group-IV alloys. In the second part, we develop a new electronic structure calculation technique based on finite element methods with multigrid acceleration. The computation time of our new technique scales quadratically with the number of atoms in the system i.e., O( N2), as opposed to the unfavorable cubic scaling ( O(N3)) for most existing ab initio methods. Chapter 1 gives an overview of theoretical methods involved in this dissertation. Chapter 2 focuses on the structural properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. First, a new nucleation model for carbon nanotubes is proposed. Second, plastic deformation of carbon nanotube under high tensile stress is studied using a tight-binding total energy model. The elastic limits of carbon nanotubes are found to be higher than any other known materials and very sensitive to the so-called wrapping angle of nanotubes. Chapter 3 is devoted to the electronic and structural properties of novel group-IV alloys formed from CVD precursor. Group-IV alloys have attracted considerable research interest recently. Using the newly developed UltraHigh Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV CVD) technique, group-IV alloys such as Si4C and Ge4C, which contain 20 atomic % carbon, have been realized. The computational time of traditional ab initio techniques such as pseudopotential planewave methods scales at least as O( N3), where N is the number of atoms in the system. This unfavorable scaling limits the number of atoms one can study using these methods to several hundreds, even with the most powerful supercomputers available today. In chapter 4, we develop an O( N2) ab initio electronic structure calculation technique based on the finite element methods with multigrid acceleration. O(N2) scaling is achieved by avoiding explicit re-orthogonalization between eigenvectors, which is made possible by a multigrid algorithm. With these new techniques, we can perform ab initio calculations for systems containing more than 32 atoms on a single workstation (Compaq alpha DS10). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  14. Evaluating security systems using SNAP-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, C.D.; Gregg, M.L.; Erdbruegger, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    SNAP-PC (Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure for the Personal Computer) is a user-friendly version of SNAP designed for IBM XT or AT compatible microcomputers. SNAP is a simulation-based analysis technique supporting the evaluation of fixed-site security systems to prevent theft or sabotage of a specified target. Through SNAP the user is able to define the facility, the sensor system, the guard operating policies and response tactics, and the adversary's attack plan. SNAP uses the system definition to analyze its effectiveness in defending against specific threats. The system performance statistics measured by SNAP include: Adversary mission success probability, guard and adversary casualties, duration of engagements, outcome of engagements, duration of scenario by outcome (adversary success/fail), and adversary duration by facility location. The SNAP-PC package provides a compact analysis tool that can be used to analyze a wide variety of security systems. It places SNAP, a proven evaluation technique, in the hands of on-site personnel, not just computer analysts. The support programs eliminate the labor intensive tedious task of organizing and sorting through reams of output reports and greatly reduce the time previously required to analyze a security system.

  15. In vitro photodynamic therapy on human U251 glioma cells with a novel photosensitiser ZnPcS4-BSA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dianshuang; Ke, Yiquan; Jiang, Xiaodan; Cai, Yingqian; Peng, Yiru; Li, Yingxin

    2010-12-01

    This article reports the phototoxicity effects of a novel photosensitiser ZnPcS4-BSA on human U251 glioma cells in vitro. The cellular uptake of ZnPcS4-BSA by U251 glioma cells was quantified by UV-spectra, and the optimal incubation time was determined. Human U251 glioma cells were incubated in ZnPcS4-BSA of various concentrations, and received laser irradiation of different energy densities. Cell survival rates were measured by CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometer was used to detect apoptosis. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene was detected by real-time PCR in U251 cells after photodynamic therapy (PDT), and β-actin was used as an internal standard. The normal U251 cells severed as controls. Results indicate that the uptake of ZnPcS4-BSA by U251 glioma cells reaches maximum after incubation for 4 hours. ZnPcS4-BSA with different concentrations without light irradiation has no significant effects on cell survival rates. Without ZnPcS4-BSA incubation, cell survival rate of high-dose group (400 J/cm(2)) is the lowest, whereas no significant difference has been found between any other two groups. At laser irradiation of 150 J/cm(2), inhibition rates of the cells increase with ZnPcS4-BSA concentration, and half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 0.16 μmol/L. Apoptosis rate of the cells after PDT is significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.01). The VEGF expression in the cells increases 5.616 times after PDT. The novel ZnPcS4-BSA is a good photosensitiser for PDT towards U251 glioma cells. The ZnPcS4-BSA based PDT can induce effective apoptosis. PMID:20707684

  16. Human 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-ligand complexes: crystals of different space groups with various cations and combined seeding and co-crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.-W.; Han, Q.; Qiu, W.; Campbell, R. L.; Xie, B.-X.; Azzi, A.; Lin, S.-X.

    1999-01-01

    Human estrogenic 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD1) is responsible for the synthesis of active estrogens that stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The enzyme has been crystallized using a Mg 2+/PEG (3500)/β-octyl glucoside system [Zhu et al., J. Mol. Biol. 234 (1993) 242]. The space group of these crystals is C2. Here we report that cations can affect 17β-HSD1 crystallization significantly. In the presence of Mn 2+ instead of Mg 2+, crystals have been obtained in the same space group with similar unit cell dimensions. In the presence of Li + and Na + instead of Mg 2+, the space group has been changed to P2 12 12 1. A whole data set for a crystal of 17ß-HSD1 complex with progesterone grown in the presence of Li + has been collected to 1.95 Å resolution with a synchrotron source. The cell dimensions are a=41.91 Å, b=108.21 Å, c=117.00 Å. The structure has been preliminarily determined by molecular replacement, yielding important information on crystal packing in the presence of different cations. In order to further understand the structure-function relationship of 17β-HSD1, enzyme complexes with several ligands have been crystallized. As the steroids have very low aqueous solubility, we used a combined method of seeding and co-crystallization to obtain crystals of 17β-HSD1 complexed with various ligands. This method provides ideal conditions for growing complex crystals, with ligands such as 20α-hydroxysteroid progesterone, testosterone and 17β-methyl-estradiol-NADP +. Several complex structures have been determined with reliable electronic density of the bound ligands.

  17. Exact hairy black brane solutions in 5D anti-de Sitter space and holographic renormalization group flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acea, Andrs; Anabaln, Andrs; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2013-06-01

    We construct a general class of exact regular black hole solutions with toroidal horizon topology in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity with a self-interacting scalar field. With these boundary conditions and due to the nontrivial backreaction of the scalar field, the no-hair theorems can be evaded so that an event horizon can be formed. The scalar field is regular everywhere outside the curvature singularity and it vanishes at the boundary where the potential is finite. We study the properties of these black holes in the context of AdS/CFT duality and comment on the dual operators, which saturate the unitarity bound. We present exact expressions for the beta function and construct a c-function that characterizes the renormalization-group flow.

  18. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  19. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  20. Observation of phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton groups from space using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy on SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracher, Astrid; Dinter, Tilman; Burrows, John P.; Vountas, Marco; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Peeken, Ilka

    In order to understand the marine phytoplankton's role in the global marine ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles it is necessary to derive global information on the distribution of major functional phytoplankton types (PFT) in the world oceans. In our study we use instead of the common ocean color sensors such as CZCS, SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS, with rather low spectral resolution, the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to study the retrieval of phytoplankton distribution and absorption with the satellite sensor Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). SCIAMACHY measures back scattered solar radiation in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral region with a high spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm). We used in-situ measured phytoplankton absorption spectra from two different RV Polarstern expeditions where different phytoplankton groups were representing or dominating the phytoplankton composition in order to identify these characteristic absorption spectra in SCIAMACHY data in the range of 430 to 500 nm and also to identify absorption from cyanobacterial photosynthetic pigment phycoerythrin. Our results show clearly these absorptions in the SCIAMACHY data. The conversion of these differential absorptions by including the information of the light penetration depth (according to Vountas et al., Ocean Science, 2007) globally distributed pigment concentrations for these characteristic phytoplankton groups for two monthly periods (Feb-March 2004, Oct-Nov 2005 and Oct-Nov 2007) are derived. The satellite retrieved information on cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp. and Prochlorococcus sp.) and diatoms distribution matches well with the concentration measured from collocated water samples with HPLC technique and also to global model analysis with the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM from http://reason.gsfc.nasa.gov/OPS/Giovanni/) according to Gregg and Casey 2006 and Gregg 2006. Results are of great importance for global modelling of marine ecosystem and climate change studies regarding changes in the ocean.

  1. S-PC: an e-treatment application for management of smoke-quitting patients.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc; Abella, Francesc; Cuadrado, Josep; Alves, Rui; Mateo, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a new program that facilitates the management of people who want to quit smoking, implemented through an e-treatment software called S-PC (Smoker Patient Control). S-PC is a web-based application that manages groups of patients, provides a bidirectional communication through mobile text messages and e-mails between patients and clinicians and offers advice and control to keep track of the patients and their status. A total of 229 patients were enrolled in the study, randomly divided into two groups, although some variables were tested to ensure that there were no significant differences between the groups that could have an impact on the outcome of the treatment. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the ratio/number of males/females, tobacco dependence, co-oximetry, average cigarette consumption, current age and age when smoking started. The first group was made up of 104 patients (45.4% of the total) and followed a treatment that incorporated the S-PC tool, while the second one had 125 patients without the S-PC tool. S-PC was evaluated for its effectiveness at assisting the patients to give up smoking, and its effect on clinician time management. 74% of the S-PC group completed the treatment without relapses and remained abstinent three months after the completion of the treatment, understanding abstinence as being continuous (with no relapses allowed and co-oximetry below 1 ppm) from the day of stopping. In contrast only 45.6% of the No S-PC group completed the treatment without relapses and remained abstinent three months after completion of the treatment. The rate of admittance to the program has doubled in one year and patients went from having to wait for 3 months to be immediately admitted into the program. This therapeutic e-health program aims at maximizing the number of patients that a professional can effectively help to quit smoking. In addition, the system also detects patients who are not progressing appropriately, allowing the professional to improve their treatment parameters dynamically. PMID:24742965

  2. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  3. Remote estimation of phycocyanin (PC) for inland waters coupled with YSI PC fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Tedesco, Lenore; Clercin, Nicole; Hall, Bob; Li, Shuai; Shi, Kun; Liu, Dawei; Sun, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Nuisance cyanobacterial blooms degrade water resources through accelerated eutrophication, odor generation, and production of toxins that cause adverse effects on human health. Quick and effective methods for detecting cyanobacterial abundance in drinking water supplies are urgently needed to compliment conventional laboratory methods, which are costly and time consuming. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be an effective approach for rapid assessment of cyanobacterial blooms. Samples (n=250) were collected from five drinking water sources in central Indiana (CIN), USA, and South Australia (SA), which experience nuisance cyanobacterial blooms. In situ hyperspectral data were used to develop models by relating spectral signal with handheld fluorescence probe (YSI 6600 XLM-SV) measured phycocyanin (PC in cell/ml), a proxy pigment unique for indicating the presence of cyanobacteria. Three-band model (TBM), which is effective for chlorophyll-a estimates, was tuned to quantify cyanobacteria coupled with the PC probe measured cyanobacteria. As a comparison, two band model proposed by Simis et al. (Limnol Oceanogr, 50(11): 237-245, 2005; denoted as SM05) was paralleled to evaluate TBM model performance. Our observation revealed a high correlation between measured and estimated PC for SA dataset (R (2)?=0.96; range: 534-20,200 cell/ml) and CIN dataset (R (2)?=0.88; range: 1,300-44,500 cell/ml). The potential of this modeling approach for imagery data were assessed by simulated ESA/Centinel3/OLCI spectra, which also resulted in satisfactory performance with the TBM for both SA dataset (RMSE %?=26.12) and CIN dataset (RMSE %?=34.49). Close relationship between probe-measured PC and laboratory measured cyanobacteria biovolume was observed (R (2)?=0.93, p<0.0001) for the CIN dataset, indicating a stable performance for PC probe. Based on our observation, field spectroscopic measurement coupled with PC probe measurements can provide quantitative cyanobacterial bloom information from both relatively static and flowing inland waters. Hence, it has promising implications for water resource managers to obtain information for early warning detection of cyanobacterial blooms through the close association between probe measured PC values and cyanobacterial biovolume via remote sensing modeling. PMID:23397212

  4. POLYCOMB GROUP COMPLEXES MANY COMBINATIONS, MANY FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kerppola, Tom K

    2010-01-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are transcription regulatory proteins that control the expression of a variety of genes from early embryogenesis through birth to adulthood. PcG proteins form several complexes that are thought to collaborate to repress gene transcription. Individual PcG proteins have unique characteristics and mutations in genes encoding different PcG proteins cause distinct phenotypes. Histone modifications have important roles in some PcG protein functions, but they are not universally required. The mechanisms of gene-specific recruitment, transcription repression, and selective derepression of genes by vertebrate PcG proteins are incompletely understood. Future studies of this enigmatic group of developmental regulators are certain to produce unanticipated discoveries. PMID:19889541

  5. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN-PC is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. An 80286 machine with an 80287 math co-processor is required for execution. The executable requires at least 640K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher. The package includes sample executables which were compiled under Microsoft FORTRAN v. 5.1. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. METCAN-PC was developed in 1992.

  6. Structural features of the void space of hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Middle Ob group of fields (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitdikova, E.; Bruzhes, L.; Izotov, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Middle Ob group of fields is a promising one in the West Siberian petroleum province. Structurally, these fields are located on the western slope of the Vartovsk Arch and are multi-level ones. The young Sortym formation and the Jurassic (J1, J2, etc) offer the best prospects. Their reservoir rocks are represented by polymictic and medium-grained sandstones with argillaceous-carbonate-iron cement. The cement either forms a continuous medium or fills the pores. Optical and scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that these pores are small and are classified as nano- and mesopores. The pore formation is governed by randomly oriented lamellae of clay minerals of various microstructures. The total porosity of such cement zones can be as high as 50%. These pores are well connected. With regard to the clastic component of matrix minerals, the porosity of reservoirs of this type is 8-12%. The presence of such fine-pored cement indicates that these reservoirs can be considered a mesoporous medium. The pore size is comparable to the size of heavy hydrocarbon molecules. Therefore, these reservoirs can be molecular sieves that filter light hydrocarbon fractions.

  7. PRC1 is taking the lead in PcG repression.

    PubMed

    Merini, Wiam; Calonje, Myriam

    2015-07-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins constitute a major epigenetic mechanism for gene repression throughout the plant life. For a long time, the PcG mechanism has been proposed to follow a hierarchical recruitment of PcG repressive complexes (PRCs) to target genes in which the binding of PRC2 and the incorporation of H3 lysine 27 trimethyl marks led to recruitment of PRC1, which in turn mediated H2A monoubiquitination. However, recent studies have turned this model upside-down by showing that PRC1 activity can be required for PRC2 recruitment and H3K27me3 marking. Here, we review the current knowledge on plant PRC1 composition and mechanisms of repression, as well as its role during plant development. PMID:25754661

  8. Data integration and mapping with a PC

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J.; Freeman, D.M.; Stewart, H.E. )

    1987-02-01

    One of the major problems facing today's explorationist is integrating more data into the exploration process. Most data are either in map form or on scout tickets, and must be transferred onto composite maps. Traditional methods have relied heavily on photography and drafting to accomplish this task. This has led to several problems, including (1) often too much information is put on one map making it difficult to extract specific information, and (2) users are reluctant to make changes or updates because of the effort required to redraft the map. To solve these problems and integrate more data into the exploration process, they developed a geologic data base and mapping system on an IBM PC AT. Rather than develop their own data-base system and graphics routines, they used two off-the-shelf packages, dBASE III and AutoCAD. They concentrated on their area of expertise: designing the needed output products.

  9. Space group analysis of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 ceramics with x = 0.20, 0.27 and 0.30 through electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahid; Lalla, N. P.

    2007-10-01

    The space groups of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 in the composition range 0.20<=x<=0.30 have been investigated using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction has been used in selected area diffraction (SAD), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and micro-diffraction modes to record zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) and higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) patterns. For the 0.20<=x<=0.30 composition range there is still controversy regarding the correct space group: P 21/m, Pnma, Imma or I4/mcm. By invoking Rietveld refinement, detailed analysis of CBED patterns containing A2-type GM-lines and comparison between simulated ZOLZ/FOLZ and experimentally observed SAD patterns, we have established that for Sr1-xCaxTiO3 (0.20<=x<=0.30) two types of phase coexist at room temperature. These are the Pnma and P 21212 orthorhombic phases, coexisting with volume fractions of about 40% and 60% respectively.

  10. Bis(4-picoline-κN)gold(I) dibromidoaurate(I) and bis(4-picoline-κN)gold(I) dichloridoaurate(I): space-group ambiguity?

    PubMed

    Döring, Cindy; Jones, Peter G

    2013-07-01

    Bis(4-picoline-κN)gold(I) dibromidoaurate(I), [Au(C6H7N)2][AuBr2], (I), crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n, with two half cations and one general anion in the asymmetric unit. The cations, located on centres of inversion, assemble to form chains parallel to the a axis, but there are no significant contacts between the cations. Cohesion is provided by flanking anions, which are connected to the cations by short Au···Au contacts and C-H···Br hydrogen bonds, and to each other by Br···Br contacts. The corresponding chloride derivative, [Au(C6H7N)2][AuCl2], (II), is isotypic. A previous structure determination of (II), reported in the space group P1 with very similar axis lengths to those of (I) [Lin et al. (2008). Inorg. Chem. 47, 2543-2551], might be identical to the structure presented here, except that its γ angle of 88.79 (7)° seems to rule out a monoclinic cell. No phase transformation of (II) could be detected on the basis of data sets recorded at 100, 200 and 295 K. PMID:23832026

  11. The redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function - I. Modelling galaxy infall on to Millennium simulation clusters and SDSS groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.

    2013-06-01

    The large-scale infall of galaxies around massive clusters provides a potentially powerful diagnostic of structure growth, dark energy and cosmological deviations from General Relativity. We develop and test a method to recover galaxy infall kinematics (GIK) from measurements of the redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function ? s_cg(r_p,r_? ). Using galaxy and halo samples from the Millennium simulation, we calibrate an analytic model of the galaxy kinematic profiles comprising a virialized component with an isotropic Gaussian velocity distribution and an infall component described by a skewed 2D t-distribution with a characteristic infall velocity vr, c and separate radial and tangential dispersions. We show that convolving the real-space cross-correlation function with this velocity distribution accurately predicts the redshift-space ? s_cg, and we show that measurements of ? s_cg can be inverted to recover the four distinct elements of the GIK profiles. These in turn provide diagnostics of cluster mass profiles, and we expect the characteristic infall velocity vr, c(r) in particular to be insensitive to galaxy formation physics that can affect velocity dispersions within haloes. As a proof of concept we measure ? s_cg for rich galaxy groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and recover GIK profiles for groups in two bins of central galaxy stellar mass. The higher mass bin has a vr, c(r) curve very similar to that of 1014 h-1 M? haloes in the Millennium simulation, and the recovered kinematics follow the expected trends with mass. GIK modelling of cluster-galaxy cross-correlations can be a valuable complement to stacked weak lensing analyses, allowing novel tests of modified gravity theories that seek to explain cosmic acceleration.

