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1

Space shuttle based microgravity smoldering combustion experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from four microgravity smoldering combustion experiments conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle are presented in this work. The experiments are part of the NASA funded Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) research program, aimed to study the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling

David C. Walther; A. Carlos Fernandez-Pello; David L. Urban

1999-01-01

2

Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

Mohler, Robert R. J.

1997-01-01

3

Requirements for space shuttle scatter radar experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of carrying out scatter radar experiments on the space shuttle was analyzed. Design criteria considered were the required average transmitter power, frequency resolution, spatial resolution, and statistical accuracy. Experiments analyzed were measurement of the naturally enhanced plasma line and the ion component of the incoherent scatter spectrum, and the plasma line artificially enhanced by an intense HF radio wave. The ion component measurement does not appear feasible, while the other two appear reasonable for short ranges only.

Harker, K. J.

1975-01-01

4

CIRRIS-1A Space Shuttle experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a Space Shuttle payload designed to measure infrared emissions from upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, and targets of opportunity in support of space defense operations. The payload, Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A), consists of a Michelson interferometer for high-resolution spectral measurements and a dual-focal-plane radiometer with selectable band pass filters for spatial\\/clutter measurements in the 2.5-25

M. Ahmadjian; R. M. Nadile; J. O. Wise; B. Bartschi

1990-01-01

5

Analysis of microgravity space experiments Space Shuttle programmatic safety requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of an analysis of microgravity space experiments space shuttle programmatic safety requirements and recommends the creation of a Safety Compliance Data Package (SCDP) Template for both flight and ground processes. These templates detail the programmatic requirements necessary to produce a complete SCDP. The templates were developed from various NASA centers' requirement documents, previously written guidelines on safety data packages, and from personal experiences. The templates are included in the back as part of this report.

Terlep, Judith A.

1996-01-01

6

CIRRIS-1A Space Shuttle experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a Space Shuttle payload designed to measure infrared emissions from upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, and targets of opportunity in support of space defense operations. The payload, Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A), consists of a Michelson interferometer for high-resolution spectral measurements and a dual-focal-plane radiometer with selectable band pass filters for spatial/clutter measurements in the 2.5-25 microns wavelength region. The interferometer and radiometer share the collection optics of a high off-axis-rejection telescope for simultaneous spectral and spatial measurements within the same field of view. The sensor optics and detectors are cooled to liquid helium temperatures to allow measurements of emissions from weak infrared sources in the 60-150 km upper atmosphere. CIRRIS-1A will be launched on STS-39 in early 1991 into a 57-deg inclination circular orbit at an altitude of 260 km.

Ahmadjian, M.; Nadile, R. M.; Wise, J. O.; Bartschi, B.

1990-12-01

7

Space shuttle recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space shuttle design recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience are developed. The recommendations are specifically applied to the landing gear system, nondestructive inspection techniques, hydraulic system design, materials and processes, and program support.

Spears, J. M.; Fox, C. L.

1972-01-01

8

Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

1976-01-01

9

Project Explorer - Student experiments aboard the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Explorer, a program of high school student experiments in space in a Space Shuttle self-contained payload unit (Getaway Special), sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in cooperation with four Alabama universities is presented. Organizations aspects of the project, which is intended to promote public awareness of the space program and encourage space research, are considered, and the proposal selection procedure is outlined. The projects selected for inclusion in the self-contained payload canister purchased in 1977 and expected to be flown on an early shuttle mission include experiments on alloy solidification, electric plating, whisker growth, chick embryo development and human blood freezing, and an amateur radio experiment. Integration support activities planned and underway are summarized, and possible uses for a second payload canister purchased by ASRC are discussed.

Buckbee, E.; Dannenberg, K.; Driggers, G.; Orillion, A.

1979-01-01

10

Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

Francisco, David R.

1993-01-01

11

Onboard experiment data support facility, task 1 report. [space shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design and specifications are developed for an onboard experiment data support facility (OEDSF) to provide end to end processing of data from various payloads on board space shuttles. Classical data processing requirements are defined and modeled. Onboard processing requirements are analyzed. Specifications are included for an onboard processor.

1975-01-01

12

The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) Space Shuttle Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

1998-01-01

13

Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

1975-01-01

14

Experiment Definition Using the Space Laboratory, Long Duration Exposure Facility, and Space Transportation System Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Candidate experiments designed for the space shuttle transportation system and the long duration exposure facility are summarized. The data format covers: experiment title, Experimenter, technical abstract, benefits/justification, technical discussion of experiment approach and objectives, related work and experience, experiment facts space properties used, environmental constraints, shielding requirements, if any, physical description, and sketch of major elements. Information was also included on experiment hardware, research required to develop experiment, special requirements, cost estimate, safety considerations, and interactions with spacecraft and other experiments.

Sheppard, Albert P.; Wood, Joan M.

1976-01-01

15

Space shuttle electromagnetic environment experiment. Phase A: Definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program is discussed which develops a concept for measuring the electromagnetic environment on earth with equipment on board an orbiting space shuttle. Earlier work on spaceborne measuring experiments is reviewed, and emissions to be expected are estimated using, in part, previously gathered data. General relations among system parameters are presented, followed by a proposal on spatial and frequency scanning concepts. The methods proposed include a nadir looking measurement with small lateral scan and a circularly scanned measurement looking tangent to the earth's surface at the horizon. Antenna requirements are given, assuming frequency coverage from 400 MHz to 40 GHz. For the low frequency range, 400-1000 MHz, a processed, thinned array is proposed which will be more fully analyzed in the next phase of the program. Preliminary hardware and data processing requirements are presented.

Haber, F.; Showers, R. M.; Taheri, S. H.; Forrest, L. A., Jr.; Kocher, C.

1974-01-01

16

Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

Curry, Donald M.

1993-01-01

17

Simulation of an experiment pointing system for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pointing and control of experiments during sortie missions are examined from the standpoint of accuracy and performance. The effect of gimbal characteristics, pallet stiffness, and variation in the servo control loop are described. Simulation results are shown for a number of pointing options under the disturbing influences of man motion, thruster firings, and experiment operations. One option of particular interest is the suspended pallet which offers the possibility of high accuracy pointing of very large payloads without using conventional gimbals. The pallet is suspended within the payload bay by nonrigid attachments such as springs, thereby isolating experiments from most shuttle disturbances. Control moment gyros apply torques directly to the pallet to maintain pointing accuracy within the arc second range. Spring torques constrain shuttle attitude so thruster operation is not required. The suspended pallet approach will meet the base stability requirements of any sortie experiment and offers the possibility of a standardized low weight, low cost alternative to gimbaled mounts.

Nicaise, P. D.

1973-01-01

18

Early experiments in charged particle beams from the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of studies on board the Shuttle involving the interaction of particle beams with the atmosphere and the ionosphere, and the effects of the beams on the electrical potential of the platform, are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle allows greater weight and power demands by scientific payloads than previous satellite launches, the OSS-1 Vehicle Charging and Potential experiment and the Spacelab 1 Particle Accelerator and Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams are described. Instrumentation details are provided, including charge and current probes, the Spherical Retarding Potential Analyzer, the Fast Pulse Electron Generator, and digital control and interface units. The SEPAC equipment, which comprises an electron beam accelerator, and MPD plasma jet, and diagnostic units are detailed, and operating procedures and experiment objectives are outlined.

Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Williamson, P. R.; Baker, K. D.; Obayashi, T.; Burch, J. L.

1982-01-01

19

Supporting flight data analysis for Space Shuttle Orbiter experiments at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle orbiter experiments program is responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The infrared imagery of shuttle (IRIS), catalytic surface effects, and tile gap heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The software required to process the flight data which support these experiments is described. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques provide information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third shuttle mission.

Green, M. J.; Budnick, M. P.; Yang, L.; Chiasson, M. P.

1983-01-01

20

Space Shuttle Program Status  

E-print Network

1 Space Shuttle Program Status John Casper Associate Manager Space Shuttle Program September 13, 2010 NAC Space Operations Committee #12;2 Operations #12;3 Flown Manifest March 2009 ­ May 2010 #12, 2010 · 132nd Space Shuttle mission · 32nd Flight of Atlantis (120,650,907 statute miles) · 294 Total

Waliser, Duane E.

21

A search for experiments to exploit the space shuttle environment, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Institutions and laboratories in India, Japan, and Western Europe which were visited during a search for experiments to exploit the space shuttle environment are described. The facilities and current research interests of the various centers are discussed with particular emphasis given to the Indian Space Research Organization.

Fenn, J. B.

1979-01-01

22

Space Shuttle Debris Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

2010-01-01

23

Preliminary design of two Space Shuttle fluid physics experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mid-deck lockers of the STS and the requirements for operating an experiment in this region are described. The design of the surface tension induced convection and the free surface phenomenon experiments use a two locker volume with an experiment unique structure as a housing. A manual mode is developed for the Surface Tension Induced Convection experiment. The fluid is maintained in an accumulator pre-flight. To begin the experiment, a pressurized gas drives the fluid into the experiment container. The fluid is an inert silicone oil and the container material is selected to be comparable. A wound wire heater, located axisymmetrically above the fluid can deliver three wattages to a spot on the fluid surface. These wattages vary from 1-15 watts. Fluid flow is observed through the motion of particles in the fluid. A 5 mw He/Ne laser illuminates the container. Scattered light is recorded by a 35mm camera. The free surface phenomena experiment consists of a trapezoidal cell which is filled from the bottom. The fluid is photographed at high speed using a 35mm camera which incorporated the entire cell length in the field of view. The assembly can incorporate four cells in one flight. For each experiment, an electronics block diagram is provided. A control panel concept is given for the surface induced convection. Both experiments are within the mid-deck locker weight and c-g limits.

Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.

1984-01-01

24

SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM Space Shuttle Projects Office (MSFC)  

E-print Network

of LO2 Feedline Insulation · Readiness Statement #12;SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM Space Shuttle Projects OfficeSPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM Space Shuttle Projects Office (MSFC) NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama September 17, 2002 1 STS-112/ET-115 Flight Readiness Review External Tank Project #12

Christian, Eric

25

Space Shuttle management issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the many management methods being implemented on the Space Shuttle Program. Management attention to cost reduction and the techniques being used to meet the Shuttle cost commitment are described. A detailed explanation is given for the NASA Performance Measurement System but all other major management tools being used are also discussed.

Roseman, H. M.

1975-01-01

26

Space Shuttle Drawing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo program demonstrated that men could travel into space, perform useful tasks there, and return safely to Earth. But space had to be more accessible. This led to the development of the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components.

2004-01-01

27

Space Shuttle cloud detection and earth feature classification experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) that is being designed for the detection and classification of four primary earth features (water, vegetation, bare land, and the clouds-snow-ice class) is described. Consideration is given to the FILE classification technology concept and the FILE instrument, which will use two solid-state CCD cameras operating at 0.65 and 0.85-micron center frequency wavelengths, with the camera outputs being functions of the earth surface material radiance. The classification is based on camera output radiance ratio values. The preliminary analysis of the data collected on the STS 41-G mission is discussed. The results demonstrated the suitability of using the two-channel-ratio detection technology and a simple (y = mx) algorithm to autonomously classify the four earth surface features. The technology is especially attractive as a cloud sensor, where, in advance of or during a mission, a threshold value for cloud cover percentage can be programmed and/or adaptively modified for use in the control of other remote sensors.

Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

1986-01-01

28

US Space Shuttle evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long term systematic series of upgrades and enhancements needed to insure that the Space Shuttle remains a viable, cost-effective transportation system are discussed. A candidate Space Shuttle evolution strategy is presented. It emphasizes enhanced reliability, crew safety, reduced operations costs and enhanced capabilities required to meet projected long-range requirements. The strategy includes definition of long-term goals and requirements, potential hardware and operation enhancements, and addresses the issues of fleet size and utilization.

Teixeira, Charles

1989-01-01

29

Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

1981-01-01

30

The Space Shuttle and Its Operations 53 Shuttle and  

E-print Network

The Space Shuttle and Its Operations 53 The Space Shuttle and Its Operations The Space Shuttle Shuttle Builds the International Space Station #12;The Space Shuttle design was remarkable. The idea Space Telescope through refurbishments. The most impressive product that resulted from the shuttle

31

A decade on board America's Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectacular moments from a decade (1981-1991) of Space Shuttle missions, captured on film by the astronauts who flew the missions, are presented. First hand accounts of astronauts' experiences aboard the Shuttle are given. A Space Shuttle mission chronology featuring flight number, vehicle name, crew, launch and landing dates, and mission highlights is given in tabular form.

1991-01-01

32

Space Shuttle redesign status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has conducted an extensive redesign effort for the Space Shutle in the aftermath of the STS 51-L Challenger accident, encompassing not only Shuttle vehicle and booster design but also such system-wide factors as organizational structure, management procedures, flight safety, flight operations, sustainable flight rate, and maintenance safeguards. Attention is presently given to Solid Rocket Booster redesign features, the Shuttle Main Engine's redesigned high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, the Shuttle Orbiter's braking and rollout (landing gear) system, the entry control mode of the flight control system, a 'split-S' abort maneuver for the Orbiter, and crew escape capsule proposals.

Brand, Vance D.

1986-01-01

33

Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

Curtis, Cris E.

2007-01-01

34

Space Shuttle news reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

1981-01-01

35

Application of a Modified Gas Chromatograph to Analyze Space Experiment Combustion Gases on Space Shuttle Mission STS-94  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space experiment designed to study the behavior of combustion without the gravitational effects of buoyancy was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on July 1, 1997. The space experiment, designated as Combustion Module-1 (CM-1), was one of several manifested on the Microgravity Sciences Laboratory - 1 (MSL-1) mission. The launch, designated STS-94, had the Spacelab Module as the payload, in which the MSL-1 experiments were conducted by the Shuttle crewmembers. CM-1 was designed to accommodate two different combustion experiments during MSL-1. One experiment, the Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number experiment (SOFBALL), required gas chromatography analysis to verify the composition of the known, premixed gases prior to combustion, and to determine the remaining reactant and the products resulting from the combustion process in microgravity. A commercial, off-the-shelf, dual-channel micro gas chromatograph was procured and modified to interface with the CM-1 Fluids Supply Package and the CM-1 Combustion Chamber, to accommodate two different carrier gases, each flowing through its own independent column module, to withstand the launch environment of the Space Shuttle, to accept Spacelab electrical power, and to meet the Spacelab flight requirements for electromagnetic interference (EMI) and offgassing. The GC data was down linked to the Marshall Space Flight Center for near-real time analysis, and stored on-orbit for post-flight analysis. The gas chromatograph operated successfully during the entire SOFBALL experiment and collected 309 runs. Because of the constraints imposed upon the gas chromatograph by the CM-1 hardware, system and operations, it was unable to measure the gases to the required accuracy. Future improvements to the system for a re-flight of the SOFBALL experiment are expected to enable the gas chromatograph to meet all the requirements.

Coho, William K.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanZandt, David M.

1998-01-01

36

Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

Larsen, Curtis E.

2012-01-01

37

Space Shuttle communications experiments. [between 0.4 and 100 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments which are under consideration for possible flight on the Space Shuttle in the 1980's to aid in the development of new communications techniques are outlined. A millimeter wave communications experiment for the study of propagation above 10 GHz and an electromagnetic environment experiment for the characterization of fields in orbit are planned to provide information needed for effective spectrum conservation. An antenna range experiment is being studied to provide an in-orbit far-field RF signal source for measuring ground antenna patterns and gain over a wide frequency range. Additional experiments will be intended to test spacecraft technology developments, including such communications system components as large phased array antennas and solid state transmitters and receivers.

Wolff, E. A.

1976-01-01

38

Electrical design of Space Shuttle payload G-534: The pool boiling experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload G-534, the Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE), is a Get Away Special (GAS) payload that flew on the Space Shuttle Spacelab Mission J (STS 47) on September 19-21, 1992. This paper will give a brief overall description of the experiment with the main discussion being the electrical design with a detailed description of the power system and interface to the GAS electronics. The batteries used and their interface to the experiment Power Control Unit (PCU) and GAS electronics will be examined. The design philosophy for the PCU will be discussed in detail. The criteria for selection of fuses, relays, power semiconductors, and other electrical components along with grounding and shielding policy for the entire experiment are presented. The intent of this paper is to discuss the use of military tested parts and basic design guidelines to build a quality experiment for minimal additional cost.

Francisco, David R.

1993-01-01

39

An ELF (Extremely-Low-Frequency) transmitter experiment for the space shuttle. (The NASC-201 (Naval Air Space Command) experiment). Volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the design for a spaceborne ELF/VLF transmitter. The transmitter could be used for experiments to obtain the radiation data in a space plasma required to determine the feasibility of an ELF downlink communications system from a satellite to a subsurface antenna. The antenna is designed to be deployed by the Remote Manipulator Arm on the Space Shuttle.

Koons, Harry C.

1986-09-01

40

Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. [magnetospheric experiments from space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current work aimed at identifying the active magnetospheric experiments that can be performed from the Space Shuttle, and designing a laboratory to carry out these experiments is described. The laboratory, known as the PPEPL (Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory) consists of 35-ft pallet of instruments connected to a 25-ft pressurized control module. The systems deployed from the pallet are two 50-m booms, two subsatellites, a high-power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform. Missions are planned to last seven days, during which two scientists will carry out experiments from within the pressurized module. The type of experiments to be performed are outlined.

Vogl, J. L.

1973-01-01

41

Aboard the Space Shuttle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),

Steinberg, Florence S.

42

Aboard the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

Steinberg, F. S.

1980-01-01

43

Space Shuttle Cockpit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

2000-01-01

44

Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

2000-01-01

45

STS-63 Space Shuttle report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the OV-103 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-68; three SSME's that were designated 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-070. The RSRM's that were an integral part of the SRB's were designated 360Q042A for the left SRB and 360L042B for the right SRB. The STS-63 mission was planned as an 8-day duration mission with two contingency days available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The primary objectives of the STS-63 mission were to perform the Mir rendezvous operations, accomplish the Spacehab-3 experiments, and deploy and retrieve the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-204 (SPARTAN-204) payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the Cryogenic Systems Experiment (CSE)/Shuttle Glo-2 Experiment (GLO-2) Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS-2) (CGP/ODERACS-2) payload objectives, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Tests (AMOS). The objectives of the Mir rendezvous/flyby were to verify flight techniques, communication and navigation-aid sensor interfaces, and engineering analyses associated with Shuttle/Mir proximity operations in preparation for the STS-71 docking mission.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

46

STS-63 Space Shuttle report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the OV-103 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-68; three SSME's that were designated 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-070. The RSRM's that were an integral part of the SRB's were designated 360Q042A for the left SRB and 360L042B for the right SRB. The STS-63 mission was planned as an 8-day duration mission with two contingency days available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The primary objectives of the STS-63 mission were to perform the Mir rendezvous operations, accomplish the Spacehab-3 experiments, and deploy and retrieve the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-204 (SPARTAN-204) payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the Cryogenic Systems Experiment (CSE)/Shuttle Glo-2 Experiment (GLO-2) Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS-2) (CGP/ODERACS-2) payload objectives, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Tests (AMOS). The objectives of the Mir rendezvous/flyby were to verify flight techniques, communication and navigation-aid sensor interfaces, and engineering analyses associated with Shuttle/Mir proximity operations in preparation for the STS-71 docking mission.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-06-01

47

]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

2000-01-01

48

Space shuttle lightning protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology for lightning protection of even the most advanced spacecraft is available and can be applied through cost-effective hardware designs and design-verification techniques. In this paper, the evolution of the Space Shuttle Lightning Protection Program is discussed, including the general types of protection, testing, and anlayses being performed to assess the lightning-transient-damage susceptibility of solid-state electronics.

Suiter, D. L.; Gadbois, R. D.; Blount, R. L.

1979-01-01

49

Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy  

NASA Video Gallery

A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

50

Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines  

NASA Video Gallery

Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

51

Space Shuttle Endeavour Heads West  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified 747, flew retired shuttle Endeavour from Kennedy Space Center in Florida to Houston on Sept. 19, 2012, to complete the first leg of Endeavour's trip to L...

52

A search for experiments to exploit the space shuttle environment, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search for worthwhile experiments in pure and applied physics and chemistry which might take advantage of conditions achievable aboard the space shuttle is documented. Of particular interest were the very large pumping speeds at high or ultra high vacuum, the highly nonequilibrium composition of the ambient atmosphere, and the relative absence of gravitational effects. Ideas and suggestions were solicated in the course of visits to 31 research establishments in Western Europe, India, and Japan; conversations with over 90 scientists; and presentations at 3 international meetings. Intriguing possibilities emerged in the following arenas: (1) spectroscopy of the transition state in chemical reactions; (2) flame structure and analysis; (3) solid propellant combustion; (4) analysis of atmospheric composition; (5) turbulence effects on aerosol coagulation.

Fenn, J. B.

1979-01-01

53

Space Shuttle operational logistics plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

Botts, J. W.

1983-01-01

54

Space shuttle simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of atmospheric turbulence in both horizontal and near horizontal flight, during the return of the space shuttle, are important for determining design, control, and 'pilot-in-the-loop' effects. A nonrecursive model (based on von Karman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the shuttle orbiter was developed which provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity, and also for simulation of instantaneous gust gradients. Based on this model, the time series for both gusts and gust gradients were generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes which are entitled shuttle simulation turbulence tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 10,000 meters. The turbulence generation procedure is described as well as the results of validating the simulated turbulence. Conclusions and recommendations are presented and references cited. The tabulated one dimensional von Karman spectra and the results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT are contained in the appendix.

Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.

1980-01-01

55

Space shuttle navigation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

1976-01-01

56

Space shuttle avionics system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

1989-01-01

57

STS63 Space Shuttle report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1995-01-01

58

Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

59

Food packages for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

1978-01-01

60

Shuttle infrared imaging experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Imaging Experiment (IRIE) flown on Shuttle Mission 6 lC is reported. The infrared camera, which was operated in the 3.5- to 5-micron spectral band, replaced one of the visible CCTV cameras on the Shuttle. The camera employed a 160 x 244-element monolithic platinum-silicide area focal-plane array; array characteristics, camera electronics, optics, and focal plane cooling are summarized. The preplanned scenes for the IRIE are listed. A total of about 2.5 hours of data, including some preplanned scenes and unscheduled operation, were recorded. Several of the recorded scenes are mentioned specifically.

Aronson, A.; Cenker, R.; Gilmartin, H.

