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1

Large Space Shuttle Flight Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It appears practical to challenge the Orbiter DAP with a large, attached structure. The definition of this capability is a fundamental step in the development of nearly all large space systems currently under consideration. Experiment features may be incorporated that apply to control systems for large space systems such as modal damping devices. In a relatively simple deployable structure, the correlation of flight test results with ground test and analysis should provide a basis for extrapolation to more complex structures. Initial experiment concepts will provide a starting point for the examination of antenna feed mast requirements with the objective changing the design to produce a representative test article. Correlation of construction operations with ground simulations will provide for better task and time-line definition. EVA needs to be a direct benefit to the conduct of the experiment. Early consideration of safety issues is a precaution against defining an unacceptable experiment concept. Integration of many objectives seems feasible and is generally perceived as the only way to justify a relatively expensive experiment.

Jenkins, L. M.

1982-03-01

2

Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

Mohler, Robert R. J.

1997-01-01

3

Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)|

Mohler, Robert R. J.

1997-01-01

4

Stirling Refrigerator for Space Shuttle Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1992 Martin Marietta Services was tasked by NASA's Life Sciences Projects Division at the Johnson Space Center to design and develop an Orbiter Refrigerator\\/Freezer (OR\\/F) based on a Stirling cycle cooler. OR\\/F's are used in the Shuttle mid-deck to store experiment samples, primarily blood and urine. The Stirling Orbiter Ref\\/Frzr (SOR\\/F) uses a horizontally opposed Stirling cooler designed

Kelly McDonald; David Berchowitz

5

Space Shuttle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

6

High temperature heat pipe experiments aboard the space shuttle  

SciTech Connect

Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most space nuclear power systems, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation. Three SST/potassium heat pipes are being designed, fabricated, and ground tested. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will fly aboard the space shuttle in 1995. Three wick structures will be tested: homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap. Ground tests are described that simulate the space shuttle environment in every way except gravity field.

Woloshun, K.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Mail Stop J576, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Secary, C.J. (PL/VTPT, Kirtland AFB, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117 (United States))

1993-01-10

7

Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be

David R. Francisco

1993-01-01

8

Space flight experience with the Shuttle Orbiter control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience gained through the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test program has matured the engineering understanding of the Shuttle on-orbit control system. The geneology of the control systems (called digital autopilots, or DAPs, and used by the Shuttle for on-orbit operations) is reviewed, the flight experience gained during the flight test program is examined within the context of preflight analysis and test

K. J. Cox; K. C. Daly; P. D. Hattis

1983-01-01

9

Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Space Shuttle is reviewed, and major design features of the initial Orbiter OV-101, now under construction, are summarized. The aerodynamic aspects of the double-delta wing platform and the short fuselage design are discussed. The thermal protection system, designed to cope with temperatures up to 2300 F, is detailed, with special attention to the quartz-based high-temperature reusable

M. Wilson

1975-01-01

10

NASA Space Shuttle Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Shuttle Processing at Kennedy Space Center. A demonstration of the Space Shuttle silica tiles, a description of its High Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI), tile inspections, and tile replacemen...

L. L. Andruske

2010-01-01

11

Latest Space Shuttle News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA offers the latest news on the space shuttle program. It features a variety of articles on the program. Links to other sites on the shuttle program provide provide resources such as posters, educational materials and interactive resources. Users can use the site to learn more about the most recent space shuttle missions or any of the past missions.

2002-01-01

12

NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

13

How Space Shuttles Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the complexity of the entire mission of a space shuttle launch, orbit, activities, and return to Earth. Students and teachers can learn about the precise nature of space science including extensive preparations and examine the monumental technology behind Americas shuttle program, as well as the extraordinarily difficult mission it was designed to carry out. Information is also provided on the background and history of the space shuttle. Diagrams, full-color photos, highlighted terms and supplementary definitions assist users in understanding scientific terminology used to describe the extraordinary missions of shuttle astronauts, crew and specialists. A printable version of this information is also available on site.

Freudenrich, Craig

2008-01-01

14

Modeling the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize our methodology for modeling space shuttle processing using discrete event simulation. Why the project was initiated, what the overall goals were, how it was funded, and who were the members of the project team are identified. We describe the flow of the space shuttle flight hardware through the supporting infrastructure and how the-model was created to accurately portray

Grant R. Cates; Martin J. Steele; M. Mollaghasemi; G. Rabadi

2002-01-01

15

Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the history of the space shuttle, especially after the Challenger accident. Topics include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Return to Flight: The Recovery"; (3) "Space Shuttle Chronology"; (4) "Examples of Other Modifications on Shuttle's Major Systems"; (5) "Space Shuttle Recovery Chronology"; (6) "Poised for Launch: Space Shuttle

McAleer, Neil

16

Performance of Atomic Clocks Flown on the Space Shuttle Experiment NAVEX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the first German Spacelab Mission D1 in autumn 1985 a navigation experiment was flown for seven days on board the NASA Space Shuttle Challenger. Two atomic clocks, one Cs- and one Rb-standard, were part of the spaceborne equipment and were carried back...

H. Nau J. Hammesfahr S. Starker

1987-01-01

17

Autonomous space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall strategic plan. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up

J. A. Siders; R. H. Smith

2004-01-01

18

NAVEX - A Space Shuttle Experiment with Atomic Clocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NAVEX is a navigation and time transfer experiment. It will be flown within the payload of the first German Spacelab mission D-1, scheduled in June 1985. The objectives of the experiment are to synchronize distant ground stations with an accuracy of bette...

H. Nau H. Tschiesche J. Hammesfahr S. Starker

1982-01-01

19

Space Shuttle ascent aborts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

Schmidgall, Richard A.

1989-09-01

20

Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX) flew on-board the space shuttle in winter 2003, in a 39°-inclination orbit for 16 days, passing over the major thunderstorm regions on Earth. The primary science instrument of the MEIDEX payload is a Xybion IMC-201 image-intensified radiometric camera with six narrow band filters, boresighted with a wide-FOV color video camera. During the nightside of

Yoav Yair; Colin Price; Zev Levin; Joachim Joseph; Peter Israelevitch; Adam Devir; Meir Moalem; Baruch Ziv; Mustafa Asfur

2003-01-01

21

Large area emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsion-chamber experiments employing nuclear-track emulsions, etchable plastic detectors, metal plates, and X-ray films continue to demonstrate high productivity and potential in the study of cosmic-ray primaries and their interactions. Emulsions, with unsurpassed track-recording capability, provide an appropriate medium for the study of nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy, which will likely produce observations of a phase change in nuclear matter. The

T. A. Parnell

1985-01-01

22

The Arizona airglow experiment as flown on four space-shuttle missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arizona Airglow Experiment flew on shuttle missions 53, 63, 69, and 74, making extensive observations of the airglow on the Earth limb and other emissions around the shuttle. It comprises nine spectrograph channels, three imagers, and a TV camera, all coaligned on a scan platform that can view in any direction out of the shuttle bay. The spectrographs cover

D. J. Knecht; E. Murad; R. Viereck; C. P. Pike; A. L. Broadfoot; E. R. Anderson; D. B. Hatfield; T. C. Stone; B. R. Sandel

1997-01-01

23

The Arizona Airglow Experiment as flown on four space-shuttle missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arizona Airglow Experiment flew on shuttle missions 53, 63, 69, and 74, making extensive observations of the airglow on the Earth limb and other emissions around the shuttle. It comprises nine spectrograph channels, three imagers, and a TV camera, all coaligned on a scan platform that can view in any direction out of the shuttle bay. The spectrographs cover

D. J Knecht; E Murad; R Viereck; C. P Pike; A. L Broadfoot; E. R Anderson; D. B Hatfield; T. C Stone; B. R Sandel

1997-01-01

24

Space Shuttle Missions Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document was originally produced as an informal Mission Operations book and has been updated since Space Shuttle Flight STS-1 and throughout the program. This version is a formally released NASA document. It is a handy reference guide for flight data...

F. V. Bennett R. D. Legler

2011-01-01

25

Aboard the Space Shuttle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

Steinberg, Florence S.

26

Solid surface combustion space shuttle experiment hardware description and ground-based test results  

SciTech Connect

The Lewis Research Center is developing a series of microgravity combustion experiments for the Space Shuttle. The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) is the first to be completed. SSCE will study flame spreading over thermally thin fuels (ashless filter paper) under microgravity conditions. The flight hardware consists of a combustion chamber containing the sample and a computer which takes the data and controls the experiment. Experimental data will include gas-phase and solid-phase temperature measurements and motion pictures of the combustion process. Flame spread rates will be determined from the motion pictures.