  12. Design and implementation of a prototype PC based graphical and interactive MILSATCOM requirements database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, William M.

    1993-06-01

    This thesis develops a prototype PC based Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) Requirements Database (MRDB) application for U.S. Space Command, using Microsoft's Access relational database management system (DBMS) for Windows. It demonstrates the advantages of using the proposed database system over the existing one and shows how U.S. Space Command can save both time and money by using a PC based interactive, graphical, and user friendly database system. A rapid prototyping approach in concert with a six phase database design process was used to develop the prototype. The first two chapters of the thesis provide a background of the application and describe database management systems in general and Microsoft Access in particular. The applications of Access - tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules - to the design of the MRDB are then discussed in the succeeding five chapters. The conclusions describe the advantages and benefits of using the prototype MRDB database system and make recommendations for future improvements.

  13. Effect of increase in orientational order of lipid chains and head group spacing on non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sutapa Mondal; Bansode, Amol S; Sarkar, Munna

    2010-12-21

    Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. The fusion process, both in vivo and in vitro, is induced by different agents which include mainly proteins and peptides. For protein- and peptide-mediated membrane fusion, conformational reorganization serves as a driving force. Small drug molecules do not share this advantage; hence, drug induced membrane fusion occurring in absence of any other fusogenic agent and at physiologically relevant concentration of the drugs is a very rare event. To date, only three drugs, namely, meloxicam (Mx), piroxicam (Px), and tenoxicam (Tx), belonging to the oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have been shown by us to induce fusion at very low drug to lipid ratio without the aid of any other fusogenic agent. In our continued effort to understand the interplay of different physical and chemical parameters of both the participating drugs and the membrane on the mechanism of this drug induced membrane fusion, we present here the effect of increase in orientational order of the lipid chains and increase in head group spacing. This is achieved by studying the effect of low concentration cholesterol (<10 mol %) at temperatures above the chain-melting transition. Low concentration cholesterol (<10 mol %), above the gel to fluid transition temperature, is mainly known to increase orientational order of the lipid chains and increase head group spacing. To isolate the effect of these parameters, small unilameller vesicles (SUVs) formed by dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with an average diameter of 50-60 nm were used as simple model membranes. Fluorescence assays were used to probe the time dependence of lipid mixing, content mixing, and leakage and also used to determine the partitioning of the drugs in the membrane bilayer. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the effect of drugs in the presence of cholesterol on the chain-melting temperature which reflects the fluidization effect of the hydrophobic tail region of the bilayer. Our results show contradictory effect of low concentration cholesterol on the fusion induced by the three drugs, which has been explained by parsing the effect of orientational order and increase in head group spacing on the fusion process. PMID:21114267

  14. Stop PC-aids from spreading through your PCAn early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, Parashu R.; Manglik, A.

    1993-02-01

    A new software system is presented that runs in an IBM PC/DOS environment immediately after the booting up stage, and provides an effective early warning of an infection by a virus. The system identifies all the users of a PC by their names, passwords, and booking codes. An authentication program performs characteristic diagnostic tests for the presence of boot and file viruses in addition to ensuring that access is provided only to authorized users. A record of login-logout times and results of viral diagnostics is appended to a log file. If there was a viral infection during a user session, access is denied at the time of next login with a display of the report on the last session. Thus corrective measures are prompted not only on the infected fixed disk, but also on that unwary user's floppies. The system includes programs that facilitate recovery from infection by viruses that are unknown to existing commercial scanners and therapy programs at an installation. The system has been effective in keeping the size of the virus epidemic under control at an installation with a minimum sacrifice of the comforts that a PC/DOS combination offers.

  15. Pearl structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations observed at multipoint ground stations at Russia, Japan and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, C.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I.; Poddelsky, I.; Shevtsov, B.

    2013-12-01

    Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations propagate from high to low latitudes through the ionospheric wave duct. A few papers had shown longitudinal propagation of Pc1 pulsations [e.g., Kawamura et al. 1981; Sakaguchi et al.2012]. Despite these previous researches, diurnal variations of longitudinally-distributed Pc1 pulsations and the pearl structures at different stations have not been investigated yet. In order to understand generation and propagation processes of Pc1 pulsations in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere, it is necessary to investigate spatial distribution of Pc1 pulsations using magnetometers at longitudinally and latitudinally separated ground stations. We have investigated spatial distributions of the Pc1 pulsations observed by induction magnetometers at three ground stations at Moshiri (MOS) in Japan, Magadan (MGD) in far-eastern Russia and Athabasca (ATH) in central Canada from January 2009 to December 2011. Simultaneous Pc1 events observed at MGD and ATH occurred in the morning and afternoon sectors. This result is consistent with the global distribution of EMIC waves observed in space [Min et al. 2012]. The simultaneous Pc1 events with high coherence (> 0.5) observed at ATH and MGD concentrates in the afternoon to pre-midnight sector. The Pc1 frequencies of the simultaneous Pc1 events at ATH and MGD in the afternoon to pre-midnight sector were higher than those in the post-midnight to morning sector. Most of the simultaneous Pc1 events with high coherence observed at ATH and MGD have different pearl structures. This result indicates that the pearl structures should be not caused in the magnetosphere, and rather made during the propagation in the ionospheric duct. Simultaneous Pc1 events observed at MGD and MOS at subauroral and middle latitudes, respectively, were most frequently observed at night suggesting that propagation in the ionospheric duct suffers less attenuation at night. In the presentation we discuss these results in combination with the EMIC wave distribution in the magnetosphere and their propagation to the ionosphere and in the ionospheric duct.

  16. Tachykinins Processing is Significantly Impaired in PC1 and PC2 Mutant Mouse Spinal Cord S9 Fractions.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Mouna; Kamali, Soufiane; Ruiz, Alberto Orduna; Beaudry, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Substance P (SP) play a central role in nociceptive transmission and it is an agonist of the Neurokinin-1 receptor located in the lamina I of the spinal cord. SP is a major proteolytic product of the protachykinin-1 primarily synthesized in neurons. Proprotein convertases (PCs) are extensively expressed in the central nervous system and specifically cleave at C-terminal of either a pair of basic amino acids, or a single basic residue. The proteolysis control of endogenous protachykinins has a profound impact on pain perception and the role of PCs remain unclear. The objective of this study was to decipher the role of PC1 and PC2 in the proteolysis surrogate protachykinins (i.e. Tachykinin 20-68 and Tachykinin 58-78) using cellular fractions of spinal cords from wild type (WT), PC1(-/+) and PC2(-/+) animals and mass spectrometry. Full-length Tachykinin 20-68 and Tachykinin 58-78 was incubated for 30min in WT, PC1(-/+) and PC2(-/+) mouse spinal cord S9 fractions and specific C-terminal peptide fragments were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. The results clearly demonstrate that both PC1 and PC2 mediate the formation of SP and Tachykinin 58-71, an important SP precursor, with over 50% reduction of the rate of formation in mutant PC1 and PC2 mouse S9 spinal cord fractions. The results obtained revealed that PC1 and PC2 are involved in the C-terminal processing of protachykinin peptides and suggest a major role in the maturation of the protachykinin-1 protein. PMID:26373413

  17. Physical Properties of PC-PMMA Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Arifur; Baer, Eric; Chipara, Alin Cristian; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pullickel M.; Hinthorne, James; Elamin, Ibrahim; Chipara, Mircea; Eric Baer Collaboration; Pullickel Ajayan Collaboration; Mircea Chipara Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Multilayers of polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been obtained by the layer multiplying coextrusion method. Each sample (1024 layers, of equal thickness, with individual thickness between 10 and 200 nm) has been investigated at room temperature by Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS) using a Bruker Discovery 8 spectrometer (Cu K ? radiation), Raman spectroscopy (Bruker Senterra confocal Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm), FTIR spectroscopy (Tensor 27 Bruker), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further details about the glass transition temperature in these samples have been obtained by Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, DMA, (TA Instruments Q800) at various frequencies in the range 1 to 100 Hz. Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, (TA Instruments Q200) was used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the polymeric film on the crystallization processes. Non-isothermal DSC measurements aimed at the identification and location of the main phase transitions (glass, crystallization, and melting) occurring in these multilayers. The effects of confinement on the phase transitions occurring in these multilayers are discussed in detail.

  18. Using seismic array-processing to enhance observations of PcP waves to constrain lowermost mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D" region are essential to understand the interaction between the earth's mantle and core. A variety of seismic data-processing techniques have been used to detect and measure travel-times and amplitudes of weak short-period teleseismic body-waves phases that interact with CMB and D", which is crucial to constrain properties of the lowermost mantle at short wavelengths. Major challenges in enhancing these observations are: (1) increasing signal-to-noise ratio of target phases and (2) isolating them from unwanted neighboring phases. Seismic array-processing can address these problems by combining signals from groups of seismometers and exploiting information that allows to separate the coherent signals from the noise. Here, we focus on the study of the Pacific large-low shear-velocity province (LLSVP) and surrounding areas using differential travel-times and amplitude ratios of the P and PcP phases, and their depth phases. We particularly design scale-dependent slowness filters that do not compromise time-space resolution. This is a local delay-and-sum (i.e. slant-stack) approach implemented in the time-scale domain using the wavelet transform to enhance time-space resolution (i.e. reduce array aperture). We group stations from USArray and other nearby networks, and from Hi-Net and F-net in Japan, to define many overlapping local arrays. The aperture of each array varies mainly according (1) to the space resolution target and (2) to the slowness resolution required to isolate the target phases at each period. Once the target phases are well separated, we measure their differential travel-times and amplitude ratios, and we project these to the CMB. In this process, we carefully analyze and, when possible and significant, correct for the main sources of bias, i.e., mantle heterogeneities, earthquake mislocation and intrinsic attenuation. We illustrate our approach in a series of regional studies of the CMB and D" using P and PcP observations with unprecedented resolution, for events with magnitude Mw>5.4 and distances up to 80 degrees. Regions sampled span Alaska and the north of Canada, inside and outside of the northwest border of the Pacific LLSVP, and up to its eastern border from central America.

  19. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car

  20. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  1. PrPC from stem cells to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Hirsch, Théo Z.; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Halliez, Sophie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Launay, Jean-Marie; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein PrPC was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrPSc, the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knockout animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrPC in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrPC is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrPC in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrPC has been documented in various types of tumors. In line with the contribution of PrPC to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrPC was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumor-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrPC in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression. PMID:25364760

  2. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start with a thorough scientific investigation of the polar region while allowing the ability to demonstrate and validate the systems needed to take humans on more ambitious lunar exploration excursions. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration serves as a model for future cooperation and is documented in a summary report and a comprehensive document that also describes the collaborative international process that led to its development. ISECG plans to continue with architecture studies such as this to examine an open transportation architecture and other destinations, with expanded participation from ISECG agencies, as it works to inform international partnerships and advance the Global Exploration Strategy.

  3. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  4. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  5. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  6. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  7. Virtual Reality Today on a PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christel, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based digital video course that uses virtual reality to teach the code inspection (i.e., formal software technical review) process. Use of virtual reality for group process activities that involve interpersonal and group dynamic skills is discussed, and research indicating that realism improves course effectiveness is

  8. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of incompatibilities between the MVP-AT image board and ZENITH computers. Also, the MVP-AT image board is not necessarily compatible with 486-based systems; users of 486-based systems should consult with Matrox about compatibility concerns. Other PC-SEAPAK requirements include a Microsoft mouse (serial version), 2Mb RAM, and 100Mb hard disk space. For data ingest and backup, 9-track tape, 8mm tape and optical disks are supported and recommended. PC-SEAPAK has been under development since 1988. Version 4.0 was updated in 1992, and is distributed without source code. It is available only as a set of 36 1.2Mb 5.25 inch IBM MS-DOS format diskettes. PC-SEAPAK is a copyrighted product with all copyright vested in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Phar Lap's DOS_Extender run-time version is integrated into several of the programs; therefore, the PC-SEAPAK programs may not be duplicated. Three of the distribution diskettes contain DOS_Extender files. One of the distribution diskettes contains Media Cybernetics' HALO88 font files, also licensed by NASA for dissemination but not duplication. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. HALO88 is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics, but the product was discontinued in 1991.

  9. PC4CAST: A tool for DSN load forecasting and capacity planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyola, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Effectively planning the use and evolution of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is a complex problem involving many parameters. The tool that models many of these complexities, yet requires simple structured inputs and provides concise easy-to-understand metrics to aid in the planning process is discussed. The tool, PC4CAST, is used for both load forecasting (predicting how well planned that DSN resources meet expected demand) and as a decision support tool in the capacity-planning process (determining the relative benefits of capacity expansion options). It is now in use in the TDA Planning Office, has been used in numerous studies, and is also being used by the JPL Multimission Operations System Office (MOSO) as an integral part of Resource Allocation Team activities. Experience using the tool has helped to identify additional requirements that will further improve the planning process, which can be met by future PC4CAST versions.

  10. PC4CAST: A tool for DSN load forecasting and capacity planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyola, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Effectively planning the use and evolution of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is a complex problem involving many parameters. The tool that models many of these complexities, yet requires simple structured inputs and provides concise easy-to-understand metrics to aid in the planning process is discussed. The tool, PC4CAST, is used for both load forecasting (predicting how well planned that DSN resources meet expected demand) and as a decision support tool in the capacity-planning process (determining the relative benefits of capacity expansion options). It is now in use in the TDA Planning Office, has been used in numerous studies, and is also being used by the JPL Multimission Operations System Office (MOSO) as an integral part of Resource Allocation Team activities. Experience using the tool has helped to identify additional requirements that will further improve the planning process, which can be met by future PC4CAST versions.

  11. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  12. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Method of mounting a PC board to a hybrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system for mounting a hybrid electronic component to a PC board is disclosed. The system includes a set of brackets for mutually engaging a first surface of the PC board and a cover surface of the hybrid electronic component, wherein the cover surface has an arcuate shape when in a vacuum environment. The brackets are designed with legs having lengths and thicknesses for providing clearance between the cover surface of the hybrid and the first surface of the PC board for use when the hybrid electronic component is in a vacuum environment.

  14. Magnetic Behavior of 1D-Ferromagnetic Fe Chains in FePc/H2Pc Organic Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monton, Carlos; Gredig, Thomas; Basaran, Ali; Valmianski, Ilya; Schuller, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    This work reports on the structural and magnetic properties of iron-phthalocyanine (FePc)/ metal-free-phthalocyanine (H2Pc) superlattices. FePc has a divalent Fe2+ ion in the center of the molecule that forms quasi one-dimensional (1D) chains when the flat molecules are stacked. These 1D chains exhibit two magnetic regimes; ferromagnetic order below 5K due to inter-chain interactions, and paramagnetic order between 5K and 25K due to short order intra-chain interactions. H2Pc is a non-magnetic molecule in which, instead of a metal ion, two hydrogen atoms occupy the center of the molecule. We have grown FePc/H2Pc superlattices, in which we controlled the alignment of the Fe chains (i.e. perpendicular or parallel to the substrate) by the growth conditions and through the choice of substrate. Additionally we controlled the Fe chain lengths by the thickness of the FePc layer. We have found that reducing the Fe chains length from 70 to 5 atoms increases substantially the coercive field. We will correlate the observed magnetic behavior with structural information obtained from x-ray diffraction. The research at UCSD was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Science, DMR under Grant DE FG03 87ER-45332.

  15. A Practical Method of Solving Cutoff Coulomb Problems in Momentum Space --- Application to the Lippmann-Schwinger Resonating-Group Method and the pd Elastic Scattering ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Fukukawa, K.

    2012-08-01

    A practical method of solving cutoff Coulomb problems of two-cluster systems in momentum space is given. When a sharply cut-off Coulomb force with a cutoff radius ? is introduced at the level of constituent particles, the two-cluster direct potential of the Coulomb force becomes in general a local screened Coulomb potential. The asymptotic Hamiltonian yields two types of asymptotic waves; one is an approximate Coulomb wave with ? in the middle-range region, and the other a free (no-Coulomb) wave in the longest-range region. The constant Wronskians of this Hamiltonian can be calculated in either region. We can evaluate the Coulomb-modified nuclear phase shifts for the screened Coulomb problem using the matching condition proposed by Vincent and Phatak for the sharply cut-off Coulomb problem. We apply this method first to an exactly solvable model of the ? ? scattering with the Ali-Bodmer potential and confirm that a complete solution is obtained with a finite ?. The stability of nuclear phase shifts with respect to the change in ? within some appropriate range is demonstrated in the ? ? resonating-group method (RGM) calculation using the Minnesota three-range force. An application to the pd elastic scattering is also discussed.

  16. Exact random-walk models in crystallographic statistics. VII. An all-space-group study of the effects of atomic heterogeneity on the P.D.F.'s of magnitude of [E].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, S; Shmueli, U; Stein, Z; Shashua, R; Weiss, G H

    1991-07-01

    Exact expressions have been found for the probability density functions (p.d.f.'s) of the magnitude of the normalized structure factor for all the two-dimensional and most three-dimensional space groups [Part VI: Rabinovich, Shmueli, Stein, Shashua & Weiss (1991). Acta Cryst. A47, 328-335]. The results of that investigation are used in the present article to examine some effects of atomic heterogeneity, in the various space-group symmetries, on the p.d.f.'s. Some typical comparisons are made between p.d.f.'s based on the central limit theorem and p.d.f.'s computed from exact formulae. In addition, the exact results are compared to histograms of simulated values of magnitude of [E]. It is found that the p.d.f.'s for some space groups are influenced rather strongly by the presence of outstandingly heavy scatters, but they are quite insensitive to the presence of such scatterers in other space groups. The often made general statement 'The presence of outstandingly heavy scatterers may invalidate the indications of Wilson's statistics' is made more precise here, insofar as it depends on the particular space group. PMID:1910633

  17. OCEAN-PC and a distributed network for ocean data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) wishes to develop an integrated software package for oceanographic data entry and access in developing countries. The software, called 'OCEAN-PC', would run on low cost PC microcomputers and would encourage and standardize: (1) entry of local ocean observations; (2) quality control of the local data; (3) merging local data with historical data; (4) improved display and analysis of the merged data; and (5) international data exchange. OCEAN-PC will link existing MS-DOS oceanographic programs and data sets with table-driven format conversions. Since many ocean data sets are now being distributed on optical discs (Compact Discs - Read Only Memory, CD-ROM, Mass et al. 1987), OCEAN-PC will emphasize access to CD-ROMs.