1986-01-01

61

NASA space shuttle lightweight seat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

1996-01-01

62

ITOS/space shuttle study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are reported of a study to explore the potential cost reductions in the operational ITOS weather satellite program as a consequence of shuttle/bug availability for satellite placement and retrieval, and satellite servicing and maintenance. The study program was divided into shuttle impact on equipment and testing costs, and shuttle impact on overall future ITOS operational program costs, and shuttle impact on configuration. It is concluded that savings in recurring spacecraft costs can be realized in the 1978 ITOS program, if a space shuttle is utilized.

1971-01-01

63

Space Shuttle Glider. Educational Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Space Shuttle Glider is a scale model of the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter. The airplane-like orbiter usually remains in Earth orbit for up to two weeks at a time. It normally carries a six- to seven-person crew which includes the mission commander, pilot, and several mission and/or payload specialists who have specialized training associated with

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

64

Space Shuttle development update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

Brand, V.

1984-01-01

65

Space Shuttle solid rocket booster initial water impact loads and dynamics - Analysis, tests, and flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of scale model tests, finite element dynamic response analyses and full scale segment tests have been performed for purposes of developing design criteria for the initial water impact loading conditions applied to the internal stiffener rings located in the aft skirt portion of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). In addition, flight experience has yielded information relative to structural reinforcement requirements. This paper discusses the test and analysis methods and summarizes significant results. It is noted that, although scale model test data are valuable for identifying trends, they have shortcomings concerning definition of full scale design loads criteria. Also, the frequently used static equivalent loads definition approach is not applicable for this type impact loading condition applied to an aft skirt type structure. Various types of ring structural fixes, including the addition of selected types of foam, are presented as well as associated full scale segment test results. Depending on the type and contour shape of the foam, reductions on applied pressures and peak measured strains over 50 percent are noted.

Kross, D. A.; Kiefling, L. A.; Murphy, N. C.; Rawls, E. A.

1983-01-01

66

History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

Goodman, John L.

2011-01-01

67

Cardiovascular Aspects of Space Shuttle Flights: At the Heart of Three Decades of American Spaceflight Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of the Space Shuttle era elevated cardiovascular deconditioning from a research topic in gravitational physiology to a concern with operational consequences during critical space mission phases. NASA has identified three primary cardiovascular risks associate with short-duration (less than 18 d) spaceflight: orthostatic intolerance; decreased maximal oxygen uptake; and cardiac arrhythmias. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was observed postflight in Mercury astronauts, studied in Gemini and Apollo astronauts, and tracked as it developed in-flight during Skylab missions. A putative hypotensive episode in the pilot during an early shuttle landing, and well documented postflight hypotension in a quarter of crewmembers, catalyzed NASA's research effort to understand its mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Shuttle investigations documented the onset of OH, tested mechanistic hypotheses, and demonstrated countermeasures both simple and complex. Similarly, decreased aerobic capacity in-flight threatened both extravehicular activity and post-landing emergency egress. In one study, peak oxygen uptake and peak power were significantly decreased following flights. Other studies tested hardware and protocols for aerobic conditioning that undergird both current practice on long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions and plans for interplanetary expeditions. Finally, several studies suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are of less concern during short-duration spaceflight than during long-duration spaceflight. Duration of the QT interval was unchanged and the frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions was actually shown to decrease during extravehicular activity. These investigations on short-duration Shuttle flights have paved the way for research aboard long-duration ISS missions and beyond. Efforts are already underway to study the effects of exploration class missions to asteroids and Mars.

Charles, John B.; Platts, S. H.

2011-01-01

68

Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively planning the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Implementing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (CLV). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the President s "Vision for Space Exploration," and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

Henderson, Edward M.; Norbraten, Gordon L.

2006-01-01

69

Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

2007-01-01

70

America's shuttle returns to space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle management structure, streamlined since the Challenger accident, is outlined. The associate administrators for space flight are identified and their responsibilities clearly spelled out. The NASA policy of assigning astronauts to management positions is described. A spaceflight safety panel is described. Non-managerial safety enhancement programs are outlined. These include: solid rocker booster changes, shuttle crew escape systems, and landing improvements.

Moorehead, Robert W.

1989-01-01

71

United States Space Shuttle Firsts  

E-print Network

night landing at Edwards Air Force Base. 11/28/1983 STS-9 (Columbia) CREW: J. Young, B. Shaw Jr., O #12; Foreword This summary of the United States Space Shuttle Program firsts was compiled from various Complex 39A. 02/20/1981 STS-1 (Columbia) · First Flight Readiness Firing (FRF) of shuttle main engines

72

Space Shuttle Columbia News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The official US gateway to all government information, FirstGov.gov, has compiled a number of informative links that chronicle the February 2003 Shuttle Columbia disaster. Visitors can read President Bush's address to the nation regarding Columbia and its crew; review the latest information from NASA about the Shuttle mission, crew, and current investigation; and discover how the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Environmental Protection Agency are assisting in the shuttle recovery and clean-up. The user-friendly FirstGov.gov does a good job of providing citizens with a well organized point of entry to links regarding recent governmental news and information.

2003-01-01

73

The Space Shuttle At Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the Space Shuttle vehicles and is prepared by the Scientific and Technical Information Branch and Division of Public Affairs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The book is divided into nine chapters including information about the launching, flight, and orbit of the ships; the satellites and previous space

Allaway, Howard

74

The Space Shuttle in perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial aspects of the Space Shuttle are examined, with attention given to charges to users, schedule of launches and reimbursement, kinds of payload and their selection, NASA authority, space allocation, and risk, liability, and insurance. It is concluded that insurance to reduce the risk, incentives that NASA is willing to make available to U.S. industry, and the demonstrated willingness of industry and the financial community to invest their funds in space ventures indicate that the new Shuttle capabilities will exponentially increase commercial activities in space during the 1980s.

Hosenball, S. N.

1981-01-01

75

Seedling growth and development on space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July\\/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to

J. Cowles; R. Lemay; G. Jahns

1994-01-01

76

Space Shuttle critical function audit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large fault-tolerance model of the main propulsion system of the US space shuttle has been developed. This model is being used to identify single components and pairs of components that will cause loss of shuttle critical functions. In addition, this model is the basis for risk quantification of the shuttle. The process used to develop and analyze the model is digraph matrix analysis (DMA). The DMA modeling and analysis process is accessed via a graphics-based computer user interface. This interface provides coupled display of the integrated system schematics, the digraph models, the component database, and the results of the fault tolerance and risk analyses.

Sacks, Ivan J.; Dipol, John; Su, Paul

1990-01-01

77

STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

78

Rocket propulsion hazard summary: Safety classification, handling experience and application to space shuttle payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOT classification for transportation, the military classification for quantity distance, and hazard compatibility grouping used to regulate the transportation and storage of explosives are presented along with a discussion of tests used in determining sensitivity of propellants to an impact/shock environment in the absence of a large explosive donor. The safety procedures and requirements of a Scout launch vehicle, Western and Eastern Test Range, and the Minuteman, Delta, and Poseidon programs are reviewed and summarized. Requirements of the space transportation system safety program include safety reviews from the subsystem level to the completed payload. The Scout safety procedures will satisfy a portion of these requirements but additional procedures need to be implemented to comply with the safety requirements for Shuttle operation from the Eastern Test Range.

Pennington, D. F.; Man, T.; Persons, B.

1977-01-01

79

Inductive knowledge acquisition experience with commercial tools for space shuttle main engine testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1984, an effort has been underway at Rocketdyne, manufacturer of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), to automate much of the analysis procedure conducted after engine test firings. Previously published articles at national and international conferences have contained the context of and justification for this effort. Here, progress is reported in building the full system, including the extensions of integrating large databases with the system, known as Scotty. Inductive knowledge acquisition has proven itself to be a key factor in the success of Scotty. The combination of a powerful inductive expert system building tool (ExTran), a relational data base management system (Reliance), and software engineering principles and Computer-Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools makes for a practical, useful and state-of-the-art application of an expert system.

Modesitt, Kenneth L.

1990-01-01

80

Scientific uses of the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was conducted to determine the possible missions which could be accomplished by the space shuttle. The areas of scientific endeavor which were considered are as follows: (1) atmospheric and space physics, (2) high energy astrophysics, (3) infrared astronomy, (4) optical and ultraviolet astronomy, (5) solar physics, (6) life sciences, and (7) planetary exploration. Specific projects to be conducted in these broader areas are defined. The modes of operation of the space shuttle are analyzed. Instruments and equipment required for conducting the experiments are identified.

1974-01-01

81

STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

82

Definition Study for Space Shuttle Experiments Involving Large, Steerable Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential uses and techniques for the shuttle spacelab Millimeter Wave Large Aperture Antenna Experiment (MWLAE) are documented. Potential uses are identified: applications to radio astronomy, the sensing of atmospheric turbulence by its effect on water vapor line emissions, and the monitoring of oil spills by multifrequency radiometry. IF combining is preferable to RF combining with respect to signal to noise ratio for communications receiving antennas of the size proposed for MWLAE. A design approach using arrays of subapertures is proposed to reduce the number of phase shifters and mixers for uses which require a filled aperture. Correlation radiometry and a scheme utilizing synchronous Dicke switches and IF combining are proposed as potential solutions.

Levis, C. A.

1976-01-01

83

Space Shuttle flight test results of the Cosmic Ray Upset Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CRUX is the first engineering flight experiment designed to test for the incidence of upsets in microcircuits by energetic particles. Harris HM 6504 4K x 1 static CMOS RAM's were used as the test device types in a 1.3 megabit memory which flew on two Shuttle flights. Ground (cyclotron) test information led to a prediction of about one error every 1000 days. No errors were experienced in 10 days of flight. While data were not in conflict with the error prediction and do support it, quantitative validation of the modeling for upsets is not statistically possible. Follow-on hardware (CRUX III) incorporates five different state-of-the-art microcircuits, and is scheduled for flight in October 1984.

Adolphsen, J. W.; Yagelowich, J. J.; Sahu, K.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Kolasinski, W. A.; Koga, R.; Benton, E. V.

1984-01-01

84

Exploiting operational vehicles for in-flight research - Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five Orbiter Experiments in which NASA's Langley Research Center has had significant involvement are described. These experiments are the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing experiment, the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer experiment, the High Resolution Accelerometer Package experiment, the Orbital Acceleration Research experiment, and the Space Station structural characterization experiment. The Shuttle Entry Air Data System is also described.

Holloway, Paul F.; Breckenridge, Roger A.

1989-01-01

85

Observation of nitric oxide rovibrational band head emissions in the quiescent airglow during the CIRRIS-1A space shuttle experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Band head emissions from highly rotationally excited NO (v, J) (J approx. equals 90) have been observed in the quiescent atmosphere at tangent heights between approximately 115 and 190 km for both sunlit and nighttime conditions. The data were obtained by the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) interferometer which was operated on-board the space shuttle between 28 and

D. R. Smith; M. Ahmadjian

1993-01-01

86

STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W.

1991-01-01

87

Space Shuttle Missions Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

2011-01-01

88

STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

89

STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

90

STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

91

Rotating-unbalanced-mass devices and methods for scanning balloon-borne-experiments, free-flying spacecraft, and space shuttle/space station attached experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for scanning balloon-borne experiments, free-flying spacecraft, or gimballed experiments mounted on a space shuttle or space station, makes use of one or more rotating unbalanced mass devices for selectively generating circular, line, or raster scan patterns for the experiment line of sight. An auxiliary control system may also be used in combination with the rotating unbalanced mass device, for target acquisition, keeping the scan centered on the target, or for producing complementary motion for raster scanning. The rotating unbalanced mass makes use of a mass associated with a drive shaft, such mass having a center of gravity which is displaced from the drive shaft rotation axis. The drive shaft is driven with a substantially constant angular velocity, thereby resulting in relatively low power requirements since no acceleration or deceleration of the mass is generally involved during steady state operations. The resulting centrifugal force of the rotating unbalanced mass is used to generate desired reaction forces on the experiment or spacecraft to create a desired scan pattern for the experiment line of sight.

Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

1992-01-01

92

STS61 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1994-01-01

93

Living aboard the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crew habitat of the Space Shuttle is briefly characterized. Subjects discussed include the overall layout of the crew quarters; the air-purification and climate-control facilities; menus and food-preparation techniques; dishwashing, laundry, toilet, bathing, and shaving procedures; and recreation and sleeping accommodations. Drawings and a photograph are provided.

1984-01-01

94

STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1990-01-01

95

A VLF transmitter on the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of space-borne transmitters for the study of interactions of energetic radiation belt particles and coherent plasma waves in the earth's magnetosphere has been considered. The proposed Space Shuttle/Space Lab system would provide a useful VLF transmitter platform since it can lift the required large payloads into orbit, erect long antennas, supply the electrical power required, and provide real-time control. A study is conducted of the power budget of such a VLF transmitter in an attempt to assess the feasibility of the experiment. It is found that a 1-10 kW transmitter placed on the Space Shuttle/Space Lab system can inject from one watt to up to a few kilowatts of wave power into the whistler mode. Recent results of ground-based VLF wave-injection experiments show that such power levels would be more than enough for initiating nonlinear wave growth and amplification and emission triggering in the magnetosphere.

Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Helliwell, R. A.; Katsufrakis, K. P.

96

Space shuttle flying qualities and criteria assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work accomplished under a series of study tasks for the Flying Qualities and Flight Control Systems Design Criteria Experiment (OFQ) of the Shuttle Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is summarized. The tasks involved review of applicability of existing flying quality and flight control system specification and criteria for the Shuttle; identification of potentially crucial flying quality deficiencies; dynamic modeling of the Shuttle Orbiter pilot/vehicle system in the terminal flight phases; devising a nonintrusive experimental program for extraction and identification of vehicle dynamics, pilot control strategy, and approach and landing performance metrics, and preparation of an OEX approach to produce a data archive and optimize use of the data to develop flying qualities for future space shuttle craft in general. Analytic modeling of the Orbiter's unconventional closed-loop dynamics in landing, modeling pilot control strategies, verification of vehicle dynamics and pilot control strategy from flight data, review of various existent or proposed aircraft flying quality parameters and criteria in comparison with the unique dynamic characteristics and control aspects of the Shuttle in landing; and finally a summary of conclusions and recommendations for developing flying quality criteria and design guides for future Shuttle craft.

Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1987-01-01

97

STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

98

Microbiology studies in the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Past space microbiology studies have evaluated three general areas: microbe detection in extraterrestrial materials; monitoring of autoflora and medically important species on crewmembers, equipment, and cabin air; and in vitro evaluations of isolated terrestrial species carried on manned and unmanned spaceflights. These areas are briefly reviewed to establish a basis for presenting probable experiment subjects applicable to the Space Shuttle era. Most extraterrestrial life detection studies involve visitations to other heavenly bodies. Although this is not applicable to the first series of Shuttle flights, attempts to capture meteors and spores in space could be important. Human pathogen and autoflora monitoring will become more important with increased variety among crewmembers. Inclusion of contaminated animal and plant specimens in the space lab will necessitate inflight evaluation of cross-contamination and infection potentials. The majority of Shuttle microbiology studies will doubtless fall into the third study area. Presence of a space lab will permit a whole range of experimentation under conditions similar to these experienced in earth-based laboratories. The recommendations of various study groups are analyzed, and probable inflight microbiological experiment areas are identified for the Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory.

Taylor, G. R.

1976-01-01

99

STS65 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1994-01-01

100

STS64 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1995-01-01

101

STS62 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter,

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1994-01-01

102

STS39 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's)

Robert W. Fricke

1991-01-01

103

STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-01-01

104

Solidification experiment in mirror furnaces flown in a GAS payload on space shuttle STS-108  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiment was excellent performed in the self-contained GAS payload G-730, flown on STS-108 Endeavour in December 2001. The payload was designed and developed by Swedish Space Corporation. The intention with the experiment was to investigate the influence of weak convection, caused by surface tension forces, on radial segregation occurring in crystals grown under microgravity conditions. The geometry studied was a Bridgman configuration with a partially coated surface. Seven mirror furnaces were used to process glass-coated samples with slots in the coating of different widths. The furnaces were controlled by a PC/104 computer system where also all data from the flight was stored.

Holm, P.; Lth, K.; Larsson, B.; Carlberg, T.

2003-08-01

105

Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SL-3 flight on the NASA Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each (?3) growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic Schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

1980-12-01

106

Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SL-3 flight on the Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

1980-01-01

107

Space Shuttle Propulsion Safety Upgrades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the proposed upgrades to the Space Shuttle Propulsion system, to improve safety, and reduce significant hazards. The goals of the program are to reduce the risk of a catastrophe in ascent, to achieve significant reduction in orbital and entry systems, and to improve the crew cockpit situational awareness for managing the critical operational situations. The document reviews the upgrades to the propulsion system which are planned to improve the safety. These include modifications to the Advanced Thrust Vector Control, modifications to the Space Shuttle Main Engine Block III, improvement in the Advanced Health Management System, the use of Friction Stir welding on the external tank, which is expected to improve mechanical properties, and reduce defect rate, and the modification of the propellant grains geometry.

Humphries, William Randy, Jr.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

108

STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment (GFE/FCE) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 3. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 4. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

109

Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiments on Space Shuttle Flights STS-53 and STS-57  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE) program, managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center Space Propulsion Branch with Martin Marietta Civil Space and Communications as the contractor, consisted of two flights designated FARE I and FARE II. FARE I flew in December 1992 on STS-53 with a screen channel liquid acquisition device (LAD) and FARE II flew in June 1993 on STS-57 with a vane-type LAD. Thus, the FARE I and II flights represent the two basic LAD categories usually considered for in-space fluid management. Although both LAD types have been used extensively, the usefulness of the on-orbit data has been constrained by the lack of experimentation beyond predicted performance limits, including both propellant fill and expulsion. Therefore, the FARE tests were designed to obtain data that would satisfy two primary objectives: (1) Demonstrate the performance of the two types of LADs, screen channel and vane, and (2) support the anchoring of analytical models. Both flights were considered highly successful in meeting these two primary objectives.

Dominick, S. M.; Tegart, J. R.; Driscoll, S. L.; Sledd, J. D.; Hastings, L. J.

2011-01-01

110

Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

Herrera, Linda M.

2010-01-01

111

STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W.

1991-01-01

112

Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic analysis, using the two-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that

Fred B. Oswald; Timothy R. Jett; Roamer E. Predmore; Erwin V. Zaretsky

2008-01-01

113

Space Shuttle Status News Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Richard Gilbech, External Tank "Tiger Team" Lead, begins this space shuttle news conference with detailing the two major objectives of the team. The objectives include: 1) Finding the root cause of the foam loss on STS-114; and 2) Near and long term improvements for the external tank. Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Manager, presents a chart to explain the external tank foam loss during STS-114. He gives a possible launch date for STS-121 after there has been a repair to the foam on the External Tank. He further discusses the changes that need to be made to the surrounding areas of the plant in New Orleans, due to Hurricane Katrina. Bill Gerstemaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, elaborates on the testing of the external tank foam loss. The discussion ends with questions from the news media about a fix for the foam, replacement of the tiles, foam loss avoidance, the root cause of foam loss and a possible date for a new external tank to be shipped to NASA Kennedy Space Center.

2005-01-01

114

Advanced Space Shuttle simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of atmospheric turbulence in horizontal and near-horizontal flight during the return of the Space Shuttle are important for determining design, control, and pilot-in-the-loop effects. A nonrecursive model (based on vonKarman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the Shuttle Orbiter has been developed which provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity and also for simulation of instantaneous gust gradients. Based on this model the time series for gusts and gust gradients have been generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes which are entitled Shuttle Simulation Turbulence Tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 120,000 meters. A description of the turbulence generation procedure is provided, the results of validating the simulated turbulence are described, and conclusions and recommendations are presented. Appendices provide tabulated one-dimensional vonKarman spectra, a discussion of the minimum frequency simulated, and the results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT.

Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.

1982-01-01

115

Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1988, two days after the Space Shuttle soared into space once more. When Congress approved the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958, the United States had successfully launched only four small satellites and no American astronaut had yet flown in space. In the three decades since, four generations of manned spacecraft have been built and flown, twelve men have walked on the Moon, more than 100 Americans have flown and worked in space, and communications satellites and other Space-Age technologies have transformed life on planet Earth. When NASA's Golden Anniversary is celebrated in 2008, it is likely that men and women will be permanently living and working in space. There may be a base on the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars may only be years away. If a brief history of the first half-century of the Space Age is written for that event, it will show clearly how the exploration of space has altered the course of human history and allowed us to take a better hold of our destiny on and off planet Earth.

McAleer, Neil

1989-01-01

116

Toward a History of the Space Shuttle  

E-print Network

developed as early as the 1950s, and several projects reached the design and test stage in the 1960s of the U.S. space program, and the driving force behind much of the budget and programs of NASA for over of the Shuttle, science on the Shuttle, commercial uses, the Shuttle's military implications, its astronaut crew

117

Space Shuttle Columbia views the world with imaging radar: The SIR-A experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) in November 1981, demonstrate the capability of this microwave remote sensor system to perceive and map a wide range of different surface features around the Earth. A selection of 60 scenes displays this capability with respect to Earth resources - geology, hydrology, agriculture, forest cover, ocean surface features, and prominent man-made structures. The combined area covered by the scenes presented amounts to about 3% of the total acquired. Most of the SIR-A images are accompanied by a LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) or SEASAT synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) image of the same scene for comparison. Differences between the SIR-A image and its companion LANDSAT or SEASAT image at each scene are related to the characteristics of the respective imaging systems, and to seasonal or other changes that occurred in the time interval between acquisition of the images.

Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Elachi, C.

1983-01-01

118

Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight regimes will be a key enabler to facilitate the consolidation of the new emerging scenarios. The objective of this symposium is therefore to focus on lesson learned, to then analyze the main elements of those new scenarios, both from Institutional and Private sectors; and finally provide the leads for future collaboration opportunities between Italy, the United States and international partners, so to join profitably the opportunities offered by this new era of the aerospace technologies.

Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

2014-01-01

119

Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

1981-01-01

120

STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

121

STS37 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37\\/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial

Robert W. Fricke

1991-01-01

122

STS44 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines

Robert W. Fricke

1992-01-01

123

The first Chinese student space shuttle getaway special program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.

Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen

1988-01-01

124

Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report, phase C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration are included. An up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program is provided. Tables are designed to provide suvery information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

1985-01-01

125

STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

126

Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores. Using a prioritization of measures from the decision-maker, trade-offs between the scores are used to rank order the available set of RTOS candidates.

Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

2001-01-01

127

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Era Facts  

E-print Network

the vast dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base in California to prove it could glide and land safely Shuttle Program's 30 years of missions. The space shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation vehicle (OV), its twin solid rocket boosters (SRBs), giant external fuel tank (ET) and three space shuttle

128

Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, < 16 days and routinely had 4 to 6 crewmembers for a total of 135 flights. Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and countermeasure development.

Hayes, Judith C.

2011-01-01

129

Shuttle flight experiment preliminary proposal: Demonstration of welding applications in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June 1991 work was initiated at MSFC on an end-effector for 'Robotic Assembly of Welded Truss Structures in Space'. The case for welded joint assembly on orbit was discussed in the 1991 SFFP Final Report 'D'. Data drawn from Aerobrake studies (supported by the ISAAC program) allowed the more detailed investigations that accompany a design with relatively concrete goals. This principle guides current efforts to develop scenarios that further demonstrate the utility of welding for space construction and/or repair.

Brewer, William V.

1992-01-01

130

Observation of nitric oxide rovibrational band head emissions in the quiescent airglow during the Cirris-1A Space Shuttle Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Band head emissions from highly rotationally excited NO (v,J) (J?90) have been observed in the quiescent atmosphere at tangent heights between approximately 115 and 190 km for both sunlit and nighttime conditions. The data were obtained by the cryogenic CIRRIS-1A interferometer which was operated on-board the space shuttle between 28 and 30 April 1991. Up to ten emission features between

D. R. Smith; M. Ahmadjian

1993-01-01

131

The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer - A low cost computer suitable for Space Shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous space flight computers have been costly in terms of both hardware and software. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer is based on the commercial Mostek/Pro-Log STD Bus. Ruggedized PC cards can be based on commercial cards from more than 60 manufacturers, reducing hardware cost and design time. Software costs are minimized by using standard 8-bit microprocessors and by debugging code using commercial versions of the ruggedized flight boards while the flight hardware is being fabricated.

Budney, T. J.; Stone, R. W.

1982-01-01

132

Infrared spectral measurement of space shuttle glow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared spectral measurements of the space shuttle glow were successfully conducted during the STS-39 space shuttle mission. Analysis indicates that NO, NO[sup +], OH, and CO are among the molecules associated with the infrared glow phenomenon. During orbiter thruster firings the glow intensities in the infrared are enhanced by factors of 10x to 100x with significant changes in spectral distribution.

Ahmadijian

1992-01-01

133

Space shuttle wheels and brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

Carsley, R. B.

1985-01-01

134

Space Shuttle Trace Gas Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) with the ability to detect the presence of toxic contaminants in the Space Shuttle atmosphere within the subparts-per-million range is under development. The design is a modification of the miniaturized Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) developed for the Viking Mars Lander. An ambient air sample is injected onto the GC column from a constant volume sample loop and separated into individual compounds for identification by the MS. The GC-MS interface consists of an effluent divider and a silver-paladium separator, an electrochemical cell which removes more than 99.99% of the hydrogen carrier gas. The hydrogen is reclaimed and repressurized without affecting the separator efficiency, a feature which enables a considerable weight reduction in the carrier gas supply system.

Dencker, W.

1975-01-01

135

Space shuttle main engine controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

1981-01-01

136

STS-102 Space Shuttle Discovery Liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-102 mission, clears launch pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center as the sun peers over the Atlantic Ocean on March 8, 2001. STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall flight and the eighth assembly flight, STS-102 was also the first flight involved with Expedition Crew rotation. The Expedition Two crew was delivered to the station while Expedition One was returned home to Earth.

2003-01-01

137

STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1991-01-01

138

Space Shuttle Documentary (Narrated by William Shatner)  

NASA Video Gallery

This feature-length documentary looks at the history of the most complex machine ever built. For 30 years, NASA's space shuttle carried humans to and from space, launched amazing observatories, and...

139

Space science on the Space Shuttle - Plans and prospects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper gives an overview of current planning for the use of the Space Shuttle and Spacelab for carrying out NASA's program in Space Science. Attention is given to the major categories of use: (1) as a launch and service vehicle; (2) as an experiment platform for carrying out passive observations; (3) as a component in active and controlled experiments in space; and (4) as a manned orbiting laboratory for carrying out investigations requiring hands-on access to equipment and samples. Examples of each type of use are given. Also discussed are some of the multi-user facility instruments which are planned for early development. Finally, payloads to be carried on the early missions are discussed with particular emphasis on the capabilities of the Shuttle/Spacelab.

Rosendhal, J. F.

1979-01-01

140

Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major phase of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) Development Program was the acquisition of data through the space shuttle wind tunnel testing program. It became obvious that the large number of configuration/environment combinations would necessitate an extremely large wind tunnel testing program. To make the most efficient use of available test facilities and to assist the prime contractor for orbiter design and space shuttle vehicle integration, a unique management plan was devised for the design and development phase. The space shuttle program is reviewed together with the evolutional development of the shuttle configuration. The wind tunnel testing rationale and the associated test program management plan and its overall results is reviewed. Information is given for the various facilities and models used within this program. A unique posttest documentation procedure and a summary of the types of test per disciplines, per facility, and per model are presented with detailed listing of the posttest documentation.

Whitnah, A. M.; Hillje, E. R.

1984-01-01

141

Legal issues inherent in Space Shuttle operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (NASAct) is discussed with reference to its relevance to the operation of the Space Shuttle. The law is interpreted as giving NASA authority to regulate specific Shuttle missions, as well as authority to decide how much space aboard the Shuttle gets rented to whom. The Shuttle will not, however, be considered a 'common carrier' either in terms of NASAct or FAA regulations, because it will not be held available to the public-at-large, as are the flag carriers of various national airlines, e.g., Lufthansa, Air France, Aeroflot, etc. It is noted that the Launch Policy of 1972, which ensures satellite launch assistance to other countries or international organizations, shall not be interpreted as conferring common carrier status on the Space Shuttle.

Mossinghoff, G. J.; Sloup, G. P.

1978-01-01

142

STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-03-01

143

STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

144

STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

145

Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

2006-01-01

146

STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-second flight since the return-to-flight, and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). STS-77 was also the last flight of OV-105 prior to the vehicle being placed in the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-78; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037, 2040, and 2038 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-080. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-47, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO47A for the left SRB, and 360TO47B for the right SRB. The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VII, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of Spacehab-4, the SPARTAN 207/inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE), and the Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the experiments of the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), Get-Away-Special (GAS), and GAS Bridge Assembly (GBA). The STS-77 mission was planned as a 9-day flight plus 1 day, plus 2 contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-77 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 11. The Government Fumished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment (GFE/FCE) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table II. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET). The six-person crew for STS-77 consisted of John H. Casper, Col., U. S. Air Force, Commander; Curtis L. Brown, Jr., Lt. Col., U. S. Air Force, Pilot; Andrew S. W. Thomas, Civilian, Ph.D., Mission Specialist 1; Daniel W. Bursch, CDR., U. S. Navy, Mission Specialist 2; Mario Runco, Jr., Civilian, Mission Specialist 3; and Marc Gameau, Civilian, PhD, Mission Specialist 4.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

147

STS-76 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-76 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-first flight since the return-to-flight, and the sixteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-77; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2019 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-079. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-46, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO46A for the left SRB, and 360TO46B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and transfer one U.S. Astronaut to the Mir. A single Spacehab module carried science equipment and hardware, Risk Mitigation Experiments (RME's), and Russian Logistics in support of the Phase 1 Program requirements. In addition, the European Space Agency (ESA) Biorack operations were performed. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

148

STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

149

Space Shuttle Orbiter Structures and Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter has performed exceptionally well over its 30 years of flight experience. Among the many factors behind this success were robust, yet carefully monitored, structural and mechanical systems. From highlighting key aspects of the design to illustrating lessons learned from the operation of this complex system, this paper will attempt to educate the reader on why some subsystems operated flawlessly and why specific vulnerabilities were exposed in others. Specific areas to be covered will be the following: high level configuration overview, primary and secondary structure, mechanical systems ranging from landing gear to the docking system, and windows.

Gilmore, Adam L.; Estes, Lynda R.; Eilers, James A.; Logan, Jeffrey S.; Evernden, Brent A.; Decker, William S.; Hagen, Jeffrey D.; Davis, Robert E.; Broughton, James K.; Campbell, Carlisle C.; Carney, Kelly S.

2011-01-01

150

Space Shuttle Era: Booster Recovery Divers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climb aboard NASA’s solid rocket booster recovery ships to see how divers retrieve the space shuttle’s solid rocket boosters after they separate from the shuttle and splash down into the ocean, in this video from NASA.

Wnet

2012-07-19

151

Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for the four actuators on one shuttle, each with a 2-bearing shaft assembly, established a reliability level of 96.9 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2008-01-01

152

An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in the Space Shuttle Bay at LEO for the International Space Welding Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1997, the United States [NASA] and the Paton Electric Welding Institute are scheduled to cooperate in a flight demonstration on the U.S. Space Shuttle to demonstrate the feasibility of welding in space for a possible repair option for the International Space Station Alpha. This endeavor, known as the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), will involve astronauts performing various welding exercises such as brazing, cutting, welding, and coating using an electron beam space welding system that was developed by the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute (PWI), Kiev Ukraine. This electron beam welding system known as the "Universal Weld System" consists of hand tools capable of brazing, cutting, autogeneous welding, and coating using an 8 kV (8000 volts) electron beam. The electron beam hand tools have also been developed by the Paton Welding Institute with greater capabilities than the original hand tool, including filler wire feeding, to be used with the Universal Weld System on the U.S. Space Shuttle Bay as part of ISWE. The hand tool(s) known as the Ukrainian Universal Hand [Electron Beam Welding] Tool (UHT) will be utilized for the ISWE Space Shuttle flight welding exercises to perform welding on various metal alloy samples. A total of 61 metal alloy samples, which include 304 stainless steel, Ti-6AI-4V, 2219 aluminum, and 5456 aluminum alloys, have been provided by NASA for the ISWE electron beam welding exercises using the UHT. These samples were chosen to replicate both the U.S. and Russian module materials. The ISWE requires extravehicular activity (EVA) of two astronauts to perform the space shuttle electron beam welding operations of the 61 alloy samples. This study was undertaken to determine if a hazard could exist with ISWE during the electron beam welding exercises in the Space Shuttle Bay using the Ukrainian Universal Weld System with the UHT. The safety issue has been raised with regard to molten metal detachments as a result of several possible causes such as welder procedural error, externally applied impulsive forces(s), filler wire entrainment and snap-out, cutting expulsion, and puddle expulsion. Molten metal detachment from either the weld/cut substrate or weld wire could present harm to a astronaut in the space environment it the detachment was ti burn through the fabric of the astronaut Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMC). In this paper an experimental test was performed in a 4 ft. x 4 ft. vacuum chamber at MSFC enabling protective garment to be exposed to the molten metal drop detachments to over 12 inches. The chamber was evacuated to vacuum levels of at least 1 x 10(exp -5) torr (50 micro-torr) during operation of the 1.0 kW Universal Hand Tool (UHT). The UHT was manually operated at the power mode appropriate for each material and thickness. The space suit protective welding garment, made of Teflon fabric (10 oz. per yard) with a plain weave, was placed on the floor of the vacuum chamber to catch the molten metal drop detachments. A pendulum release mechanism consisting of four hammers, each weighing approximately 3.65 lbs, was used to apply an impact forces to the weld sample/plate during both the electron beam welding and cutting exercises. Measurements were made of the horizontal fling distances of the detached molten metal drops. The volume of a molten metal drop can also be estimated from the size of the cut. Utilizing equations, calculations were made to determine chande in surafec area (Delat a(surface)) for 304 stainless steel for cutting based on measurements of metal drop sizes at the cut edges. For the cut sample of 304 stainless steel based on measurement of the drop size at the edge, Delta-a(surface) was determined to be 0.0054 2 in . Calculations have indicated only a small amount of energy is required to detach a liquid metal drop. For example, approximately only 0.000005 ft-lb of energy is necessary to detach a liquid metal steel drop based on the above theoretical analysis. However, some of the energy will be absorbed by the plate before it reaches the metal d

Fragomeni, James M.

1996-01-01

153

Microbiology of the Space Shuttle water system.  

PubMed

The Space Shuttle has a once-through water system that is initially filled on the ground, partially drained before launch and then refilled with fuel-cell generated water on orbit. The microbiological standard for the Space Shuttle potable water system during this study period allowed only 1 microbe of any kind per l00mL and no detectable coliforms. Contamination episodes in more than 15 years of Shuttle operation have been rare; however, for the past 24 missions, bacterial contamination has been detected in 33% of the samples collected 3d before launch. These samples have had on average 55CFU/100mL of bacteria, with the median less than 1CFU/100mL. Burkholderia cepacia has been the primary contaminant of the Shuttle water supply system both before and after flight. Water samples assessed during the STS-70 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery were found to be contaminated (<20CFU/100mL) with B. cepacia and B. pickettii. In 1991, waste and water lines were removed from the Space Shuttle Columbia and the waste lines were found to harbor biofilms containing Bacillus spp. Nevertheless, the water systems of the four Space Shuttle vehicles provide extremely pure water. PMID:11540417

Koenig, D W; Pierson, D L

1997-01-01

154

LDEF\\/Shuttle capabilities for environmental testing in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being developed to accommodate experiments which require a free-flying exposure in space and which benefit from postflight laboratory analysis of the retrieved experiment hardware. The first LDEF mission, which is planned for a 6- to 12-month stay in space is scheduled in the late 1970s during the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test Program. The

L. G. Clark; J. D. Dibattista

1978-01-01

155

STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

Fricke, Robert W.

1991-01-01

156

Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews many of the innovations from Kennedy Space Center engineering for ground operations that were made during the shuttle program. The innovations are in the areas of detection, image analysis, protective equipment, software development and communications.

Sullivan, Steven J.

2010-01-01

157

Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

2011-01-01

158

Space shuttle maintenance program planning document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means for developing a space shuttle maintenance program which will be acceptable to the development centers, the operators (KSC and AF), and the manufacturer is presented. The general organization and decision processes for determining the essential scheduled maintenance requirements for the space shuttle orbiter are outlined. The development of initial scheduled maintenance programs is discussed. The remaining maintenance, that is non-scheduled or non-routine maintenance, is directed by the findings of the scheduled maintenance program and the normal operation of the shuttle. The remaining maintenance consists of maintenance actions to correct discrepancies noted during scheduled maintenance tasks, nonscheduled maintenance, normal operation, or condition monitoring.

Brown, D. V.

1972-01-01

159

Space shuttle main engine: Hydraulic system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydraulic actuation system of the space shuttle main engine is discussed. The system consists of five electrohydraulic actuators and a single engine filter used to control the five different propellant valves, which in turn control thrust and mixture ratio of the space shuttle main engine. The hydraulic actuation system provides this control with a precision of 98.7 percent or an error in position no greater than 1.3 percent of full scale rotational travel for critical positions.

Geller, G.; Lamb, C. D.

1981-01-01

160

Shuttle Views the Earth: Clouds from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of slides shows imagery of clouds as seen from above, in space, by various satellites and space shuttle missions. Each slide is accompanied by a brief caption describing the feature being shown and the satellite or shuttle mission from which the photo was taken. The slides are available as downloadable high-resolution TIF files, or they can be purchased from Lunar and Planetary Institiute's online store.

161

Probabilistic Approaches for Evaluating Space Shuttle Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the Space Shuttle PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) are to: (1) evaluate mission risks; (2) evaluate uncertainties and sensitivities; (3) prioritize contributors; (4) evaluate upgrades; (5) track risks; and (6) provide decision tools. This report discusses the significance of a Space Shuttle PRA and its participants. The elements and type of losses to be included are discussed. The program and probabilistic approaches are then discussed.

Vesely, William

2001-01-01

162

Observation of nitric oxide rovibrational band head emissions in the quiescent airglow during the CIRRIS-1A space shuttle experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Band head emissions from highly rotationally excited NO (v, J) (J approx. equals 90) have been observed in the quiescent atmosphere at tangent heights between approximately 115 and 190 km for both sunlit and nighttime conditions. The data were obtained by the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) interferometer which was operated on-board the space shuttle between 28 and 30 April 1991. Up to ten emission features between 2020 and 1744/cm in the earthlimb spectra have been identified as the R-branch band heads of the NO delta v = 1 sequence for the vibrational states v(prime) = 1 - 10. The presence of these band heads requires a very high degree of rotational excitation corresponding to rotational energy in excess of 1.4 eV. These are the first observations of emissions from highly rotationally excited NO in the quiescent airglow and they parallel the recent discovery of highly excited pure rotational transitions of OH in the airglow for both nighttime and daytime quiescent conditions.

Smith, D. R.; Ahmadjian, M.

1993-12-01

163

NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, these folks must be living on another planet. We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

164

Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for a 2-bearing shaft assembly in each body flap actuator established a reliability level of 99.6 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erin V.

2007-01-01

165

Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of artificial plasma turbulence were obtained during two Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) conducted during the flights of the Space Shuttle (STS-127 and STS-129). Based on computer modeling at the NRL PPD and Laboratory for Computational Physics & Fluid Dynamics (LCP), two dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines were scheduled to produce 200

P. A. Bernhardt; R. F. Pfaff; P. W. Schuck; D. E. Hunton; M. R. Hairston

2010-01-01

166

STS-113 Space Shuttle Endeavour launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Against a black moonless sky, Space Shuttle Endeavour lights up the night as it blazes into space after an ontime liftoff at 7:49:47 p.m. EST. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Also onboard are the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5. Endeavour is scheduled to land at KSC after an 11-day journey. [Photo by Scott Andrews

2002-01-01

167

Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

1982-01-01

168

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

169

Space shuttle operations integration plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operations Integration Plan is presented, which is to provide functional definition of the activities necessary to develop and integrate shuttle operating plans and facilities to support flight, flight control, and operations. It identifies the major tasks, the organizations responsible, their interrelationships, the sequence of activities and interfaces, and the resultant products related to operations integration.

1975-01-01

170

Space Experiment Module (SEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

Brodell, Charles L.

1999-01-01

171

The fungicidal and phytotoxic properties of benomyl and PPM in supplemented agar media supporting transgenic arabidopsis plants for a Space Shuttle flight experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fungal contamination is a significant problem in the use of sucrose-enriched agar-based media for plant culture, especially in closed habitats such as the Space Shuttle. While a variety of fungicides are commercially available, not all are equal in their effectiveness in inhibiting fungal contamination. In addition, fungicide effectiveness must be weighed against its phytotoxicity and in this case, its influence on transgene expression. In a series of experiments designed to optimize media composition for a recent shuttle mission, the fungicide benomyl and the biocide "Plant Preservative Mixture" (PPM) were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling three common fungal contaminants, as well as their impact on the growth and development of arabidopsis seedlings. Benomyl proved to be an effective inhibitor of all three contaminants in concentrations as low as 2 ppm (parts per million) within the agar medium, and no evidence of phytotoxicity was observed until concentrations exceeded 20 ppm. The biocide mix PPM was effective as a fungicide only at concentrations that had deleterious effects on arabidopsis seedlings. As a result of these findings, a concentration of 3 ppm benomyl was used in the media for experiment PGIM-01 which flew on shuttle Columbia mission STS-93 in July 1999.

Paul, A. L.; Semer, C.; Kucharek, T.; Ferl, R. J.

2001-01-01

172

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Era Facts  

E-print Network

and Landing Tests in 1977. It was released over the vast dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base in California Shuttle Program's 30 years of missions. The space shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation. That first mission verified the combined performance of the orbiter vehicle (OV), its twin solid rocket

173

STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1990-01-01

174

Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.

Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.

2005-01-01

175

Infrared spectral measurement of space shuttle glow  

SciTech Connect

Infrared spectral measurements of the space shuttle glow were successfully conducted during the STS-39 space shuttle mission. Analysis indicates that NO, NO[sup +], OH, and CO are among the molecules associated with the infrared glow phenomenon. During orbiter thruster firings the glow intensities in the infrared are enhanced by factors of 10x to 100x with significant changes in spectral distribution. These measurements were obtained with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) payload which included a cryogenic infrared circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer (0.6 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]) and a number of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometers (0.2 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]m and 9.9 [mu]m to 10.4 [mu]m). In addition, glow measurements were unsuccessfully attempted with the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) with its 2.5 [mu]m to 25 [mu]m Fourier transform interferometer. SKIRT CVF obtained over 14,000 spectra of quiescent shuttle glow, thruster enhanced shuttle glow, upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, orbiter environment, and deep space non-glow backgrounds during its eight day mission. The SKIRT radiometers operated almost continuously throughout the mission to provide a detailed history of the IR/VIS/UV optical environment associated with the operation of large spacecraft structures in low earth orbit. This dissertation will primarily address those measurements conducted by the SKIRT spectrometer as they relate to space shuttle glow in the infrared. The STS-39 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched from the NASA Kennedy Space Center on 28 April 1991 into a 57 degree inclination circular orbit at an altitude of 260 km.

Ahmadijian, M.

1992-01-01

176

Space Shuttle Orbital Drag Parachute Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The drag parachute system was added to the Space Shuttle Orbiter's landing deceleration subsystem beginning with flight STS-49 in May 1992. The addition of this subsystem to an existing space vehicle required a detailed set of ground tests and analyses. The aerodynamic design and performance testing of the system consisted of wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations, pilot-in-the-loop simulations, and full-scale testing. This analysis and design resulted in a fully qualified system that is deployed on every flight of the Space Shuttle.

Meyerson, Robert E.

2001-01-01

177

Seedling growth and development on space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

1994-11-01

178

STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

179

Advanced Space Shuttle simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-recursive model (based on von Karman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the shuttle orbiter was developed. It provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity, and also for simulation of instantaneous gusts gradients. Based on this model the time series for both gusts and gust gradients were generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes, entitled Shuttle Simulation Turbulence Tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 120,000 meters. A description of the turbulence generation procedure is provided. The results of validating the simulated turbulence are described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. One-dimensional von Karman spectra are tabulated, while a discussion of the minimum frequency simulated is provided. The results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT are presented.

Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.

1982-01-01

180

ELF (Extremely-Low-Frequency) Transmitter Experiment for the Space Shuttle. (The NASC-201 (Naval Air Space Command) Experiment). Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design for a spaceborne elf/vlf transmitter. The transmitter could be used for experiments to obtain the radiation data in a space plasma required to determine the feasibility of an ELF downlink communications system from a satel...