Vento, D.M.; Zavesky, R.J.; Sacksteder, K.R.; Altenkirch, R.A.

1989-01-01

27

Control of an experiment to measure acoustic noise in the space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential use of a general-purpose controller to measure acoustic vibration autonomously in the Space Shuttle Cargo Bay during launch is described. The experimental package will be housed in a Shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The control functions were implemented with software written largely in the C programming language. An IBM MS DOS computer and C cross-compiler were used to generate Z-80 assembly language code, assemble and link this code, and then transfer it to EPROM for use in the experiment's controller. The software is written in a modular fashion to permit adapting it easily to other applications. The software combines the experimental control functions with a menu-driven, diagnostic subsystem to ensure that the software will operate in practice as it does in theory and under test. The experiment uses many peripheral devices controlled by the software described here. These devices include: (1) a solid-state data recorder; (2) a bubble memory storage module; (3) a real-time clock; (4) an RS-232C serial interface; (5) a power control subsystem; (6) a matched filter subsystem to detect activation of the Space Shuttle's auxillary power units five minutes prior to launch; (7) a launch detection subsystem based on vibrational and barometric sensors; (8) analog-to-digital converters; and (9) a heater subsystem. The matched filter design is discussed in detail and the results of a computer simulation of the performance of its most critical sub-circuit are presented.

Cameron, Charles B.

1989-06-01

28

Shuttle orbiter experiments: Use of an operational vehicle for advancement and validation of space systems design technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program provided a mechanism for utilization of an operational space shuttle orbiter as a flight research vehicle, as an adjunct to its normal space transportation mission. OEX Program experiments were unique among orbiter payloads, as the research instrumentation for these experiments were carried as integral parts of the vehicle's structure, rather than being placed in

Paul F. Holloway; David A. Throckmorton

1995-01-01

29

ESA takes part in Earth observation and space science experiments on board the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS-2 mission is focusing on Earth observation and space science; three out of the seven instruments have been developed by scientific institutes in Belgium, France and Germany, with support from ESA. Four experiments have been provided by NASA and US scientists. The three European instruments have already shown an excellent performance during the first Atlas mission in March 1992, when they were tended by payload specialist Dirk Frimout, a Belgian astronaut and ESA staff member. Although the main scientific objective of the series of Atlas missions is to achieve continuity of annual measurements over a period as long as a decade, the first scientific results from Atlas can already be considered as a contribution to critical research topics, in particular the environment. The data from ATLAS-2 will add to this achievement. Two European instruments, Solcon and Solspec, are measuring to a very high degree of precision the total irradiation the Earth receives from the Sun - the "solar constant" -and the spectral distribution of this radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. Knowledge of the solar constant and the solar radiation spectrum matters not only for a better understanding of the Sun, but also for improving numerical models of climate and climate change. SOLCON was developed under the responsibility of Dr. Dominique Crommelynck of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Brussels, Belgium. SOLSPEC was instead developed under the responsibility of Dr. Gerard Thuillier of the CNRS, Verrieres le Buisson, France. One of these instruments will be fully remote-controlled by scientists from a laboratory in Belgium, via telecommunications links to the Shuttle, and the data of another will be transmitted to Belgium in real time to follow the results obtained. This approach is known as telescience: using telescience, a scientist can monitor his experiment in real-time, repeat it with different settings, consult his team, process data and adapt his measurements when interesting phenomena show up. The third European instrument, called MAS (Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder) will be measuring the absorption spectra of water vapour and trace gases in the upper atmosphere. The measurement programme includes most notably ozone and chlorine monoxide, which plays an important role in the ozone cycle. MAS was developed under the responsibility of Dr. Gerd Hartmann of the Max-Planck- Institute fuer Aeronomy, Lindau, Germany. The complex space-to-ground communications links and the tools to control the instruments from the laboratories in Europe have been designed to be as flexible and user-friendly as possible. The series of Atlas missions is enabling ESA to gain valuable experience for the future utilisation of its Columbus Attached Laboratory; its science results are at the same time a contribution to today's advances in space science and environmental research, complementing a number of dedicated ESA satellites currently under development, such as SOHO, ERS-2 and ENVISAT-1. Note to Editors : At the invitation of the Belgian Minister for Science Policy a press conference will be held on 22 March 1993 at 16.00 hours at the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute in Brussels (IRMB). The press conference will be followed by the inauguration of the Space Remote Operations Centre, from where the telescience operations for the ATLAS-2 mission will be carried out. Apart from the Minister, those participating will include: Dirk Frimout, Belgian astronaut and ESA staff member Dominique Crommelynck, IRMB, Principal Investigator for SOLCON Gerard Thuillier, CNRS France, Principal Investigator for SOLSPEC Further information can be obtained from the Belgian Science Policy Office, Mrs. M.C. Limbourg or Mr. J. Bernard : Tel : +32.2.238.34.11 - Fax : +32.2.230.59.12

1993-03-01

30

The Space Shuttle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the advent of Space Shuttle missions from 1981 to 1986. Students research facts about each of the 25 missions that occurred during this time period, finding out what each mission objective was. They also look at the Challenger incident and what went wrong with that mission. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

31

Study of Airborne Science Experiment Management Concepts for Application to Space Shuttle. Volume 1: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment ...

D. R. Mulholland J. O. Reller C. B. Neel L. C. Haughney

1973-01-01

32

Space Shuttle Glider. Educational Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Space Shuttle Glider is a scale model of the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter. The airplane-like orbiter usually remains in Earth orbit for up to two weeks at a time. It normally carries a six- to seven-person crew which includes the mission commander, pilot, and several mission and/or payload specialists who have specialized training associated with…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

33

Space shuttle operational risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Space Shuttle system has recently been completed. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology to the Space Shuttle. These applications were initiated by NASA shortly after the Challenger accident as recommended by the Rogers and Slay Commission reports. The current effort is the first integrated

Joseph R. Fragola; Gaspare Maggio

1996-01-01

34

Actinide Sub-Actinide Flux Ratio Estimated from NASA Challenger Space Shuttle Borne Passive Detector Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A video trace analysis of 117 ultra heavy cosmic nuclei detected by NASA space shuttle borne lexan detectors has been presented here. The major axes of the elliptical track etch pits in the long hour etched detectors have been measured using a Hund microscope computerized for the measurements using a Pentium. The major axes distribution exhibits the existence of ultra

Basudhara Basu; D. P. Bhattacharyya; S. Biswas; D. O'Sullivan; A. Thompson

1998-01-01

35

Space Shuttle Endeavour Heads West  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified 747, flew retired shuttle Endeavour from Kennedy Space Center in Florida to Houston on Sept. 19, 2012, to complete the first leg of Endeavour's trip to Los Angeles where it will be put on public display.

KSC Web Team

2012-09-19

36

Space Shuttle: The Next Generation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a May 2003 online feature of Popular Science magazine, several potential candidates for replacing NASA's aging space shuttles are examined. Although budget problems have made the outlook somewhat bleak for any new designs in the near future, a number of existing proposals are outlined. An especially eye-catching concept is an enormous flying wing, which would climb to 40,000 feet and serve as a launching pad for a rocket. Another possibility, which would be an intermediate step before the full-fledged shuttle replacement, is the Orbital Space Plane. This would likely be less complex than the shuttle while serving as a manned or unmanned taxi to space. The five-page article also describes NASA's changing needs and how the shuttle no longer meets them.

Sweetman, Bill.