  18. PC-SPES (PDQ)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  19. PC-SPES (PDQ)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  20. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  1. PC BEEPOP - A PERSONAL COMPUTER HONEY BEE POPULATION DYNAMICS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony population dynamics. he model consists of a system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, colony energetics, and contaminant exposure. t includes a mortal...

  2. Single-event upset in advanced PowerPC microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, F.; Swift, G. M.; Farmanesh, F.; Millward, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Proton and heavy-ion single-event upset susceptibility has been measured for the MotorolaPowerPC7400. The results show that this advanced device has low upset susceptibility, despite the scaling and design advances.

  3. PC BEEPOP - AN ECTOXICOLOGICAL SIMULATION MODEL FOR HONEY BEE POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee colony population dynamics. he model consists of a feedback system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, and contaminant exposures. t includes a mortality module (BEEKILL) and a ch...

  4. Strong decay patterns of the hidden-charm pentaquark states Pc(4380 ) and Pc(4450 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Juan; Ma, Li; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-02-01

    With the heavy quark symmetry and spin rearrangement scheme, we study the strong decay behavior of the hidden-charm pentaquark states with JP=3/2± , 5/2± assuming they are molecular candidates composed of D¯ (*) and Σc(*) . We obtain several typical ratios of the partial decay widths of the hidden-charm pentaquarks. For the three S-wave (D ¯ Σc* ), (D¯ *Σc ), and (D¯ *Σc* ) molecular pentaquarks with JP=3/2 - , we have obtained the ratio of their J /ψ N decay widths: Γ [(D ¯ Σc*)] :Γ [(D¯ *Σc)] :Γ [(D¯ *Σc*)] =2.7 :1.0 :5.4 , which may be useful to further test the possible molecular assignment of the Pc states.

  5. A PC-Windows-Based program for geostatistical modeling application

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.G.; Yang, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a technically advanced, user-friendly, PC-Windows{sup TM} based reservoir simulation tool (SIMTOOLS) that allows construction of realistic reservoir models using a geostatistical approach. This PC-Windows based product has three application tools: Digitizing, mapping, and geostatistics. It has been designed primarily to enable reservoir engineers to apply the geostatistical gridding technique in mapping and reservoir simulation practices.

  6. Wf/pc Cycle 3 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1992-06-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  7. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  8. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  9. Endoproteolytic processing of integrin pro-alpha subunits involves the redundant function of furin and proprotein convertase (PC) 5A, but not paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE) 4, PC5B or PC7.

    PubMed Central

    Lissitzky, J C; Luis, J; Munzer, J S; Benjannet, S; Parat, F; Chrétien, M; Marvaldi, J; Seidah, N G

    2000-01-01

    Several integrin alpha subunits undergo post-translational endoproteolytic processing at pairs of basic amino acids that is mediated by the proprotein convertase furin. Here we ask whether other convertase family members can participate in these processing events. We therefore examined the endoproteolysis rate of the integrin subunits pro-alpha5, alpha6 and alphav by recombinant furin, proprotein convertase (PC)5A, paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE)4, PC1, PC2 and PC7 in vitro and/or ex vivo after overexpression in LoVo cells that were deficient in furin activity. We found that 60-fold more PC1 than furin was needed to produce 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunit substrates in vitro; the defective pro-alpha chain endoproteolysis in LoVo cells was not rescued by overexpression of PC1 or PC2. No endoproteolysis occurred with PC7 either in vitro or ex vivo, although similar primary sequences of the cleavage site are found in integrins and in proteins efficiently processed by PC7, which suggests that a particular conformation of the cleavage site is required for optimal convertase-substrate interactions. In vitro, 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunits was obtained with one-third of the amount of PC5A and PACE4 than of furin. In LoVo cells, PC5A remained more active than furin, PACE4 activity was quite low, and PC5B, which differs from PC5A by a C-terminal extension containing a transmembrane domain, was very inefficient in processing integrin alpha-subunit precursors. In conclusion, these results indicate that integrin alpha-subunit endoproteolytic processing involves the redundant function of furin and PC5A and to a smaller extent PACE4, but not of PC1, PC2, PC5B or PC7. PMID:10657249

  10. Effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation of Ximen (PC4) and Neiguan (PC6) on remifentanil-induced breakthrough pain following thoracal esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-hu; Chai, Xiao-qing; Wang, Yue-lan; Gao, Yan-chun; Ma, Jun

    2014-08-01

    The clinical analgesic effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation (EAS) on breakthrough pain induced by remifentanil in patients undergoing radical thoracic esophagectomy, and the mechanisms were assessed. Sixty patients (ASAIII) scheduled for elective radical esophagectomy were randomized into three groups: group A (control) receiving a general anesthesia only; group B (sham) given EA needles at PC4 (Ximen) and PC6 (Neiguan) but no stimulation; and group C (EAS) electrically given EAS of the ipsilateral PC4 and PC6 throughout the surgery. The EAS consisting of a disperse-dense wave with a low frequency of 2 Hz and a high frequency of 20 Hz, was performed 30 min prior to induction of general anesthesia and continued through the surgery. At the emergence, sufentanil infusion was given for postoperative analgesia with loading dose of 7.5 μg, followed by a continuous infusion of 2.25 μg/h. The patient self-administration of sufentanil was 0.75 μg with a lockout of 15 min as needed. Additional breakthrough pain was treated with dezocine (5 mg) intravenously at the patient's request. Blood samples were collected before (T1), 2 h (T2), 24 h (T3), and 48 h (T4) after operation to measure the plasma β-EP, PGE2, and 5-HT. The operative time, the total dose of sufentanil and the dose of self-administration, and the rescue doses of dezocine were recorded. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores at 2, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively and the incidence of apnea and severe hypotension were recorded. The results showed that the gender, age, weight, operative time and remifentanil consumption were comparable among 3 groups. Patients in EAS group had the lowest VAS scores postoperatively among the three groups (P<0.05). The total dose of sufentanil was 115±6.0 μg in EAS group, significantly lower than that in control (134.3±5.9 μg) and sham (133.5±7.0 μg) groups. Similarly, the rescue dose of dezocine was the least in EAS group (P<0.05) among the three groups. Plasma β-EP levels in EAS group at T3 (176.90±45.73) and T4 (162.96±35.00 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in control (132.33±36.75 and 128.79±41.24 pg/mL) and sham (136.56±45.80 and 129.85±36.14 pg/mL) groups, P<0.05 for all. EAS could decrease the release of PGE2. Plasma PGE2 levels in EAS group at T2 and T3 (41±5 and 40±5 pg/mL respectively) were significantly lower than those in control (64±5 and 62±7 pg/mL) and sham (66±6 and 62±6 pg/mL) groups. Plasma 5-HT levels in EAS group at T2 (133.66±40.85) and T3 (154.66±52.49 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control (168.33±56.94 and 225.28±82.03) and sham (164.54±47.53 and 217.74±76.45 ng/mL) groups. For intra-group comparison, plasma 5-HT and PGE2 levels in control and sham groups at T2 and T3, and β-EP in EAS group at T3 and T4 were significantly higher than those at T1 (P<0.05); PGE2 and 5-HT levels in EAS group showed no significant difference among the different time points (P>0.05). No apnea or severe hypotension was observed in any group. It was concluded that intraoperative ipsilateral EAS at PC4 and PC6 provides effective postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing radical esophagectomy with remifentanil anesthesia and significantly decrease requirement for parental narcotics. The underlying mechanism may be related to stimulation of the release of endogenous β-EP and inhibition of inflammatory mediators (5-HT and PGE2). PMID:25135729

  11. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ON PC BRIDGE GIRDERS DAMAGED BY SALT ATTACK CONSIDERATION WITH CORROSION OF PC STEEL BARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiharako, Akihisa; Iwaki, Ichiro; Suzuki, Motoyuki

    This paper aims to evaluate the structural performance of PC bridge girders damaged by chloride induced deterioration by using FE analysis code. In this analysis, the authors considered with corrosive mass loss and mechanical behavior for PC steel bars, which were obtained by investigation research of the target structure. The analysis has been conducted not only to eval uate the decreasing in structural performance, but also to verify infl uence on eccentrically-location of deteri orated girders. As a result, it is clarified that the structural perfor mance of the target bridge deck has gone down 24% after 32 years in service. Also the ductility tremendously decreased by excessive corrosion of PC steel bar, because the failure mode will change from concrete crashing to the PC bar rupturing. Fathermore, the structural performance will bring disadvantage by eccentri cally-location of deteriorated girders.

  12. Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of well ordered phthalocyanine heterojunctions MnPc/F{sub 16}CoPc

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Susi; Mahns, Benjamin; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin; Vilkov, Oleg; Haidu, Francisc; Fronk, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2014-09-07

    We have prepared phthalocyanine heterojunctions out of MnPc and F{sub 16}CoPc, which were studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This heterojunction is characterized by a charge transfer at the interface, resulting in charged MnPc{sup ?} {sup +} and F{sub 16}CoPc{sup ?} {sup ?} species. Our data reveal that the molecules are well ordered and oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate the filling of the Co3d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital due to the charge transfer, which supports the explanation of the density functional theory, that the charge transfer is local and affects the metal centers only.

  13. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,

  14. Hands-on program of IBM-PC training at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lier, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Since December 1983, the Laboratory has offered introductory courses of IBM-PC training. A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted and a nine-course module of classes was designed and implemented. Forty classes were completed in the one-year period. The target group includes the novice computer user in the scientific, management, administrative, and secretarial personnel groups. The development, needs assessment, course implementation and design, course evaluations, and future direction of computer training will be discussed. Lab-automation, robotics, design of the lab and office and the impact of computer on society will be discussed briefly.

  15. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 6: Power (P-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Power requirements for the multipurpose space power platform, for space industrialization, SETI, the solar system exploration facility, and for global services are assessed for various launch dates. Priorities and initiatives for the development of elements of space power systems are described for systems using light power input (solar energy source) or thermal power input, (solar, chemical, nuclear, radioisotopes, reactors). Systems for power conversion, power processing, distribution and control are likewise examined.

  16. Morphine treatment selectively regulates expression of rat pituitary POMC and the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2

    PubMed Central

    Anghel, Adrian; Paez Espinosa, Enma V.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Nillni, Eduardo A.; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2013-01-01

    The prohormone convertases, PC1/3 and PC2 are thought to be responsible for the activation of many prohormones through processing including the endogenous opioid peptides. We propose that maintenance of hormonal homeostasis can be achieved, in part, via alterations in levels of these enzymes that control the ratio of active hormone to prohormone. In order to test the hypothesis that exogenous opioids regulate the endogenous opioid system and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis, we studied the effect of short-term morphine or naltrexone treatment on pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 as well as on the level of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor gene for the biosynthesis of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin. Using ribonuclease protection assays, we observed that morphine down-regulated and naltrexone up-regulated rat pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 mRNA. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein levels changed in parallel with the changes in mRNA levels and were accompanied by changes in the levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein. We propose that the alterations of the prohormone processing system may be a compensatory mechanism in response to an exogenous opioid ligand whereby the organism tries to restore its homeostatic hormonal milieu following exposure to the opioid, possibly by regulating the levels of multiple endogenous opioid peptides and other neuropeptides in concert. PMID:23891651

  17. Influence of Molecular Shape on Solid-State Packing in Disordered PC61BM and PC71BM Fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monika; Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Aziz, Saadullah G; Risko, Chad; Brdas, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Molecular and polymer packings in pure and mixed domains and at interfacial regions play an important role in the photoconversion processes occurring within bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate molecular packing in disordered (amorphous) phenyl-C70-butyric acid-methyl ester (PC71BM) and its C60 analogue (PC61BM), the two most widely used molecular-based electron-accepting materials in OSCs. The more ellipsoidal character of PC71BM leads to different molecular packings and phase transitions when compared to the more spherical PC61BM. Though electronic structure calculations indicate that the average intermolecular electronic couplings are comparable for the two systems, the electronic couplings as a function of orientation reveal important variations. Overall, this work highlights a series of intrinsic differences between PC71BM and PC61BM that should be considered for a detailed interpretation and modeling of the photoconversion process in OSCs where these materials are used. PMID:26278457

  18. YOUNG STARS NEAR EARTH: THE OCTANS-NEAR ASSOCIATION AND CASTOR MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura; Song, Inseok; Schneider, Adam E-mail: lvican@ucla.edu E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu

    2013-11-20

    All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages ≤100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a 'good box' with dimensions ∼20 km s{sup –1} on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age '20 Myr?' and located ∼140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity –3.6 km s{sup –1} that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call {sup O}ctans-Near{sup ;} these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages ≤200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg—6.2 pc from Earth with likely age ≤100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ∼200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor group—if it exists at all—are mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

  19. Pc 5 Spectral Density at ULTIMA stataions and its Radial Diffusion Coefficients for REE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, A.; Tokunaga, T.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Mann, I. R.; Chi, P. J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Yumoto, K.

    2009-12-01

    Pc 5 magnetic pulsations with frequencies between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz, are believed to contribute to the Relativistic Electron Enhancement (REE) in the outer radiation belt during magnetic storms. Ground-based observations suggested that high-speed solar wind and large-amplitude Pc 5 waves with a long duration during the storm recovery phase are closely associated with the production of relativistic electrons [Baker et al., 1998; Rostoker et al., 1998; Mathie and Mann, 2000; O’Brien et al., 2001, 2003]. On the other hand, many relativistic electron acceleration mechanisms have been proposed theoretically. They are separated roughly into two themes: in situ acceleration at L lower than 6.6 by wave particle interactions (as internal source acceleration mechanisms) [Liu et al., 1999; Summers et al., 1999; Summers and Ma, 2000] and acceleration by radial diffusion to transport and accelerate a source population of electrons from the outer to the inner magnetosphere (as external source acceleration mechanisms) [Elkington et al., 1999, 2003; Hudson et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2001]. One possible external source acceleration mechanism is the resonant interaction with ULF toroidal and poloidal waves. In order to verify which of the two mechanisms is more effective for the REE, we have to examine the time variation of electron phase space density. Electron phase space density is not directly measured, but we can estimate radial diffusion coefficients using observational electric and magnetic data. The goal of this paper is to get more reliable radial diffusion coefficient from ground-based observational magnetic field and to show reasonability of it for radial diffusion model. We use the global magnetometer data obtained from ULTIMA (Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array, see http://www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ultima/ultima.html) stations, to precisely define the radial diffusion timescales. The ULTIMA includes McMAC, CARISAM, 210MM and MAGDAS/CPMN magnetometer arrays. The radial diffusion coefficient can be given from the magnetic field power spectral density as a function of L, frequency (f) and m-number (m) in the Pc 5 frequency range during the REE related magnetic storms [see Brautigam et al., 2005]. We can fit Pc 5 power spectral density (L, f, m) using the ULTIMA data. The m-number of global Pc 5 pulsation on the ground is found to be almost less than 5. This is consistent with m-number required in the radial diffusion theory by Elkington et al. [1999, 2003]. We will compare the observationally estimated diffusion coefficient with theoretical diffusion coefficient [e.g. Elkington et al., 2006], and discuss adequacy of our diffusion coefficient.

  20. Generation Mechanisms of Narrowband Pc 1 Waves and Wideband Pc 1-2 Bursts Related to Traveling Convection Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Kataoka, R.

    2002-12-01

    From the analysis of search coil magnetometer data obtained at Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) and South Pole station in the Antarctic, it is found that there are two types of transient Pc 1-2 waves associated with the passage of traveling convection vortices (TVCs). The first type is transient narrowband Pc 1 waves with mid-frequencies of 0.2 - 0.6 Hz, bandwidths of 0.1 - 0.2 Hz, and durations of typically about 5 min. This type of Pc 1 occurs in the downward field-aligned current region of TCVs, and occasionally shows a falling tone structure as changing the mid-frequencies from 0.3 - 0.4 Hz to 0.1 - 0.2 Hz over the duration of Pc 1. The second type is wideband Pc 1-2 bursts which occur around the poleward edge of upward field-aligned current region. The Pc 1-2 burst region is found to correspond to the region of fast poleward convection flows with intense HF radar backscatter. Based on these characteristics, we will propose the generation mechanisms of these two types of TCV-related transient Pc 1-2 waves. The narrowband Pc 1 waves would be generated by the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability in the outer magnetosphere adjacent to LLBL. Kataoka et al. [2002] suggested that the main source of TCVs is the formation of hot flow anomalies (HFAs) due to the arrival of solar wind tangential discontinuities. The outward motion of the magnetopause caused by the formation of HFAs would reduce the frequency of ion cyclotron waves. On the other hand, it is likely that the wideband Pc 1-2 bursts are turbulent dispersive Alfven waves generated by localized field-aligned currents. The observed intense HF backscatter can be attributed to F-region irregularities produced by the time-varying electric field of these Pc 1-2 bursts, as suggested by Andre et al. [1999].

  1. Pc1-Pc2 waves and energetic particle precipitation during and after magnetic storms: Superposed epoch analysis and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Lessard, M. R.; Bortnik, J.; Green, J. C.; Horne, R. B.; Detrick, D. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Manninen, J.; Petit, N. J.; Posch, J. L.; Rose, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic pulsations in the Pc1-Pc2 frequency range (0.1-5 Hz) are often observed on the ground and in the Earth's magnetosphere during the aftermath of geomagnetic storms. Numerous studies have suggested that they may play a role in reducing the fluxes of energetic ions in the ring current; more recent studies suggest they may interact parasitically with radiation belt electrons as well. We report here on observations during 2005 from search coil magnetometers and riometers installed at three Antarctic stations, Halley (-61.84° magnetic latitude, MLAT), South Pole (-74.18° MLAT), and McMurdo (-79.96° MLAT), and from energetic ion detectors on the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellites (POES). A superposed epoch analysis based on 13 magnetic storms between April and September 2005 as well as case studies confirm several earlier studies that show that narrowband Pc1-Pc2 waves are rarely if ever observed on the ground during the main and early recovery phases of magnetic storms. However, intense broadband Pi1-Pi2 ULF noise, accompanied by strong riometer absorption signatures, does occur during these times. As storm recovery progresses, the occurrence of Pc1-Pc2 waves increases, at first in the daytime and especially afternoon sectors but at essentially all local times later in the recovery phase (typically by days 3 or 4). During the early storm recovery phase the propagation of Pc1-Pc2 waves through the ionospheric waveguide to higher latitudes was more severely attenuated. These observations are consistent with suggestions that Pc1-Pc2 waves occurring during the early recovery phase of magnetic storms are generated in association with plasmaspheric plumes in the noon-to-dusk sector, and these observations provide additional evidence that the propagation of waves to ground stations is inhibited during the early phases of such storms. Analysis of 30- to 250-keV proton data from four POES satellites during the 24-27 August and 18-19 July 2005 storm intervals showed that the location of the inner edge of the ring current matched well with the plasmapause model of O'Brien and Moldwin (2003). However, the POES data showed no evidence of the consequences of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (localized proton precipitation) during main and early recovery phase. During later stages of the recovery phase, when such precipitation was observed, it was coincident with intense wave events at Halley, and it occurred at L shells near or up to 1 RE outside the modeled plasmapause but well equatorward of the isotropy boundary.