H. C. Koons

1986-01-01

181

Plasma waves associated with the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water molecules outgassed from the Space Shuttle suffer collisional charge-exchange with ionospheric oxygen ions, thereby forming unstable distributions of pick-up water ions and leading to high levels of plasma waves near the Shuttle. Liouville's equation with a charge-exchange source term is solved for the water ion distribution function as a function of position relative to the Shuttle. The observational characteristics of the near zone Shuttle waves are summarized. A linear theory in which beam like distributions of water ions drive Doppler shifted lower hybrid waves via the modified two stream instability is developed. This theory explains many characteristics of the near zone waves. Further work on the effects of wave nonlinearities and spatial inhomogeneity is required to explain the detailed frequency spectrum of the waves. The observed wave levels apparently satisfy the threshold condition for modulational instability of lower hybrid waves.

Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

1990-01-01

182

STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

183

STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1990-01-01

184

STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

185

Aeroelastic effects on space shuttle dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified analysis procedure for determining static and dynamic aeroelastic loads for the space shuttle and space shuttle configuration is presented. A computer program, originally developed for the Atlas launch vehicle, was modified for simplifying the turbulence response analysis approach. This approach is compared with a more detailed and time consuming approach to space shuttle response to turbulence which was developed earlier. The simplification in going from interference to lumped aerodynamic data was found to give adequate results for preliminary design aeroelastic analysis. Gust loads were found to be approximately 50% of the maximum static aeroelastic loads. The autopilot became unstable when ten elastic modes were included. Elastic effects were found to be less than 3% in the static aeroelastic analysis.

1973-01-01

186

STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

187

NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts of  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts off from Edwards Air Force Base to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

2001-01-01

188

Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

1972-01-01

189

Toward large space systems. [Space Construction Base development from shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the Space Transportation System, consisting of the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and upper stages, provides experience for the development of more advanced space systems. The next stage will involve space stations in low earth orbit with limited self-sufficiency, characterized by closed ecological environments, space-generated power, and perhaps the first use of space materials. The third phase would include manned geosynchronous space-station activity and a return to lunar operations. Easier access to space will encourage the use of more complex, maintenance-requiring satellites than those currently used. More advanced space systems could perform a wide range of public services such as electronic mail, personal and police communication, disaster control, earthquake detection/prediction, water availability indication, vehicle speed control, and burglar alarm/intrusion detection. Certain products, including integrated-circuit chips and some enzymes, can be processed to a higher degree of purity in space and might eventually be manufactured there. Hardware including dishes, booms, and planar surfaces necessary for advanced space systems and their development are discussed.

Daros, C. J.; Freitag, R. F.; Kline, R. L.

1977-01-01

190

Model analysis of Space Shuttle dosimetry data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive model analysis of plastic track detector measurements of high-LET particles on the Space Shuttle has been performed. Three Shuttle flights: STS-51F (low-altitude, high-inclination), STS-51J (high-altitude, low-inclination), and STS-61C (low-altitude, low-inclination) are considered. The model includes contributions from trapped protons and Galactic cosmic radiation, as well as target secondary particles. Target secondaries, expected to be of importance in thickly shielded space environments, are found to be a significant component of the measured LET (linear energy transfer) spectra.

Letaw, J. R.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Benton, E. V.

1989-01-01

191

The Get Away Special Program. [Space Shuttle payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper deals with the Get Away Special (GAS) Program which was initiated on the realization that not every Space Shuttle mission would make full use of the volume and weight capability of the Shuttle system. Currently, the GAS Program incorporates 158 domestic and foreign users who have reserved 270 spaces. Not all users and not all experiments are expected to meet the objective of processing to prime experiments for Shuttle. Each experiment will be worthy in its own right and each user will benefit to the limit of his ability and involvement. The structure and the mounting system of the GAS container are described, along with its pressure, thermal, and electronic characteristics. Safety philosophy and requirements are noted, and possible options to the standard contained are discussed.

Ott, E. J.

1979-01-01

192

Space Shuttle Navigation in the GPS Era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle navigation architecture was originally designed in the 1970s. A variety of on-board and ground based navigation sensors and computers are used during the ascent, orbit coast, rendezvous, (including proximity operations and docking) and entry flight phases. With the advent of GPS navigation and tightly coupled GPS/INS Units employing strapdown sensors, opportunities to improve and streamline the Shuttle navigation process are being pursued. These improvements can potentially result in increased safety, reliability, and cost savings in maintenance through the replacement of older technologies and elimination of ground support systems (such as Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN), Microwave Landing System (MLS) and ground radar). Selection and missionization of "off the shelf" GPS and GPS/INS units pose a unique challenge since the units in question were not originally designed for the Space Shuttle application. Various options for integrating GPS and GPS/INS units with the existing orbiter avionics system were considered in light of budget constraints, software quality concerns, and schedule limitations. An overview of Shuttle navigation methodology from 1981 to the present is given, along with how GPS and GPS/INS technology will change, or not change, the way Space Shuttle navigation is performed in the 21 5 century.

Goodman, John L.

2001-01-01

193

STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-02-01

194

STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

195

Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

1973-01-01

196

Toward a History Space Shuttle  

E-print Network

spaceflight program in the 1970s through 1991. The articles included in the first volume were judged, New Yorker, New York Times, Newsweek, Popular Science, Science, Spaceflight, Space News, Space Policy

197

Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

2011-01-01

198

Lightening Strikes Seen From Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Quick Time Movie shows lightening strikes as observed from aboard a Space Shuttle. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

1999-01-01

199

Space shuttle visual simulation system design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current and near-future state-of-the-art in visual simulation equipment technology is related to the requirements of the space shuttle visual system. Image source, image sensing, and displays are analyzed on a subsystem basis, and the principal conclusions are used in the formulation of a recommended baseline visual system. Perceptibility and visibility are also analyzed.

1973-01-01

200

Space Shuttle Technical Conference, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Articles providing a retrospective presentation and documentation of the key scientific and engineering achievements of the Space Shuttle Program are compiled. Topics areas include: (1) integrated avionics; (2) guidance, navigation, and control; (3) aerodynamics; (4) structures; (5) life support; environmental control; and crew station; and (6) ground operations.

Chaffee, N. (compiler)

1985-01-01

201

Space shuttle rudder/speedbrake subsystem analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Continuous System Modeling Program (CSMP) is described with its uses, its limitations, and its application to the rudder/speedbrake (R/SB) subsystem. The space shuttle R/SB is analyzed using the CSMP. Areas of analysis emphasized include: step response, ramp response, and the delay time or deadspace observed in system response. Results are presented and discussed.

Duke, H. G.

1975-01-01

202

Space shuttle structural integrity and assessment study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements for the space shuttle vehicle during structural inspection in the refurbishment/turnaround period, are defined. Data are given on NDE limitations and defect characterization by the process. Special attention was given to the determination of fatigue cracks, stress corrosion cracks, corrosion, and adhesive disbonds of airframes.

1974-01-01

203

Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

1975-01-01

204

The Space Shuttle audio distribution system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter's Audio Distribution System (ADS) provides voice communication among crew members and an interface to various radio access functions and hardline functions associated with a given orbital mission's payloads. The ADS encompasses facilities for audio processing, mixing, amplification, volume control, isolation, switching, and distribution. Attention is given to ADS design features and interface possibilities.

Lee, R. K. P.

205

The partnership: Space shuttle, space science, and space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Space Station Program functions, design, and planned implementation is presented. The discussed functions for the permanently manned space facility include: (1) development of new technologies and related commercial products; (2) observations of the Earth and the universe; (3) provision of service facilities for resupply, maintenance, upgrade and repair of payloads and spacecraft; (4) provision of a transportation node for stationing, processing and dispatching payloads and vehicles; (5) provision of manufacturing and assembly facilities; (6) provision of a storage depot for parts and payloads; and (7) provision of a staging base for future space endeavors. The fundamental concept for the Space Station, as given, is that it be designed, operated, and evolved in response to a broad variety of scientific, technological, and commercial user interests. The Space Shuttle's role as the principal transportation system for the construction and maintenance of the Space Station and the servicing and support of the station crew is also discussed.

Culbertson, Philip E.; Freitag, Robert F.

1989-01-01

206

Space shuttle Ram glow: Implication of NO2 recombination continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ram glow data gathered to data from imaging experiments on space shuttle suggest the glow is a continuum (within 34 angstrom resolution); the continuum shape is such that the peak is near 7000 angstroms decreasing to the blue and red, and the average molecular travel leading to emission after leaving the surface is 20 cm (assuming isotropic scattering from

G. R. Swenson; S. B. Mende; S. Clifton

1985-01-01

207

STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981  

NASA Video Gallery

Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

208

Space Shuttle UHF Communications Performance Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension boom is to be installed on the starboard side of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) payload bay for thermal tile inspection and repairing. As a result, the Space Shuttle payload bay Ultra High Frequency (UHF) antenna will be under the boom. This study is to evaluate the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for antenna at a suitable new location. To insure the RF coverage performance at proposed new locations, the link margin between the UHF payload bay antenna and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts at a range distance of 160 meters from the payload bay antenna was analyzed. The communication performance between Space Shuttle Orbiter and International Space Station (SSO-ISS) during rendezvous was also investigated. The multipath effects from payload bay structures surrounding the payload bay antenna were analyzed. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction method (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The total field strength was obtained by summing the direct fields from the antennas and the reflected and diffracted fields from the surrounding structures. The computed signal strengths were compared to the signal strength corresponding to the 0 dB link margin. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for SSO-EVA and SSO- ISS communication links was determined for the proposed payload bay antenna UHF locations. The RF radiation to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) pyros, the payload bay avionics, and the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) from the new proposed UHF antenna location was also investigated to ensure the EMC/EMI compliances.

Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.

2004-01-01

209

Microbial survival in space shuttle crash  

PubMed Central

A slow growing, heat resistant bacterium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Microbispora sp., was recovered from the wreckage of the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia (STS-107). As this organism survived disintegration of the space craft, heat of reentry, and impact, it supports the possibility of a natural mechanism for the interplanetary spread of life by meteorites. PMID:21804644

McLean, Robert J.C.; Welsh, Allana K.; Casasanto, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

210

Space shuttle L-tube radiator testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of tests were conducted to support the development of the Orbiter Heat Rejection System. The details of the baseline radiator were defined by designing, fabricating, and testing representative hardware. The tests were performed in the Space Environmental Simulation Laboratory Chamber A. An IR source was used to simulate total solar and infrared environmental loads on the flowing shuttle radiators panel. The thermal and mechanical performance of L tube space radiators and their thermal coating were established.

Phillips, M. A.

1976-01-01

211

Space shuttle: Structural integrity and assessment study. [development of nondestructive test procedures for space shuttle vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study program was conducted to determine the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements and to develop a preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the entire space shuttle vehicle. The rationale and guidelines for structural analysis and NDE requirements development are discussed. Recommendations for development of NDE technology for the orbiter thermal protection system and certain structural components are included. Recommendations to accomplish additional goals toward space shuttle inspection are presented.

Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

1974-01-01

212

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Operational Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the years of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program the engine has evolved and operational capabilities have been demonstrated beyond the original Shuttle requirements. In an effort to enhance flight safety and demonstrate safety features and margins, engines have been analyzed and tested at many different operating points. Various studies through the years evaluating the SSME for different applications both as a boost stage and upper stage have also added insight into the overall operational characteristics of the engine and have further defined safety margins for the Shuttle application. This paper will summarize the operational characteristics of the SSME from the original design requirements to the expanded capabilities demonstrated through analysis, lab testing and especially "off-nominal" engine testing leading to an increased understanding of the engine operational characteristics and safety margins. Basic engine characteristics such as thrust, mixture ratio, propellant inlet conditions, system redundancy, etc. will be examined.

Benefield, Philip; Bradley, Doug

2010-01-01

213

Space Shuttle Pinhole Formation Mechanism Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinholes have been observed to form on the wing leading edge of the space shuttle after about 10-15 flights. In this report we expand upon previous observations by Christensen (1) that these pinholes often form along cracks and are associated with a locally zinc-rich area. The zinc appears to come from weathering and peeling paint on the launch structure. Three types of experimental examinations are performed to understand this issue further: (A) Detailed microstructural examination of actual shuttle pinholes (B) Mass spectrometric studies of coupons containing, actual shuttle pinholes and (C) Laboratory furnace studies of ZnO/SiC reactions and ZnO/SiC protected carbon/carbon reaction. On basis of these observations we present a detailed mechanism of pinhole formation due to formation of a corrosive ZnO-Na-2-O-SiO2 ternary glass, which flows into existing cracks and enlarges them.

Jacobson, Nathan S.

1998-01-01

214

Successful expert systems for space shuttle payload integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert systems are successfully applied to solve recurring NASA Space Shuttle orbiter payload integration problems. Recurrence of these problems is the result of each Space Shuttle mission being unique. The NASA Space Shuttle orbiter was designed to be extremely flexible in its ability to handle many types and combinations of satellites and experiments. This flexibility results in different and unique engineering resource requirements for each of the payload satellites and experiments. The first successful expert system to be applied to these problems was the Orbiter Payload Bay Cabling Expert System (EXCABL), developed at Rockwell International Space Transportation Systems Division. The operational version of EXCABL was delivered in 1986 and successfully solved the payload electrical support services cabling layout problem. As a result of this success, a second expert system, Expert Drawing Matching System (EXMATCH), was developed to generate a list of the reusable installation drawings available for each EXCABL solution. EXMATCH went operational in 1987. As a result of these initial successes, the need for a third expert system was defined and is awaiting development. This new Expert System, called Technical Order Listing Expert System (EXTOL), will generate a list of all the applicable reusable installation drawings available to support the total payload bay mission provisioning and installation effort. This paper describes these expert systems, the individual problems that they were designed to solve, their individual solutions, and the degree of success achieved. These expert systems' instantiate the applicability of this technology to the solution of real-world Space Shuttle payload integration problems.

Morris, Keith

1988-01-01

215

STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

216

Probabilistic Modeling of Space Shuttle Debris Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Feb 1, 2003, the Shuttle Columbia was lost during its return to Earth. As a result of the conclusion that debris impact caused the damage to the left wing of the Columbia Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) during ascent, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommended that an assessment be performed of the debris environment experienced by the SSV during ascent. A flight rationale based on probabilistic assessment is used for the SSV return-to-flight. The assessment entails identifying all potential debris sources, their probable geometric and aerodynamic characteristics, and their potential for impacting and damaging critical Shuttle components. A probabilistic analysis tool, based on the SwRI-developed NESSUS probabilistic analysis software, predicts the probability of impact and damage to the space shuttle wing leading edge and thermal protection system components. Among other parameters, the likelihood of unacceptable damage depends on the time of release (Mach number of the orbiter) and the divot mass as well as the impact velocity and impact angle. A typical result is visualized in the figures below. Probability of impact and damage, as well as the sensitivities thereof with respect to the distribution assumptions, can be computed and visualized at each point on the orbiter or summarized per wing panel or tile zone.

Huyse, Luc J.; Asce, M.; Waldhart, Chris J.; Riha, David S.; Larsen, Curtis E.; Gomez, Reynaldo J.; Stuart, Phillip C.

2007-01-01

217

Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune functions were found to be altered. Selected microorganisms were found to become more virulent during spaceflight. The increased knowledge gained on the Space Shuttle resulted in further studies of the host-microbe interactions on the ISS to determine if countermeasures were necessary. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Program were integrated into the ISS resulting in the safest space habitat to date.

Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

2011-01-01

218

Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission. [project planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.

Bailey, J. A.

1976-01-01

219

Photometric analysis of a space shuttle water venting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is a preliminary interpretation of a recent experiment conducted on Space Shuttle Discovery (Mission STS 29) in which a stream of liquid supply water was vented into space at twilight. The data consist of video images of the sunlight-scattering water/ice particle cloud that formed, taken by visible light-sensitive intensified cameras both onboard the spacecraft and at the AMOS ground station near the trajectory's nadir. This experiment was undertaken to study the phenomenology of water columns injected into the low-Earth orbital environment, and to provide information about the lifetime of ice particles that may recontact Space Shuttle orbits later. The findings about the composition of the cloud have relevance to ionospheric plasma depletion experiments and to the dynamics of the interaction of orbiting spacecraft with the environment.

Viereck, R. A.; Murad, E.; Pike, C. P.; Kofsky, I. L.; Trowbridge, C. A.; Rall, D. L. A.; Satayesh, A.; Berk, A.; Elgin, J. B.

1991-01-01

220

Space shuttle main engine computed tomography applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past two years the potential applications of computed tomography to the fabrication and overhaul of the Space Shuttle Main Engine were evaluated. Application tests were performed at various government and manufacturer facilities with equipment produced by four different manufacturers. The hardware scanned varied in size and complexity from a small temperature sensor and turbine blades to an assembled heat exchanger and main injector oxidizer inlet manifold. The evaluation of capabilities included the ability to identify and locate internal flaws, measure the depth of surface cracks, measure wall thickness, compare manifold design contours to actual part contours, perform automatic dimensional inspections, generate 3D computer models of actual parts, and image the relationship of the details in a complex assembly. The capabilities evaluated, with the exception of measuring the depth of surface flaws, demonstrated the existing and potential ability to perform many beneficial Space Shuttle Main Engine applications.

Sporny, Richard F.

1990-01-01

221

Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

1974-01-01

222

Occupant safety in the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of Space Shuttle missions, i.e., the inclusion of non-pilot payload specialists in addition to military test pilots, necessitates a greater attention to built in safety features than on previous spacecraft. Basic systems such as fire protection, anti-depressurization, toxicity control, and protection from radiation are handled in a manner similar to that of past missions, but some important deviations are noted, most importantly those pertaining to the provisions for on-orbit rescue. A Personnel Rescue System (PRS) is outlined, describing EVA operations whereby the pilots are able to don pressure suits and the crew can be transferred to another vehicle in balloon-like enclosures, which provide one hour's worth of life support and protection from the space environment. Also mentioned are provisions for the quick abort and reentry of the Shuttle Orbiter, as well as passive safety provisions for the Spacelab module.

Schulze, N. R.; Prichard, R. P.

1978-01-01

223

Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident  

SciTech Connect

On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board was able to determine with almost absolute certainty the physical cause of the accident. In addition, Prof. Osherhoff will discuss its organizational and cultural causes, which are rooted deep in the culture of the human spaceflight program. Why did NASA continue to fly the shuttle system despite the persistent failure of a vital sub-system that it should have known did indeed pose a safety risk on every flight? Finally, Prof. Osherhoff will touch on the future role humans are likely to play in the exploration of space.

Osheroff, Doug (Stanford University) [Stanford University

2004-06-16

224

STS-70 Space Shuttle Mission Report - September 1995  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-70 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-71; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2036, 2019, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated 81-073. The RSRMs, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and were designated as 36OL044A for the left SRB, and 36OL044B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-G/IUS). The secondary objectives were to fulfill the requirements of the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R); Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS); Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment; Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health - Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2); Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4); Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); Microencapsulation in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment; Window Experiment (WINDEX); Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) payload.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

225

Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

1978-01-01

226

Space shuttle/food system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document establishes the Functional, physical and performance interface requirements are studied between the space shuttle orbiter and the galley water system, the orbiter and the galley electrical system, and the orbiter and the galley structural system. Control of the configuration and design of the applicable interfacing items is intended to maintain compatibility between co-functioning and physically mating items and to assure those performance criteria that are dependent upon the interfacing items.

1974-01-01

227

Control of a flexible space shuttle vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of optimal control technology to the design of a controller for the space shuttle descent was studied using weighting matrices adjusted through iteration to reduce response peaks, which are defined as mean magnitude plus sigma values. The synthesis techniques, and optimal controller design are discussed along with simplified controller design. Quantitative characteristics of the optimal controller, effects of variation of sample rate, and simplified controller data are included.

Harvey, C. A.

1973-01-01

228

Acoustic emission monitoring of Space Shuttle tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Late in the development of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS), a major problem was encountered with the attachment of the tiles to the spacecraft's exterior skin. To insure an adequate margin, each tile had to be proof tested. The risk of damaging a tile during proof test was quite high. For this reason, an acoustic emission system was developed and used in conjunction with the proof test to insure no significant damage occurred.

Castner, W. L.; Crockett, L. K.; Sugg, F. E.

1985-01-01

229

Portable Oxygen Subsystem (POS). [for space shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concept selection, design, fabrication, and testing of a Portable Subsystem (POS) for use in space shuttle operations are described. Tradeoff analyses were conducted to determine the POS concept for fabrication and testing. The fabricated POS was subjected to unmanned and manned tests to verify compliance with statement of work requirements. The POS used in the development program described herein met requirements for the three operational modes -- prebreathing, contaminated cabin, and personnel rescue system operations.

1975-01-01

230

Hydrazine Gas Generator Program. [space shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and fabrication of a flight gas generator for the space shuttle were investigated. Critical performance parameters and stability criteria were evaluated as well as a scaling laws that could be applied in designing the flight gas generator. A test program to provide the necessary design information was included. A structural design, including thermal and stress analysis, and two gas generators were fabricated based on the results. Conclusions are presented.

Kusak, L.; Marcy, R. D.

1975-01-01

231

STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

232

STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1991-01-01

233

Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Takeoff for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, begins the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now

1991-01-01

234

Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10-Month Refurbishment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis, framed by the California mountains, as it rides on the back of one of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) en route from California to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1998-01-01

235

Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10-Month Refurbishment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Atlantis rides on the back of one of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft en route from California to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1998-01-01

236

Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10 Month Refurbishment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is seen here in flight on the back of one of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) as it departs California for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1998-01-01

237

Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10 Month Refurbishment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A look-down view on the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis piggy-backed on top of one of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) as it departs California for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida in September 1998. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1998-01-01

238

The Shuttle and its importance to space medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physiological effects of space flights on humans are reviewed, and the opportunities offered by frequent and repetitive Space Shuttle flights for space medical research are discussed. The most significant changes encountered in the vestibular, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and hematopoietic systems during and after past space missions are indicated, and the time courses of the physiological shifts associated with space acclimatization and readaptation to a 1-g environment are summarized. Effects directly attributable to the absence of gravity, including postural changes and fluid shifts, are considered, and additional contributing factors to physiological changes imposed by the spacecraft operational environment are pointed out. Differences between the Space Shuttle missions and all previous missions in the areas of reentry profiles and varied crew composition are discussed, and results of experiments on the relative acceleration tolerances of men and women of different ages and the usefulness of the anti-g suit are presented. Directions for future research in space medicine available with the Shuttle are examined, with particular emphasis on the neurovestibular system cardiopulmonary dynamics, calcium metabolism, the erythropoietic system and the effects of space radiation.

Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S.; Rambaut, P.

1980-01-01

239

Breaking in the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I like to look forward, but I am also a great student of history. I believe there are many lessons, both positive and negative, that we can learn by looking back. Quite often, we tend to forget some of those. I'd like to speak a little bit about the era in which I entered the astronaut corps. I joined NASA in kind of a weird way-in the time period when everybody going into space was a test pilot. I was attending the Air Force Test Pilot School, even though I'm a Navy guy. In that time period, they were going through and selecting astronauts from the test pilot class, and I put my hand up and said, "I'd like to join." It turned out that both NASA and the Department of Defense were selecting astronauts, and, somewhere in the selection process, I ended up having to make a choice. There were lots of folks on the NASA list, and there weren't many folks on the Department of Defense list, so I figured that was my best chance to fly. So I said, "Send me to DoD for something called the Manned Orbital Laboratory," or MOL for short.

Crippen, Robert L.

2002-01-01

240

Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

1983-01-01

241

Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

2000-01-01

242

An overview of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials-third phase (EOIM-3) experiment: Space Shuttle Mission 46  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of the atomic oxygen (AO) component of the low earth orbit (LEO) environment with spacecraft materials has been the subject of several flight experiments over the past 11 years. The effect of AO interactions with materials has been shown to be significant for long-lived spacecraft such as Space Station Freedom and has resulted in materials changes for externally exposed surfaces. The data obtained from previous flight experiments, augmented by limited ground-based evaluation, have been used to evaluate hardware performance and select materials. Questions pertaining to the accuracy of this data base remain, resulting from the use of long-term ambient density models to estimate the O-atom fluxes and fluences needed to calculate materials reactivity in short-term flight experiments. The EOIM-3 flight experiment was designed to produce benchmark AO reactivity data and was carried out during STS-46. Ambient density measurements were made with a quadrupole mass spectrometer which was calibrated for AO measurements in a unique ground-based test facility. The combination of these data with the predictions of ambient density models allows an assessment of the accuracy of measured reaction rates on a wide variety of materials, many of which had never been tested in LEO before. The mass spectrometer is also used to obtain a better definition of the local neutral and plasma environments resulting from interaction of the ambient atmosphere with various spacecraft surfaces. In addition, the EOIM-3 experiment was designed to produce information on the effects of temperature, mechanical stress, and solar exposure on the AO reactivity of a wide range of materials. An overview of the EOIM-3 methods and results are presented.

Leger, Lubert J.; Koontz, Steven L.; Visentine, James T.; Hunton, Donald

1993-01-01

243

Methods of participation in sortie mode science. [Space Shuttle payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle offers an exciting new way to perform space experimentation, the 'sortie mode.' This mode allows experiments to be performed in the payload bay with subsequent return of the hardware, including data in the form of film, tapes, or samples, to the investigators. In pursuit of the objective of providing easy and routine access to space, a number of methods of participation in the sortie mode are being made available by NASA. These methods provide varying degrees of NASA funding, data rights, and flexibility. At one extreme is the 'Small, Self-Contained Payload' where a 60-pound payload can be flown on the Shuttle for a cost of $3,000. Alternately, one can propose an experiment in response to an 'Announcement of Opportunity' (AO) and receive substantial funding support for development and conduct of a major Spacelab experiment. These methods and others are discussed.

Pellerin, C. J., Jr.

1981-01-01

244

Maintaining space shuttle safety within an environment of change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 10 years since the Challenger accident, NASA has developed a set of stable and capable processes to prepare the Space Shuttle for safe launch and return. Capitalizing on the extensive experience gained from a string of over 50 successful flights, NASA today is changing the way it does business in an effort to reduce cost. A single Shuttle Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC) has been chosen to operate the Shuttle. The Government role will change from direct "oversight" to "insight" gained through understanding and measuring the contractor's processes. This paper describes the program management changes underway and the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization's philosophy, role, and methodology for pursuing this new approach. It describes how audit and surveillance will replace direct oversight and how meaningful performance metrics will be implemented.

Greenfield, Michael A.

1999-09-01

245

Phase C aerothermodynamic data base. [for space shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary listings of published documentation of SADSAC processed data arranged chronologically and by shuttle configuration are presented to provide an up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized in the course of the space shuttle program. The various tables or listings are designed to provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels. The various listings of the shuttle test data information, the list contents, and the purpose are described.

Moser, M., Jr.

1974-01-01

246

Space Shuttle solid rocket motor exposure monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the processing of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), segments at the Kennedy Space Center, an odor was detected around the solid propellant. An Industrial Hygiene survey was conducted to determine the chemical identity of the SRB offgassing constituents. Air samples were collected inside a forward SRB segment and analyzed to determine chemical composition. Specific chemical analysis for suspected offgassing constituents of the propellant indicated ammonia to be present. A gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of the air samples detected numerous high molecular weight hydrocarbons.

Brown, S. W.

1993-01-01

247

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 10: Space technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) physics and chemistry laboratory, (4) contamination experiments, and (5) laser information/data transmission technology. The space technology mission model is presented in tabular form. The proposed experiments to be conducted by each test facility are described. Recommended approaches for user community interfacing are included.

1973-01-01

248

Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site

1991-01-01

249

STS-35 Leaves Dryden on 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Bound for Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first rays of the morning sun light up the side of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) as it departs for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, with the orbiter from STS-35 attached to its back. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1990-01-01

250

STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-01-01

251

The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

1973-01-01

252

Observation of high-N hydroxyl pure rotation lines in atmospheric emission spectra by the Cirris 1A Space Shuttle experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure rotation line emissions from highly rotationally excited OH have been observed between 80 and 110 km tangent height under both nighttime and daytime quiescent conditions. Data were obtained using the cryogenic CIRRIS 1A interferometer, operated on the Space Shuttle. Transitions from OH were identified between 400 and 1000 per cm, corresponding to states with energies as high as 23,000

D. R. Smith; W. A. M. Blumberg; R. M. Nadile; S. J. Lipson; E. R. Huppi; N. B. Wheeler

1992-01-01

253

From Lindbergh to Columbia - The Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort to gage the level of maturation of space transportation development signalled by the advent of the Shuttle is attempted. Analogy is drawn to the successful crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by Charles Lindbergh, an event which established the feasibility of routine air transport over long distances. A positive shift in public confidence is expected to arrive by recalling the favorable news coverage which resulted after two or three flights by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk in 1908. The evolution of modern airports is taken as an indication of the kind of growth in facilities which may shortly be required due to operational space transportation systems. The arrival of normal operations of humans-to-space and return in reuseable vehicles is seen as a benchmark for a time when certain global assessments of social and technical requirements for the continued existence and progress of human civilization on earth and into space must be made.

Lovelace, A.

1982-01-01

254

Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

2005-01-01

255

Environmental analysis of the chemical release module. [space shuttle payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental analysis of the Chemical Release Module (a free flying spacecraft deployed from the space shuttle to perform chemical release experiments) is reviewed. Considerations of possible effects of the injectants on human health, ionosphere, weather, ground based optical astronomical observations, and satellite operations are included. It is concluded that no deleterious environmental effects of widespread or long lasting nature are anticipated from chemical releases in the upper atmosphere of the type indicated for the program.

Heppner, J. P.; Dubin, M.

1980-01-01

256

Space Shuttle Discovery rolls out to the launch pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Against the backdrop of a clear blue sky and the bluer Atlantic Ocean, the Space Shuttle Discovery, on its mobile launcher platform, sits on Launch Pad 39B. Liftoff of Discovery on mission STS-96 is targeted for May 20 at 9:32 a.m. EDT. STS-96 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-led experiment.

1999-01-01

257

Space shuttle lightning protection criteria document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lightning environment for design is defined and imposes the requirements that the design must satisfy to insure the protection of the space shuttle vehicle system from the direct and indirect effects of lightning. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines provide a practical and logical approach to the protection problems. Protection against the indirect effects of lightning is intimately involved with the electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic interference functions. While this document does not deal specifically with electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic interference, it does deal with the interactions between lightning protection measures and measures employed for electromagnetic compatibility and control of electromagnetic interference.

1973-01-01

258

Space Shuttle Orbiter windshield bird impact analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter's windshield employs three glass panes separated by air gaps. The brittleness of the glass offers much less birdstrike energy-absorption capability than the laminated polycarbonate windshields of more conventional aircraft; attention must accordingly be given to the risk of catastrophic bird impact, and to methods of strike prevention that address bird populations around landing sites rather than the modification of the window's design. Bird populations' direct reduction, as well as careful scheduling of Orbiter landing times, are suggested as viable alternatives. The question of birdstrike-resistant glass windshield design for hypersonic aerospacecraft is discussed.

Edelstein, Karen S.; Mccarty, Robert E.

1988-01-01

259

Space Shuttle Orbiter windshield bird impact analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter's windshield employs three glass panes separated by air gaps. The brittleness of the glass offers much less birdstrike energy-absorption capability than the laminated polycarbonate windshields of more conventional aircraft; attention must accordingly be given to the risk of catastrophic bird impact, and to methods of strike prevention that address bird populations around landing sites rather than the modification of the window's design. Bird populations' direct reduction, as well as careful scheduling of Orbiter landing times, are suggested as viable alternatives. The question of birdstrike-resistant glass windshield design for hypersonic aerospacecraft is discussed.

Edelstein, Karen S.; McCarty, Robert E.

260

Space shuttle SRM interim contract, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the solid rocket propellant for use with the space shuttle rocket engine are discussed. Design ramifications have created different web thicknesses and motor operating pressures which have necessitated small changes in the required propellant burning rate at 1,000 psia. However, the SRM burning rate remains well within the range demonstrated in the Poseidon and Minuteman first stage motors. Any change in propellant burning rate can be accomplished readily by a slight modification in the oxidizer particle size distribution. The ballistic and mechanical properties of the propellant remain unchanged from the baseline (Configuration 0).

1974-01-01

261

Langley's Space Shuttle Technology: A bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography documents most of the major publications, research reports, journal articles, presentations, and contractor reports, which have been published since the inception of the Space Shuttle Technology Task Group at the NASA Langley Reseach Center on July 11, 1969. This research work was performed in house by the Center staff or under contract, monitored by the Center staff. The report is arranged according to method of publication: (1) NASA Formal Reports; (2) Contractor Reports; and (3) Articles and Conferences. Disciplines covered are in the areas of aerothermodynamics, structures, dynamics and aeroelasticity, environmental, and materials. The publications are listed without abstracts for quick reference and planning.

Champine, G. R.

1981-01-01

262

SSME failure detection. [Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During ground testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), there have been twenty-six major incidents resulting in substantial hardware damage and loss. Historical characteristics, advances in detection technology, and advances in computing technology led to plans for study of an advanced real time SSME test stand failure detection system which would reduce damage and preserve evidence when a failure with major incident potential occurs. This detection system will speed recognition of dangerous engine operation, and quicken the shutdown decision. The scope of this study, SSME characteristics, SSME test history, the problem definition, and some technical issues will be addressed herein.

Cikanek, H. A., III

1985-01-01

263

Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring by expert systems in mission control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of two real-time expert systems for making flight-critical decisions during Space Shuttle missions is discussed. The expert systems, which monitor Space Shuttle communications and the Shuttle main engines, were first used in the STS-26 mission. The NASA Mission Control Center information systems are described. Consideration is given to the use of the C language inference production system expert system tool to develop the integrated communications officer (INCO) expert system, which monitors the Shuttle communications and data systems. The layered architecture of the INCO expert system is examined and results are presented from the use of the INCO expert system during Shuttle missions.

Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

1989-01-01

264

Space shuttle/payload interface analysis (study 2.4). Volume 2: Space shuttle traffic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer is reported of the capability to perform capture/cost analyses to MSFC. Space shuttle performance and direct costs, tug characteristics, reliability, and cost data were provided by NASA. The launch vehicle, mission models, payloads, and computer programs are discussed along with capture/cost analysis, and cost estimates. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493.

Plough, J. A.

1973-01-01

265

Young People's Perception of the Space Shuttle Disaster: Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined responses of 97 students who witnessed space shuttle disaster on video at school. Asked them to rank three things that had affected them most. Only 8.9 percent of females ranked space shuttle first, and only 30.4 percent ranked it in top three. More males (88.9 percent) mentioned space shuttle, and 38.9 percent saw it as top concern.

Gould, Benina Berger; Gould, Jeffrey B.

1991-01-01

266

Research and technology. [in development of space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summaries are presented of the research in the development of the space shuttle. Propulsion, materials, spacecraft and thermal control, payloads, instrumentation, data systems, and mission planning are included.

1973-01-01

267

Stennis Holds Last Planned Space Shuttle Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With 520 seconds of shake, rattle and roar on July 29, 2009 NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center marked the end of an era for testing the space shuttle main engines that have powered the nation's Space Shuttle Program for nearly three decades.

2009-01-01

268

Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Me...

J. Azbell

2010-01-01

269

Shuttle Replica On The Way To Space Center Houston  

NASA Video Gallery

Atop a barge, the space shuttle full-scale replica nears the completion of its eight-day journey from the Kennedy Space Center destined for permanent retention at Space Center Houston, near the NAS...

270

Observation of high-N hydroxyl pure rotation lines in atmospheric emission spectra by the CIRRIS 1A Space Shuttle Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure rotation line emissions from highly rotationally excited OH have been observed between 80 and 110 km tangent height under both nighttime and daytime quiescent conditions. Data were obtained using the cryogenic CIRRIS 1A interferometer, operated on the Space Shuttle. Transitions from OH(v=02, N??33) were identified between 400 and 1000 cm?1, corresponding to states with energies as high as 23000

D. R. Smith; W. A. M. Blumberg; R. M. Nadile; S. J. Lipson; E. R. Huppi; N. B. Wheeler; J. A. Dodd

1992-01-01

271

NASA Shuttle Web: John Glenn Returns to Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Glenn, the first American in space, became the world's oldest astronaut when he returned to the stars yesterday, 36 years after his first flight on the nation's 123rd manned mission. At the NASA Shuttle Website for the mission, users can read about the crew, payloads, mission objectives, some of the experiments on aging and space involving Senator Glenn, and updates on the mission's current status. Realtime data offered at the site include telemetry, tracking displays, sightings, and orbital elements. The site also hosts several multimedia offerings such as preflight and launch videos (MPEG), animations (MPEG), Net Show broadcasts of NASA TV, photos, and RealPlayer audio broadcasts.

272

Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory LDRL 10.6 experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System optimization is reported along with mission and parameter requirements. Link establishment and maintenance requirements are discussed providing an acquisition and tracking scheme. The shuttle terminal configurations are considered and are included in the experiment definition.

1974-01-01

273

Lightning protection design external tank /Space Shuttle/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of lightning striking the Space Shuttle during liftoff is considered and the lightning protection system designed by the Martin Marietta Corporation for the external tank (ET) portion of the Shuttle is discussed. The protection system is based on diverting and/or directing a lightning strike to an area of the spacecraft which can sustain the strike. The ET lightning protection theory and some test analyses of the system's design are reviewed including studies of conductivity and thermal/stress properties in materials, belly band feasibility, and burn-through plug grounding and puncture voltage. The ET lightning protection system design is shown to be comprised of the following: (1) a lightning rod on the forward most point of the ET, (2) a continually grounded, one inch wide conductive strip applied circumferentially at station 371 (belly band), (3) a three inch wide conductive belly band applied over the TPS (i.e. the insulating surface of the ET) and grounded to a structure with eight conductive plugs at station 536, and (4) a two inch thick TPS between the belly bands which are located over the weld lands.

Anderson, A.; Mumme, E.

1979-01-01

274

Spread spectrum techniques for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle will employ spread spectrum techniques for both communication and navigation. During on-orbit phases of flight, two-way S-band and Ku-band communication links between the Shuttle and the ground will be available via the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS). A pseudonoise (PN) code will spread the forward-link data spectrum from 32 kbps to 216 kbps to reduce the signal spectral density impinging on the earth's surface, with the S-band code search and acquisition being performed at C/NO-values of around 5 dB-Hz, and with a code length of 2047 chips at a rate of 11.232 Mchips/sec. C/NO-values in the region of 60 dB-Hz to 63 dB-Hz will characterize PN code acquisition in the Ku-band, whose forward-link PN clock is 3.03 Mchips/sec on a 1023-chip length sequence. Primary operational navigation will be provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), which, after measuring transit time of the PN spread spectrum signal between a number of GPS satellites and itself, scales it by the velocity of light. GPS will enable position estimation accuracy to 30 feet and velocity estimation accuracy to 0.02 ft/sec.

Batson, B. H.; Huth, G. K.

1979-01-01

275

STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery Landed on Runway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sun rises on the Space Shuttle Discovery as it rests on the runway at Edward's Air Force Base in California after a safe landing at 5:11 am (PDT) on August 9, 2005. The STS-114 landing concluded a historic 14 day return to flight mission to the International Space Station (ISS) after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003. Three successful space walks performed during the mission included a demonstration of repair techniques to the Shuttle's thermal tiles known as the Thermal Protection System, the replacement of a failed Control Moment Gyroscope which helps keep the station oriented properly, and the installation of the External Stowage Platform, a space 'shelf' for holding spare parts during Station construction. The shuttle's heat shield repair was a first for Shuttle repair while still in space.

2005-01-01

276

The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind is discussed. The space shuttle mission profile is presented and the capabilities of the spacecraft to perform various maneuvers and operations are described. The cost effectiveness of the space shuttle operation is analyzed. The effects upon technological superiority and national economics are examined. Line drawings and artist concepts of space shuttle configurations are included to clarify the discussion.

Rattinger, I.

1972-01-01

277

Space Vehicle Powerdown Philosophies Derived from the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spaceflight, electrical power is a vital but limited resource. Almost every spacecraft system, from avionics to life support systems, relies on electrical power. Since power can be limited by the generation system s performance, available consumables, solar array shading, or heat rejection capability, vehicle power management is a critical consideration in spacecraft design, mission planning, and real-time operations. The purpose of this paper is to capture the powerdown philosophies used during the Space Shuttle Program. This paper will discuss how electrical equipment is managed real-time to adjust the overall vehicle power level to ensure that systems and consumables will support changing mission objectives, as well as how electrical equipment is managed following system anomalies. We will focus on the power related impacts of anomalies in the generation systems, air and liquid cooling systems, and significant environmental events such as a fire, decrease in cabin pressure, or micrometeoroid debris strike. Additionally, considerations for executing powerdowns by crew action or by ground commands from Mission Control will be presented. General lessons learned from nearly 30 years of Space Shuttle powerdowns will be discussed, including an in depth case-study of STS-117. During this International Space Station (ISS) assembly mission, a failure of computers controlling the ISS guidance, navigation, and control system required that the Space Shuttle s maneuvering system be used to maintain attitude control. A powerdown was performed to save power generation consumables, thus extending the docked mission duration and allowing more time to resolve the issue.

Willsey, Mark; Bailey, Brad

2011-01-01

278

Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [instrument packages on the space shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is described which examined the extent to which the experiment hardware and operational requirements can be met by automatic control and material handling devices; payload and system concepts are defined which make extensive use of automation technology. Topics covered include experiment requirements and hardware data, capabilities and characteristics of industrial automation equipment and controls, payload grouping, automated payload conceptual design, space processing payload preliminary design, automated space processing payloads for early shuttle missions, and cost and scheduling.

1975-01-01

279

A study of ocean internal waves using space shuttle data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of this study were to better understand the remote sensing mechanisms of ocean internal waves, and to apply space shuttle data to studies of upper ocean processes. Space shuttle photographs and Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C images of the Arabian Sea area were collected and used for this study. Statistical analysis of spatial structures of internal waves yielded distribution

Zongming Wang

1997-01-01

280

Methods of assessing structural integrity for space shuttle vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are given which have application to space shuttle vehicles. Appropriate NDE design data is presented in twelve specifications in an appendix. Recommendations for NDE development work for the space shuttle program are presented.

Anderson, R. E.; Stuckenberg, F. H.

1971-01-01

281

Analysis of the Space Shuttle main engine simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a final report on an analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Program, a digital simulator code written in Fortran. The research was undertaken in ultimate support of future design studies of a shuttle life-extending Intelligent Control System (ICS). These studies are to be conducted by NASA Lewis Space Research Center. The primary purpose of the analysis was

J. Alex Deabreu-Garcia; John T. Welch

1993-01-01

282

Operating Deflection Shapes for the Space Shuttle Partial Stack Rollout  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November of 2003 a rollout test was performed to gain a better understanding of the dynamic environment for the Space Shuttle during transportation from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. This was part of a study evaluating the methodology for including the rollout dynamic loads in the Space Shuttle fatigue life predictions. The rollout test was conducted

Ralph D. Buehrle; Kathy Kappus

283

Retired Space Shuttles for sale, shipping not included  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Request for information on space shuttle orbiter and space shuttle main engine placementhttp://prod.nais.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/eps/synopsis.cgi?acqid=133299Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum: Phase Two The Flight Continueshttp://www.nasm.si.edu/getinvolved/giving/phasetwo/Shuttle and Station Video Podcastshttp://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/podcasting/shuttle_station_index.htmlBuran ¯¿½ the Soviet 'space shuttle'http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7738489.stmHow Space Shuttles workhttp://www.howstuffworks.com/space-shuttle.htmPaper Toys: Space Shuttlehttp://www.papertoys.com/shuttle.htmAs the 2010 retirement of the space shuttles Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor draws near, NASA this week released proposed post retirement plans for several of the space shuttles. The initial release was designed to gauge interest from potential buyers who would be willing and able to put the retired ships on display. Intended for schools, science museums, and other organizations that might be interested in showcasing one of the three remaining shuttles, the proposal contains what would be a prohibitive price for most organizations. NASA estimates that it will cost around $42 million dollars to get the shuttle ready for it's final destination. It is important to note that the $42 million will only get the shuttle to the closest major airport, shipping fees beyond that will cost extra, most likely a lot extra, as the space shuttle "will not be disassembled for transportation or storage." One of the shuttles appears destined for the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum, but the other two are up for grabs. If $42 million is too much for some, NASA is also offering some of the main shuttle engines for the bargain prices of $400,000 and $800,000, and no, this doesn't include shipping. The first link will lead visitors to a piece from Scientific American on the proposal to sell the retiring shuttles. The second link leads to the actual NASA proposal should you, or someone you know, be interested. The third link leads to the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center and a discussion of its new wing which is designed to collect and preserve the United States' aviation and space history. The fourth link leads to an interesting collection of NASA podcasts about the space shuttles and space station. The fifth link leads to an intriguing article from BBC on the lesser-known Soviet space shuttle. The sixth link leads visitors to an informative set of articles on how the space shuttles actually work. Last, for those who can't afford the $42 million or just don't have the space, this link will take them to a printable space shuttle paper toy that they can construct for the cost of a piece of paper and some printer ink.