37

The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: Deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer was flown for a fourth time on the Space Shuttle as part of the ATLAS-3 instrument payload in November 1994. More than 190 sunrise and sunset occultation events provided measurements of more than 30 atmospheric trace gases at latitudes 3-49°N and 65-72°S, including observations both inside and outside the Antarctic polar vortex. The instrument configuration,

M. R. Gunson; M. M. Abbas; M. C. Abrams; M. Allen; L. R. Brown; T. L. Brown; A. Y. Chang; A. Goldman; F. W. Irion; L. L. Lowes; E. Mahieu; G. L. Manney; H. A. Michelsen; M. J. Newchurch; C. P. Rinsland; R. J. Salawitch; G. P. Stiller; G. C. Toon; Y. L. Yung; R. Zander

1996-01-01

38

The Space Shuttle At Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the Space Shuttle vehicles and is prepared by the Scientific and Technical Information Branch and Division of Public Affairs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The book is divided into nine chapters including information about the launching, flight, and orbit of the ships; the satellites and previous space

Allaway, Howard

39

The Space Shuttle At Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes the Space Shuttle vehicles and is prepared by the Scientific and Technical Information Branch and Division of Public Affairs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The book is divided into nine chapters including information about the launching, flight, and orbit of the ships; the satellites and previous space

Allaway, Howard

40

Applying Reliability Models to the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of a team that evaluated many reliability models and tried to validate them for the on-board system software of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space shuttle is presented. It is shown that three separate but related functions comprise an integrated reliability program: prediction, control, and assessment. The application of the reliability model and the allocation of

Norman F. Schneidewind; Ted W. Keller

1992-01-01

41

NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - Space Shuttles  

NASA Website

Space Shuttles Project Summary Among the most prominent aerospace projects associated with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., is the Space Transportation System (STS) ? the space shuttles developed and operated by NASA.

42

Science on the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Space Shuttle's third flight, scientific instruments will study the electromagnetic environment with charging and electron beams. Beam plasma discharge will be studied. The plasma diagnostics package contains electromagnetic and particle sensors to study the ionosphere. An attempt will be made to establish a more accurate base of solar UV irradiance measurements with an absolute error of 10 percent or less over the wavelength region 120-400 nm. The solar flare X-ray polarimeter will observe flare X-rays emitted between 5 and 30 keV and measure their polarization as a function of time and photon energy. A photopolarimeter will help study zodiacal light, and interplanetary dust will be sampled by a section of thick aluminum foil. Plant seedlings will be grown to research the effect of near-zero gravity on lignification. A thermal canister experiment will help determine whether instruments can be maintained at a fixed temperature under varying thermal loads.

Neupert, W. M.; Ollendorf, S.; Triolo, J. J.; Banks, P. M.; Brueckner, G. E.; Chipman, E. G.; Cowles, J.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Novick, R.; Shawhan, S. D.

1982-03-01

43

Student Experiments Fly with the Shuttle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various experiments which high school students are preparing, to be carried on NASA's 500 or more Space Shuttle flights in the 1980s. The project is intended to stimulate superior secondary school students. (SA)

Saunders, Walter; And Others

1979-01-01

44

Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

Jackson, Eugene D.

45

STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance duri...

R. W. Fricke

1996-01-01

46

STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance dur...

R. W. Fricke

1996-01-01

47

Ranger telerobotic shuttle experiment (RTSX): status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper updates the status of the Ranger Telerobotic Shuttle Experiment. The first Ranger mission is a Space Shuttle-based flight experiment to demonstrate key telerobotic technologies for servicing assets in Earth orbit. The flight system will be teleoperated from on-board the Space Shuttle and form a ground control station at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The robot, along with supporting equipment and task elements, will be located in the Shuttle payload bay. A number of relevant servicing operations will be performed - including extravehicular activity worksite setup, orbit replaceable unit exchange, and other dexterous tasks. The program is underway toward an anticipated launch date in CY2000, and the hardware and software for the flight article and a neutral buoyancy functional equivalent are transitional from design to manufacture. This paper addresses the technical and programmatic status of the flight experiment, and lays out plans for the future.

Parrish, Joseph C.

1998-12-01

48

Actinide Sub-Actinide Flux Ratio Estimated from NASA Challenger Space Shuttle Borne Passive Detector Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A video trace analysis of 117 ultra heavy cosmic nuclei detected by NASA space shuttle borne lexan detectors has been presented here. The major axes of the elliptical track etch pits in the long hour etched detectors have been measured using a Hund microscope computerized for the measurements using a Pentium. The major axes distribution exhibits the existence of ultra heavy nuclei of charges of Z ranging from 72 to 96 compatible with the expected results from restricted energy loss calculations. The estimated actinide sub-actinide flux ratio has been found to be 0.0636±0.0248 which is comparable to the earlier observations by Fowler et al., Thompson et al. and O'Sullivan.

Basu, Basudhara; Bhattacharyya, D. P.; Biswas, S.; O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.

49

Observation of nitric oxide rovibrational band head emissions in the quiescent airglow during the CIRRIS-1A space shuttle experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Band head emissions from highly rotationally excited NO (v, J) (J approx. equals 90) have been observed in the quiescent atmosphere at tangent heights between approximately 115 and 190 km for both sunlit and nighttime conditions. The data were obtained by the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) interferometer which was operated on-board the space shuttle between 28 and

D. R. Smith; M. Ahmadjian

1993-01-01

50

Assessing the legacy of the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the core legacies of the Space Shuttle program after 25 years and suggests that, while it was not an unadulterated success, on balance the Shuttle served a valuable role in the development of spaceflight and deserves an overall positive assessment in history. There are five core legacies that deserve discussion. First, the Space Shuttle has a reputation

Roger D. Launius

2006-01-01

51

NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. ``When I hear people say,

Randy Showstack

2011-01-01

52

Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.  

PubMed

The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science. PMID:23281389

Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

2013-01-01

53

STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-05-01

54

Validating Metrics for Ensuring Space Shuttle Flight Software Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we cover the validation of software quality metrics for the Space Shuttle. Experiments with Space Shuttle flight software show that the Boolean OR discriminator function can successfully validate metrics for controlling and predicting quality. Further, we found that statement count and node count are the metrics most closely associated with the discrepancy reports count, and that with

Norman F. Schneidewind

1994-01-01

55

STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-08-01

56

Shuttle orbiter experiments: Use of an operational vehicle for advancement and validation of space systems design technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program provided a mechanism for utilization of an operational space shuttle orbiter as a flight research vehicle, as an adjunct to its normal space transportation mission. OEX Program experiments were unique among orbiter payloads, as the research instrumentation for these experiments were carried as integral parts of the vehicle's structure, rather than being placed in the orbiter's payload bay as mission-unique cargo. On each of its first 17 flights, the Orbiter Columbia carried some type of research instrumentation. Various instrumentation systems were used to measure, in flight, the requisite parameters for determination of the orbiter aerodynamic characteristics over the entire entry flight regime and/or the aerodynamic-heating rates imposed upon the vehicle during the hypersonic portion of atmospheric entry. The data derived from this instrumentation represent benchmark hypersonic flight data heretofore unavailable for a lifting entry vehicle. The data are being used in a continual process of validation of state-of-the-art methods, both experimental and computational, for simulating/predicting the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of advanced space transportation vehicles. This paper describes the OEX Program complement of research experiments, presents typical flight data obtained by these experiments, and demonstrates the utilization of these data for advancement and validation of vehicle aerothermodynamic-design tools. By example, the concept of instrumenting operational vehicles and/or spacecraft in order to perform advanced technology development and validation is demonstrated to be an effective and economical method for maturing space-systems design technologies.

Holloway, Paul F.; Throckmorton, David A.

1995-03-01

57

Seismic excitation by space shuttles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were simultaneously hit by the space shuttle shock waves. The proximity of the natural periods of the high rise buildings and the modal periods of the Los Angeles basin enabled efficient energy transfer from shock wave to seismic wave. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D. L.; Heaton, T.

1992-01-01

58

Ranger telerobotic shuttle experiment: a status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an update on the Ranger Telerobotic Shuttle Experiment (RTSX) and associated key robotics technologies within the Ranger program. Ranger TSX will operate from a Spacelab logistics pallet inside the cargo bay of the shuttle and will demonstrate space station and on-orbit servicing operations including extravehicular (EVA) worksite setup, an orbital replacement unit (ORU) exchange, and various task board experiments. The flight system will be teleoperated from the middeck inside the shuttle as well as from a ground control station at NASA Johnson Space Center. This paper addresses the technical and programmatic status of the flight experiment and describes progress on the engineering test unit, Ranger Neutral Buoyancy Vehicle II (RNBVII), currently in fabrication. Also described are associated technologies, which support this effort. These include a flight robot mockup built to practice EVA stowage and Ranger NBV I, a free-flight prototype vehicle.