  2. PC/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-02-23

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descnies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S `chn' and `SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument.

  3. A metric space for Type Ia supernova spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasdelli, Michele; Hillebrandt, W.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Benitez-Herrera, S.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chen, J.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fink, M.; Fleury, M.; Fouchez, D.; Gangler, E.; Guy, J.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kromer, M.; Lombardo, S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nordin, J.; Pain, R.; Pcontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Suzuki, N.; Tao, C.; Taubenberger, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Tilquin, A.; Weaver, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    We develop a new framework for use in exploring Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) spectra. Combining principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) analysis we are able to establish correlations between the principal components (PCs) and spectroscopic/photometric SNe Ia features. The technique was applied to 120 SN and 800 spectra from the Nearby Supernova Factory. The ability of PCA to group together SNe Ia with similar spectral features, already explored in previous studies, is greatly enhanced by two important modifications: (1) the initial data matrix is built using derivatives of spectra over the wavelength, which increases the weight of weak lines and discards extinction, and (2) we extract time evolution information through the use of entire spectral sequences concatenated in each line of the input data matrix. These allow us to define a stable PC parameter space which can be used to characterize synthetic SN Ia spectra by means of real SN features. Using PLS, we demonstrate that the information from important previously known spectral indicators (namely the pseudo-equivalent width of Si II 5972 /Si II 6355 and the line velocity of S II 5640 /Si II 6355 ) at a given epoch is contained within the PC space and can be determined through a linear combination of the most important PCs. We also show that the PC space encompasses photometric features like B/V magnitudes, B - V colours and SALT2 parameters c and x1. The observed colours and magnitudes, which are heavily affected by extinction, cannot be reconstructed using this technique alone. All the above-mentioned applications allowed us to construct a metric space for comparing synthetic SN Ia spectra with observations.

  4. Strong electronic correlations in LixZnPc organic metals.

    PubMed

    Filibian, M; Carretta, P; Mozzati, M C; Ghigna, P; Zoppellaro, G; Ruben, M

    2008-03-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetization measurements show that bulk LixZnPc are strongly correlated one-dimensional metals. The temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T_{1} and of the static uniform susceptibility chi_{S} on approaching room temperature are characteristic of a Fermi liquid. Moreover, while for x approximately 2 the electrons are delocalized down to low temperature, for x-->4 a tendency towards localization is noticed upon cooling, yielding an increase both in 1/T_{1} and chi_{s}. The x dependence of the effective density of states at the Fermi level D(E_{F}) displays a sharp enhancement for x approximately 2, at the half filling of the ZnPc lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals. This suggests that LixZnPc is on the edge of a metal-insulator transition where enhanced superconducting fluctuations could develop. PMID:18517827

  5. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  6. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. PMID:24355796

  7. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-04-01

    During the current quarter, pilot scale testing was continued with the modified combustor and modified channel burner using the new PRB coal delivered in late December. Testing included benchmark testing to determine whether the system performance was comparable to that with the previous batch of PRB coal, baseline testing to characterize performance of the PC Burner without coal preheating, and parametric testing to evaluate the effect of various preheat combustor and PC burner operating variables, including reduced gas usage in the preheat combustor. A second version of the PC burner in which the secondary air channels were closed and replaced with six air nozzles was then tested with PRB coal. Plans were developed with RPI for the next phase of testing at the 100 million Btu/h scale using RPI's Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF). A cost estimate for preparation of the CBTF and preheat burner system design, installation and testing was then prepared by RPI.

  8. Regulation of the differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, K; Lazarovici, P; Guroff, G

    1989-01-01

    The PC12 clone, developed from a pheochromocytoma tumor of the rat adrenal medulla, has become a premiere model for the study of neuronal differentiation. When treated in culture with nanomolar concentrations of nerve growth factor, PC12 cells stop dividing, elaborate processes, become electrically excitable, and will make synapses with appropriate muscle cells in culture. The changes induced by nerve growth factor lead to cells that, by any number of criteria, resemble mature sympathetic neurons. These changes are accompanied by a series of biochemical alterations occurring in the membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus of the cell. Some of these events are independent of changes in transcription, while others clearly involve changes in gene expression. A number of the alterations seen in the cells involve increases or decreases in the phosphorylation of key cellular proteins. The information available thus far allows the construction of a hypothesis regarding the biochemical basis of PC12 differentiation. PMID:2647474

  9. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Tablet PC as a mobil PACS terminal using wireless LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Bo-Shen; Ching, Yu-Tai; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Chang, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chien-Jung; Yen, York; Lee, Yuan-Ten

    2003-05-01

    A PACS mobile terminal has applications in ward round, emergency room and remote teleradiology consultation. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have the highest mobility and are used for many medical applications. However, their roles are limited in the field of radiology due to small screen size. In this study, we built a wireless PACS terminal using a hand-held tablet-PC. A tablet PC (X-pilot, LEO systems, Taiwan) running the WinCE operating systems was used as our mobile PACS terminal. This device is equipped with 800600 resolution 10.4 inch TFT monitor. The network connection between the tablet PC and the server was linked via wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11b).

  11. Attenuating microwave radiation by absorption through controlled nanoparticle localization in PC/PVDF blends.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-11-01

    Nanoscale ordering in a polymer blend structure is indispensable to obtain materials with tailored properties. It was established here that controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles, with different characteristics, in co-continuous PC/PVDF (polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluoride)) blends can result in outstanding microwave absorption (ca. 90%). An excellent reflection loss (RL) of ca. -71 dB was obtained for a model blend structure wherein the conducting (multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs) and the magnetic inclusions (Fe3O4) are localized in PVDF and the dielectric inclusion (barium titanate, BT) is in PC. The MWNTs were modified using polyaniline, which facilitates better charge transport in the blends. Furthermore, by introducing surface active groups on BT nanoparticles and changing the macroscopic processing conditions, the localization of BT nanoparticles can be tailored, otherwise BT nanoparticles would localize in the preferred phase (PVDF). In this study, we have shown that by ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, the incoming EM radiation can be attenuated. For instance, when PANI-MWNTs were localized in PVDF, the shielding was mainly through reflection. Now by localizing the conducting inclusion and the magnetic lossy materials in PVDF and the dielectric materials in PC, an outstanding shielding effectiveness of ca. -37 dB was achieved where shielding was mainly through absorption (ca. 90%). Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that lightweight microwave absorbers can be designed using polymer blends as a tool. PMID:26431367

  12. Dependence of radiation belt enhancements on the radial extent of Pc5 waves and the plasmapause location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Zesta, E.; Balasis, G.; Katsavrias, C.; Mann, I. R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2014-12-01

    Low-energy electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies through different mechanisms, transporting them across their drift shells to the outer radiation belt. Among the different acceleration mechanisms, radial diffusion describes the result of ULF magnetic field pulsations resonantly interacting with radiation belt electrons. In this paper, the radial positioning of the relativistic electron population during 39 intense and moderate magnetic storms is examined against that of ULF Pc5 wave power and the plasmapause location. The relativistic electron population of the outer radiation belt appeared enhanced in the 2 - 6 MeV electron flux data from SAMPEX and in > 2 MeV electron flux data from the geosynchronous GOES satellites following 27 of the magnetic storms. We compared relativistic electrons observations with concurrent radial distribution of wave power enhancements at Pc5 frequencies as detected by the IMAGE and CARISMA magnetometer arrays, as well as by additional magnetic stations collaborating in SuperMAG. We discuss the growth and decay characteristics of Pc5 waves in association with the plasmapause location, determined from IMAGE EUV observations, as the controlling factor for wave power penetration deep into the magnetosphere. We show that, during magnetic storms characterized by increased post-storm fluxes, Pc5 wave power penetrates to L shells of 4 and lower. On the other hand, magnetic storms which were characterised by loss of electrons were related to low Pc5 wave activity, which was not intensified at low L shells. These observations provide support for the hypothesis that enhanced Pc5 wave activity deep into the magnetosphere during the main and recovery phase can discriminate between storms that result in increases of electron fluxes from those that do not. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

  13. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. PMID:17526019

  14. Binding of bovine T194A PrPC by PrPSc-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Madampage, Claudia A; Määttänen, Pekka; Marciniuk, Kristen; Brownlie, Robert; Andrievskaia, Olga; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil R; Lee, Jeremy S; Napper, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are based on the misfolding of a cellular prion protein (PrPC) into an infectious, pathological conformation (PrPSc). There is proof-of-principle evidence that a prion vaccine is possible but this is tempered with concerns of the potential dangers associated with induction of immune responses to a widely-expressed self-protein. By targeting epitopes that are specifically exposed upon protein misfolding, our group developed a vaccine that induces PrPSc-specific antibody responses. Here we consider the ability of this polyclonal antibody (SN6b) to bind to a mutant of PrPC associated with spontaneous prion disease. Polyclonal antibodies were selected to mimic the vaccination outcome and also explore all possible protein conformations of the recombinant bovine prion protein with mutation T194A [bPrP(T194A)]. This mutant is a homolog of the human T183A mutation of PrPC that is associated with early onset of familial dementia. With nanopore analysis, under non-denaturing conditions, we observed binding of the SN6b antibody to bPrP(T194A). This interaction was confirmed through ELISAs as well as immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and cellularly expressed forms of bPrP(T194A). This interaction did not promote formation of a protease resistant conformation of PrP in vitro. Collectively, these findings support the disease-specific approach for immunotherapy of prion diseases but also suggest that the concept of conformation-specific immunotherapy may be complicated in individuals who are genetically predisposed to PrPC misfolding. PMID:23787697

  15. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-06-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter has focused on disposition of PC Preheat experimental equipment at the CBTF as well as methods for disposal of about 100 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; a final report is due in December 2005.

  16. Pc 3, 4 activity and interplanetary field orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Olson, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of Pc 3, 4 micropulsation wave forms recorded at Calgary in September 1969 shows a tendency toward signal enhancement in cases where the interplanetary magnetic field is at a small angle to the sun-earth line. Scatter plots of hourly Pc 3, 4 amplitudes exhibit a definite trend toward large signals when this angle is less than 50 or 60 degrees, and a corresponding disappearance of significant amplitudes when the angle is greater than 60 degrees. There is, however, an appreciable variability in individual cases. Power density spectrograms improved the correlation of pulsation strength with low angle in some cases.

  17. [A skin cell segregating control system based on PC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-zhong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Hong-bing

    2005-11-01

    A skin cell segregating control system based on PC (personal computer) is presented in this paper. Its front controller is a single-chip microcomputer which enables the manipulation for 6 patients simultaneously, and thus provides a great convenience for clinical treatments for vitiligo. With the use of serial port communication technology, it's possible to monitor and control the front controller in a PC terminal. And the application of computer image acquisition technology realizes the synchronous acquisition of pathologic shin cell images pre/after the operation and a case history. Clinical tests prove its conformity with national standards and the pre-set technological requirements. PMID:16494054

  18. [A PC-based 3D stereoscopic medical visualization system].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Tang, Hui; Lin, Yi-xing; Bao, Xu-dong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost PC-based, high-quality and interactive 3D stereoscopic medical visualization system is presented, which can be clinically used for diagnosis and surgical planning. The algorithms of direct volume rendering have been improved for realization with the programmable graphics hardware under PC environment. Local illumination, classification and non-polygonal iso-surface rendering are also incorporated into the system in appropriate consideration of both high-quality rendering and real-time interaction. The medical visualization system has been applied to the neurosurgical and orthopedic planning and the effectiveness has been clinically proved. PMID:17432117

  19. PC-based flux mapping data collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Fahley, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Diablo Canyon Power Plant if owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of California. The plant consists of two Westinghouse design pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Unit 1 began commercial operation in May 1985, Unit 2 in March 1986. Many personal computer (PC)-based engineering applications have been developed at the site to perform calculations required by plant operations and surveillance testing. This paper addresses the development and implementation of a PC-based system which collects and transmits data for meeting Technical Specification surveillance requirements on reactor core conditions.

  20. Effect of morphine on PC12 cells with molecular radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chen; Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Jiuyi; Zhang, Chunyang; Jin, Lei; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Dacheng; Chen, Die Yan

    2000-10-01

    Molecular Radar (MR) is a new method to detect biological processes in living cells at the level of molecular, it is also the newest means to get intracellular information. In this paper we study the effect of morphine on PC12 cells using MR. The results show that the effect of morphine on PC12 cells is time- and concentration-dependent. Morphine treating for short time induces the increase and fluctuation of intracellular (CA2+), while morphine treating for long time induces chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondria membrane potential apoptosis.

  1. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  2. In vitro effects of fetal rat cerebrospinal fluid on viability and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation since they differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells in response to growth factors. This study aimed to establish whether PC12 cells were responsive to fetal CSF and therefore whether they might be used to investigate CSF physiology in a stable cell line lacking the time-specific response patterns of primary cells previously described. Methods In vitro assays of viability, proliferation and differentiation were carried out after incubation of PC12 cells in media with and without addition of fetal rat CSF. An MTT tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability and/or cell proliferation. Expression of neural differentiation markers (MAP-2 and β-III tubulin) was determined by immunocytochemistry. Formation and growth of neurites was measured by image analysis. Results PC12 cells differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to bFGF. Viability and cell proliferation of PC12 cells cultured in CSF-supplemented medium from E18 rat fetuses were significantly elevated relative to the control group. Neuronal-like outgrowths from cells appeared following the application of bFGF or CSF from E17 and E19 fetuses but not E18 or E20 CSF. Beta-III tubulin was expressed in PC12 cells cultured in any media except that supplemented with E18 CSF. MAP-2 expression was found in control cultures and in those with E17 and E19 CSF. MAP2 was located in neurites except in E17 CSF when the whole cell was positive. Conclusions Fetal rat CSF supports viability and stimulates proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of PC12 cells in an age-dependent way, suggesting that CSF composition changes with age. This feature may be important in vivo for the promotion of normal brain development. There were significant differences in the effects on PC12 cells compared to primary cortical cells. This suggests there is an interaction in vivo between developmental stage of cells and the composition of CSF. The data presented here support an important, perhaps driving role for CSF composition, specifically neurotrophic factors, in neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation. The effects of CSF on PC12 cells can thus be used to further investigate the role of CSF in driving development without the confounding issues of using primary cells. PMID:22494846

  3. Protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on PC12 cells apoptosis mediated by TAG1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Lou, Ji-Yu; Bai, Hong-Ying; Wang, Yun-Liang; Li, Jin-Feng; Yin, Hong-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the protection effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on PC12 cells apoptosis mediated by transient axonal glycoprotein 1 (TAG1). Methods: PC12 cells were divided into control group, A?25-35 group and BMSCs + A?25-35 group. The effects of BMSCs on PC12 cells treated by A?25-35 were detected using MTT, Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining methods. The expression levels of TAG1, ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP), AICD and p53 were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting methods. The expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by Western blotting method. The activity of Caspase 3 was detected by spectrophotometric method. Results: MTT results showed that cell activity decreased after the treatment of 20 ?M A?25-35 for 48 h (P<0.01) while it increased in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining results showed that A?25-35 could induce the apoptosis of PC12 cells while the apoptosis of PC12 cells was inhibited in BMSCs + A?25-35 group. RT-PCR and Western blotting methods showed that 20 ?M A?25-35 could increase the expression levels of TAG1, APP, AICD and p53 (P<0.01) while they decreased in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). 20 ?M A?25-35 could increase the expression levels of Bax and decrease the expression levels of Bcl-2 (P<0.01), while the expression levels of Bax decreased and the expression levels of Bcl-2 increase in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). 20 ?M A?25-35 could enhance Caspase 3 activity while it decreased in BMSCs + A?25-35 group (P<0.01). Conclusions BMSCs with A?25-35 could inhibit the apoptosis of PC12 cells, which maybe related with TAG1/APP/AICD signal pathway. PMID:26722394

  4. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min; Liang, Jiansheng; Liang, Changyong

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  5. Characterization of the Pneumocystis carinii Histone Acetyltransferase Chaperone Proteins PcAsf1 and PcVps75

    PubMed Central

    Pupaibool, Jakrapun; Kottom, Theodore J.; Bouchonville, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Rtt109 is a lysine acetyltransferase that acetylates histone H3 at lysine 56 (H3K56) in fungi. This acetylation event is important for proper DNA replication and repair to occur. Efficient Rtt109 acetyltransferase activity also requires a histone chaperone, vacuolar protein sorting 75 (Vps75), as well as the major chaperone of the H3-H4 dimer, anti-silencing factor 1 (Asf1). Little is known about the role of these proteins in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis carinii. To investigate the functions of Asf1 and Vps75 in Pneumocystis carinii, we cloned and characterized both of these genes. Here, we demonstrate that both genes, P. carinii asf1 (Pcasf1) and Pcvps75, function in a fashion analogous to their Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterparts. We demonstrate that both P. carinii Asf1 (PcAsf1) and PcVps75 can bind histones. Furthermore, when Pcasf1 is expressed heterologously in S. cerevisiae asf1Δ cells, PcAsf1 can restore full H3 lysine acetylation. We further demonstrated that the Pcasf1 cDNA expressed in asf1Δ S. cerevisiae cells can restore growth to wild-type levels in the presence of genotoxic agents that block DNA replication. Lastly, we observed that purified PcAsf1 and PcVps75 proteins enhance the ability of PcRtt109 to acetylate histone H3-H4 tetramers. Together, our results indicate that the functions of the Rtt109-Asf1-Vps75 complex in the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 and in DNA damage response are present in P. carinii DNA and cell cycle progression. PMID:23569117

  6. Utilization of arsenic trioxide as a treatment of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, TOSHIHIRO; ISHIBASHI, KENICHI; YUMOTO, ATSUSHI; NISHIO, KAZUTO; OGASAWARA, YUKI

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used drug in combination chemotherapy. However, various malignant tumors frequently acquire resistance to cisplatin. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved as a chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, and the combination of ATO and cisplatin has been revealed to demonstrate synergistic effects in ovarian and small cell lung cancer cells. Thus, it was hypothesized that ATO may also be active against cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells. The present study also evaluated the effects of ATO on the cisplatin-sensitive NSCLC PC-9 and PC-14 cell lines. Notably, ATO demonstrated a markedly decreased IC50 in the cisplatin-resistant PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells compared with the IC50 in the cisplatin-sensitive parental PC-9 and PC-14 cells. Additionally, it was found that arsenite accumulation in the PC-9 cell line was affected through the downregulation of GS-X pump systems. Although it is likely that cisplatin resistance in PC-9 cells does not depend on the GS-X pump systems, ATO was effective against cisplatin-resistant NSCLC PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells in combination chemotherapy. PMID:26622574

  7. A prototype for simulation of the space-to-ground assembly/contingency system of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deacetis, Louis A.