2008-12-19

284

Space Shuttle Program: STS-1 Medical Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessity for developing medical standards addressing individual classes of Shuttle crew positions is discussed. For the U.S. manned program the conclusion of the Apollo era heralded the end of water recovery operations and the introduction of land-based medical operations. This procedural change marked a significant departure from the accepted postflight medical recovery and evaluation techniques. All phases of the missions required careful re-evaluation, identification of potential impact on preexisting medical operational techniques, and development of new methodologies which were carefully evaluated and tested under simulated conditions. Significant coordination was required between the different teams involved in medical operations. Additional dimensions were added to the concepts of medical operations, by the introduction of different toxic substances utilized by the Space Transportation Systems especially during ground operations.

1981-01-01

285

Millimeter wave atmospheric sounding from Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the three dimensional distribution of minor constituents and the temperature throughout the middle atmosphere (approximately 10 to 100 km) on a global scale is a fundamental requirement to understand the complex chemistry and dynamics of this region. Millimeter wave spectro-radiometry using limb sounding technique from a spacecraft in low orbit offers the opportunity to obtain height profiles with near global coverage. The Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS) to be flown on Space Shuttle will measure ozone, water vapour, chlorine monoxide, temperature and pressure over an altitude range of 15 to 100 km. MAS is scheduled for the Earth Observation Missions 4, 5 and 6 at roughly one year intervals with a first start in 1988. Scientific fundamentals, design rationales and technical solutions are presented.

Schanda, E.; Kuenzi, K.; Kaempfer, N.; Hartmann, G.; Degenhart, W.

1985-10-01

286

Millimeter wave atmospheric sounding from space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the three-dimensional distribution of minor constituents and the temperature throughout the middle atmosphere (approximately 10 to 100 km) on a global scale is a fundamental requirement to understand the complex chemistry and dynamics of this region. Millimeter wave spectroradiometry using limb sounding technique from a spacecraft in low orbit offers the opportunity to obtain height profiles with near global coverage. The Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS) to be flown on Space Shuttle will measure ozone, water vapour, chlorine monoxide, temperature and pressure over an altitude range of 15 to 100 km. MAS is scheduled for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS) Missions 1, 2 and 3 at roughly one year intervals with a first start in 1989. Scientific fundamentals, design rationales and technical solutions are presented.

Schanda, E.; Knzi, K.; Kmpfer, N.; Hartmann, G.; Degenhart, W.; Keppler, E.; Loidl, A.; Umlauft, G.; Vasyliunas, V.; Zwick, R.; Schwartz, P. R.; Bevilacqua, R. M.

287

Tracking techniques for space shuttle rendezvous  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle rendezvous radar has a requirement to track cooperative and non-cooperative targets. For this reason the Lunar Module (LM) Rendezvous Radar was modified to incorporate the capability of tracking a non-cooperative target. The modifications are discussed. All modifications except those relating to frequency diversity were completed, and system tests were performed to confirm proper performance in the non-cooperative mode. Frequency diversity was added to the radar and to the special test equipment, and then system tests were performed. This last set of tests included re-running the tests of the non-cooperative mode without frequency diversity, followed by tests with frequency diversity and tests of operation in the original cooperative mode.

1975-01-01

288

Energy management during the space shuttle transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to calculating optimal, gliding flight paths of the type associated with the space shuttle's transition from entry to cruising flight is presented. Kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations, reducing the dimension and complexity of the problem. The capability for treating integral and terminal penalties (as well as Mach number effects) is retained in the numerical optimization; hence, stability and control boundaries can be observed as trajectories to the desired final energy, flight path angle, and range are determined. Numerical results show that the jump to the front-side of the L/D curve need not be made until the end of the transition and that the dynamic model provides a conservative range estimate. Alternatives for real time trajectory control are discussed.

Stengel, R. F.

1972-01-01

289

Energy management during the space shuttle transition.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to calculating optimal, gliding flight paths of the type associated with the space shuttle's transition from entry to cruising flight is presented. Kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations, reducing the dimension and complexity of the problem. The capability for treating integral and terminal penalties (as well as Mach number effects) is retained in the numerical optimization; hence, stability and control boundaries can be observed as trajectories to the desired final energy, flight path angle, and range are determined. Numerical results show that the 'jump' to the 'front-side of the L/D curve' need not be made until the end of the transition and that the dynamic model provides a conservative range estimate. Alternatives for real-time trajectory control are discussed.

Stengel, R. F.

1972-01-01

290

Characteristics of Space Shuttle Main Engine failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During development and operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), 27 ground test failures of sufficient severity to be termed 'major incident' have occurred. Resourecs including NASA Failure Investigation Board reports, contractor failure reports, originally recorded data, along with engineering notes, data bases, and presentations connected with the failures were available for compilation into the engine failure review presented in this paper. Most SSME failures were a result of design deficiencies stemming from inadequate definition of dynamic loads. High cycle fatigue was the most frequent mechanism leading to failure. Eighteen of the 27 failures occurred during constant power level operation. Formal board reports were not available for all failures. Therefore, the failure history presented in this paper is not complete or of uniform quality.

Cikanek, Harry A., III

1987-01-01

291

Space Shuttle solid rocket booster dewatering system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the launch of the Space Shuttle, the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are jettisoned into the ocean where they float in a spar (vertical) mode. It is cost effective to recover the SRB's. A remote controlled submersible vehicle has been developed to aid in their recovery. The vehicle is launched from a support ship, maneuvered to the SRB, then taken to depth and guided into the rocket nozzle. It then dewaters the SRB, using compressed air from the ship, and seals the nozzle. When dewatered, the SRB floats in a log (horizontal) mode and can be towed to port for reuse. The design of the remote controlled vehicle and its propulsion system is presented.

Fishel, K. R.

1982-01-01

292

SRB dewatering set. [space shuttle boosters revcovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system components and operation of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) dewatering set are described. The SRB dewatering set consists of a nozzle plug, control console, remote control unit, power distribution unit, umbilical cable, interconnect cables, and various handling and storage items. The nozzle plug (NP) is a remotely controlled, tethered underwater vehicle that is launched from the retrieval vessel (RV) by a crane, descends down the side of the SRB, and is positioned below the SRB nozzle. A TV camera mounted at the top of the NP central core is used by the control console operator to visually guide the NP during descent and docking. The NP is then driven up and locked into the nozzle. Compressed air is passed through the umbilical from the RV, through the NP and into the SRB motor. The water inside the SRB is expelled causing the SRB to rotate to a near horizontal attitude on the surface of the water.

Wickham, R. E.

1981-01-01

293

Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program: Changes in Shuttle Post Challenger and Columbia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the legacy of successes in the space shuttle program particularly with regards to the changes in the culture of NASA's organization after the Challenger and Columbia accidents and some of the changes to the shuttles that were made manifest as a result of the accidents..

Jarrell, George

2010-01-01

294

The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

2011-01-01

295

Study of space shuttle environmental control and life support problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four problem areas were treated: (1) cargo module environmental control and life support systems; (2) space shuttle/space station interfaces; (3) thermal control considerations for payloads; and (4) feasibility of improving system reusability.

Dibble, K. P.; Riley, F. E.

1971-01-01

296

Case Study of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade project was to reduce crew workload and improve situational awareness. The upgrade was to augment the Shuttle avionics system with new hardware and software. An early version of this system was used to gather human factor statistics in the Space Shuttle Motion Simulator of the Johnson Space Center for one month by multiple teams of astronauts. The results were compiled by NASA Ames Research Center and it was was determined that the system provided a better than expected increase in situational awareness and reduction in crew workload. Even with all of the benefits nf the system, NASA cancelled the project towards the end of the development cycle. A major success of this project was the validation of the hardware architecture and software design. This was significant because the project incorporated new technology and approaches for the development of human rated space software. This paper serves as a case study to document knowledge gained and techniques that can be applied for future space avionics development efforts. The major technological advances were the use of reflective memory concepts for data acquisition and the incorporation of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) products in a human rated space avionics system. The infused COTS products included a real time operating system, a resident linker and loader, a display generation tool set, and a network data manager. Some of the successful design concepts were the engineering of identical outputs in multiple avionics boxes using an event driven approach and inter-computer communication, a reconfigurable data acquisition engine, the use of a dynamic bus bandwidth allocation algorithm. Other significant experiences captured were the use of prototyping to reduce risk, and the correct balance between Object Oriented and Functional based programming.

Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Thompson, Hiram C.

2005-01-01

297

Animation graphic interface for the space shuttle onboard computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphics interfaces designed to operate on space qualified hardware challenge software designers to display complex information under processing power and physical size constraints. Under contract to Johnson Space Center, MICROEXPERT Systems is currently constructing an intelligent interface for the LASER DOCKING SENSOR (LDS) flight experiment. Part of this interface is a graphic animation display for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations. The displays have been designed in consultation with Shuttle astronauts. The displays show multiple views of a satellite relative to the shuttle, coupled with numeric attitude information. The graphics are generated using position data received by the Shuttle Payload and General Support Computer (PGSC) from the Laser Docking Sensor. Some of the design considerations include crew member preferences in graphic data representation, single versus multiple window displays, mission tailoring of graphic displays, realistic 3D images versus generic icon representations of real objects, the physical relationship of the observers to the graphic display, how numeric or textual information should interface with graphic data, in what frame of reference objects should be portrayed, recognizing conditions of display information-overload, and screen format and placement consistency.

Wike, Jeffrey; Griffith, Paul

1989-01-01

298

Institutional environmental impact statement (space shuttle development and operations) amendment no. 1. [space shuttle operations at Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented to support the environmental impact statement on space shuttle actions at Kennedy Space Center. Studies indicate that land use to accommodate space shuttle operations may have the most significant impact. The impacts on air, water and noise quality are predicted to be less on the on-site environment. Considerations of operating modes indicate that long and short term land use will not affect wildlife productivity. The potential for adverse environmental impact is small and such impacts will be local, short in duration, controllable, and environmentally acceptable.

1973-01-01

299

Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early dawn, the brilliant flames from the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery light up the billows of steam below. Mission STS-96 lifted off at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

300

Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the Space Shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed as an engineering tool to aid in making premission radiation dose calculations and is discussed in detail. The anatomical man models are also discussed. A comparison between the onboard dosimeter measurements for the 24 Shuttle missions to date and the dose calculations using the radiation environment and shielding models is presented.

Atwell, William; Beever, E. R.; Hardy, A. C.; Richmond, R. G.; Cash, B. L.

1989-01-01

301

Shuttle Shortfalls and Lessons Learned for the Sustainment of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much debate and national soul searching has taken place over the value of the Space Shuttle which first flew in 1981 and which is currently scheduled to be retired in 2010. Originally developed post-Saturn Apollo to emphasize affordability and safety, the reusable Space Shuttle instead came to be perceived as economically unsustainable and lacking the technology maturity to assure safe, routine access to low earth orbit (LEO). After the loss of two crews, aboard Challenger and Columbia, followed by the decision to retire the system in 2010, it is critical that this three decades worth of human space flight experience be well understood. Understanding of the past is imperative to further those goals for which the Space Shuttle was a stepping-stone in the advancement of knowledge. There was significant reduction in life cycle costs between the Saturn Apollo and the Space Shuttle. However, the advancement in life cycle cost reduction from Saturn Apollo to the Space Shuttle fell far short of its goal. This paper will explore the reasons for this shortfall. Shortfalls and lessons learned can be categorized as related to design factors, at the architecture, element and sub-system levels, as well as to programmatic factors, in terms of goals, requirements, management and organization. Additionally, no review of the Space Shuttle program and attempt to take away key lessons would be complete without a strategic review. That is, how do national space goals drive future space transportation development strategies? The lessons of the Space Shuttle are invaluable in all respects - technical, as in design, program-wise, as in organizational approach and goal setting, and strategically, within the context of the generational march toward an expanded human presence in space. Beyond lessons though (and the innumerable papers, anecdotes and opinions published on this topic) this paper traces tangible, achievable steps, derived from the Space Shuttle program experience, that must be a part of any 2l century initiatives furthering a growing human presence beyond earth.

Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

2009-01-01

302

H2O2 space shuttle APU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

1975-01-01

303

Observation of high-N hydroxyl pure rotation lines in atmospheric emission spectra by the Cirris 1A Space Shuttle experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure rotation line emissions from highly rotationally excited OH have been observed between 80 and 110 km tangent height under both nighttime and daytime quiescent conditions. Data were obtained using the cryogenic CIRRIS 1A interferometer, operated on the Space Shuttle. Transitions from OH were identified between 400 and 1000 per cm, corresponding to states with energies as high as 23,000 per cm. These are the first definitive observations of OH pure rotation transitions in the airglow, and by far the highest N levels observed in any type of OH airglow emission spectrum.

Smith, D. R.; Blumberg, W. A. M.; Nadile, R. M.; Lipson, S. J.; Huppi, E. R.; Wheeler, N. B.

1992-03-01

304

Environmentally-driven Materials Obsolescence: Material Replacements and Lessons Learned from NASA's Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Program was terminated in 2011 with the last flight of the Shuttle Endeavour. During the 30 years of its operating history, the number of domestic and international environmental regulations increased rapidly and resulted in materials obsolescence risks to the program. Initial replacement efforts focused on ozone depleting substances. As pressure from environmental regulations increased, Shuttle worked on the replacement of heavy metals. volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Near the end of the program. Shuttle identified potential material obsolescence driven by international regulations and the potential for suppliers to reformulate materials. During the Shuttle Program a team focused on environmentally-driven materials obsolescence worked to identify and mitigate these risks. Lessons learned from the Shuttle experience can be applied to new NASA Programs as well as other high reliability applications.

Meinhold, Anne

2013-01-01

305

An Engineering Look at Space Shuttle and ISS Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation, in Spanish, is an overview of NASA's Space Shuttle operations and preparations for serving the International Space Station. There is information and or views of the shuttle's design, the propulsion system, the external tanks, the foam insulation, the reusable solid rocket motors, the vehicle assembly building (VAB), the mobile launcher platform being moved from the VAB to the launch pad. There is a presentation of some of the current issues with the space shuttle: cracks in the LH2 flow lines, corrosion and pitting, the thermal protection system, and inspection of the thermal protection system while in orbit. The shuttle system has served for more than 20 years, it is still a challenge to re-certify the vehicles for flight. Materials and material science remain as chief concerns for the shuttle,

Hernandez, Jose M.

2004-01-01

306

Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

Partridge, Jonathan K.

2011-01-01

307

President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the roof of the Launch Control Center, U.S. President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton track the plume and successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-95. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on the mission.

1998-01-01

308

Space shuttle propulsion estimation development verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of extended Kalman filtering to estimating the Space Shuttle Propulsion performance, i.e., specific impulse, from flight data in a post-flight processing computer program is detailed. The flight data used include inertial platform acceleration, SRB head pressure, SSME chamber pressure and flow rates, and ground based radar tracking data. The key feature in this application is the model used for the SRB's, which is a nominal or reference quasi-static internal ballistics model normalized to the propellant burn depth. Dynamic states of mass overboard and propellant burn depth are included in the filter model to account for real-time deviations from the reference model used. Aerodynamic, plume, wind and main engine uncertainties are also included for an integrated system model. Assuming uncertainty within the propulsion system model and attempts to estimate its deviations represent a new application of parameter estimation for rocket powered vehicles. Illustrations from the results of applying this estimation approach to several missions show good quality propulsion estimates.

Rogers, Robert M.

1989-01-01

309

Space Shuttle orbiter approach and landing test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Approach and Landing Test Program consisted of a series of steps leading to the demonstration of the capability of the Space Shuttle orbiter to safely approach and land under conditions similar to those planned for the final phases of an orbital flight. The tests were conducted with the orbiter mounted on top of a specially modified carrier aircraft. The first step provided airworthiness and performance verification of the carrier aircraft after modification. The second step consisted of three taxi tests and five flight tests with an inert unmanned orbiter. The third step consisted of three mated tests with an active manned orbiter. The fourth step consisted of five flights in which the orbiter was separated from the carrier aircraft. For the final two flights, the orbiter tail cone was replaced by dummy engines to simulate the actual orbital configuration. Landing gear braking and steering tests were accomplished during rollouts following the free flight landings. Ferry testing was integrated into the Approach and Landing Test Program to the extent possible. In addition, four ferry test flights were conducted with the orbiter mated to the carrier aircraft in the ferry configuration after the free-flight tests were completed.

1978-01-01

310

Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

Alario, J.

1973-01-01

311

Space Shuttle ET Friction Stir Weld Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and Lockheed-Martin approached the FSW machine vendor community with a specification for longitudinal barrel production FSW weld machines and a shorter travel process development machine in June of 2000. This specification was based on three years of FSW process development on the Space Shuttle External Tank alloys, AL2 195-T8M4 and AL22 19-T87. The primary motivations for changing the ET longitudinal welds from the existing variable polarity Plasma Arc plasma weld process included: (1) Significantly reduced weld defect rates and related reduction in cycle time and uncertainty; (2) Many fewer process variables to control (5 vs. 17); (3) Fewer manufacturing steps; (4) Lower residual stresses and distortion; (5) Improved weld strengths, particularly at cryogenic temperatures; (6) Fewer hazards to production personnel. General Tool was the successful bidder. The equipment is at this writing installed and welding flight hardware. This paper is a means of sharing with the rest of the FSW community the unique features developed to assure NASA/L-M of successful production welds.

Thompson, Jack M.

2003-01-01

312

Space shuttle rendezous, radiation and reentry analysis code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary space shuttle mission design and analysis tool is reported emphasizing versatility, flexibility, and user interaction through the use of a relatively small computer (IBM-7044). The Space Shuttle Rendezvous, Radiation and Reentry Analysis Code is used to perform mission and space radiation environmental analyses for four typical space shuttle missions. Included also is a version of the proposed Apollo/Soyuz rendezvous and docking test mission. Tangential steering circle to circle low-thrust tug orbit raising and the effects of the trapped radiation environment on trajectory shaping due to solar electric power losses are also features of this mission analysis code. The computational results include a parametric study on single impulse versus double impulse deorbiting for relatively low space shuttle orbits as well as some definitive data on the magnetically trapped protons and electrons encountered on a particular mission.

Mcglathery, D. M.

1973-01-01

313

Space Shuttle Discovery rolls out to the launch pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Discovery sits on Launch Pad 39B against a backdrop of blue sky and the blue-green Atlantic Ocean. At the top left is the 290-foot-high water tank that holds 300,000 gallons of water for the sound suppression system during liftoff. At the bottom, on the Rotating Service Structure, is photographer John Sexton, taking photos for a book. Liftoff of Discovery on mission STS-96 is targeted for May 20 at 9:32 a.m. EDT. STS-96 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.- built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-led experiment.

1999-01-01

314

Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

2011-01-01

315

Operational Use of GPS Navigation for Space Shuttle Entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-118 flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was the first shuttle mission flown with three Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in place of the three legacy Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) units. This marked the conclusion of a 15 year effort involving procurement, missionization, integration, and flight testing of a GPS receiver and a parallel effort to formulate and implement shuttle computer software changes to support GPS. The use of GPS data from a single receiver in parallel with TACAN during entry was successfully demonstrated by the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis during four shuttle missions in 2006 and 2007. This provided the confidence needed before flying the first all GPS, no TACAN flight with Endeavour. A significant number of lessons were learned concerning the integration of a software intensive navigation unit into a legacy avionics system. These lessons have been taken into consideration during vehicle design by other flight programs, including the vehicle that will replace the Space Shuttle, Orion.

Goodman, John L.; Propst, Carolyn A.

2008-01-01

316

A guide for space lawyers to understanding the NASA Space Shuttle and the ESA Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted concerning the appropriate characterization of the Space Shuttle, taking into account appearance, functions, and purpose. It is concluded that in terms of purely technological criteria, the Shuttle can best be described as an 'aerospace vehicle'. Questions related to the legal characterization of the Shuttle are considered. On the basis of the Shuttle's purpose as the most important criterion, it is suggested that the Shuttle should be considered basically as a 'spacecraft', 'space vehicle', or 'space object'. Attention is given to the Shuttle's relationship to multilateral space conventions, the possibility that the Shuttle could be legally defined as an 'aircraft' under certain circumstances, the Shuttle and the Chicago Convention, and the status of Spacelab as only one part of a U.S. flag spacecraft.

Sloup, G. P.

1977-01-01

317

Utilization of Shuttle small payload accommodations in the DOD Space Test Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 27 years, the U.S. Air Force, as executive agent for the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program, has flown approximately 325 space experiments for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and other DOD agencies. These experiments have made significant contributions to the improvement of military technology and operations. Flight of Space Test Program experiments has been carried out utilizing free flyer spacecraft, the Space Shuttle crew cabin, and the Space Shuttle cargo bay. This paper will concentrate on those experiments which have been flown by the NASA Space Shuttle small payload flight systems, e.g., GAS, uprated GAS (CAP), and Hitchhiker flight systems. Discussions of Space Test Program experiments flown by Space Shuttle small payloads flight systems will include the experiment objectives, the accommodations and services provided by the flight systems, experiment results, and lessons learned from the planning and conduct of the flight. Particular emphasis will be placed on those experiments which required and were provided with a new and unique capability by the small payloads flight systems. These capabilities include the first use of the GAS opening lid, the first use of the GAS payload ejection capability, and the first use of the Hitchhiker cross bay carrier.

Hagler, Thomas; Czajkowski, Eva

1993-10-01

318

STS-96 Space Shuttle Discovery rolls back to Launch Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewed from the top of the rotating service structure, Space Shuttle Discovery rests on the mobile launcher platform and towers over the landscape after rollout to Launch Pad 39B. In the background are portions of the Banana River and the Atlantic Ocean. The lighter spots on the top of the external tank are areas of hail damage that was recently repaired. The Shuttle had to be returned to the VAB for the repairs, making this the second rollout for the Shuttle. Discovery is scheduled for liftoff May 27 at 6:48 a.m. EDT on mission STS-96, the 94th launch in the Space Shuttle Program. A logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, STS-96 is carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-shared experiment.

1999-01-01

319

Space shuttle phase B study plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase B emphasis was directed toward development of data which would facilitate selection of the booster concept, and main propulsion system for the orbiter. A shuttle system is also defined which will form the baseline for Phase C program activities.