Gefke, Gardell; Carignan, Craig R.; Roberts, Brian E.; Lane, J. Corde

2002-02-01

59

Shuttle imaging radar experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E.; Cimino, J. B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D. L.; Ford, J. P.; Saunders, R. S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; Mccauley, J. F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

1982-01-01

60

Space Shuttle Columbia views the world with imaging radar: The SIR-A experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) in November 1981, demonstrate the capability of this microwave remote sensor system to perceive and map a wide range of different surface features around the Earth. A selection of 60 scenes displays this capability with respect to Earth resources - geology, hydrology, agriculture, forest cover, ocean surface features, and prominent man-made structures.

J. P. Ford; J. B. Cimino; C. Elachi

1983-01-01

61

Phased Array Antenna for Space Shuttle Orbiter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a distributed phased array antenna at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center as a possible upgrade for the Space Shuttle Orbiter S-band phase modulation communications system. The antenna consist...

S. E. Davidson

1987-01-01

62

Space policy and the size of the space shuttle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the space shuttle era, policy makers have repeatedly wrestled with the issue of fleet size. The number of shuttles had both practical and symbolic significance, reflecting the robustness of the space transportation system and US preeminence in space. In debating how many shuttles were needed, NASA and other government entities weighed various arguments to determine the optimum number of

Valerie Neal

2004-01-01

63

STS-38 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle,...

D. W. Camp D. M. Germany L. S. Nicholson

1991-01-01

64

Analysis of Space Shuttle accelerometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within an ESA program to optimize the damage tolerance approach to design of Space Shuttle payloads, actual flight data from four Space Shuttle missions was analyzed. The task was to derive typical mission event load spectra from load time accelerometer measurements. The quality of the analog input data, available to NASA for preprocessing, was such that derivation of valid load

A. A. Tenhave

1990-01-01

65

Access to space: The Space Shuttle's evolving rolee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to space is of extreme importance to our nation and the world. Military, civil, and commercial space activities all depend on reliable space transportation systems for access to space at a reasonable cost. The Space Transportation System or Space Shuttle was originally planned to provide transportation to and from a manned Earth-orbiting space station. To justify the development and operations costs, the Space Shuttle took on other space transportation requirements to include DoD, civil, and a growing commercial launch market. This research paper or case study examines the evolving role of the Space Shuttle as our nation's means of accessing space. The case study includes a review of the events leading to the development of the Space Shuttle, identifies some of the key players in the decision-making process, examines alternatives developed to mitigate the risks associated with sole reliance on the Space Shuttle, and highlights the impacts of this national space policy following the Challenger accident.

Duttry, Steven R.

1993-04-01

66

Skylab, Space Shuttle, Space Benefits Today and Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pamphlet "Skylab" describes very generally the kinds of activities to be conducted with the Skylab, America's first manned space station. "Space Shuttle" is a pamphlet which briefly states the benefits of the Space Shuttle, and a concise review of present and future benefits of space activities is presented in the pamphlet "Space Benefits…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

67

Space Shuttle Era: Booster Recovery Divers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climb aboard NASA’s solid rocket booster recovery ships to see how divers retrieve the space shuttle’s solid rocket boosters after they separate from the shuttle and splash down into the ocean, in this video from NASA.

Wnet

2012-07-19

68

Scout Honored for Running Space Shuttle Simulator  

NASA Website

Scout Mario Fernandez was honored recently by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center and the City of Palmdale, Calif., for his assistance in running the space shuttle cockpit simulator for visitors to the AERO Institute's Aerospace ...

69

Space Shuttle Main Engine Computed Tomography Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past two years the potential applications of computed tomography to the fabrication and overhaul of the Space Shuttle Main Engine were evaluated. Application tests were performed at various government and manufacturer facilities with equipment pro...

R. F. Sporny

1990-01-01

70

Space Shuttle/Food System Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document establishes the Functional, physical and performance interface requirements are studied between the space shuttle orbiter and the galley water system, the orbiter and the galley electrical system, and the orbiter and the galley structural sy...

1974-01-01

71

Space Shuttle OV-105 Subnominal Bond Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During summer 2003, structures work along the wing/fuselage mate rivet line on NASA's Space Shuttle OV-105 (Endeavour) required thermal tile removal. The tiles were removed nondestructively, so they could be reused, by skiving through the Strain Isolator ...

A. E. Gunn-Golkin

2005-01-01

72

Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Review Panel Report represents the work of a review team contracted by NASA to analyze its programs and practices. The 135-page "Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) Report" reviews the Space Shuttle's "sub-systems and maintenance practices." The report identifies systemic problems and organizes them into nine main issues, discusses technical issues, and offers recommendations. An additional report, from the Mars Independent Assessment Team chaired by Thomas Young, will be available by the end of March.

73

Shuttle Views the Earth: Clouds from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of slides shows imagery of clouds as seen from above, in space, by various satellites and space shuttle missions. Each slide is accompanied by a brief caption describing the feature being shown and the satellite or shuttle mission from which the photo was taken. The slides are available as downloadable high-resolution TIF files, or they can be purchased from Lunar and Planetary Institiute's online store.

74

Space shuttle microabrasion foil experiment (MFE): Implications for aluminium oxide sphere contamination of near-earth space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Microabrasion Foil Experiment (MFE) flown onboard Shuttle flight STS-3 as part of the OSS-1 scientific payload, four hypervelocity perforation events were recorded by the capture-cell array. Previous investigations /1/ of hypervelocity craters on Skylab IV windows have suggested the presence in near-Earth orbit of a significant population of man-made debris in the form of aluminium oxide spheres from rocket thruster firings. Cosmic dust investigators on the first LDEF mission (launched in April 1984) have expressed concern over the possibility of `contamination' by these Al2O3 particles. For Al2O3 particles in near-Earth orbit the expected impact velocities are of the order of 7-10 kms-1. At a velocity of 10 kms-1, the three near-marginal MFE events are attributed to particles -2?m in diameter and the largest perforation (23?m diameter) to a particle 4-10?m in diameter. Morphological evidence from the three near-marginal events clearly indicates a low density (1-3 g.cm-3) for the impacting projectile which is not entirely consistent with a density of ?=3.97 g.cm-3 for aluminium oxide. Chemical analysis shows silicon enhancement near all crater rims and also calcium for the larger crater. The flux rate deduced for an incident particle mass >1.8×10-12g is 2.6×10-5 m-2.s-1 corrected for Earth shielding. The interplanetary flux at this mass has been placed at 1.0×10-4 m-2.s-1, and hence if the MFE craters were to be considered caused by aluminium oxide, our `natural' particle flux would be a factor of -4 below the interplanetary figure. Considering the additional effects of gravitational enhancement near the Earth, the data suggests that Al2O3 contamination is not a serious threat to the collection and analysis of at least the smaller craters in 5?m foil.

Carey, W. C.; Dixon, D. G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.

75

NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. “When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, ‘these folks must be living on another planet.’ We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.”

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

76

Fault-tolerant joint development for the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system: analysis and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of space-based fault-tolerant robot joint design with a dual-motor, single-output differential-based mechanical drive system is investigated. The mathematical model of the differential system is developed, and the inherent nonlinear dynamic characteristics for the differential are reduced to linear state equations through variable substitutions. Nonlinear phenomena such as gearbox forward\\/backdrive efficiency, motor friction\\/stiction, and torque limiting are included. Simulations

Eugene C. Wu; James C. Hwang; John T. Chladek

1993-01-01

77

Detector calibration of the Indian cosmic ray experiment (IONS) in Space-Shuttle Spacelab-13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Indian cosmic ray experiment (IONS) in Spacelab-3 the intention is to study nuclei up to iron in low energy cosmic rays, using CR-39 (DOP) detectors. CR-39 (DOP) was exposed to He4, C12, O16, Ne20, Si28, Ar40, Cr52 and Fe56 accelerated beams from various accelerator facilities available around the world. Different beam energies and exposure angles were used. From these exposures, the charge resolution and energy resolution for the detector in the region of interest were studied. The effect of pre-annealing and depth on the response of our detector was studied. For isotopic resolution, exposed the detector samples were exposed to Ne2O and Ne22 accelerated beams. Samples of CR-39 (DOP) exposed to different accelerated heavy ions were kept in the detector module to take into account the effect of ambient conditions on detector response during the flight.

Yadav, J. S.; Biswas, S.; Durgaprasad, N.