    1992-01-01

    This project was a continuation of work started during the Summer of 1991 when techniques and methods were investigated for simulating equipment components of the Communications and Tracking System on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The current work involved developing a design for simulation of the entire Assembly/Contingency Subsystem (ACS), which includes the Baseband Signal Processor, standard TDRSS Transponder and the RF Group antenna assembly. A design prototype of the ACS was developed. Methods to achieving 'high fidelity' real-time simulations of the ACS components on IBM-PC compatible computers were considered. The intention is to have separate component simulations running on separate personal computers (PC's), with the capability of substituting actual equipment units for those being simulated when such equipment becomes available for testing. To this end, a scheme for communication between the various simulated ACS components was developed using the serial ports of the PC's hosting the simulations. In addition, control and monitoring of ACS equipment on SSF will be via a MIL-STD 1553B bus. The proposed simulation includes actual 1553B hardware as part of the test bed.

  8. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 1: Navigation, guidance, control (E-1) A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The six themes identified by the Workshop have many common navigation guidance and control needs. All the earth orbit themes have a strong requirement for attitude, figure and stabilization control of large space structures, a requirement not currently being supported. All but the space transportation theme have need for precision pointing of spacecraft and instruments. In addition all the themes have requirements for increasing autonomous operations for such activities as spacecraft and experiment operations, onboard mission modification, rendezvous and docking, spacecraft assembly and maintenance, navigation and guidance, and self-checkout, test and repair. Major new efforts are required to conceptualize new approaches to large space antennas and arrays that are lightweight, readily deployable, and capable of precise attitude and figure control. Conventional approaches offer little hope of meeting these requirements. Functions that can benefit from increasing automation or autonomous operations are listed.

  9. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 2: Data handling, communications (E-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technologies required to support the stated OAST thrust to increase information return by X1000, while reducing costs by a factor of 10 are identified. The most significant driver is the need for an overall end-to-end data system management technology. Maximum use of LSI component technology and trade-offs between hardware and software are manifest in most all considerations of technology needs. By far, the greatest need for data handling technology was identified for the space Exploration and Global Services themes. Major advances are needed in NASA's ability to provide cost effective mass reduction of space data, and automated assessment of earth looking imagery, with a concomitant reduction in cost per useful bit. A combined approach embodying end-to-end system analysis, with onboard data set selection, onboard data processing, highly parallel image processing (both ground and space), low cost, high capacity memories, and low cost user data distribution systems would be necessary.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a photograph of giant twisters and star wisps in the Lagoon Nebula. This superb Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar twisters, eerie furnels and twisted rope structures (upper left), in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) that lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. This image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2).

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calib: 4-CHIP UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done for each CCD detector using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only during a UV campaign.

  12. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Single Chip UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only following a UV decontamination.

  13. Desktop Publishing in a PC-Based Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies, considers, and interrelates the functionality of hardware, firmware, and software types; discusses the relationship of input and output devices in the PC-based desktop publishing environment; and reports some of what has been experienced in three years of working intensively in/with desktop publishing devices and solutions. (MES)

  14. An Apple for Your IBM PC--The Quadlink Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, G. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes nature and installation of the QUADLINK board which allows Apple software to be run on IBM PC microcomputers. Although programs tested ran without problems, users should test their own programs since there are some copy protection schemes that can baffle the board. (JN)

  15. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  16. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,

  17. A PC-based Workstation for Robotic Discectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadei, C.; Fiorini, P.; Martelli, S.; Montanari, M.; Morri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a PC-based controller for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The development is motivated by the need of reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to X-rays during surgical procedures such as percutanrous discectomy.

  18. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  19. 36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console on right, located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Examples of Data Analysis with SPSS/PC+ Studentware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    Intended for classroom use only, these unpublished notes contain computer lessons on descriptive statistics with files previously created in WordPerfect 4.2 and Lotus 1-2-3 Version 1.A for the IBM PC+. The statistical measures covered include Student's t-test with two independent samples; Student's t-test with a paired sample; Chi-square analysis;

  1. What's Under Your PC's 'Hood': A Primer for Today's Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li; Mills, Joyce White

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to decide what type of computer to buy for a small academic library, based on software requirements, staff and patron use, and PC technology. Topics include the central processing unit; types of memory; storage devices; ports; multimedia capabilities; modems; operating systems; and monitors. (LRW)

  2. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.

  3. PC Board Layout and Electronic Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jimmy

    This teacher's guide contains 11 units of instruction for a course on computer electronics and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) using a personal computer (PC). The course covers the following topics: introduction to electronic drafting with CAD; CAD system and software; basic electronic theory; component identification; basic integrated circuit

  4. PC-CUBE, a personal computer based hypercube

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, A.; Fox, G.; Walker, D.; Snyder, S.; Chang, D.; Chen, S.; Breaden, M.; Cole, T.

    1988-01-01

    PC-CUBE is an ensemble of IBM PCs or close compatibles connected in the hypercube topology with ordinary computer cables. Communication occurs at the rate of 115.2 K-baud via the RS-232 serial links. Available for PC-CUBE is the Crystalline Operating System III (CrOS III), Mercury Operating System, CUBIX and PLOTIX which are parallel I/O and graphics libraries. A CrOS performance monitor was developed to facilitate the measurement of communication and computation time of a program and their effects on performance. Also available are CXLISP, a parallel version of the XLISP interpreter; GRAFIX, some graphics routines for the EGA and CGA; and a general execution profiler for determining execution time spent by program subroutines. PC-CUBE provides a programming environment similar to all hypercube systems running CrOS III, Mercury and Cubix. In addition, every node (personal computer) has its own graphics display monitor and storage devices. These allow data to be displayed or stored at every processor, which has much instructional value and enables easier debugging of applications. Some application programs which are taken from the book Solving Problems on Concurrent Processors (Fox 88) were implemented with graphics enhancement on PC-CUBE. The applications range from solving the Mandelbrot set, Laplace equation, wave equation, long range force interaction, to WaTor, an ecological simulation.

  5. Deciding when It's Time to Buy a New PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    How to best decide when it's time to replace your PC, whether at home or at work, is always tricky. Spending on computers can make you more productive, but it's money you otherwise cannot spend, invest or save, and faster systems always await you in the future. What is clear is that the computer industry really wants you to buy, and the computer

  6. PC-CUBE: A personal computer based hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Alex; Fox, Geoffrey; Walker, David; Snyder, Scott; Chang, Douglas; Chen, Stanley; Breaden, Matt; Cole, Terry

    1988-01-01

    PC-CUBE is an ensemble of IBM PCs or close compatibles connected in the hypercube topology with ordinary computer cables. Communication occurs at the rate of 115.2 K-band via the RS-232 serial links. Available for PC-CUBE is the Crystalline Operating System III (CrOS III), Mercury Operating System, CUBIX and PLOTIX which are parallel I/O and graphics libraries. A CrOS performance monitor was developed to facilitate the measurement of communication and computation time of a program and their effects on performance. Also available are CXLISP, a parallel version of the XLISP interpreter; GRAFIX, some graphics routines for the EGA and CGA; and a general execution profiler for determining execution time spent by program subroutines. PC-CUBE provides a programming environment similar to all hypercube systems running CrOS III, Mercury and CUBIX. In addition, every node (personal computer) has its own graphics display monitor and storage devices. These allow data to be displayed or stored at every processor, which has much instructional value and enables easier debugging of applications. Some application programs which are taken from the book Solving Problems on Concurrent Processors (Fox 88) were implemented with graphics enhancement on PC-CUBE. The applications range from solving the Mandelbrot set, Laplace equation, wave equation, long range force interaction, to WaTor, an ecological simulation.

  7. Identification of Dp71 Isoforms Expressed in PC12 Cells: Subcellular Localization and Colocalization with ?-Dystroglycan and ?1-Syntrophin.

    PubMed

    Aragn, Jorge; Martnez-Herrera, Alejandro; Romo-Yez, Jos; Ceja, Vctor; Azotla-Vilchis, Coztli; Siqueiros-Mrquez, Lourdes; Soid-Raggi, Gabriela; Herrera-Salazar, Alma; Montaez, Cecilia

    2016-02-01

    Several dystrophin Dp71 messenger RNA (mRNA) alternative splice variants have been described. According to the splicing of exon 78 or intron 77, Dp71 proteins are grouped as Dp71d, Dp71f, and Dp71e, and each group has a specific C-terminal end. In this study, we explored the expression of Dp71 isoforms at the complementary DNA (cDNA) level and the subcellular localization of recombinant Myc-Dp71 proteins in PC12 cells. We determined that PC12 cells express Dp71a, Dp71c, Dp71ab, Dp71e, and Dp71ec mRNA splice variants. In undifferentiated and nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 Tet-ON cells, Dp71a, Dp71ab, and Dp71e were found to localize and colocalize with ?-dystroglycan and ?1-syntrophin in the periphery/cytoplasm, while Dp71c and Dp71ec were mainly localized in the cell periphery and showed less colocalization with ?-dystroglycan and ?1-syntrophin. The levels of Dp71a, Dp71e, and Dp71ec were increased in the nucleus of differentiated PC12 Tet-ON cells compared to undifferentiated cells. Dp71 isoforms were also localized in neurite extensions and growth cones. PMID:26411569

  8. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Twelve aerothermodynamic space technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the space transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.

  9. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 7: Material (M-1). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The approach of matching technology areas with various themes needs was not effective for the materials and thermal control discipline because of the diversity of requirements for each. Top priorities were evolved from the advanced space transportation system and the space power platform because these are essential building blocks in fulfilling some of the other themes. Important needs identified include life long-life cryogenic cooling systems for sensors, masers, and other devices and the needs for lightweight nuclear shielding materials for nuclear electric propulsion.

  10. Sex comb on midleg (Scm) is a functional link between PcG-repressive complexes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyuckjoon; McElroy, Kyle A.; Jung, Youngsook Lucy; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Zee, Barry M.; Park, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key regulators of development in Drosophila and are strongly implicated in human health and disease. How PcG complexes form repressive chromatin domains remains unclear. Using cross-linked affinity purifications of BioTAP-Polycomb (Pc) or BioTAP-Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], we captured all PcG-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) or PRC2 core components and Sex comb on midleg (Scm) as the only protein strongly enriched with both complexes. Although previously not linked to PRC2, we confirmed direct binding of Scm and PRC2 using recombinant protein expression and colocalization of Scm with PRC1, PRC2, and H3K27me3 in embryos and cultured cells using ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing). Furthermore, we found that RNAi knockdown of Scm and overexpression of the dominant-negative Scm-SAM (sterile ? motif) domain both affected the binding pattern of E(z) on polytene chromosomes. Aberrant localization of the Scm-SAM domain in long contiguous regions on polytene chromosomes revealed its independent ability to spread on chromatin, consistent with its previously described ability to oligomerize in vitro. Pull-downs of BioTAP-Scm captured PRC1 and PRC2 and additional repressive complexes, including PhoRC, LINT, and CtBP. We propose that Scm is a key mediator connecting PRC1, PRC2, and transcriptional silencing. Combined with previous structural and genetic analyses, our results strongly suggest that Scm coordinates PcG complexes and polymerizes to produce broad domains of PcG silencing. PMID:26063573

  11. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  12. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  13. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  14. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  17. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasan, S. Karimov; Zubair, Ahmad; Farid, Touati; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; M. Muqeet, Rehman; S. Zameer, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H2Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H2Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 μm. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ∼ 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. Project supported by the GIK Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Pakistan and Physical Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan.

  18. PcG Proteins, DNA Methylation, and Gene Repression by Chromatin Looping

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vijay K; McGarvey, Kelly M; Licchesi, Julien D.F; Ohm, Joyce E; Herman, James G; Schübeler, Dirk; Baylin, Stephen B

    2008-01-01

    Many DNA hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced genes in adult cancers are Polycomb group (PcG) marked in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We show that a large region upstream (∼30 kb) of and extending ∼60 kb around one such gene, GATA-4, is organized—in Tera-2 undifferentiated embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells—in a topologically complex multi-loop conformation that is formed by multiple internal long-range contact regions near areas enriched for EZH2, other PcG proteins, and the signature PcG histone mark, H3K27me3. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated depletion of EZH2 in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells leads to a significant reduction in the frequency of long-range associations at the GATA-4 locus, seemingly dependent on affecting the H3K27me3 enrichments around those chromatin regions, accompanied by a modest increase in GATA-4 transcription. The chromatin loops completely dissolve, accompanied by loss of PcG proteins and H3K27me3 marks, when Tera-2 cells receive differentiation signals which induce a ∼60-fold increase in GATA-4 expression. In colon cancer cells, however, the frequency of the long-range interactions are increased in a setting where GATA-4 has no basal transcription and the loops encompass multiple, abnormally DNA hypermethylated CpG islands, and the methyl-cytosine binding protein MBD2 is localized to these CpG islands, including ones near the gene promoter. Removing DNA methylation through genetic disruption of DNA methyltransferases (DKO cells) leads to loss of MBD2 occupancy and to a decrease in the frequency of long-range contacts, such that these now more resemble those in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells. Our findings reveal unexpected similarities in higher order chromatin conformation between stem/precursor cells and adult cancers. We also provide novel insight that PcG-occupied and H3K27me3-enriched regions can form chromatin loops and physically interact in cis around a single gene in mammalian cells. The loops associate with a poised, low transcription state in EC cells and, with the addition of DNA methylation, completely repressed transcription in adult cancer cells. PMID:19053175

  19. CARES/PC - CERAMICS ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatmary, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The beneficial properties of structural ceramics include their high-temperature strength, light weight, hardness, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. For advanced heat engines, ceramics have demonstrated functional abilities at temperatures well beyond the operational limits of metals. This is offset by the fact that ceramic materials tend to be brittle. When a load is applied, their lack of significant plastic deformation causes the material to crack at microscopic flaws, destroying the component. CARES/PC performs statistical analysis of data obtained from the fracture of simple, uniaxial tensile or flexural specimens and estimates the Weibull and Batdorf material parameters from this data. CARES/PC is a subset of the program CARES (COSMIC program number LEW-15168) which calculates the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of ceramic components utilizing the Batdorf and Weibull models to describe the effects of multi-axial stress states on material strength. CARES additionally requires that the ceramic structure be modeled by a finite element program such as MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS. The more limited CARES/PC does not perform fast-fracture reliability estimation of components. CARES/PC estimates ceramic material properties from uniaxial tensile or from three- and four-point bend bar data. In general, the parameters are obtained from the fracture stresses of many specimens (30 or more are recommended) whose geometry and loading configurations are held constant. Parameter estimation can be performed for single or multiple failure modes by using the least-squares analysis or the maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests measure the accuracy of the hypothesis that the fracture data comes from a population with a distribution specified by the estimated Weibull parameters. Ninety-percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters and the unbiased value of the shape parameter for complete samples are provided when the maximum likelihood technique is used. CARES/PC is written and compiled with the Microsoft FORTRAN v5.0 compiler using the VAX FORTRAN extensions and dynamic array allocation supported by this compiler for the IBM/MS-DOS or OS/2 operating systems. The dynamic array allocation routines allow the user to match the number of fracture sets and test specimens to the memory available. Machine requirements include IBM PC compatibles with optional math coprocessor. Program output is designed to fit 80-column format printers. Executables for both DOS and OS/2 are provided. CARES/PC is distributed on one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette in compressed format. The expansion tool PKUNZIP.EXE is supplied on the diskette. CARES/PC was developed in 1990. IBM PC and OS/2 are trademarks of International Business Machines. MS-DOS and MS OS/2 are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. VAX is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  20. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  1. The secretory proprotein convertases furin, PC5, and PC7 activate VEGF-C to induce tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Geraldine; Basak, Ajoy; Cromlish, James A.; Benjannet, Suzanne; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chrtien, Michel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Khatib, Abdel-Majid

    2003-01-01

    The secretory factor VEGF-C has been directly implicated in various physiological processes during embryogenesis and human cancers. However, the importance of the conversion of its precursor proVEGF-C to mature VEGF-C in tumorigenesis, and vessel formation and the identity of the protease(s) that regulate these processes is/are not known. The intracellular processing of proVEGF-C that occurs within the dibasic motif HSIIRR227SL suggests the involvement of the proprotein convertases (PCs) in this process. In addition, furin and VEGF-C were found to be coordinately expressed in adult mouse tissues. Cotransfection of the furin-deficient colon carcinoma cell line LoVo with proVEGF-C and different PC members revealed that furin, PC5, and PC7 are candidate VEGF-C convertases. This finding is consistent with the in vitro digestions of an internally quenched synthetic fluorogenic peptide mimicking the cleavage site of proVEGF-C (220Q-VHSIIRR?SLP230). The processing of proVEGF-C is blocked by the inhibitory prosegments of furin, PC5, and PACE4, as well as by furin-motif variants of ?2-macroglobulin and ?1-antitrypsin. Subcutaneous injection of CHO cells stably expressing VEGF-C into nude mice enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, but not tumor growth. In contrast, expression of proVEGF-C obtained following mutation of the cleavage site (HSIIRR227SL to HSIISS227SL) inhibits angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the processing of proVEGF-C by PCs and highlight the potential use of PC inhibitors as agents for inhibiting malignancies induced by VEGF-C. PMID:12782675

  2. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 3: Sensors (E-3). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Developments required to support the space power, SETI, solar system exploration and global services programs are identified. Instrumentation and calibration sensors (rather than scientific) are needed for the space power system. Highly sophisticated receivers for narrowband detection of microwave sensors and sensors for automated stellar cataloging to provide a mapping data base for SETI are needed. Various phases of solar system exploration require large area solid state imaging arrays from UV to IR; a long focal plane telescope; high energy particle detectors; advanced spectrometers; a gravitometer; and atmospheric distanalyzer; sensors for penetrometers; in-situ sensors for surface chemical analysis, life detection, spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of surface soils, and for meteorological measurements. Active and passive multiapplication sensors, advanced multispectral scanners with improved resolution in the UV and IR ranges, and laser techniques for advanced probing and oceanographic characterization will enhance for global services.

  3. Group Dynamics in Long -term blind endeavors on Earth as an analog for Remote Space Missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1803 - 1806, Dynamic Analysis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.; Reilly, J.

    In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains newline M Lewis and W Clark L C Expedition on an exploration to learn more about the large territory of land the U S had just purchased from France Cavan 1991 Their mission was to find a direct water route to the Pacific Ocean for the purpose of commerce and further industrial development Edwards 1999 Looking back at the events of this exploration there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond NASA Vision for Space Exploration 2004 - The L C Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean newline - The expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in early 18th century newline - The expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew newline - Supplies brought on the mission were limited mainly a mass weight issue rather than cost therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources In-Situ Resource Utilization approach including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty was necessary for crew survival The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar

  4. An electron diffraction and bond valence sum study of the space group symmetries and structures of the photocatalytic 1:1 ordered A2InNbO 6 double perovskites ( A=Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, V.; Liu, Y.; Withers, R. L.; Krausz, E.