Hello, B.

1971-01-01

320

Space shuttle traffic model developed from 1971 mission model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traffic model data for the space shuttle using the 1971 NASA, DOD, and commercial mission models are presented along with descriptions and schedules for the NASA and commercial payloads used to develop the data.

1973-01-01

321

FSW Implementation on the Space Shuttle's External Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, friction stir welding on the external tank of the Space Shuttle. The topics include: 1) Friction Stir Welding Process; 2) Implementation Status; and 3) Summary.

Hartley, David; Smelser, Jerry W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

322

Shuttle considerations for the design of large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shuttle related considerations (constraints and guidelines) are compiled for use by designers of a potential class of large space structures which are transported to orbit and, deployed, fabricated or assembled in space using the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Considerations of all phases of shuttle operations from launch to ground turnaround operations are presented. Design of large space structures includes design of special construction fixtures and support equipment, special stowage cradles or pallets, special checkout maintenance, and monitoring equipment, and planning for packaging into the orbiter of all additional provisions and supplies chargeable to payload. Checklists of design issues, Shuttle capabilities constraints and guidelines, as well as general explanatory material and references to source documents are included.

Roebuck, J. A., Jr.

1980-01-01

323

Space shuttle solid rocket booster redesign and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The redesigned solid rocket motor of the Space Shuttle is described. Improvements over the model that led to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger are outlined. Scale and full-size tests carried out to verify the quality of the redesign are described. A unique feature of the test program is the introduction of deliberate flaws into some test articles. Post-flight evaluation of the redesigned boosters show excellent results.

Mitchell, R. E.

1989-01-01

324

Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

1973-01-01

325

Mechanics, impact loads and EMG on the space shuttle treadmill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of astronauts to egress the Shuttle, particularly during emergency conditions, is likely to be reduced following physiological adaptation in space. It is well established that effective application of exercise counter measures requires the exercise to be applied specifically. The problem is that objective scientific evidence is not available to validate the Space Shuttle treadmill with respect to in its role in diminishing the deleterious effects of a prolonged exposure to the microgravity environment.

Squires, William G.

1990-01-01

326

Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

McDaniels, Steven J.

2005-01-01

327

Replication of Space-Shuttle Computers in FPGAs and ASICs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses the replication of the functionality of the onboard space-shuttle general-purpose computers (GPCs) in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The purpose of the replication effort is to enable utilization of proven space-shuttle flight software and software-development facilities to the extent possible during development of software for flight computers for a new generation of launch vehicles derived from the space shuttles. The replication involves specifying the instruction set of the central processing unit and the input/output processor (IOP) of the space-shuttle GPC in a hardware description language (HDL). The HDL is synthesized to form a "core" processor in an FPGA or, less preferably, in an ASIC. The core processor can be used to create a flight-control card to be inserted into a new avionics computer. The IOP of the GPC as implemented in the core processor could be designed to support data-bus protocols other than that of a multiplexer interface adapter (MIA) used in the space shuttle. Hence, a computer containing the core processor could be tailored to communicate via the space-shuttle GPC bus and/or one or more other buses.

Ferguson, Roscoe C.

2008-01-01

328

Loads and low frequency dynamics data base: Version 1.1 November 8, 1985. [Space Shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural design data for the Shuttle are presented in the form of a data base. The data can be used by designers of Shuttle experiments to assure compliance with Shuttle safety and structural verification requirements. A glossary of Shuttle design terminology is given, and the principal safety requirements of Shuttle are summarized. The Shuttle design data are given in the form of load factors.

Garba, J. A. (editor)

1985-01-01

329

Space Shuttle Orbiter waste collection system conceptual study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analyses and studies conducted to develop a recommended design concept for a new fecal collection system that can be retrofited into the space shuttle vehicle to replace the existing troublesome system which has had limited success in use are summarized. The concept selected is a cartridge compactor fecal collection subsystem which utilizes an airflow collection mode combined with a mechanical compaction and vacuum drying mode that satisfies the shuttle requirements with respect to size, weight, interfaces, and crew comments. A follow-on development program is recommended which is to result in flight test hardware retrofitable on a shuttle vehicle. This permits NASA to evaluate the system which has space station applicablity before committing production funds for the shuttle fleet and space station development.

Abbate, M.

1985-01-01

330

Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds of smoke and steam roll across Launch Pad 39B and the nearby marshes as Space Shuttle Endeavour roars into the night sky in a perfect launch. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11- day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

331

On the wings of a dream: The Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described are the organization and some of the interests and missions of NASA, the Space Transportation System, the Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise, astronaut training and clothing, being launched into space, living and working in weightlessness, extravehicular activity, and the return from space to Earth. The various aspects of living in space are treated in considerable detail. This includes how the astronauts prepare food, how they eat and drink, how they sleep, exercise, change clothes and handle personal hygiene when in space.

1988-01-01

332

Shuttle Atlantis in Mate-Demate Device Being Loaded onto SCA-747 for Return to Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows a night view of the orbiter Atlantis being loaded onto one of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1996-01-01

333

President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) U.S. President Bill Clinton, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, Astronaut Robert Cabana and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

1998-01-01

334

President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) Astronaut Eileen Collins (in flight suit) with unidentified companions, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, Astronaut Robert Cabana, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, and U.S. President Bill Clinton. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Collins will command the crew of STS-93, the first woman to hold that position. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

1998-01-01

335

Methods and Techniques for Risk Prediction of Space Shuttle Upgrades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Space Shuttle Accident in 1986, NASA has been trying to incorporate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in decisions concerning the Space Shuttle and other NASA projects. One major study NASA is currently conducting is in the PRA area in establishing an overall risk model for the Space Shuttle System. The model is intended to provide a tool to predict the Shuttle risk and to perform sensitivity analyses and trade studies including evaluation of upgrades. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and its prime contractors including Pratt and Whitney (P&W) are part of the NASA team conducting the PRA study. MSFC responsibility involves modeling the External Tank (ET), the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). A major challenge that faced the PRA team is modeling the shuttle upgrades. This mainly includes the P&W High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) and the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various methods and techniques used for predicting the risk of the P&W redesigned HPFTP and HPOTP.

Hoffman, Chad R.; Pugh, Rich; Safie, Fayssal

1998-01-01

336

Space Shuttle Discovery Docked to the Pressurized Mating Adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Discovery, docked to the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-2) on the International Space Station (ISS), is featured in this image photographed by a space walker during the second session of extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-120 mission on October 28, 2007.

2007-01-01

337

Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Me...

J. A. Azbell

2011-01-01

338

Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 5: Auxiliary shuttle risk analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 5 is Appendix C, Auxiliary Shuttle Risk Analyses, and contains the following reports: Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Space Shuttle Phase 1 - Space Shuttle Catastrophic Failure Frequency Final Report; Risk Analysis Applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine - Demonstration Project for the Main Combustion Chamber Risk Assessment; An Investigation of the Risk Implications of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Chamber Pressure Excursions; Safety of the Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter - Quantitative Analysis and Organizational Factors; Space Shuttle Main Propulsion Pressurization System Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Final Report; and Space Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment Proof-of-Concept Study - Auxiliary Power Unit and Hydraulic Power Unit Analysis Report.

Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

1995-01-01

339

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 1: Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space astronomy missions to be accomplished by the space shuttle are discussed. The principal instrument is the Large Space Telescope optimized for the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, but usable also in the infrared. Two infrared telescopes are also proposed and their characteristics are described. Other instruments considered for the astronomical observations are: (1) a very wide angle ultraviolet camera, (2) a grazing incidence telescope, (3) Explorer-class free flyers to measure the cosmic microwave background, and (4) rocket-class instruments which can fly frequently on a variety of missions. The stability requirements of the space shuttle for accomplishing the astronomy mission are defined.

1973-01-01

340

The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

Heiss, K. P.

1973-01-01

341

Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

1982-01-01

342

Space Shuttle Atlantis lights up the dark at liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The brilliant exhaust from the solid rocket boosters (left) and blue mach diamonds from the main engine nozzles (right) mark the perfect launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. Liftoff occurred on time at 6:11:10 a.m. EDT. The mission is taking the crew of seven to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies as well as to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk and will reboost the space station from 230 statute miles to 250 statute miles. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. After a 10-day mission, landing is targeted for May 29 at 2:19 a.m. EDT. This is the 98th Shuttle flight and the 21st flight for Shuttle Atlantis.

2000-01-01

343

Meals in orbit. [Space Shuttle food service planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space foods which will be available to the Space Shuttle crew are discussed in view of the research and development of proper nutrition in space that began with the pastelike tube meals of the Mercury and Gemini astronauts. The variety of food types proposed for the Space Shuttle crew which include thermostabilized, intermediate moisture, rehydratable, irradiated, freeze-dried and natural forms are shown to be a result of the successive improvements in the Apollo, Skylab and Apollo Soyuz test project flights. The Space Shuttle crew will also benefit from an increase of caloric content (3,000 cal./day), the convenience of a real oven and a comfortable dining and kitchen area.

1980-01-01

344

Space Shuttle Atlantis lights up the dark at liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Atlantis rises from a cradle of steam and smoke during liftoff at 6:11:10 a.m. EDT on mission STS-101. The bright light is reflected in the water near the Launch Pad 39A. The mission is taking the crew of seven to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies as well as to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk and will reboost the space station from 230 statute miles to 250 statute miles. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. After a 10-day mission, landing is targeted for May 29 at 2:19 a.m. EDT. This is the 98th Shuttle flight and the 21st flight for Shuttle Atlantis.

2000-01-01

345

Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. In recent years, NASA has implemented several techniques to reduce the risk to the Shuttle from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it's role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of the effectivity of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

Hyde, Justin L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, James H.

2007-01-01

346

Applying Reliability Models to the Space Shuttle  

E-print Network

treat modules unequally. Allocate more test time , funds and effort to modules with the highest if the reliability goals it sets for its software has been met. #12;Evaluating Reliability Models · We usually need of the shuttle's on-board system software for NASA, After evaluating many reliability models and tried

Feitelson, Dror

347

Wide angle zoom for the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to pilot and visually monitor the Canadarm operating on the Shuttle, a zoom lens with a minimum wide angle of 98 deg field of view was needed. The design of the chosen solution is presented. There are 22 lenses arranged in 4 groups allowing mechanical compensation. The range of focal lengths is 8.2 to 25 mm; the aperture

J. Angenieux; J. Debize; A. Masson

1983-01-01

348

Voice control of the space shuttle video system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pilot voice control system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to test and evaluate the feasibility of controlling the shuttle TV cameras and monitors by voice commands utilizes a commercially available discrete word speech recognizer which can be trained to the individual utterances of each operator. Successful ground tests were conducted using a simulated full-scale space shuttle manipulator. The test configuration involved the berthing, maneuvering and deploying a simulated science payload in the shuttle bay. The handling task typically required 15 to 20 minutes and 60 to 80 commands to 4 TV cameras and 2 TV monitors. The best test runs show 96 to 100 percent voice recognition accuracy.

Bejczy, A. K.; Dotson, R. S.; Brown, J. W.; Lewis, J. L.

1981-01-01

349

Assessment of possible environmental effects of space shuttle operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of shuttle operations to contribute to atmospheric pollution is investigated. Presented in this interim report are results of the study to date on rocket exhaust inventory, exhaust interactions, dispersion of the ground cloud, detection and measurement of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, environmental effects of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, stratospheric effects of shuttle effluents, and mesospheric and ionospheric effects of orbiter reentry. The results indicate space shuttle operation will not result in adverse environmental effects if appropriate launch constraints are met.

Cicerone, R. J.; Stedman, D. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Dingle, A. N.; Cellarius, R. A.

1973-01-01

350

Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 2, book 2: Technical report, appendices A through E. [instrument packages and space shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiment hardware and operational requirements for space shuttle experiments are discussed along with payload and system concepts. Appendixes are included in which experiment data sheets, chamber environmental control and monitoring, method for collection and storage of electrophoretically-separated samples, preliminary thermal evaluation of electromagnetic levitation facilities L1, L2, and L3, and applicable industrial automation equipment are discussed.

1975-01-01

351

Space Shuttle Hot Cabin Emergency Responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods: Human thermal tolerance, countermeasures, and thermal model data were reviewed and compared to existing shuttle ECS failure temperature and humidity profiles for each failure mode. Increases in core temperature associated with cognitive impairment was identified, as was metabolic heat generation of crewmembers, temperature monitoring, and communication capabilities after partial power-down and other limiting factors. Orbiter landing strategies and a hydration and salt replacement protocol were developed to put wheels on deck in each failure mode prior to development of significant cognitive impairment or collapse of crewmembers. Thermal tradeoffs for use of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), Liquid Cooling Garment, integrated G-suit and Quick Don Mask were examined. candidate solutions involved trade-offs or conflicts with cabin oxygen partial pressure limits, system power-downs to limit heat generation, risks of alternate and emergency landing sites or compromise of Mode V-VIII scenarios. Results: Rehydration and minimized cabin workloads are required in all failure modes. Temperature/humidity profiles increase rapidly in two failure modes, and deorbit is recommended without the ACES, ICU and g-suit. This latter configuration limits several shuttle approach and landing escape modes and requires communication modifications. Additional data requirements were identified and engineering simulations were recommended to develop more current shuttle temperature and humidity profiles. Discussion: After failure of the shuttle ECS, there is insufficient cooling capacity of the ACES to protect crewmembers from rising cabin temperature and humidity. The LCG is inadequate for cabin temperatures above 76 F. Current shuttle future life policy makes it unlikely that major engineering upgrades necessary to address this problem will occur.

Stepaniak, P.; Effenhauser, R. K.; McCluskey, R.; Gillis, D. B.; Hamilton, D.; Kuznetz, L. H.

2005-01-01

352

Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis surpasses the full moon for beauty as it roars into the early evening sky trailing a tail of smoke. The upper portion catches the sun'''s rays as it climbs above the horizon and a flock of birds soars above the moon. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

2001-01-01

353

Official portrait space shuttle mission 41-D crew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Official portrait of the space shuttle mission 41-D crew. Seated are (left to right): Richard M. (Mike) Mullane and Steven A. Hawley, mission specialists; Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., crew commander; Michael L. Coats, pilot. Standing are Charles D. Walker, pilot and Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. Behind them is a model of the early sailing vessel Discovery and a model of the shuttle Discovery.

1984-01-01

354

Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

Thorpe, Douglas G.

1991-01-01

355

As the Shuttle "Atlantis" orbits Earth for the last time, questions arise about the future of space exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our Place In Space After the Shuttle Program Wrapshttp://www.npr.org/2011/01/02/132583035/Our-Place-In-Space-After-The-Shuttle-Program-WrapsEnd of space shuttle program launches major challenges for NASAhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/national/on-leadership/end-of-space-shuttle-program-launches-major-challenges-for-nasa/2011/07/12/gIQAWICiAI_story.htmlNASA Chooses Space Shuttles' Retirement Homeshttp://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/13/science/space/13shuttle.htmlDismantling the Space Shuttle Programhttp://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/04/dismantling-the-space-shuttle-program/100045/Private Spaceflight Ready to Take Off in 2011http://www.space.com/10548-private-spaceflight-ready-2011.htmlTracking the Space Shuttle in Google Earthhttp://www.gearthblog.com/blog/archives/2011/07/tracking_the_space_shuttle_in_googl.htmlThe Space Shuttle "Atlantis" blasted into space with a beautiful and flawless launch last Friday morning. The moment was bittersweet for many, as this is the last launch for NASA's Space Shuttle program. During this last mission the shuttle crew will be wrapping up construction of the International Space Station, delivering supplies, and performing a multitude of experiments while in space. The ending of the space shuttle program has led to many discussions, including those trying to evaluate the whether the benefits of the space program outweigh the costs, as each launch of the space shuttle costs about $1.5 billion. NASA's Space Shuttles won't be launching into orbit again, but this hardly signals and end to the space program and human spaceflight. It is impossible to say what exactly comes next, but there are already private alternatives brewing including Virgin Galactic and others. The end of an era can be painful, but it can also foster a new and exciting chapter as well. Perhaps Chris Ferguson, commander of the "Atlantis" mission, put it best, The shuttle's always going to be a reflection of what a great nation can do when it commits to be bold and follow through "We're completing a chapter of a journey that will never end. Let's light this fire one more time, and witness this great nation at its best."The first link will take users to a piece from Wired Science about the last space shuttle launch. The second link leads to an interesting piece from NPR about the US's place in space after the shuttle program ends. The third link leads to a roundtable conducted by the Washington Post with four expert contributors discussing the challenges facing NASA now that the shuttle program is ending. Moving along, the fourth link leads to an article from the New York Times discussing the retirement homes of the shuttles, and the fifth link leads to a great pictorial of the "Discovery" as it's inspected, disassembled, and prepared for its new life as a public exhibit. The sixth link will take visitors to a Space.com article discussing the next steps for private spaceflight. The last and final link will take users to the Google Earth blog, which discusses how to track the "Atlantis" shuttle's final voyage via Google Earth and NASA.

Halderman, Chanda

2011-07-15

356

Human interactions in space: results from Shuttle/Mir  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background: Anecdotal reports from space and results from simulation studies on Earth have suggested that space crewmembers may experience decrements in their interpersonal environment over time and may displace tension and dysphoria to mission control personnel. Methods: To evaluate these issues, we studied 5 American astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle/Mir space program. Subjects completed questions from subscales of the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale on a weekly basis before, during, and after the missions. Results: Among the crewmembers, there was little evidence for significant time effects based on triphasic (U-shaped) or linear models for the 21 subscales tested, although the presence of an initial novelty effect that declined over time was found in three subscales for the astronauts. Compared with work groups on Earth, the crewmembers reported less dysphoria and perceived their crew environment as more constraining, cohesive, and guided by leadership. There was no change in ratings of mood and interpersonal environment before, during, and after the missions. Conclusions: There was little support for the presence of a moderate to strong time effect that influenced the space crews. Crewmembers perceived their work environment differently from people on Earth, and they demonstrated equanimity in mood and group perceptions, both in space and on the ground. Grant numbers: NAS9-19411. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

2001-01-01

357

Design analysis of levitation facility for space processing applications. [Skylab program, space shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing facilities for the space laboratory and space shuttle are defined. Materials process examples representative of the most severe requirements for the facility in terms of electrical power, radio frequency equipment, and the use of an auxiliary electron beam heater were used to discuss matters having the greatest effect upon the space shuttle pallet payload interfaces and envelopes. Improved weight, volume, and efficiency estimates for the RF generating equipment were derived. Results are particularly significant because of the reduced requirements for heat rejection from electrical equipment, one of the principal envelope problems for shuttle pallet payloads. It is shown that although experiments on containerless melting of high temperature refractory materials make it desirable to consider the highest peak powers which can be made available on the pallet, total energy requirements are kept relatively low by the very fast processing times typical of containerless experiments and allows consideration of heat rejection capabilities lower than peak power demand if energy storage in system heat capacitances is considered. Batteries are considered to avoid a requirement for fuel cells capable of furnishing this brief peak power demand.

Frost, R. T.; Kornrumpf, W. P.; Napaluch, L. J.; Harden, J. D., Jr.; Walden, J. P.; Stockhoff, E. H.; Wouch, G.; Walker, L. H.

1974-01-01

358

Hazardous Gas Leak Analysis in the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helium tests of the main propulsion system in the Space Shuttle and on hydrogen leaks are examined. The hazardous gas detection system (HGDS) in the mobile launch pad uses mass spectrometers (MS) to monitor the shuttle environment for leaks. The mass spectrometers are fed by long tubes to sample gas from the payload bay, mid-body, aft engine compartment, and external tank. The purpose is to improve the HGDS, especially in its potential for locating cryogen leaks. Pre-existing leak data was analyzed for transient information to determine if the leak location could be pinpointed from test data. A rapid response leak detection experiment was designed, built, and tested. Large eddies and vortices were visually seen with Schlieren imaging, and they were detected in the time plots of the various instruments. The response time of the MS was found in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 sec. Pulsed concentration waves were clearly detected at 25 cycles per sec by spectral analysis of MS data. One conclusion is that the backup HGDS sampling frequency should be increased above the present rate of 1 sample per second.

Barile, Ronald G.

1991-01-01

359

Wide angle zoom for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to pilot and visually monitor the Canadarm operating on the Shuttle, a zoom lens with a minimum wide angle of 98 deg field of view was needed. The design of the chosen solution is presented. There are 22 lenses arranged in 4 groups allowing mechanical compensation. The range of focal lengths is 8.2 to 25 mm; the aperture is f/3.6. The weight is 1.6 kilos.

Angenieux, J.; Debize, J.; Masson, A.

1983-01-01

360

Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

Moore, Thomas E.

1991-01-01

361

Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

2004-01-01

362

Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. An overview of significant MMOD impacts on the Payload Bay Door radiators, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels and crew module windows will be presented, along with a discussion of the techniques NASA has implemented to reduce the risk from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the RCC regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it s role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.; Kerr, J. H.

2008-01-01

363

Space Shuttle Main Engine /SSME/ - The 'maturing' process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) concept called for an operational life of 55 missions, as well as an exceptionally high specific impulse. While these requirements are considered achievable in the cases of the basic engine structure, powerhead, main combustion chamber, propellant ducts, hydraulic lines and engine controller, other components may experience excessive wear and deterioration and may not achieve specification life without removal and overhaul. Most SSME components have been designed as line replaceable units, which have demonstrated good operational durability and will meet flight certification requirement upgrading. The Flight Confidence Program of the SSME test program currently being instituted will recertify existing engines for use in more than the 10 flights stipulated until now. The testing of two engines in repeated cycles should add 10 flights for every two successfully completed certification cycles.

Dankhoff, W.; Mcilwain, M. C.

1983-01-01

364

Experimental Investigations of Space Shuttle BX-265 Foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a variety of experimental studies on the polyurethane foam, BX-265. This foam is used as a close-out foam insulation on the space shuttle external tank. The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the foam s behavior and to support advanced modeling efforts. The following experiments were performed: Thermal expansion was measured for various heating rates. The in situ expansion of foam cells was documented by heating the foam in a scanning electron microscope. Expansion mechanisms are described. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed at various heating rates and for various environments. The glass transition temperature was also measured. The effects of moisture on the foam were studied. Time-dependent effects were measured to give preliminary data on viscoelastoplastic properties.

Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

2009-01-01

365

Space Shuttle Main Engine: Thirty Years of Innovation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is the first reusable, liquid booster engine designed for human space flight. This paper chronicles the 30-year history and achievements of the SSME from authority to proceed up to the latest flight configuration - the Block 2 SSME.