1985-08-01

78

Infrared spectral measurement of space shuttle glow  

SciTech Connect

Infrared spectral measurements of the space shuttle glow were successfully conducted during the STS-39 space shuttle mission. Analysis indicates that NO, NO[sup +], OH, and CO are among the molecules associated with the infrared glow phenomenon. During orbiter thruster firings the glow intensities in the infrared are enhanced by factors of 10x to 100x with significant changes in spectral distribution. These measurements were obtained with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) payload which included a cryogenic infrared circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer (0.6 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]) and a number of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometers (0.2 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]m and 9.9 [mu]m to 10.4 [mu]m). In addition, glow measurements were unsuccessfully attempted with the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) with its 2.5 [mu]m to 25 [mu]m Fourier transform interferometer. SKIRT CVF obtained over 14,000 spectra of quiescent shuttle glow, thruster enhanced shuttle glow, upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, orbiter environment, and deep space non-glow backgrounds during its eight day mission. The SKIRT radiometers operated almost continuously throughout the mission to provide a detailed history of the IR/VIS/UV optical environment associated with the operation of large spacecraft structures in low earth orbit. This dissertation will primarily address those measurements conducted by the SKIRT spectrometer as they relate to space shuttle glow in the infrared. The STS-39 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched from the NASA Kennedy Space Center on 28 April 1991 into a 57 degree inclination circular orbit at an altitude of 260 km.

Ahmadijian, M.

1992-01-01

79

Seedling growth and development on space shuttle.  

PubMed

Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers. PMID:11540197

Cowles, J; LeMay, R; Jahns, G

1994-11-01

80

Access to space: The Space Shuttle's evolving rolee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to space is of extreme importance to our nation and the world. Military, civil, and commercial space activities all depend on reliable space transportation systems for access to space at a reasonable cost. The Space Transportation System or Space Shuttle was originally planned to provide transportation to and from a manned Earth-orbiting space station. To justify the development and

Steven R. Duttry

1993-01-01

81

Space Shuttle. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher's guide and student materials provide elementary and junior high school students with an understanding of the space shuttle as a new kind of transportation for conveying goods and performing services in space. The unit is appropriate for a learning center approach, individual instruction, or use with the entire class. It is organized…

Butler, Della

82

Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuatation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's largest tracked vehicle known, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a key

C. Faszer; R. MacDonald

83

SILENCING NASA'S SPACE SHUTTLE CRAWLER TRANSPORTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's second largest known tracked vehicle, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a

R. MacDonald; R. Margasahayam

84

Interactive Space Education and Space Shuttle Mission 51-L.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shuttle mission 51-L launched an interactive promotion of education direct from space. Emphasis on use of actual video scenes of space mission and astronomical phenomena are encouraged as tools in the classroom. Observation and prediction of Earth satelli...

P. D. Maley

1986-01-01

85

STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-02-01

86

A GPS\\/Shuttle orbital navigation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made to fly a Texas Instruments GPS geodetic receiver (GEOSTAR) on the Space Shuttle to evaluate its ability to perform autonomous orbit determination. GEOSTAR receiver and recorder units would be flown in the Shuttle's middeck for the purposes of computing real-time solutions and recording tracking data for post-flight analysis. Feasibility study results are presented which show that

G. Peters

1984-01-01

87

Hydrogen leak detection in the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on a helium gas jet flowing into room air. Measurements of helium concentration and velocity in the jet-air mixture are reported. The objective is to learn about jet characteristics so that dynamically similar hydrogen leaks may be located in the Space Shuttle. The hazardous gas detection system (HGDS) in the mobile launch pad uses mass spectrometers to

Ronald G. Barile

1992-01-01

88

Monitoring tropical environments with space shuttle photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981–88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962–1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the Greater Amazon, Tropical Africa and Madagascar, South

Michael R. Helfert; Kamlesh P. Lulla

1989-01-01

89

Space shuttle main engine failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of how to improve recognition of anomalous behavior in the Space Shuttle Main Engine is currently under study. The effort is planned to lead to an advanced real-time failure detection system for test stand application. This paper addresses motivation for the study, engine characteristics, failure detection problems, and the technical issues that are involved.

Harry A. Cikanek

1986-01-01

90

Fault tolerant avionics for the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space shuttle uses a digital fly-by-wire control system. If this system were to fail, it would cause certain loss of personnel, payloads, and the vehicle itself. Consequently, an avionics architectural design was chosen that would withstand two failures in any particular subsystem and still provide adequate vehicle control. A total of four primary computers are used to provide safe

C. E. Price

1991-01-01

91

Fault tolerant avionics for the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle uses a digital fly-by-wire control system. If this system were to fail, it would cause certain loss of personnel, payloads, and the vehicle itself. Consequently, an avionics architectural design was chosen that would withstand two failures in any particular subsystem and still provide adequate vehicle control. A total of four primary computers are used to provide safe

Christoper E. Price

1991-01-01

92

Toward a History of the Space Shuttle. An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This selective, annotated bibliography discusses those works judged to be most essential for researchers writing scholarly studies on the Space Shuttle's history. A thematic arrangement of material concerning the Space Shuttle will hopefully bring clarity...

A. K. Gillette R. D. Launius

1992-01-01

93

Toward a history of the space shuttle. An annotated bibliography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This selective, annotated bibliography discusses those works judged to be most essential for researchers writing scholarly studies on the Space Shuttle's history. A thematic arrangement of material concerning the Space Shuttle will hopefully bring clarity and simplicity to such a complex subject. Subjects include the precursors of the Space Shuttle, its design and development, testing and evaluation, and operations. Other topics revolve around the Challenger accident and its aftermath, promotion of the Space Shuttle, science on the Space Shuttle, commercial uses, the Space Shuttle's military implications, its astronaut crew, the Space Shuttle and international relations, the management of the Space Shuttle Program, and juvenile literature. Along with a summary of the contents of each item, judgments have been made on the quality, originality, or importance of some of these publications. An index concludes this work.

Launius, Roger D.; Gillette, Aaron K.

1992-12-01

94

The Space Shuttle Program and Its Support for Space Bioresearch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Space Shuttle Program is aimed at not only providing low cost transportation to and from near earth orbit, but also to conduct important biological research. Fields of research identified include gravitational biology, biological rhythms, and radiation biology. (PS)

Mason, J. A.; Heberlig, J. C.

1973-01-01

95

Toward a history of the space shuttle. An annotated bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This selective, annotated bibliography discusses those works judged to be most essential for researchers writing scholarly studies on the Space Shuttle's history. A thematic arrangement of material concerning the Space Shuttle will hopefully bring clarity and simplicity to such a complex subject. Subjects include the precursors of the Space Shuttle, its design and development, testing and evaluation, and operations. Other

Roger D. Launius; Aaron K. Gillette

1992-01-01

96

Nowcasting for Space Shuttle Landings at Kennedy Space Center, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space shuttle launches and landings at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are subject to strict weather-related launch commit criteria and landing weather flight rules. Complex launch commit criteria and end-of-mission landing weather flight rules demand very accurate forecasts and nowcasts (short-term forecasts of less than 2 h) of cloud, wind, visibility, precipitation, turbulence, and thunderstorms prior to shuttle launches and landings.The

William H. Bauman III; Steven Businger

1996-01-01

97

Space Shuttle security policies and programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle vehicle consists of the orbiter, external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. In dealing with security two major protective categories are considered, taking into account resource protection and information protection. A review is provided of four basic programs which have to be satisfied. Aspects of science and technology transfer are discussed. The restrictions for the transfer of science and technology information are covered under various NASA Management Instructions (NMI's). There were two major events which influenced the protection of sensitive and private information on the Space Shuttle program. The first event was a manned space flight accident, while the second was the enactment of a congressional bill to establish the rights of privacy. Attention is also given to national resource protection and national defense classified operations.

Keith, E. L.

98

Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the space shuttle program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA\\/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed

William Atwell; E. R. Beever; A. C. Hardy; R. G. Richmond; B. L. Cash

1989-01-01

99

Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident  

SciTech Connect

On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board was able to determine with almost absolute certainty the physical cause of the accident. In addition, Prof. Osherhoff will discuss its organizational and cultural causes, which are rooted deep in the culture of the human spaceflight program. Why did NASA continue to fly the shuttle system despite the persistent failure of a vital sub-system that it should have known did indeed pose a safety risk on every flight? Finally, Prof. Osherhoff will touch on the future role humans are likely to play in the exploration of space.

Osheroff, Doug (Stanford University)

2004-06-16

100

Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident  

ScienceCinema

On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board was able to determine with almost absolute certainty the physical cause of the accident. In addition, Prof. Osherhoff will discuss its organizational and cultural causes, which are rooted deep in the culture of the human spaceflight program. Why did NASA continue to fly the shuttle system despite the persistent failure of a vital sub-system that it should have known did indeed pose a safety risk on every flight? Finally, Prof. Osherhoff will touch on the future role humans are likely to play in the exploration of space.