    2004-03-01

    A careful investigation has been carried out into the space group symmetries, structures and crystal chemistries of the 1:1 B-site ordered double perovskites A2InNbO 6 ( A=Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+) using a combination of bond valence sum calculations, powder XRD and electron diffraction. A recent investigation of these compounds by Yin et al. reported a random distribution of In 3+ and Nb 5+ ions onto the perovskite B-site positions of these compounds and hence Pm 3m ( a= ap, subscript p for parent perovskite sub-structure) space group symmetry for the A=Ba and Sr compounds and Pnma( a= ap+ bp, b=- ap+ bp, c=2 cp) space group symmetry for the A=Ca compound. A careful electron diffraction study, however, shows that both the A=Ca and Sr compounds occur at room temperature in P12 1/ n1 ( a= ap+ bp, b=- ap+ bp, c=2 cp) perovskite-related superstructure phases while the A=Ba compound occurs in the Fm 3m , a=2 ap, elpasolite structure type. Bond valence sum calculations are used to explain why this should be so as well as to provide a useful first-order approximation to the structures of each of the compounds.

  5. A theoretical study of the performance of a CuPc/V2O5/CuPc vertical triode by using numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chen, He-Ping; Ting, Wei-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a vertical triode consisting of an organic material CuPc and a metal oxide V2O5, was studied by using numerical simulations. The electrical characteristics of the triodes with V2O5 doping concentrations of 1016 - 1018 cm -3 and electrode work functions (WFs) of 4.4 - 5.1 eV were simulated. In addition, the corresponding physical mechanisms were investigated by quantitatively analyzing the energy band diagram, carrier distribution, injection and transports which were difficult to measure and obtain experimentally. The optimal triode performance was obtained for a doping concentration of V2O5 of 2 1017 cm -3 and WFs of the emitter and the collector electrodes of 5.1 eV and 4.8 eV, respectively. The simulation results were reasonable when compared with experimental data reported by other groups.

  6. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  7. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley Power's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter work completed the securing the proper disposition of all PC Preheat experimental equipment at the PSCF and CBTF and completing negotiations with AES Westover (a power plant in Johnson City, New York) to accept 130 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. The coal transport to Westover occurred at the end of August. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; immediate efforts are focused on completing a draft final report, which is due in October 31, 2005 and the final report in December.

  8. Conversion from 8800 to 8800PC -- Evaluation and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, A.E.; Lawson, B.J.

    1998-03-20

    Though a final version of the software is pending the 8800PC operating system host computer is a welcomed change from the old Digital (DEC) host computer. The 8800PC host computer uses the Windows NT operating system and has proven to be very user friendly. Descriptive window messages replace the cryptic coding of the DEC host. Though numerous electrical components were replaced, system calibration remained constant. Calibrated Thermoluminescent (TL) output from a randomly selected 8815 field card was measured before and after the upgrade. The % difference, when comparing calibrated output from an upgraded reader to the non upgraded reader, ranged from 0.2 to 3%. The most disappointing aspect of the upgrade experience was the lag time between hardware installation and software completion.

  9. Dystrophin Dp71 in PC12 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Enrquez-Aragn, Jose Arturo; Cerna-Corts, Joel; Bermdez de Len, Mario; Garca-Sierra, Francisco; Gonzlez, Everardo; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we reported that PC12 cells with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells) display deficient nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth. In this study, we show that disturbed neurite outgrowth of antisense-Dp71 cells is accompanied by decreased adhesion activity on laminin, collagen and fibronectin. In wild-type cells, the immunostaining of Dp71 and _1-integrin overlaps in the basal area contacting the substrate, but staining of both proteins decrease in the antisense-Dp71 cells. Morphology of antisense-Dp71 cells at the electron microscopic level is characterized by the lack of filopodia, cellular projections involved in adhesion. Our findings suggest that Dp71 is required for the efficient PC12 cell attachment to b1-integrin-dependent substrata and that decreased adhesion activity of the anti-sense-Dp71 cells could determine their deficiency to extend neurites. PMID:15706226

  10. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Nitha V.; Kumar, A. Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature) and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC). Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements. PMID:26884757

  11. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observation at high altitudes.

  12. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of a magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observations at high latitudes.

  13. Real-time visualization of large volume datasets on standard PC hardware.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kai; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Y M

    2008-05-01

    In medical area, interactive three-dimensional volume visualization of large volume datasets is a challenging task. One of the major challenges in graphics processing unit (GPU)-based volume rendering algorithms is the limited size of texture memory imposed by current GPU architecture. We attempt to overcome this limitation by rendering only visible parts of large CT datasets. In this paper, we present an efficient, high-quality volume rendering algorithm using GPUs for rendering large CT datasets at interactive frame rates on standard PC hardware. We subdivide the volume dataset into uniform sized blocks and take advantage of combinations of early ray termination, empty-space skipping and visibility culling to accelerate the whole rendering process and render visible parts of volume data. We have implemented our volume rendering algorithm for a large volume data of 512 x 304 x 1878 dimensions (visible female), and achieved real-time performance (i.e., 3-4 frames per second) on a Pentium 4 2.4GHz PC equipped with NVIDIA Geforce 6600 graphics card ( 256 MB video memory). This method can be used as a 3D visualization tool of large CT datasets for doctors or radiologists. PMID:18243401

  14. [A PC-based pulse oximetry monitor for four patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, G Z; Li, P

    2001-05-01

    Pulse oximeters are used in many departments of a hospital. The pc-based pulse oximetry monitor for many patients has the features of simplicity, flexibility, large memory, powerful function, high ratio of performance to price, and it is easy to communicate with multimonitors. The principles of hardware system and the function of software block of the monitor are introduced too in this paper. PMID:12583279

  15. The Photodynamic Antibacterial Effects of Silicon Phthalocyanine (Pc) 4

    PubMed Central

    Dimaano, Matthew L.; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2–5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens. PMID:25856680

  16. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,…

  17. Space group and hydrogen positions of single crystal delta-AlOOH, (Al0.84Mg0.07Si0.09)H0.98O2 and its relation to stishovite and brucite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, Y.; Kuribayashi, T.; Suzuki, A.; Ohtani, E.; Kamada, T.

    2003-04-01

    A single crystal of δ-AlOOH synthesized by Suzuki et al. (2000) at conditions of 1000^oC and 21 GPa was used in this study. A set of X-ray diffraction intensities up to sinθ/λ=0.80 Å-1 were measured with a single crystal of 83×35×24 μm using MoKα radiation (50 kV, 40 mA). Al:Mg:Si ratio 0.84:0.07:0.09 measured by EDS with the same crystal used in the X-ray diffraction intensity measurement yielded the chemical formula (Al0.84Mg0.07Si0.09)H0.98O_2. Suzuki et al. (2000) reported the space group P2_1nm from powder X-ray data but the systematic absence of reflections observed in this study indicated another space group Pnn2. The systematic absence of reflections observed in the present work were h+l odd for h0l and k+l odd for 0kl, indicating possible space group Pnn2 or Pnnm. The N(Z) test for a center of symmetry indicated an acentric space group. The non-centrosymmetric space group Pnn2 was therefore employed and was confirmed by the structural refinement. The agreement factors for 109 independent reflections (Io>= 3.0σ Io) were R=3.6% with anisotropic temperature factors. The difference Fourier synthesis was calculated and two significant Fourier peaks H1 and H2 for the possible hydrogen sites were found. The H1 site locates around two-fold rotation axis with H1-H1 distance of 0.55 Å. The H1 site is considered to be for symmetrical statistical distribution of hydrogen atoms. The H2-H2 are separated with H2-H2 distance 2.12 Å which is larger than the sum of van der Waals radii of hydrogen atoms. The partial occupancy of Mg and Si atoms at Al site suggests the possibility of limited solid solution among δ-AlOOH, stishovite SiO_2 and hypothetical rutile-structured Mg(OH)_2. The H1 site is considered to be for AlOOH and the H_2 site for Mg(OH)_2.

  18. PC index as a ground-based characteristic for the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Stauning, Peter

    The solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere is usually evaluated by power of the magnetic disturbances detected at the Earth and estimated by the AE(AL) and Dst indices, characterizing, correspondingly, the magnetospheric substorm and geomagnetic storm dynamics and intensity. It is generally agreed, however, that the magnetospheric substorms and magnetic storms are the result of release of the energy accumulated by that time in the magnetosphere. Theoretical estimations of the solar wind energy input, making allowance for the actually observed solar wind parameters (for example, -function of Akasofu), turned out impracticable on the reasons of their imperfection and impossibility to organize the reliable monitoring the solar wind parameters in the key points of the space. By now the only PC index is serving as an on-line ground-based indicator of the geoeffective solar wind impact on the magnetosphere. The PC index characterizes the polar cap magnetic activity, generated by the geeffective interplanetary electric field (GIEF). The index is derived by magnetic data of only two stations Thule and Vostok, located in the northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) near-pole regions. The index was put into practice about 25 years ago, but obtained his final design as late as 2006. The unified procedure provides the on-line calculation of the PCN and PCS indices consistent with the GIEF value irrespective of the UT time, season and solar cycle. The proper response of the PC index to actual changes in the interplanetary electric field and the solar wind dynamic pressure is demonstrated. The main attention is given to relationships between the PC index behavior and development of the magnetospheric substorms and geomagnetic storms. It is shown that the magnetospheric substorms intensity and the substorm growth phase duration can be predicted by the PC index growth rate, whereas the geomagnetic storms magnitude and their lenght is indicated by the PC values averaged for the storm growth and main phases. Based on these results, the conclusion is made that the PC index is a reliable ground-based proxy for the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere.

  19. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  20. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress

    PubMed Central

    KRIZANOVA, OLGA; STELIAROVA, IVETA; CSADEROVA, LUCIA; PASTOREK, MICHAL; HUDECOVA, SONA

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 ?M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  1. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  2. Modulation of total electron content by ULF Pc5 waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Murr, D.; Fedorov, E.; Engebretson, M.

    2014-06-01

    An intriguing effect was found while analyzing the small-scale variations of total electron content (TEC) derived from global positioning system (GPS) signals. We found a response in TEC variations to intense global Pc5 pulsations with periods of a few millihertz covering the corrected geomagnetic latitudes ~58°-75° during the recovery phase of the strong magnetic storms on 31 October 2003. Earlier studies demonstrated that the GPS-TEC technique is a powerful method to study the propagation pattern of transient disturbances in the ionosphere, generated by seismic or internal gravity waves. This technique has turned out to be sensitive enough to ULF waves as well. During periods with intense Pc5 geomagnetic wave activity, distinct pulsations with the same periodicity were found in the TEC data from high-latitude GPS receiving stations in Scandinavia. Wavelet and cross-spectral analysis showed a high coherence (~0.9) between the periodic geomagnetic and TEC variations. Moreover, the relative amplitude of TEC periodic fluctuations ΔTEC/TEC was about or even larger than the relative amplitude of geomagnetic variations ΔB/B. So far, the effect of TEC modulation by Pc5 waves is not well understood and is still a challenge for the MHD wave theory. Various possible modulation mechanisms have been estimated, but no mechanism has been firmly identified.

  3. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  4. Tablet PC interaction with digital micromirror device (DMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Dahshan, Mostafa H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Digital light processing (DLP) is an innovative display technology that uses an optical switch array, known as a digital micromirror device (DMD), which allows digital control of light. To date, DMDs have been used primarily as high-speed spatial light modulators for projector applications. A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile PC. Its touch screen or digitizing tablet technology allows the user to operate the notebook with a stylus or digital pen instead of using a keyboard or mouse. In this paper, we describe an interface solution that translates any sketch on the tablet PC screen to an identical mirror-copy over the cross-section of the DMD micromirrors such that the image of the sketch can be projected onto a special screen. An algorithm has been created to control each single micromirror of the hundreds of thousands of micromirrors that cover the DMD surface. We demonstrate the successful application of a DMD to a high-speed two-dimensional (2D) scanning environment, acquiring the data from the tablet screen and launching its contents to the projection screen; with very high accuracy up to 13.68 ?m x 13.68 ?m of mirror pitch.

  5. High-resolution CCD camera family with a PC host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanes, Chris A.; Bottenberg, Les

    1993-05-01

    EG&G Reticon and Adaptive Optics Associates have developed a family of high resolution CCD cameras with a PC/AT host to fulfill imaging applications from medical science to industrial inspection. The MC4000 family of CCD cameras encompasses resolutions of 512 X 512, 1024 X 1024, and 2048 X 2048 pixels. All three of these high performance cameras interface to the SB4000, PC/AT controller, which serves as a frame buffer with up to 64 MBytes of storage, as well as providing all the required control, and setup parameters while the camera head is remotely located at distances of up to 100 ft. All of the MC4000 high resolution cameras employ MPP clocking to achieve high dynamic range without cooling the CCD sensor. The use of this low power clocking technique, surface mount components, electronic shutter and clever packaging have allowed Reticon to deliver the MC4000 cameras in convenient, rugged small housings. The MC4000 family provides users with a total imaging solution from leading edge sensors and electronics in ruggedized housings, to cables, power supplies, and a PC/AT frame buffer and controller card. All the components are designed to function together as a turn-key, self-contained system, or individual components can become part of a user's larger system. The MC4000 CCD camera family makes high resolution, electronic imaging an accessible tool for a wide range of applications.

  6. Hypergravity Stimulation Enhances PC12 Neuron-Like Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity is a strong physical cue able to elicit different cellular responses, representing a largely uninvestigated opportunity for tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. Our recent studies have shown that both proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells can be enhanced by hypergravity treatment; given these results, PC12 neuron-like cells were chosen to test the hypothesis that hypergravity stimulation might also affect the behavior of neuronal cells, in particular promoting an enhanced differentiated phenotype. PC12 cells were thus cultured under differentiating conditions for either 12?h or 72?h before being stimulated with different values of hypergravity (50?g and 150?g). Effects of hypergravity were evaluated at transcriptional level 1?h and 48?h after the stimulation, and at protein level 48?h from hypergravity exposure, to assess its influence on neurite development over increasing differentiation times. PC12 differentiation resulted strongly affected by the hypergravity treatments; in particular, neurite length was significantly enhanced after exposure to high acceleration values. The achieved results suggest that hypergravity might induce a faster and higher neuronal differentiation and encourage further investigations on the potential of hypergravity in the preparation of cellular constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering purposes. PMID:25785273

  7. Kinetics of alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu isothermal conversion in air and thermal behavior of beta-PcCu from in situ real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Ballirano, Paolo; Caminiti, Ruggero

    2009-07-01

    The kinetics of the alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu conversion in air has been followed, under isothermal conditions, in situ real-time in the 423-443 K temperature range. Data have been fitted following the JMAK model. The reaction order of the kinetics at 423 K is consistent with a diffusion controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles, whereas at higher temperatures it is consistent with a phase boundary controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles. At 423 K, the overall transformation mechanism implies three steps: growth of the alpha-PcCu phase, disordering of adjacent columns of molecules of phthalocyanine, and nucleation and growth of the beta-PcCu phase. The calculated empirical activation energy is of 187 kJ/mol significantly greater than that for the alpha-PcCo --> beta-PcCo conversion. This fact seems to support the reported different structures of alpha-PcCo and alpha-PcCu. Investigation of the thermal behavior of beta-PcCu indicates a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion that follows the alpha(c) > alpha(a) approximately = alpha(b) trend. Moreover, the beta angle decreases with increasing temperature. Such anisotropy is consistent with the geometry of the very weak N3...H3 hydrogen bond which acts mainly along the c axis. PMID:19534476

  8. Global nature of Pc 5 magnetic pulsation during the WHI observation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, A.; Tokunaga, T.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Yumoto, K.; Group, M.

    2008-12-01

    In conjunction with the activities of IHY(International Heliophysical Year), an international observation campaign was planned and carried out from March 20 to April 16 of 2008. The name of this campaign is Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI). During WHI, the nations of the world worked together to collect relevant scientific data. As a result, there now exists an exceptionally good data set of multi-point ground-based and satellite magnetometer data for this time frame. There were no clear and outstanding geomagnetic storms during WHI, but there were some moderate geomagnetically active moments. For example, on March 26, Dst index decreased from 25 nT to -41 nT for 10 hours(1000 -1900 UT). The amplitude of Pc 5 pulsation in the frequency band between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz at the MAGDAS stations increased for few days after March 26. Using magnetometer data obtained globally from ULTIMA(Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array) stations, we will investigate the occurrence and wave characteristics(amplitude, period and phase) of Pc 5 pulsations. Particularly high-latitude Pc 5 observed at THEMIS (the Time History of Events and Macroscopic Interactions during Substorms), CARISMA(Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity) and McMaC (Mid-continent Magnetoseismic Chain) stations will be compared with equatorial-latitude Pc 5 observed at MAGDAS stations(TIR, DAV, YAP, ANC, EUS, ILR, and UT=LT+5h, +8h, +9h, -5h, -2h and 0h, respectively). Acknowledgment: MAGDAS data used in this paper were obtained in mutual collaborations with the following representatives of various organizations; Prof. Archana Bhattacharya(Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, TIR), Fr. Daniel McNamara(Manila Observatory, DAV), Dr. David Aranug(Weather Service Office YAP, YAP), Dr. Ronald Woodman Pollitt(Instituto Geofisico del Peru, ANC), Dr. Severino L. G. Dutra(Brazilian National Space Research Institute (INPE), EUS), Dr. A. Babatunde Rabiu(Federal University of Technology, ILR).

  9. Four-Channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 Circuit Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The mini bus interface card (miniBIC) is the first four-channel electronic circuit board that conforms to MIL-STD-1553 and to the electrical-footprint portion of PC/104. [MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical- interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. PC/104 is an industry standard for compact, stackable modules that are fully compatible (in architecture, hardware, and software) with personal-computer data- and power-bus circuitry.] Prior to the development of the miniBIC, only one- and two-channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 boards were available. To obtain four channels, it was necessary to include at least two boards in a PC/104 stack. In comparison with such a two-board stack, the miniBIC takes up less space, consumes less power, and is more reliable. In addition, the miniBIC includes 32 digital input/output channels. The miniBIC (see figure) contains four MIL-STD-1553B hybrid integrated circuits (ICs), four transformers, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and an Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) interface. Each hybrid IC includes a MILSTD-1553 dual transceiver, memory-management circuitry, processor interface logic circuitry, and 64Kx16 bits of shared static random access memory. The memory is used to configure message and data blocks. In addition, 23 16-bit registers are available for (1) configuring the hybrid IC for, and starting it in, various modes of operation; (2) reading the status of the functionality of the hybrid IC; and (3) resetting the hybrid IC to a known state. The miniBIC can operate as a remote terminal, bus controller, or bus monitor. The FPGA provides the chip-select and data-strobe signals needed for operation of the hybrid ICs. The FPGA also receives interruption signals and forwards them to the ISA bus. The ISA interface connects the address, data, and control interfaces of the hybrid ICs to the ISA backplane. Each channel is, in effect, a MIL-STD-1553 interface that can operate either independently of the others or else as a redundant version of one of the others. The transformer in each channel provides electrical isolation between the rest of the miniBIC circuitry and the bus to which that channel is connected.