Jue, F. H.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

366

Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

Pool, Sam L.

2005-01-01

367

The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 6: Communications and navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of the Communications and Navigation working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The basic goals to be accomplished are to increase the use of space systems and to develop new space capabilities for providing communication and navigation services to the user community in the 1980 time period. Specific experiments to be conducted for improving space communication and navigation capabilities are defined. The characteristics of the experimental equipment required to accomplish the mission are discussed.

1973-01-01

368

Closeup view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) installed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) installed in position number one on the Orbiter Discovery. A ground-support mobile platform is in place below the engine to assist in technicians with the installation of the engine. This Photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

369

AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

Adams, F. W.

1991-01-01

370

Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls back to Launch Pad 39A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, Space Shuttle Atlantis creeps along the crawlerway for the 3.4-mile trek to Launch Pad 39A (upper left). In the background is the Atlantic Ocean; on either side is water from the Banana Creek (left) and Banana River (right). The Shuttle has been in the VAB undergoing tests on the solid rocket booster cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA's SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis, causing return of the Shuttle to the VAB a week ago. Launch of Atlantis on STS-98 has been rescheduled to Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

2001-01-01

371

STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis prepares to touch down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. Lucid was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both 30 March and 31 March necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards on the latter date. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton, and Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Ronald M. Sega was the payload commander and mission specialist-1. Other mission specialists were Richard Clifford, Linda Godwin, and Shannon Lucid. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle cre

1996-01-01

372

Underside View of STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. Discovery was over Switzerland, about 600 feet from the ISS, when Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the under side of the spacecraft as it performed a back flip to allow photography of its heat shield. Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 Commander, guided the shuttle through the flip. The photographs were analyzed by engineers on the ground to evaluate the condition of Discovery's heat shield. The crew safely returned to Earth on August 9, 2005. The mission historically marked the Return to Flight after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003.

2005-01-01

373

STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery Performs Back Flip For Photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. Discovery was over Switzerland, about 600 feet from the ISS, when Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft as it performed a back flip to allow photography of its heat shield. Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 Commander, guided the shuttle through the flip. The photographs were analyzed by engineers on the ground to evaluate the condition of Discovery's heat shield. The crew safely returned to Earth on August 9, 2005. The mission historically marked the Return to Flight after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003.

2005-01-01

374

Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.

Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.

2009-01-01

375

Solar flares, proton showers, and the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given the hazards posed to Space Shuttle crews by energetic proton radiation from inherently unpredictable solar flares, such as that of April 10-13, 1981, which was experienced by the Space Shuttle Columbia. The most energetic protons from this flare reached the earth's atmosphere an hour after flare onset, and would have posed a potentially lethal threat to astronauts engaged in extravehicular activity in a polar or geosynchronous orbit rather than the low-latitude, low-altitude orbit of this mission. It is shown that proton-producing flares are associated with energization in shocks, many of which are driven by coronal mass ejections. Insights gained from the Solar Maximum Year programs allow reconsideration of proton shower forecasting, which will be essential in the prediction of the weather that Space Shuttle astronauts will encounter during extravehicular activities.

Rust, D. M.

1982-01-01

376

Dynamic characterization and analysis of space shuttle SRM solid propellant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic response properties of the space shuttle solid rocket moter (TP-H1148) propellant were characterized and the expected limits of propellant variability were established. Dynamic shear modulus tests conducted on six production batches of TP-H1148 at various static and dynamic strain levels over the temperature range from 40 F to 90 F. A heat conduction analysis and dynamic response analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) were also conducted. The dynamic test results show significant dependence on static and dynamic strain levels and considerable batch-to-batch and within-batch variability. However, the results of the SRM dynamic response analyses clearly demonstrate that the stiffness of the propellant has no consequential on the overall SRM dynamic response. Only the mass of the propellant needs to be considered in the dynamic analysis of the space shuttle SRM.

Hufferd, W. L.

1979-01-01

377

Advanced Microbial Check Valve development. [for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a flight qualified assembly that provides bacteriologically safe drinking water for the Space Shuttle. The 1-lb unit is basically a canister packed with an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through it. It is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of disinfection is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was developed to disinfect the fuel cell water and to prevent back contamination of stored potable water on the Space Shuttle. This paper reports its potential for space applications beyond the basic Shuttle mission. Data are presented that indicate the MCV is suitable for use in advanced systems that NASA has under development for the reclamation of humidity condensate, wash water and human urine.

Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.; Sauer, R. L.

1981-01-01

378

48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 ...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...228-72 Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. Link to an...

2012-10-01

379

48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 ...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...228-72 Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. As prescribed...

2010-10-01

380

48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 ...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...228-72 Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. As prescribed...

2011-10-01

381

Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On its perfect launch today, Space Shuttle Discovery's brilliant flames illuminate the tower at left, with the lightning mast on top, and the billows of smoke and steam at right. Liftoff into a gossamer dawn sky for mission STS-96 occurred at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

382

Processing near-infrared imagery of hypersonic space shuttle reentries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution, calibrated, near-infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle during reentry has been obtained by a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft as part of NASA's HYTHIRM (Hypersonic Thermodynamic InfraRed Measurements) project. The long-range optical sensor package is called Cast Glance. Three sets of imagery have been processed thus far: 1) STS- 119 when Shuttle Discovery was at 52 km away at Mach 8.4, 2) STS-125 when Shuttle Atlantis was 71 km away at Mach 14.3, and 3) STS-128 when Shuttle Discovery was at 80 km away at Mach 14.7. The challenges presented in processing a manually-tracked high-angular rate, air-to-air image data collection include management of significant frame-to-frame motions, motion-induced blurring, changing orientations and ranges, daylight conditions, and sky backgrounds (including some cirrus clouds). This paper describes processing the imagery to estimate Shuttle surface temperatures. Our goal is to reduce the detrimental effects due to motions (sensor and Shuttle), vibration, and atmospherics for image quality improvement, without compromising the quantitative integrity of the data, especially local intensity variations. Our approach is to select and utilize only the highest quality images, register many cotemporal image frames to a single image frame, and then add the registered frames to improve image quality and reduce noise. These registered and averaged intensity images are converted to temperatures on the Shuttle's windward surface using a series of steps starting with preflight calibration data. Comparisons with thermocouples at different points along the space Shuttle and between the three reentries will be shown.

Spisz, Thomas S.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Gibson, David M.; Osei-Wusu, Kwame; Horvath, Thomas J.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Tack, Steve; Schwartz, Richard J.

2010-05-01

383

STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base, Drag Chute Deploy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis touches down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. She was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both 30 and 31 March necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards. This photo shows the drag chute deployed to help the shuttle roll to a stop. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton, and Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Ronald M. Sega was payload commander and mission specialist-1. Mission specialists were Richard Clifford, Linda Godwin and Shannon Lucid. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90

1996-01-01

384

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 6: Space shuttle interfaces/utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) with the space shuttle. The mechanical interfaces and provisions required for a launch or retrieval of the EOS by the space shuttle are summarized. The space shuttle flight support equipment required for the operation is defined. Diagrams of the space shuttle in various configurations are provised to show the mission capability with the EOS. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) structural and mechanical interfaces, (2) spacecraft retention and deployment, (3) spacecraft retrieval, (4) electrical interfaces, (5) payload shuttle operations, (6) shuttle mode cost analysis, (7) shuttle orbit trades, and (8) safety considerations.

1974-01-01

385

Onboard rendezvous navigation for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The onboard rendezvous navigation software for Shuttle flight 41-C are described. Particular attention is given to the inputs, models, and outputs of the software. The performance of the rendezvous navigation system is compared to predicted performance profiles in connection with the relative vehicle geometry, as well as the location of the navigation sensor tracking arcs. The methods used to process navigational sensor measurements in order to update the state vector are also summarized. A table listing the sources of maneuver targeting errors is provided.

Wylie, A. D.; Devezin, H. G.

1985-01-01

386

NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

2011-01-01

387

HAL/S programmer's guide. [for space shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This programming language was developed for the flight software of the NASA space shuttle program. HAL/S is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, HAL/s incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. As the name indicates, HAL/S is a dialect of the original HAL language previously developed. Changes have been incorporated to simplify syntax, curb excessive generality, or facilitate flight code emission.

Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

1974-01-01

388

Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

2011-01-01

389

Attached shuttle payload carriers: Versatile and affordable access to space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle has been primarily designed to be a versatile vehicle for placing a variety of scientific and technological equipment in space including very large payloads; however, since many large payloads do not fill the shuttle bay, the space and weight margins remaining after the major payloads are accommodated often can be made available to small payloads. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has designed standardized mounting structures and other support systems, collectively called attached shuttle payload (ASP) carriers, to make this additional space available to researchers at a relatively modest cost. Other carrier systems for ASP's are operated by other NASA centers. A major feature of the ASP carriers is their ease of use in the world of the Space Shuttle. ASP carriers attempt to minimized the payload interaction with Space Transportation System (STS) operations whenever possible. Where this is not possible, the STS services used are not extensive. As a result, the interfaces between the carriers and the STS are simplified. With this near autonomy, the requirements for supporting documentation are considerably lessened and payload costs correspondingly reduced. The ASP carrier systems and their capabilities are discussed in detail. The range of available capabilities assures that an experimenter can select the simplest, most cost-effective carrier that is compatible with his or her experimental objectives. Examples of payloads which use ASP basic hardware in nonstandard ways are also described.

1990-01-01

390

STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis touches down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on 31 March 1996 after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. She was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both March 30 and March 31 necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards AFB. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton. Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Serving as payload commander and mission specialist-1 was Ronald M. Sega. Mission specialist-2 was Richard Clifford. Linda Godwin served as mission specialist-3, and Shannon Lucid was mission specialist-4. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit t

1996-01-01

391

Aerospace News: Space Shuttle Commemoration. Volume 2, No. 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex space shuttle design was comprised of four components: the external tank, two solid rocket boosters (SRB), and the orbiter vehicle. Six orbiters were used during the life of the program. In order of introduction into the fleet, they were: Enterprise (a test vehicle), Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. The space shuttle had the unique ability to launch into orbit, perform on-orbit tasks, return to earth and land on a runway. It was an orbiting laboratory, International Space Station crew delivery and supply replenisher, satellite launcher and payload delivery vehicle, all in one. Except for the external tank, all components of the space shuttle were designed to be reusable for many flights. ATK s reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM) were designed to be flown, recovered, and the metal components reused 20 times. Following each space shuttle launch, the SRBs would parachute into the ocean and be recovered by the Liberty Star and Freedom Star recovery ships. The recovered boosters would then be received at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Hangar AF facility for disassembly and engineering post-flight evaluation. At Hangar AF, the RSRM field joints were demated and the segments prepared to be returned to Utah by railcar. The segments were then shipped to ATK s facilities in Clearfield for additional evaluation prior to washout, disassembly and refurbishment. Later the refurbished metal components would be transported to ATK s Promontory facilities to begin a new cycle. ATK s RSRMs were manufactured in Promontory, Utah. During the Space Shuttle Program, ATK supported NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center whose responsibility was for all propulsion elements on the program, including the main engines and solid rocket motors. On launch day for the space shuttle, ATK s Launch Site Operations employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provided lead engineering support for ground operations and NASA s chief engineer. It was ATK s responsibility to have a representative in Firing Room 2 at KSC in case of potential motor problems. However, the last time ATK was responsible for a space shuttle launch slip was 1989. During launch, engineers were also stationed in Promontory on teleconference with counterparts at KSC in the event their support was required.

2011-01-01

392

Space Shuttle Upgrade Liquid Oxygen Tank Thermal Stratification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1997, NASA initiated a study of a liquid oxygen and ethanol orbital maneuvering and reaction control system for space shuttle upgrades as well as other reusable launch vehicle applications. The pressure-fed system uses sub-cooled liquid oxygen at 2413.2 KPa (350 psia) stored passively using insulation. Thermal stratification builds up while the space shuttle is docked at the international space station. The venting from the space shuttle's liquid oxygen tank is not desired during this 96-hr time period. Once the shuttle undocks from the space station there could be a pressure collapse in the liquid oxygen tank caused by fluid mixing due to the thruster fU"ings . The thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise in the tank were examined by a computational fluid dynamic model. Since the heat transfer from the pressurant gas to the liquid will result in a decrease in tank pressure the final pressure after the 96 hours will be significantly less when the tank is pressurized with ambient temperature helium. Therefore, using helium at ambient temperature to pressurize the tank is preferred to pressurizing the tank with helium at the liquid oxygen temperature. The higher helium temperature will also result in less mass of helium to pressurize the tank.

Tunc, Gokturk; Wagner, Howard; Bayazitoglu, Yildiz

2001-01-01

393

Construction bidding cost of KSC's space shuttle facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bidding cost of the major Space Transportation System facilities constructed under the responsibility of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is described and listed. These facilities and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) are necessary for the receiving, assembly, testing, and checkout of the Space Shuttle for launch and landing missions at KSC. The Shuttle launch configuration consists of the Orbiter, the External Tank, and the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB). The reusable Orbiter and SRB's is the major factor in the program that will result in lowering space travel costs. The new facilities are the Landing Facility; Orbiter Processing Facility; Orbiter Approach and Landing Test Facility (Dryden Test Center, California); Orbiter Mating Devices; Sound Suppression Water System; and Emergency Power System for LC-39. Also, a major factor was to use as much Apollo facilities and hardware as possible to reduce the facilities cost. The alterations to existing Apollo facilities are the VAB modifications; Mobile Launcher Platforms; Launch Complex 39 Pads A and B (which includes a new concept - the Rotary Service Structure), which was featured in ENR, 3 Feb. 1977, 'Hinged Space Truss will Support Shuttle Cargo Room'; Launch Control Center mods; External Tank and SRB Processing and Storage; Fluid Test Complex mods; O&C Spacelab mods; Shuttle mods for Parachute Facility; SRB Recovery and Disassembly Facility at Hangar 'AF'; and an interesting GSE item - the SRB Dewatering Nozzle Plug Sets (Remote Controlled Submarine System) used to inspect and acquire for reuse of SRB's.

Brown, Joseph Andrew

1977-01-01

394

Legacy of Environmental Research During the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over the last 30 years and represents the longest and largest U.S. human spaceflight program. Risks to crewmembers were included in the research areas of nutrition, microbiology, toxicology, radiation, and sleep quality. To better understand the Shuttle environment, Crew Health Care System was developed. As part of this system, the Environmental Health Subsystem was developed to monitor the atmosphere for gaseous contaminants and microbial contamination levels and to monitor water quality and radiation. This program expended a great deal of effort in studying and mitigating risks related to contaminations due to food, water, air, surfaces, crewmembers, and payloads including those with animals. As the Shuttle had limited stowage space and food selection, the development of nutritional requirements for crewmembers was imperative. As the Shuttle was a reusable vehicle, microbial contamination was of great concern. The development of monitoring instruments that could withstand the space environment took several years and many variations to come up with a suitable instrument. Research with space radiation provided an improved understanding of the various sources of ionizing radiation and the development of monitoring instrumentation for space weather and the human exposure within the orbiter's cabin. Space toxicology matured to include the management of offgassing products that could pollute the crewmembers air quality. The Shuttle Program implemented a 5-level toxicity rating system and developed new monitoring instrumentation to detect toxic compounds. The environment of space caused circadian desynchrony, sleep deficiency, and fatigue leading to much research and major emphasis on countermeasures. Outcomes of the research in these areas were countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. Learning Objectives: This symposium will provide an overview of the major environmental lessons learned and the development of countermeasures, monitoring hardware, and procedures.

Lane, Helen W.

2011-01-01

395

The Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program: Scientific and Engineering Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to assist in the creation of the appendix for the book being written about the Space Shuttle that is titled The Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program: Scientific and Engineering Accomplishments. The specific responsibility of the intern was the creation of the human health and performance (life sciences) and space biology sections of the appendix. This included examining and finalizing the list of flights with life sciences and space biology experiments flown aboard them, researching the experiments performed, synopsizing each experiment into two sentences, and placing the synopses into an appendix template. Overall, approximately 70 flights had their experiments synopsized and a good method for researching and construction of the template was established this summer.

Torrez, Jonathan

2009-01-01

396

Space Shuttle communications RF switch matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Orbiter communications equipment includes phase modulation (PM) and frequency modulation (FM) channels. The PM section has the capability of routing high levels of energy (175 W) from any one of four transmitters to any one of four antennas, mutually exclusive. The FM channel uses a maximum of 15-W power routed from either of two transmitters to one of two antennas, mutually exclusive. The paper describes the design and the theory of a logic-controlled RF switch matrix devised for the purposes cited. Both PM and FM channels are computer-controlled with manual overrides. The logic interface is realized with CMOS logic for low power consumption and high noise immunity. The interior of the switch matrix is maintained at a pressure of 15 psi (90% nitrogen, 10% helium) by an electron beam-welded encapsulation. The computational results confirm the viability of the RF switch matrix concept.

Winch, R.

1979-01-01

397

Lightning protection system for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability and cost effectiveness of using a lightning mast for the shuttle service and access tower (SSAT) similar to the type used for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mobile launcher (ML) was evaluated. Topics covered include: (1) ASTP launch damage to mast, mast supports, grounded overhead wires, and the instrumentation system; (2) modifications required to permit reusing the ASTP mast on the SSAT; (3) comparative costing factors per launch over a 10 year period in repetitive maintenance and refurbishment of the existing and modified masts, mast supports, grounded overhead wires, and ground instrumentation required to sustain mechanical and electrical integrity of the masts; (4) effects of blast testing samples of the ASTP ML type mast (corrosion and electrical flashover); (5) comparison of damages from ASTP launch and from blast testing.

1977-01-01

398

General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features of the engine assembly in this view are the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct looping around the right side of the engine assembly then turning in and connecting to the High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump. The sphere in the approximate center of the assembly is the POGO System Accumulator, the Engine Controller is located on the bottom and slightly left of the center of the Engine Assembly in this view. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

399

General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features of the engine assembly in this view are the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump Discharge Duct looping around the right side and underneath the assembly, the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump located on the lower left portion of the assembly, the Engine Controller and Main Fuel Valve Hydraulic Actuator located on the upper portion of the assembly and the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct at the top of the engine assembly in this view. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

400

Closeup view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view is the Expansion Nozzle . The rings that loop around the nozzle, vertically in this view, add structural stability to the nozzle walls and are referred to Hatbands. The ring on the left most edge of the nozzle is the Coolant Inlet Manifold. The tubes that branch off and connect to the manifold are Coolant Transfer Ducts and the tubes that terminate with a visible opening at the manifold are Drain Lines. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

401

General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view is the Expansion Nozzle . The rings that loop around the nozzle, vertically in this view, add structural stability to the nozzle walls and are referred to Hatbands. The ring on the left most edge of the nozzle is the Coolant Inlet Manifold. The tubes that branch off and connect to the manifold are Coolant Transfer Ducts and the tubes that terminate with a visible opening at the manifold are Drain Lines. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

402

Extreme Meteorological Parameters During Space Shuttle Pad Exposure Periods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 113 missions of the Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle fleet has been exposed to the elements on the launch pad for a total of 4195 days. This paper provides a summary of the historical record of the meteorological extremes encountered by the Space Shuttle fleet during the pad exposure period. Parameters included are temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, sea level pressure and precipitation. All the data presented are archived by the Marshall Space Flight Center Environments Group, and were obtained from a combination of surface observations and meteorological towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Data are provided from the first launch of the STS in 1981 through the launch of STS-107 in 2003.

Roberts, Barry C.; Overbey, B. Glenn

2004-01-01

403

Toward quantifying uncertainty in travel time tomography using the null-space shuttle  

E-print Network

Toward quantifying uncertainty in travel time tomography using the null-space shuttle R. W. L. de in travel time tomography using the null-space shuttle, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B03301, doi:10.1029/2011JB the null-space of the forward operator. We show that with the null-space shuttle it is possible to assess

Utrecht, Universiteit

404

Model-reference attitude control and reaction control jet engine placement for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical studies on the theoretical aspects of thrust vector control of large space vehicles were conducted. A system for attitude control of the space shuttle vehicle was developed. Major accomplishments of the project are: (1) investigation of a model-reference adaptive control scheme for controlling the space shuttle attitude and (2) determination of optimum placement of reaction control jet engines on space shuttles.

Boland, J. S., III

1973-01-01

405

GPS Lessons Learned from the International Space Station, Space Shuttle and X-38.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a collection of writings concerning the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to the International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle, and X-38 vehicles. An overview of how GPS technology was applied is given for each ...

J. L. Goodman

2005-01-01

406

Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

1985-01-01

407

General purpose simulation system of the data management system for space shuttle mission 18  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulation program of the science and engineering data management system for the space shuttle is presented. The programming language used was General Purpose Simulation System V (OS). The data flow was modeled from its origin at the experiments or subsystems to transmission from the space shuttle. Mission 18 was the particular flight chosen for simulation. First, the general structure of the program is presented and the trade studies which were performed are identified. Inputs required to make runs are discussed followed by identification of the output statistics. Some areas for model modifications are pointed out. A detailed model configuration, program listing and results are included.

Bengtson, N. M.; Mellichamp, J. M.; Crenshaw, J.

1975-01-01

408

HAL/S programmer's guide. [space shuttle flight software language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HAL/S is a programming language developed to satisfy the flight software requirements for the space shuttle program. The user's guide explains pertinent language operating procedures and described the various HAL/S facilities for manipulating integer, scalar, vector, and matrix data types.

Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

1974-01-01

409

The Flight of the Space Shuttle "Discovery" (STS-119)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, "Discovery" launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the

Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

2010-01-01

410

Space Shuttle Propulsion Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations in this session include: (1) External Tank (ET) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges; (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges,(3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges.

Owen, James; Welzyn, Ken; Vanhooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

2011-01-01

411

Thermal Protection System for the Space Shuttle External Tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The External Tank (ET) has two major roles-to contain and deliver quality cryogenic propellants to the Space Shuttle main engines and to serve as the structural backbone for the attachment of the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. The Thermal Protection System (TPS), composed of cryoprotective foam insula tion and ablator (a sacrificial heatshield material), is applied to the outer sur

L. Ronquillo; C. Williams

1984-01-01

412

Space shuttle synthetic aperture radar. [using real time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility study to investigate a digital signal processor for real-time operation with a synthetic aperture radar system aboard the space shuttle are presented. Pertinent digital processing theory, a description of the proposed system, and siz