101

Local Winds: Oceanography from the Space Shuttle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The major wind systems of the earth determine much of the large scale oceanography with which we are familiar. The local winds modify the ocean and the overlying atmosphere on a minute-to-minute and day-to-day basis. This site consists of imagery of different types of local winds taken by the Space Shuttle. It also features text descriptions of local winds such as katabatic winds in Europe, the harmattan in Africa, and the most common type, diurnal sea breezes.

102

Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board

Osheroff

2004-01-01

103

Fault tolerant avionics for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle uses a digital fly-by-wire control system. If this system were to fail, it would cause certain loss of personnel, payloads, and the vehicle itself. Consequently, an avionics architectural design was chosen that would withstand two failures in any particular subsystem and still provide adequate vehicle control. A total of four primary computers are used to provide safe control of the vehicle. Multiple copies of flight-critical sensors were installed. Software redundancy was also used.

Price, Christoper E.

104

New observations of sprites from the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of space-based observations of sprites obtained during the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) sprite campaign conducted on board the space shuttle Columbia during its STS-107 mission in January 2003. A total of ?6 hours of useful data were saved from 21 different orbits, of which 1\\/5 contained lightning. We imaged sprites from an altitude of 280

Yoav Yair; Peter Israelevich; Adam D. Devir; Meir Moalem; Colin Price; Joachim H. Joseph; Zev Levin; Baruch Ziv; Abraham Sternlieb; Amit Teller

2004-01-01

105

New observations of sprites from the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of space-based observations of sprites obtained during the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) sprite campaign conducted on board the space shuttle Columbia during its STS-107 mission in January 2003. A total of ~6 hours of useful data were saved from 21 different orbits, of which 1\\/5 contained lightning. We imaged sprites from an altitude of 280

Yoav Yair; Peter Israelevich; Adam D. Devir; Meir Moalem; Colin Price; Joachim H. Joseph; Zev Levin; Baruch Ziv; Abraham Sternlieb; Amit Teller

2004-01-01

106

Global measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide from the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an experiment to measure concentrations of atmospheric CO2 by means of a small Get-Away Special experiment aboard a Space Shuttle on an earth-viewing mission. Solar radiation reflected from the earth's surface will be alternately sampled in two relatively narrow wavelength bands near 2.1 microns: one sampling will be done in the P-branch of the 2.06 micron absorption

D. M. Premate; J. Burns; J. Krinsky

1981-01-01

107

Antenna Technology Shuttle Experiment (ATSE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous space applications of the future will require mesh deployable antennas of 15 m in diameter or greater for frequencies up to 20 GHz. These applications include mobile communications satellites, orbiting very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrophysics missions, and Earth remote sensing missions. A Lockheed wrap rip antennas was used as the test article. The experiments covered a broad range

R. E. Freeland; E. Mettler; L. J. Miller; Y. Rahmet-Samii; W. J. Weber III

1987-01-01

108

Space Shuttle and Space Station radio frequency (RF) exposure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipments. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in space shuttle and space station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh; Catherine C. Sham; Quin D. Kroll

2005-01-01

109

Antenna Technology Shuttle Experiment (ATSE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous space applications of the future will require mesh deployable antennas of 15 m in diameter or greater for frequencies up to 20 GHz. These applications include mobile communications satellites, orbiting very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrophysics missions, and Earth remote sensing missions. A Lockheed wrap rip antennas was used as the test article. The experiments covered a broad range of structural, control, and RF discipline objectives, which is fulfilled in total, would greatly reduce the risk of employing these antenna systems in future space applications. It was concluded that a flight experiment of a relatively large mesh deployable reflector is achievable with no major technological or cost drivers. The test articles and the instrumentation are all within the state of the art and in most cases rely on proven flight hardware. Every effort was made to design the experiments for low cost.

Freeland, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Miller, L. J.; Rahmet-Samii, Y.; Weber, W. J., III

1987-06-01

110

On the Wings of a Dream: The Space Shuttle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the development, training, and flight of the space shuttle. Topics are: (1) "National Aeronautics and Space Administration"; (2) "The Space Transportation System"; (3) "The 'Enterprise'"; (4) "The Shuttle Orbiter"; (5) "Solid Rocket Boosters"; (6) "The External Tank"; (7) "Astronaut Training"; (8) "Getting to Space"; (8)…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

111

Young People's Perception of the Space Shuttle Disaster: Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined responses of 97 students who witnessed space shuttle disaster on video at school. Asked them to rank three things that had affected them most. Only 8.9 percent of females ranked space shuttle first, and only 30.4 percent ranked it in top three. More males (88.9 percent) mentioned space shuttle, and 38.9 percent saw it as top concern.…

Gould, Benina Berger; Gould, Jeffrey B.

1991-01-01

112

Upgrading the US Space Shuttle fleet with a new \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the space shuttle program celebrates its 20th anniversary of human space flight, work is underway to develop a major Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) for the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter fleet. The Command and Display Processing Subsystem (CDPS) represents the third generation of display avionics for the orbiters and builds upon the Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) or \\

C. Marchant; D. Eastin; R. Ferguson

2001-01-01

113

Use of the space shuttle for remote sensing research: recent results and future prospects  

SciTech Connect

Routine access to low earth orbit provided by the space shuttle holds great potential for global studies of the earth's resources and its environment. A successful test flight of the Columbia orbiter in November 1981 demonstrated the utility and versatility of the shuttle for earth-related research. A series of remote sensing experiments is currently planned for the mid-1980's that will more fully exploit the shuttle's earth observation capabilities.

Not Available

1982-12-03

114

Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program: Changes in Shuttle Post Challenger and Columbia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the legacy of successes in the space shuttle program particularly with regards to the changes in the culture of NASA's organization after the Challenger and Columbia accidents and some of the changes to the shuttles that we...

G. Jarrell

2010-01-01

115

The fungicidal and phytotoxic properties of benomyl and PPM in supplemented agar media supporting transgenic arabidopsis plants for a Space Shuttle flight experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal contamination is a significant problem in the use of sucrose-enriched agar-based media for plant culture, especially in closed habitats such as the Space Shuttle. While a variety of fungicides are commercially available, not all are equal in their effectiveness in inhibiting fungal contamination. In addition, fungicide effectiveness must be weighed against its phytotoxicity and in this case, its influence

Anna-Lisa Paul; Charles Semer; Thomas Kucharek; Robert J. Ferl

2001-01-01

116

Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA): A pathfinder for space-based laser altimetry and lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) is a Hitchhiker experiment now being integrated for first flight on STS-72 in November 1995. Four Shuttle flights of the SLA are planned at a rate of about a flight every 18 months. They are aimed at the transition of the Goddard Space Flight Center airborne laser altimeter and lidar technology to low Earth orbit

Jack Bufton; Bryan Blair; John Cavanaugh; James Garvin

1995-01-01

117

A study of ocean internal waves using space shuttle data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of this study were to better understand the remote sensing mechanisms of ocean internal waves, and to apply space shuttle data to studies of upper ocean processes. Space shuttle photographs and Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C images of the Arabian Sea area were collected and used for this study. Statistical analysis of spatial structures of internal waves yielded distribution

Zongming Wang

1997-01-01

118

NASA Shuttle Web: John Glenn Returns to Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Glenn, the first American in space, became the world's oldest astronaut when he returned to the stars yesterday, 36 years after his first flight on the nation's 123rd manned mission. At the NASA Shuttle Website for the mission, users can read about the crew, payloads, mission objectives, some of the experiments on aging and space involving Senator Glenn, and updates on the mission's current status. Realtime data offered at the site include telemetry, tracking displays, sightings, and orbital elements. The site also hosts several multimedia offerings such as preflight and launch videos (MPEG), animations (MPEG), Net Show broadcasts of NASA TV, photos, and RealPlayer audio broadcasts.

119

14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. 1214.702 Section...FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During...

2009-01-01

120

14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. 1214.702 Section...FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During...

2013-01-01

121

14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. 1214.702 Section...FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During...

2010-01-01

122

14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. 1214.702 Section...FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During...