  10. Large-scale preparation of plasma membrane vesicles from PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells and their use in noradrenaline transport studies.

    PubMed

    Harder, R; Bnisch, H

    1984-08-01

    Plasma membranes were isolated from rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) grown in spinner culture. The rapid and simple isolation procedure consisted of a differential and isopycnic centrifugation (in a linear sucrose gradient) with the aid of a high capacity fixed angle rotor equipped with siliconized centrifuge tubes. The isolated membranes were closed and osmotically active vesicles (about 0.3 micron in diameter) with a mean intravesicular water space of 1.84 microliters/mg protein. In the presence of an inward gradient of sodium chloride and an outward gradient of potassium, [3H]noradrenaline (50 nM) was taken up and accumulated 550-fold (at 31 degrees C). The uptake and accumulation of [3H]noradrenaline was temperature-sensitive and inhibited by the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Membrane vesicles isolated from PC-12 cells represent a useful model for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of the neuronal noradrenaline transport system. PMID:6466664

  11. A Cuing Study of the N2pc Component: An Index of Attentional Deployment to Objects Rather Than Spatial Locations

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Arita, Jason T.; Luck, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic visual cues indicating the location of an upcoming target are believed to invoke endogenous shifts of attention to cued locations. In the present study, we investigated how visual attention is shifted during such cuing paradigms by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). We focused on a component known to index lateralized shifts of perceptual attention during visual search tasks, known as the N2pc component. The ERP data show that attention was shifted to a cued location in anticipation of a target shape when the location is marked by a placeholder-object (Experiments 1 and 2). However, when the possible locations were not marked by placeholder objects we found no evidence for an anticipatory shift of attention to the cued location (Experiment 3). These findings indicate that the perceptual-attention mechanism indexed by the N2pc is deployed to objects and not simply locations in space devoid of object structure. PMID:19682440

  12. Effect of lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction on the abnormal aggregation of ?-synuclein in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, RUNQING; ZHAO, JIE; ZHANG, JIEWEN; LIU, WEI; ZHAO, MEIYING; LI, JIANGTAO; LV, JUAN; LI, YANAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction on the abnormal aggregation of ?-synuclein, and to analyze its role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PC12 cells subjected to nerve growth factor-induced differentiation were used as the cell model to study the dopaminergic neurons, and the lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E64) and, respectively, were used exclusively and in combination to treat the PC12 cells. The viability and metabolic state of the cells was assessed using the MTT assay; flow cytometry was used to measure the rate of cell apoptosis; and the double immunofluorescence method was applied to observe the formation of thioflavin S- and ?-synuclein protein-positive aggregates and inclusion bodies in the PC12 cells. In addition, the Hoechst 33258 staining method was used to observe the apoptosis of the ?-synuclein protein and thioflavin-S double-labeled cells. Following the administration of the lysosomal and proteasomal pathway inhibitors, the cell viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and the cell apoptosis rate increased. The proportion of PC12 cells with ?-synuclein protein-positive aggregates and inclusion bodies in the E64 group was 7.94%, compared with 20.33 and 36.77% in the lactacystin and combination treatment groups, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the number of inclusion body-positive cells in the treatment groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.78%) (P<0.05). Apoptosis was evident in the double-positive cells with ?-synuclein protein-positive inclusion bodies (17.291.54%). In conclusion, lysosomal and proteasomal dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD through the induction of abnormal ?-synuclein protein aggregation in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26136940

  13. Introduction to Quantum Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podle?, P.; Mller, E.

    We give an elementary introduction to the theory of algebraic and topological quantum groups (in the spirit of S. L. Woronowicz). In particular, we recall the basic facts from Hopf (*-) algebra theory, theory of compact (matrix) quantum groups and the theory of their actions on compact quantum spaces. We also provide the most important examples, including the classification of quantum SL(2)-groups, their real forms and quantum spheres. We also consider quantum SLq(N)-groups and quantum Lorentz groups.

  14. An overview of the evaluation plan for PC/MISI: PC-based Multiple Information System Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Lim, Bee Lee; Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    An initial evaluation plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intend to be used as a blueprint for the evaluation of this system. Each objective of the design project is discussed along with the evaluation parameters and methodology to be used in the evaluation of the implementation's achievement of those objectives. The potential of the system for research activities related to more general aspects of information retrieval is also discussed.

  15. Abundance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) affects group characteristics and use of space by golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca agroforest.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leonardo C; Neves, Leonardo G; Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction. PMID:21079956

  16. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C. Oliveira, Leonardo; G. Neves, Leonardo; E. Raboy, Becky; M. Dietz, James

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  17. Distinct Spacing Between Anionic Groups: An Essential Chemical Determinant for Achieving Thiophene-Based Ligands to Distinguish ?-Amyloid or Tau Polymorphic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Klingstedt, Therse; Shirani, Hamid; Mahler, Jasmin; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Nystrm, Sofie; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2015-06-15

    The accumulation of protein aggregates is associated with many devastating neurodegenerative diseases and the existence of distinct aggregated morphotypes has been suggested to explain the heterogeneous phenotype reported for these diseases. Thus, the development of molecular probes able to distinguish such morphotypes is essential. We report an anionic tetrameric oligothiophene compound that can be utilized for spectral assignment of different morphotypes of ?-amyloid or tau aggregates present in transgenic mice at distinct ages. The ability of the ligand to spectrally distinguish between the aggregated morphotypes was reduced when the spacing between the anionic substituents along the conjugated thiophene backbone was altered, which verified that specific molecular interactions between the ligand and the protein aggregate are necessary to detect aggregate polymorphism. Our findings provide the structural and functional basis for the development of new fluorescent ligands that can distinguish between different morphotypes of protein aggregates. PMID:26013403

  18. Working group 4 of International Standardization Organization -experience of developing the standards of space environment: status of 2010 and roadmap for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail; Tobiska, W. Kent

    Since the beginning of 90's space environment international standards have been developed within the scope of ISO WG4 activities. This has been the first attempt to develop interna-tional standards of physical phenomena of natural environment such as galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles (SEP), the Earth's magnetic field, the ionosphere, the plasma-sphere, etc. The main difficulty faced when developing the international standards is the lack of common methods for characterizing many natural phenomena. However, if methods have been successfully developed, such standards can play an outstanding role in the engineering requirements for spacecraft designs. This report is a survey of the current status of the inter-national standards under development within the scope of the WG4 activity plan and roadmap for the future.

  19. Distinct Spacing Between Anionic Groups: An Essential Chemical Determinant for Achieving Thiophene-Based Ligands to Distinguish β-Amyloid or Tau Polymorphic Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Klingstedt, Therése; Shirani, Hamid; Mahler, Jasmin; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Nyström, Sofie; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of protein aggregates is associated with many devastating neurodegenerative diseases and the existence of distinct aggregated morphotypes has been suggested to explain the heterogeneous phenotype reported for these diseases. Thus, the development of molecular probes able to distinguish such morphotypes is essential. We report an anionic tetrameric oligothiophene compound that can be utilized for spectral assignment of different morphotypes of β-amyloid or tau aggregates present in transgenic mice at distinct ages. The ability of the ligand to spectrally distinguish between the aggregated morphotypes was reduced when the spacing between the anionic substituents along the conjugated thiophene backbone was altered, which verified that specific molecular interactions between the ligand and the protein aggregate are necessary to detect aggregate polymorphism. Our findings provide the structural and functional basis for the development of new fluorescent ligands that can distinguish between different morphotypes of protein aggregates. PMID:26013403

  20. Molecular Modeling on the PC (by Matthew F. Schlecht)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Reviewed Frank

    2000-06-01

    "Computeraided molecular modeling doesn't exist for its own sake, but to contribute to scientific endeavor, and enable the scientist to work smarter." This is the last sentence of Schlecht's preface and it says something very important about contemporary scientific research in the academic and industrial venues. Owing to the accelerating improvement in computer technology (hardware and software) and its widespread availability, molecular modeling has become a reliable and important tool in chemical research. Consequently, experimentalists have incorporated molecular modeling techniques in their research, and partnerships with computational chemists have become common. This is a wellorganized and thorough monograph that devotes its attention to one type of molecular modeling, molecular mechanics, and one molecular modeling software package, PCMODEL. Schlecht targets two reader-user groups, the novice and the journeyman modeler, and articulates three goals. He wants to provide the novice with an introduction to molecular mechanics, and after that with some practical examples of the use of empirical force field calculations. His third goal is to provide the journeyman modeler with a reference work that will aid "further study and practice". These are potentially conflicting goals, but Schlecht is, in my opinion, successful because of the way his book is organized. A comprehensive treatment such as this one is not meant to be read from cover to cover, because it is both an exposition of basic principles and a user's manual. Therefore, the novice and the experienced modeler will undoubtedly use this book in different ways. For example, a novice modeler might be advised to read the Preface and Chapter 1, which together provide a broad introduction to the historical development and goals of molecular mechanics. From there the novice could go to Chapter 5 and read section 5.1 on the components of the molecular mechanics force field, which is presented in 22 pages with plenty of graphical support. The reader is now ready to move to Chapter 6 on applications and work through the 32 exercises (Chapters 3 and 4 have an additional 11 exercises) designed to illustrate the current uses of molecular modeling in academic and industrial research. Chapter 3 (Input and Output), Chapter 4 (File Formats), and the balance of Chapter 5 can be consulted as needed. For example, Chapter 5 contains 160 pages on the evolution of the various empirical force fields in use today and important information in each case on parameterization and implementation. Besides finding a clearly written, wellorganized, thorough presentation, the reader will appreciate a number of other important features. There are numerous references (993) to the primary literature covering the field of molecular mechanics from its beginnings to mid1997, when the book went to press. There is a complete glossary of PCMODEL commands, and a comprehensive and valuable glossary (77 pages) of frequently used computer terms. There are 392 figures (many of them screen captures) providing illustrations of the PCMODEL interface in use and examples of input and output files. To aid the reader/user in obtaining expertise as a modeler, a diskette containing all the structure files for all the exercises accompanies the text. In addition, the author provides, on the same diskette, a browserreadable HTML file that contains links to a large number of pertinent resources on the World Wide Web. In summary, Molecular Modeling on the PC, by Matthew Schlecht, is a very impressive contribution to the molecular modeling literature. Schlecht's book should be in every college and university library and in the personal libraries of those who want to learn more about molecular mechanics or who anticipate its use in their teaching or research.

  1. Decreased Immunoreactivity of the Polypeptide Precursor Pro-Opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the Prohormone Convertase PC1/3 after Chronic Ethanol Exposure in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Montserrat; Cubero, Inmaculada; Thiele, Todd E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Melanocortin (MC) peptides and opiod peptide ?-endorphin are cleaved from the polypeptide precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC). POMC-derived peptides are generated by extensive post-translational processing that involves several enzymes including prohormome convertase 1/3 and 2 (PC1/3 and PC2). Because ethanol decreases POMC mRNA levels, we determined if exposure to an ethanol-containing diet (ED) would significantly reduce central immunoreactivity of POMC, PC1/3, PC2 and ?-endorphin. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 18 days of access to a normal rodent chow or a control diet (CD), or short-term (4 days) or long term (18 days) access to an ED. At the end of the study, rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and their brains were sectioned into sets for processing with POMC, PC1/3, PC2 and ?-endorphin immunoreactivity (IR). Results Rats exposed to an ethanol containing diet for 18 days (ED18) exhibited significant reductions of POMC and PC1/3 IR in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc) relative to rats pair-fed a control diet (CD). On the other hand, rats exposed to an ethanol containing diet did not show any changes of central ?-endorphin or PC2 IR relative to rats pair-fed a CD, regardless of length of exposure. Because there were no differences in body weights or caloric intake between the CD and ED groups, reductions of POMC and PC1/3 IR in ED-treated rats are best explain by ethanol exposure rather than altered energy balance. Conclusions The present study shows that ethanol site-specifically reduces POMC and PC1/3 IR in rat brain. These observations are consistent with ethanol-induced reductions of ?-MSH and POMC IR that were previously reported. Since MC agonists have been shown to blunt ethanol intake in rodents, exogenous MC receptor agonists, as well as targets that may increase the synthesis of endogenous ?-MSH (e.g. PC1/3) may have therapeutic value for treating alcohol abuse disorders and alcoholism. PMID:23050949

  2. PC-Fix and local infection resistance--influence of implant design on postoperative infection development, clinical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Eijer, H; Hauke, C; Arens, S; Printzen, G; Schlegel, U; Perren, S M

    2001-09-01

    Bacterial infection is still one of the main complications after internal fixation of fractures. The design of implants influences local infection resistance. To reduce the development of infections around implants after internal fixation, the vitality of the bone should be preserved to optimize cellular and humoral host defence mechanisms. For extramedullary fracture fixation, two implant designs are currently in routine use: the Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP) and the Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate (LC-DCP). The Point-Contact-Fixator (PC-Fix) is a new design concept based on the philosophy of the LC-DCP and the external fixator. Its function relies on splinting the fragments of a fracture internally with locking bolts rather than with screws that compress the plate to the bone. In this way, the blood supply is not compromised by compression of the periosteum. We investigated the effect of this new design on the incidence of postoperative infection rates in a clinical and an experimental setting. In a prospective multicentre study 1,229 PC-Fixators were used in 896 patients. Of these, 1,172 were available for assessment of infection development. The overall infection rate was 1.1% (13/1,172). The infection rate after open fractures was 1.6% (4/256) and after closed procedures (including closed fractures, osteotomies and non-unions) 1.0% (9/916). These rates are low in comparison to published rates using DCP and LC-DCP. In an experimental study, we compared the infection rates across two groups of rabbits four weeks after fixing either a bacterially contaminated DCP or a PC-Fix to the tibia. Infection rates in the DCP group were significantly higher than in the PC-Fix group: Of the 38 evaluated animals, 12 with a DCP and 5 with a PC-Fix developed local infection (p=0.022). The new PC-Fix design shows low postoperative infection rates in the clinical setting and lower infection rates than the DCP in the experimental setting. The design is an important step in the process of reducing postoperative infection rates. PMID:11718737

  3. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvn continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  4. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  6. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC

  7. [Properties and nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNA pC1 of cucumber].

    PubMed

    Li, J Y; Wen, Y D; Zhang, X M; Gao, C C

    2000-01-01

    Four kinds of plasmid-like DNA, designated pC1, pC2, pC3 and pC4 were found in the mitochondrion of cucumber Jinyan No. 4. The circle plasmid-like DNA pC1 was cloned into the EcoR I site of pUC19 using E. coli JM109 as host. The cloned pC1 DNA was isolated and used as probes in Southern analyses of total mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA. Evidences were obtained that the pC1 did not show any homology with nuclear, chloroplast, main mitochondrial genomes and the other plasmid-like DNAs. Sequence analysis revealed that pC1 was 2,889 bp long. It contained many forward and reverse repeat sequences. Three main open reading frames in pC1 were longer than 800 bp. Computer-assisted searching the nucleotide sequence in GenBank database revealed pC1 had no significant homology with known sequences of mitochondrial and plasmid-like DNA, but had homology with the E. coli, Mycobaterium tuberculosis and Anacystis nidulans genomes. The predicted proteins of pC1 main ORFs show homology with the sulfate transport system in bacteria, alga and liverwort. It suggested that pC1 may encode functional proteins. PMID:11192436

  8. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  9. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  10. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  11. 76 FR 39473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1120-PC, U.S. Property and...: 1545-1027. Form Number: Form 1120-PC. Abstract: Property and casualty insurance companies are...

  12. The USL NASA PC R and D project: General specifications of objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Given here are the general specifications of the objectives of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA PC R and D Project, a project initiated to address future R and D issues related to PC-based processing environments acquired pursuant to the NASA contract work; namely, the IBM PC/XT systems.

  13. Effect of lycopene isolated from Chlorella marina on proliferation and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell line PC-3.

    PubMed

    Renju, G L; Muraleedhara Kurup, G; Bandugula, Venkata Reddy

    2014-11-01

    Even though the role of lycopene from tomato (trans form) in controlling prostate cancer was reported, lycopene (cis and trans 60:40) isolated from green algae Chlorella marina was not reported so far. The present study aimed to assess the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of lycopene from a new source and to compare the activity with available trans lycopene by using androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines. Exposure of PC-3 and DU-145 cell lines to algal lycopene (AL) at a dose of 20 and 50 ?M significantly inhibited the growth and colony formation, and the percentage of inhibition was higher than tomatal lycopene (TL)-treated groups. The stability of AL in cell culture medium was high, when compared to TL under standard cell culture conditions. The level of lycopene was not detected in PC-3 cell lines cultured in medium lacking lycopene. Staining cells with acridine orange and ethidium bromide, the PC-3 control cells showed largely non-fragmented intact nucleoid. Stronger apoptosis signal was induced with higher concentrations (50 ?M) of algal lycopene. Increased DNA damage was observed in AL- and TL-treated cells which appear as comet during single-cell gel electrophoresis. Flow cytometry results revealed that AL caused PC-3 cells to accumulate in the G0/G1 phase and to undergo apoptosis. The effect was higher in AL groups than TL-treated groups. Algal lycopene showed very significant anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect in human prostate cancer cell lines. Therefore, algal lycopene from C.marina would be recommended for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:25073513

  14. PC index as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere: 2. Relation to the interplanetary electric field E KL before substorm onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, OA; Sormakov, DA

    2015-12-01

    This paper (the second of a series) presents the results of statistical investigation of relationship between the interplanetary electric field E KL and the Polar Cap (PC) index in case of magnetic substorms (1998-2001), which have been analyzed in Troshichev et al. (J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 2014). The PC index is directly related to the E KL field variations on interval preceding the substorm sudden onset (SO): correlation R > 0.5 is typical of more than 90 % of isolated substorms, 80 % of expanded substorms, and 99 % of events with coordinated E KL and PC jumps. The low or negative correlation observing in ~10 % of examined substorms suggests that the solar wind flow measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in the Lagrange point L1 did not encounter the magnetosphere in these cases. Examination of the delay times Δ T in the response of PC index to E KL variations provides the following results: (1) delay times do not depend on separate solar wind parameters, such as solar wind speed V X and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B Z component, contrary to general conviction, (2) the Δ T value is best controlled by the E KL field growth rate (d E KL/dt), (3) the lower Δ T limit (5-7 min is attained under conditions of the higher E KL growth rate, and (4) the PC index provides the possibility to verify the solar wind flow transportation time from ACE position (where the solar wind speed is estimated) to magnetosphere. These results, in combination with data testifying that the substorm onsets are related to the PC precursors, demonstrate that the PC index is an adequate ground-based indicator of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere.

  15. Ecosystem Analysis from Space: Diagnosis of Phytoplankton Functional Groups from Satellite Data and Skill Assessment for Coupled Hydrodynamic-Ecosystem Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, J. K.; Penta, B.; Kindle, J.

    2006-12-01

    A suite of empirical and semi-analytic ocean color algorithms were applied to three years of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data from the Gulf of Mexico. Examination of the interdependencies between various ocean color products and their relationships to satellite-retrieved physical variables (sea surface temperature, sea surface height) provided a means to diagnose potential changes in the taxonomic composition and size-structure of the surface phytoplankton community and attendant changes in the upper- ocean thermal structure. The principal method used to discern dominant phytoplankton functional groups was via examination of the satellite-estimated phytoplankton absorption efficiency: the ratio of phytoplankton absorption (443 nm) product to the surface pigment concentration product. The results were used to analyze a model of phytoplankton functional group dynamics for the surface mixed layer. Statistical plots summarizing the root-mean-square-errors and correlation coefficients between the model's results and the satellite-estimated chlorophyll fractionation were used to implement a model skill assessment for a range of potential model parameter settings.

  16. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

  17. Strategies, Programs and Projects 2008 of the Astrophysical Group "SPACE-Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos, Peru" - Preparing for the IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Victor; Aguilar, M.; Huisacayna, J.

    2008-05-01

    We present a review of our efforts to introduce astronomy as scientific career in Peru, showing how our astronomy outreach programs have been one of the most important keys to reach our national astronomical scientific goals, remarking the crucial role that the celebration of the IYA2009 must play, in order to promote PhD programmes in astronomy in developing countries. We show the importance of the creation of the Seminario Permanente de Astronomía y Ciencias Espaciales (SPACE) in the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, as an academic scientific and cultural center in Peru, to support our 26 years-old "Astronomical Fridays which are addressed to wide range of public, from schoolchildren to scientists. We also show how important was to rediscover our ancient astronomical cultural past of Incas in order to promote the construction of a Astronomical Center located near Cusco city over 4000 meters above sea level, which includes a tourist-educational observatory, a scientific optical observatory and a solar radio observatory.

  18. A PC/workstation cluster computing environment for reservoir engineering/simulation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, C.E.; Koo, J.

    1994-12-31

    Like the rest of the petroleum industry, Texaco has been migrating its applications and databases from mainframes to PC`s and workstations. This transition has been very positive from the standpoint that it provides an environment for integrating applications, increases end user productivity, and in general reduces overall computing costs. On the downside, the transition typically results in a dramatic increase in workstation purchases and raises concerns with regards to the cost and effective management of computing resources in this new environment. The workstation transition also places the user in a UNIX computing environment which, to say the least, can be quite frustrating to learn and use. This paper describes the approach, philosophy, architecture, and current status of the new reservoir engineering/reservoir simulation computing environment developed at Texaco`s Exploration and Production Technology Department in Houston, Texas. The environment is representative of that under development at several other large oil companies and is based upon a cluster of IBM and Silicon Graphics workstations connected by a fiber optics communications network and engineering PC`s connected to LAN`s or Ethernets. Since computing resources and software licenses are shared among a group of users, the new environment enables us to get more out of our investments in workstation hardware and software.

  19. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250–280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5–8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  20. Chemogenomic analysis of neuronal differentiation with pathway changes in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jack Yu-Shih; Wu, Chien Liang; Liao, Chia Nan; Higuchi, Akon; Ling, Qing-Dong

    2015-12-15

    The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database creates networks from interrelations between molecular biology and underlying chemical elements. This allows for analysis of biologic networks, genomic information, and higher-order functional information at a system level. Through high throughput experiments and system biology analysis, we investigated the genes and pathways associated with NGF induced neuronal differentiation. We performed microarray experiments and used the KEGG database, system biology analysis, and annotation of pathway functions to study NGF-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. We identified 2020 NGF-induced genes with altered expressions over time. Cross-matching with the KEGG database revealed 830 genes; among which, 395 altered genes were found to have a 2-fold increase in gene expression over a two-hour period. We then identified 191 associated biologic pathways in the KEGG database; the top 15 pathways showed correlation with neural differentiation. These included the neurotrophin pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, genes associated with axonal guidance and the Wnt pathways. The activation of these pathways synchronized with nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. In summary, we have established a model system that allows one to systematically characterize the functional pathway changes in a group of neuronal population after an external stimulus. PMID:26595144

  1. The Role of 6-Gingerol on Inhibiting Amyloid ? Protein-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zong, Shao-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Song-Wen; Li, Ke-Ke; Fang, Ye; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Our previous study suggests that ginger root extract can reverse behavioral dysfunction and prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like symptoms induced by the amyloid-? protein (A?) in a rat model. 6-Gingerol is the major gingerol in ginger rhizomes, but its effect on the treatment of AD remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine if 6-gingerol had a protective effect on A?1-42-induced damage and apoptotic death in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which 6-gingerol may exert its neuroprotective effects. Our results indicated that pre-treatment with 6-gingerol significantly increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis in A?1-42-treated cells. Moreover, 6-gingerol pretreatment markedly reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity compared with the A?1-42 treatment group. In addition, 6-gingerol pretreatment also significantly enhanced the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (p-GSK-3?). Overall, these results indicate that 6-gingerol exhibited protective effects on apoptosis induced by A?1-42 in cultured PC12 cells by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, suppressing the activation of GSK-3? and enhancing the activation of Akt, thereby exerting neuroprotective effects. Therefore, 6-gingerol may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of AD. PMID:25811848

  2. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging opportunities must be found in the reports of its Office of Exploration, which was established in 1987. That office's report, released in November 1989, of a 90-day study of possible plans for human exploration of the Moon and Mars is NASA's response to the new initiative proposed by President Bush on July 20, 1989, the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon: "First, for the coming decade, for the 1990s, Space Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon, back to the future, and this time, back to stay. And then a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars." This report, Space Resources, offers substantiation for NASA's bid to carry out that new initiative.

  3. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2001-01-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NOx emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NOx reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NOx reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NOx SIP call.

  4. PC based controller for utility interconnected photovoltaic power conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S.S.; Palanichamy, S.

    1995-12-31

    Utility interfaced photovoltaic power conditioning systems have come into vogue recently. In majority of the reported works, grid connections have been achieved through line commutated inverters with analog control. The poor performance of these schemes points to the need for developing a more efficient and reliable grid interface for generating utility grade AC, with fairly low levels of harmonics generated. In this paper, a DC to AC static power converter with a PC-based controller employing pulse width modulation technique have been developed and tested, and the results of experimental investigations are also reported.

  5. Isobaric PVT Behavior of Poly(Carbonate) (PC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassia, Luigi; D'Amore, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    The scaling law for relaxation times, ?(V,T) = ?(TV?), recently proposed by Casalini and Roland, is utilized in the framework of KAHR (Kovacs Aklonis Hutchinson and Ramos) phenomenological theory. With this approach it is shown that the Pressure, Volume, Temperature (PVT) data obtained on Poly(carbonate)(PC) can be reliably predicted, in the region of the alpha relaxation, by using only two fitting parameters, namely: the relaxation time in the reference condition, ?g, and the fractional exponent, ? that describes the dispersion of the alpha relaxation.

  6. AKPLOT: A plotter routine for IBM PC, XT and AT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil

    1987-01-01

    The AKPLOT software for the IBM PC, XT, and AT is an efficient and versatile tool that allows X-Y plotting of quantitative information. Features include IBM four-color graphics, which combined with 10 different symbols allows 40 different curves on the same grid, shrink or expansion of the graph size, any combination of log and linear X and Y axes, selective plotting from multiple curves of a previous run, interpolation and polynomial least-squares fit with any degree polynomial, and a 90-degree tilt of the entire graph. These options are independent, and can be invoked individually.

  7. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This color image from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shows a region in NGC 1365, a barred spiral galaxy located in a cluster of galaxies called Fornax. A barred spiral galaxy is characterized by a bar of stars, dust, and gas across its center. The black and white photograph from a ground-based telescope shows the entire galaxy, which is visible from the Southern Hemisphere. The galaxy is estimated to be 60-million light-years from Earth. This image was taken by the HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC-2).

  9. Brassinin Combined with Capsaicin Enhances Apoptotic and Anti-metastatic Effects in PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Moo; Oh, Eun Young; Lee, Jong Hyun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok Geun; Lee, Junhee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2015-11-01

    Brassinin (BSN), a type of indole compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, has shown anti-cancer effects in cells and animals. Capsaicin (CAP), an alkaloid derived from the chilli pepper, is also of interest in for its reported efficacy against various malignancies. The objective of our study was to analyze the potential synergistic anti-tumor effects of BSN combined with CAP on prostate cancer PC-3 cells. After treatment with BSN and CAP at various concentrations, the synergistic cytotoxic effect of PC-3 cells was analyzed by MTT method, proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, colony formation, and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of BSN and CAP on the constitutive expressions of MMP-9/2, their enzymatic activities, cellular migration, and cell invasion were also investigated. The cytotoxicity was synergistically increased in combination compared with the single drug used; moreover, proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and colony formation were significantly suppressed and anti-apoptotic-, proliferative-, and metastatic-related proteins were clearly abolished in the combination group. Besides, constitutive MMP-9/2 expression, their enzymatic activities, cell migration, and tumor cell invasion were inhibited, and TIMP-1 was up-regulated in the combination group in PC-3 cells. Our results indicate, for the first time, that BSN and CAP in combination exert synergistic anticancer effects in prostate carcinoma. PMID:26426257

  10. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells and suppresses PC-3 solid tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 g/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 g/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors. PMID:24782648

  11. Dynamics of self-pumped double PC mirrors based on photorefractive nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, Aleksandr V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V

    2004-05-31

    It is shown that apart from a dynamic hologram formed in the self-crossing region of input beams [the first phase-conjugation (PC) channel] in a single-crystal double PC mirror, additional refractive-index gratings spontaneously develop, which form the second PC channel with the interaction geometry typical of two-crystal PC mirrors. The competition between these channels leads to a complicated spatiotemporal dynamics of generated nonlinear waves. Depending on the experimental conditions, PC with the efficiency of up to 70 % - 80 % is possible and dynamic structures can be formed from thin soliton-like filaments. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. Polycomb Group Response Elements in Drosophila and Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Judith A.; Brown, J. Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group genes (PcG) encode a group of about 16 proteins that were first identified in Drosophila as repressors of homeotic genes. PcG proteins are present in all metazoans and are best characterized as transcriptional repressors. In Drosophila, these proteins are known as epigenetic regulators because they remember, but do not establish, the patterned expression state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins, in general, are not DNA binding proteins, but act in protein complexes to repress transcription at specific target genes. How are PcG proteins recruited to the DNA? In Drosophila, there are specific regulatory DNA elements called Polycomb group response elements (PREs) that bring PcG protein complexes to the DNA. Drosophila PREs are made up of binding sites for a complex array of DNA binding proteins. Functional PRE assays in transgenes have shown that PREs act in the context of other regulatory DNA and PRE activity is highly dependent on genomic context. Drosophila PREs tend to regulate genes with a complex array of regulatory DNA in a cell or tissue-specific fashion and it is the interplay between regulatory DNA that dictates PRE function. In mammals, PcG proteins are more diverse and there are multiple ways to recruit PcG complexes, including RNA-mediated recruitment. In this review, we discuss evidence for PREs in vertebrates and explore similarities and differences between Drosophila and vertebrate PREs. PMID:23419717

  13. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

  14. [PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Shi, Qing-Guo; Qian, Xiao-Long; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Hong-Tao; Wang, Le-Le; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2010-04-01

    PC-1(Prostate and colon gene 1) gene belongs to TPD52 (Tumor Protein D52) gene family. The expression of PC-1 is found to promote androgen-independent progression. This study was conducted to assess the mechnism of promotion of androgen-independent progression in PC-1 gene. The c-myc gene expression was tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses in the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line. After separation of cytoplasm and nulear proteins of the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line, the beta-catenin protein was detected by Western blotting. C4-2 cell line was used to examine the effects of 10058-F4 on the PC-1 gene expression. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting indicated that PC-1 enhanced c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells, PC-1 was also found to enhance beta-catenin expression in nuclear. Furthermore, a small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4 represses PC-1 gene expression in C4-2 cell line. Our findings suggest that PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Meanwhile, c-myc plays a feed-forward role in enhancing PC-1 driven c-myc gene expression, and promotes prostate an-drogen-independent progression. PMID:20423888

  15. Binding to and photo-oxidation of cardiolipin by the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Kim, Junhwan; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Berlin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-09-01

    Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its peroxidation correlates with release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptosis. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier Frster resonance energy transfer studies showed colocalization of Pc 4 and cardiolipin, which suggests cardiolipin as a target of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Pc 4. Using liposomes as membrane models, we find that Pc 4 binds to cardiolipin-containing liposomes similarly to those that do not contain cardiolipin. Pc 4 binding is also studied in MCF-7c3 cells and those whose cardiolipin content was reduced by treatment with palmitate. Decreased levels of cardiolipin are quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The similar level of binding of Pc 4 to cells, irrespective of palmitate treatment, supports the lack of specificity of Pc 4 binding. Thus, factors other than cardiolipin are likely responsible for the preferential localization of Pc 4 in mitochondria. Nonetheless, cardiolipin within liposomes is readily oxidized by Pc 4 and light, yielding apparently mono- and dihydroperoxidized cardiolipin. If similar products result from exposure of cells to Pc 4-PDT, they could be part of the early events leading to apoptosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  16. The white dwarf population within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Santiago; García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Context. The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool to understand the properties of the solar neighborhood, like its star formation history, and its age. Aims: Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population within 40 pc from the Sun, and compare the results of this study with the properties of the observed sample. Methods: We use a state-of-the-art population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporates the most recent and reliable white dwarf cooling sequences, an accurate description of the Galactic neighborhood, and a realistic treatment of all the known observational biases and selection procedures. Results: We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, our simulations reproduce a previously unexplained feature of the bright branch of the white dwarf luminosity function, which we argue is due to a recent episode of star formation. We also derive the age of the solar neighborhood employing the position of the observed cut-off of the white dwarf luminosity function, to obtain ~8.9 ± 0.2 Gyr. Conclusions: We conclude that a detailed description of the ensemble properties of the population of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun allows us to obtain interesting constraints on the history of the Solar neighborhood.

  17. Nuclear data retrieval for PC applications, PCNuDat

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, R.R.

    1996-11-01

    The PCNuDat program for IBM-PC compatibles is similar to the NuDat program available through the NNDC Online Nuclear Data Service. They provide a user with access to nuclear data in a convenient and menu driven system. This data is useful in both basic and applied research. The nuclear base used by NuDat is extracted from several data bases maintained at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The program is an extended DOS program which uses 32 bit addressing. It can run in a DOS window on all the current Windows operating systems. The program and its data base are currently available on both a CD-ROM or electronically over the Internet. Electronic access can be made through the NNDC`s Web home page. The files may also be FTP`d from the public area under the [pc{_}prog] directory on bnlnd2.dne.bnl.gov. The CD-ROM version also contains the Nuclear Science References (NSR) data base and its retrieval program, Papyrus NSR.

  18. SIMION PC/PS2 electrostatic lens design program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, D. A.; Delmore, J. E.; Appelhans, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    SIMION PC/PS2 4.02 is a personal computer program for designing and analyzing charged particle (ions and electrons) lenses, ion transport systems, and various types of mass spectrometers and surface probes that utilize charged particles. The modification of an existing design or the generation of a completely new one is performed interactively with a graphics screen and mouse. Once the geometry has been defined, the operating conditions (electrode voltages and magnetic field configuration) can be quickly changed and the resultant fields viewed in several different 2D and 3D modes. The trajectories of charged particles moving in these fields are calculated utilizing sophisticated ``look-ahead'' algorithms that dynamically control the time step to optimize speed and accuracy. A unique graphics display of the electrostatic fields and ion trajectories gives the user an intuitive, easily understood view of the performance characteristics. simion also includes a totally integrated capability for users to easily construct subprograms, which are automatically compiled and integrated into the main program, for defining and controlling all of the major functions of trajectory calculations. This makes it possible to model dynamic electric fields (e.g., rf), including ion-molecule collisions or neutralizations, etc. Operational experience with specific ion lenses designed with simion and tested in several different applications are discussed. SIMION PC/PS2 is available upon written request for the cost of distribution.

  19. Rotordynamics on the PC: Further Capabilities of ARDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Rotordynamics codes for personal computers are now becoming available. One of the most capable codes is Analysis of RotorDynamic Systems (ARDS) which uses the component mode synthesis method to analyze a system of up to 5 rotating shafts. ARDS was originally written for a mainframe computer but has been successfully ported to a PC; its basic capabilities for steady-state and transient analysis were reported in an earlier paper. Additional functions have now been added to the PC version of ARDS. These functions include: 1) Estimation of the peak response following blade loss without resorting to a full transient analysis; 2) Calculation of response sensitivity to input parameters; 3) Formulation of optimum rotor and damper designs to place critical speeds in desirable ranges or minimize bearing loads; 4) Production of Poincard plots so the presence of chaotic motion can be ascertained. ARDS produces printed and plotted output. The executable code uses the full array sizes of the mainframe version and fits on a high density floppy disc. Examples of all program capabilities are presented and discussed.

  20. How to reveal the exotic nature of the Pc(4450 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Meiner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    The LHCb Collaboration announced two pentaquark-like structures in the J /? p invariant mass distribution. We show that the current information on the narrow structure at 4.45 GeV is compatible with kinematical effects of the rescattering from ?c 1p to J /? p : First, it is located exactly at the ?c 1p threshold. Second, the mass of the four-star well-established ? (1890 ) is such that a leading Landau singularity from a triangle diagram can coincidentally appear at the ?c 1p threshold, and third, there is a narrow structure at the ?c 1p threshold but not at the ?c 0p and ?c 2p thresholds. In order to check whether that structure corresponds to a real exotic resonance, one can measure the process ?b0?K-?c 1p . If the Pc(4450 ) structure exists in the ?c 1p invariant mass distribution as well, then the structure cannot be just a kinematical effect but is a real resonance; otherwise, one cannot conclude that Pc(4450 ) is another exotic hadron. In addition, it is also worthwhile to measure the decay ? (1 S )?J /? p p : a narrow structure at 4.45 GeV but not at the ?c 0p and ?c 2p thresholds would exclude the possibility of a pure kinematical effect.