2012-01-01

123

STS-5 Fifth Space Shuttle Mission, First Operational Flight: Press Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Schedules for the fifth Space Shuttle flight are provided. Launching procedure, extravehicular activity, contingency plans, satellite deployment, and onboard experiments are discussed. Landing procedures, tracking facilities, and crew data are provided.

1982-01-01

124

An overview of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials III Experiment: Space Shuttle Mission 46; July--August, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The flight experiment was developed to obtain benchmark atomic oxygen reactivity data and was conducted during Space Transportation System Mission 46 (STS 46), July 31 to August 7, 1992. In this paper, we present an overview of EOIM-III and the results of the materials reactivity and mass spectrometer/carousel experiments. Mass spectrometer calibration methods are discussed briefly, as a prelude to a detailed discussion of the mass spectrometric results produced during STS-46. Mass spectrometric measurements of ambient O-atom flux and fluence are in good agreement with the values calculated using the MSIS-86 model of the thermosphere as well as estimates based on the extent of O-atom reaction with Kapton polyimide. Mass spectrometric measurements of gaseous products formed by O-atom reaction with C{sup 13} labeled Kapton revealed CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2}. By operating the mass spectrometer so as to detect naturally occurring ionospheric species, we characterized the ambient ionosphere and detected the gaseous reaction products formed when ambient ions interacted with the C{sup 13} Kapton carousel sector. By direct comparison of the results of on-orbit O-atom exposures with those conducted in ground-based laboratory systems, we have demonstrated the strong translational energy dependence of O-atom reactions with a variety of polymers. A ``line-of-centers`` reactive scattering model was shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the translational energy dependence of polymer reactions with O atoms over a three order-of-magnitude range in translational energy and a four order-of-magnitude range in reaction efficiency. Postflight studies of the polymer samples by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that O-atom attack is confined to within 50 to 100 Angstroms of the surface.

Koontz, S.L.; Leger, L.J.; Visentine, J.T. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Hunton, D.E. [USAF Phillips Lab., Hanscomb AFB, MA (United States); Cross, J.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hakes, C.L. [Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1993-12-31

125

NASDA next generation Aquatic Habitat for Space Shuttle and ISS.  

PubMed

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grew to adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day. PMID:15000125

Masukawa, M; Ochiai, T; Kamigaichi, S; Ishioka, N; Uchida, S; Kono, Y; Sakimura, T

2003-01-01

126

Antenna Technology Shuttle Experiment (ATSE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous space applications of the future will require mesh deployable antennas of 15 m in diameter or greater for frequencies up to 20 GHz. These applications include mobile communications satellites, orbiting very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) ast...

R. E. Freeland E. Mettler L. J. Miller Y. Rahmet-samii W. J. Weber

1987-01-01

127

SPEAR - Small payload ejection and recovery for the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is described to the task of flying low-cost payloads on the Space Shuttle. The concept, called SPEAR, evolved from attempts to modify for Shuttle deployment the proven hardware and techniques developed in sounding rocket programs. SPEAR work produced a free-flying payload equipped with standardized systems for attitude control, power, and data handling. After release from the orbiter, it

R. G. Cruddace; G. G. Fritz; S. Shulman

1977-01-01

128

A Qualitative Model of the Space Shuttle Reaction Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) is a component of the spaceshuttle propulsion system that provides motion control for the shuttle orbiter. As partof a model-based monitoring and diagnosis system for the RCS, a qualitative model ofthe system was developed using the QSIM modeling language. This report describesthe RCS model, the assumptions that went into it, and predictions that

Herbert Kay

1992-01-01

129

The corrosion and restoration of Space Shuttle Challenger's flight computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after the Space Shuttle Challenger incident on January 28, 1986, IBM Federal Systems Division personnel were requested to formulate and be prepared to implement a data recovery program to access the information retained within the Shuttle's flight computers. These efforts began on March 11, 1987, with retrieval of the onboard computers from 90 feet below the surface of the

P. Schuessler

1988-01-01

130

Verification of JEM Structural Compatibility with the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JEM elements are delivered to the ISS on three Shuttle flights and are assembled on orbit subsequently. The verification of JEM structural compatibility with the Space Shuttle was performed to certify its flight readiness. Structural compatibilities are required on weight and center of gravity, stiffness and structural damping, strength, and dynamic clearance. Verification results should be reviewed at several

Masaru Wada; Takayuki Shimoda; Shigeru Imai

2010-01-01

131

Space Shuttle probabilistic risk assessment: methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology and processes used for the probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle vehicle to systematically quantify the risk incurred during a nominal Shuttle mission and rank the risk driving components to allow for a concerted risk and cost reduction effort. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology

G. Maggio

1996-01-01

132

Observation of high-N hydroxyl pure rotation lines in atmospheric emission spectra by the CIRRIS 1A Space Shuttle Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure rotation line emissions from highly rotationally excited OH have been observed between 80 and 110 km tangent height under both nighttime and daytime quiescent conditions. Data were obtained using the cryogenic CIRRIS 1A interferometer, operated on the Space Shuttle. Transitions from OH(v=0–2, N??33) were identified between 400 and 1000 cm?1, corresponding to states with energies as high as 23000

D. R. Smith; W. A. M. Blumberg; R. M. Nadile; S. J. Lipson; E. R. Huppi; N. B. Wheeler; J. A. Dodd

1992-01-01

133

A Cost Assessment of Reliability Requirements for Shuttle-Recoverable Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relaunching of unsuccessful experiments or satellites will become a real option with the advent of the space shuttle. An examination was made of the cost effectiveness of relaxing reliability requirements for experiment hardware by allowing more than ...

J. W. Campbell

1975-01-01

134

Seismic excitation by the space shuttle Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SEISMIC stations in southern California recorded the atmospheric shock waves generated by the space shuttle Columbia on its return to the Edwards Air Force base on 13 August 1989 (Fig. 1). In addition to the shock wave, the broad-band IRIS-TERRAscope station at Pasadena recorded a distinct pulse with a period of ???2-3 seconds, which arrived 12.5 seconds before the shock wave (Fig. 2). This pulse was also recorded at the University of Southern California, near downtown Los Angeles, where it arrived 3 seconds after the shock wave. The origin of this pulse could not be readily identified. We show here that it was a seismic P wave excited by the motion of high-rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles, which were hit by the shock wave. The proximity of the natural period of the high-rise buildings to that of the Los Angeles basin enabled efficient energy transfer from shock wave to seismic wave.

Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Anderson, D. L.; Heaton, T. H.

1991-01-01

135

Shuttle Analysis, Shuttle Supervision, and Shuttle Life—Some Facts, Experiences, and Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous effort supported the spreading of psychoanalysis in what was formerly known as “Eastern Europe.” Since 2002, the Han Groen Prakken Psychoanalytic Institute of Eastern Europe has integrated this work. In many cases, training components had to be provided in “shuttle format.” Shuttle analysis can be considered as an experimental domain in psychoanalytical education. The discussions on shuttle analysis have

Gábor Szönyi; Tamara Štajner-Popovi?

2008-01-01

136

STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Ro...

R. W. Fricke

1996-01-01

137

Shuttle entry aerothermodynamic flight research - The Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the OEX program are summarized with emphasis on the information on entry aerothermodynamic phenomena derived from Space Shuttle operations. The discussion focuses on OEX experiment complement and operational history, freestream environment and vehicle attitude data, aerodynamic force and moment data, aerodynamic surface data, and vehicle configuration data. Attention is also given to orbiter aerodynamic performance, stability and control, high-altitude atmospheric density variability, direct simulation Monte Carlo validation, orbital drag variation, and computational fluid dynamic technique validation.

Throckmorton, David A.

1992-07-01

138

The evolution of the WPI Advance Space Design Program-an evolving program of technical and social analysis using the NASA Space Shuttle for engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December of 1982, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, with the cooperation and support of the Mitre Corporation, initiated a primarily undergraduate educational program to develop experiments to be flown onboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Christened the MITRE WPI Space Shuttle Program, it sponsored the development of five educationally meritorious experiments over a period of four years. Although the experiments were ready

Fred J. Looft; Robert C. Labonte; William W. Durgin

1991-01-01

139

STS-66 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pal...

R. W. Fricke

1995-01-01

140

RENAL STONE RISK ASSESSMENT DURING SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation.

Peggy A. Whitson; Robert A. Pietrzyk; Charles Y. C. Pak

1997-01-01

141

Reconstruction and Failure Analysis of The Space Shuttle Columbia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation describes a very detailed reconstruction plan and failure analysis of The Space Shuttle Columbia accident. The contents include: 1) STS-107 Timeline; 2) Foam Impact; 3) Recovery; 4) Reconstruction; 5) Reconstruction Plan; 6) Re...

R. W. Russell

2010-01-01

142

Management of SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) Hardware Life Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical and probabilistic reliability methodologies were developed for the determination of hardware life limits for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Both methodologies require that a mathematical reliability model of the engine (system) performa...

J. M. Pauschke

1986-01-01

143

Computer-Aided Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical...

W. P. Phillips J. P. Decker T. R. Rau C. R. Glatt

1974-01-01

144

Thermographic Nondestructive Evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methods and results presented in this summary address the thermographic identification of interstitial leaks in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles. A highly sensitive digital infrared camera is used to record the minute cooling effects associated w...

J. L. Walker M. D. Lansing S. S. Russell P. Caraccioli

2000-01-01

145

Camcorders in Space Shuttle earth observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to evaluate the use of commercially available camcorder systems during Shuttle flights is discussed, focusing on the use of an 8-mm camcorder for earth observations during the STS-30 mission in May, 1989. The camcorder with a 2/3-inch CCD is described, noting the modifications to prepare the camcorder for use on the Shuttle. The results of the camcorder project are summarized, listing the types of earth-viewing video images that were aquired with the camcorder.

Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael

1990-03-01

146

STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981  

NASA Video Gallery

Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely to Earth. This video depicts the historic launch, in-orbit activity by astronauts John Young and Bob Crippen, and the vast crowds who witnessed the landing at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

Monroe Conner

2011-04-13

147

Ignition transient calculations in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented is part of an effort to develop a multidimensional ignition transient model for large solid propellant rocket motors. On the Space Shuttle, the ignition transient in the slot is induced when the igniter, itself a small rocket motor, is fired into the head-end portion of the main rocket motor. The computational results presented in this paper consider two different igniter configurations. The first configuration is a simulated Space Shuttle RSRM igniter which has one central nozzle that is parallel to the centerline of the motor. The second igniter configuration has a nozzle which is canted at an angle of 45 deg from the centerline of the motor. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of certain flow field characteristics inside the solid propellant star grain slot of the Space Shuttle during the ignition transient period of operation for each igniter configuration. The majority of studies made to date regarding ignition transient performance in solid rocket motors have concluded that the key parameter to be determined is the heat transfer rate to the propellant surface and hence the heat transfer coefficient between the gas and the propellant. In this paper the heat transfer coefficients, pressure and velocity distributions are calculated in the star slot. In order to validate the computational method and to attempt to establish a correlation between the flow field characteristics and the heat transfer rates a series of cold flow experimental investigations were conducted. The results of these experiments show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the pressure and velocity distributions obtained from the CFD analysis. The CFD analysis utilized a classical pipe flow type correlation for the heat transfer rates. The experimental results provide an excellent qualitative comparison with regard to spatial distribution of the heat transfer rates as a function of nozzle configuration and igniter pressure. The results indicate that from a quantitative point of view that the pipe flow correlation gives reasonably good results. Furthermore, there appears to be a direct correlation between igniter pressure and an average Reynolds number in the star grain slot. This may lead to a simple method for modifying the convection heat transfer correlation. Calculated results of pressure-vs-time for the first 200 msec of motor firing of the Space Shuttle RSRM support the trends shown for the heat transfer rate comparisons between the cold flow CFD and experimental data.

Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Foster, Winfred A., Jr.

1993-07-01

148

Utilization of Shuttle small payload accommodations in the DOD Space Test Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 27 years, the U.S. Air Force, as executive agent for the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program, has flown approximately 325 space experiments for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and other DOD agencies. These experiments have made significant contributions to the improvement of military technology and operations. Flight of Space Test Program experiments has been carried out utilizing free flyer spacecraft, the Space Shuttle crew cabin, and the Space Shuttle cargo bay. This paper will concentrate on those experiments which have been flown by the NASA Space Shuttle small payload flight systems, e.g., GAS, uprated GAS (CAP), and Hitchhiker flight systems. Discussions of Space Test Program experiments flown by Space Shuttle small payloads flight systems will include the experiment objectives, the accommodations and services provided by the flight systems, experiment results, and lessons learned from the planning and conduct of the flight. Particular emphasis will be placed on those experiments which required and were provided with a new and unique capability by the small payloads flight systems. These capabilities include the first use of the GAS opening lid, the first use of the GAS payload ejection capability, and the first use of the Hitchhiker cross bay carrier.

Hagler, Thomas; Czajkowski, Eva

1993-10-01

149

NASCAP/LEO Simulations of Shuttle Orbiter Charging During the SAMPIE Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrostatic charging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the operation of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE) was modeled using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program/ low Earth orbit (NASCAP/LEO) computer code. The SAMPIE expe...

R. Chock

1992-01-01

150

Simulation of Space Shuttle neutron measurements with FLUKA.  

PubMed

FLUKA is an integrated particle transport code that has enhanced multigroup low-energy neutron transport capability similar to the well-known MORSE transport code. Gammas are produced in groups but many important individual lines are specifically included, and subsequently transported by the main FLUKA routines which use a modified version of EGS4 for electromagnetic (EM) transport. Recoil protons are also transported by the primary FLUKA transport simulation. The neutron cross-section libraries employed within FLUKA were supplied by Giancarlo Panini (ENEA, Italy) based upon the most recent data from JEF-1, JEF-2.2, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3, etc. More than 60 different materials are included in the FLUKA databases with temperature ranges including down to cryogenic temperatures. This code has been used extensively to model the neutron environments near high-energy physics experiment shielding. A simulation of the Space Shuttle based upon a spherical aluminum equivalent shielding distribution has been performed with reasonable results. There are good prospects for extending this calculation to a more realistic 3-D geometrical representation of the Shuttle including an accurate representation of its composition, which is an essential ingredient for the improvement of the predictions. A proposed project to develop a combined analysis and simulation package based upon FLUKA and the analysis infrastructure provided by the ROOT software is under active consideration. The code to be developed for this project will be of direct application to the problem of simulating the neutron environment in space, including the albedo effects. PMID:11855415

Pinsky, L; Carminati, F; Ferrari, A

2001-06-01

151

After Columbia: The Space Shuttle Program and the Crisis in Space Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on 1 February 2003 brought to the fore the sad history of the Space Shuttle's origins, evolution, operation, and the continuing challenge of space access. The crisis that emerged in human access to space because of the accident was greater than any experienced since the end of the Apollo program more than thirty

Roger Launius

2004-01-01

152

Electrophoresis experiments for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been hoped that space could alleviate the problems of large-scale, high-capacity electrophoresis. Support media and reduced chamber dimensions of capillary electrophoresis have established the physical boundaries for Earth-based systems. Ideally, electrophoresis conducted in a virtual weightless environment in an unrestricted ``free'' fluid should have great potential. The electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing experiments done in the reduced gravity over the past twenty-five years have demonstrated the absence of thermal convection and sedimentation as well as the presence of electrohydrodynamics that requires careful control. One commercial venture produced gram amounts of an electrophoretically purified protein during seven Space Shuttle flights but the market disappeared in the six years between experiment conception and performance on the Space Shuttle. Our accumulated experience in microgravity plus theoretical models predict improvements that should be possible with electrophoresis if past problems are considered and both invention of new technologies and innovation of procedures on the Space Station are encouraged. .

Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

2000-01-01

153

Processing near-infrared imagery of hypersonic space shuttle reentries  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution, calibrated, near-infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle during reentry has been obtained by a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft as part of NASA's HYTHIRM (Hypersonic Thermodynamic InfraRed Measurements) project. The long-range optical sensor package is called Cast Glance. Three sets of imagery have been processed thus far: 1) STS- 119 when Shuttle Discovery was at 52 km away at

Thomas S. Spisz; Jeff C. Taylor; David M. Gibson; Kwame Osei-Wusu; Thomas J. Horvath; Joseph N. Zalameda; Deborah M. Tomek; Alan B. Tietjen; Steve Tack; Richard J. Schwartz

2010-01-01

154

Shuttle attached antenna Flight Experiment Definition Study (FEDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control algorithms, techniques, and hardware which would be required to support whether flight experiments of large space structures control are assessed for a 55-meter diameter wrap-rib reflector with a three degree-of-freedom gimbal. Strowman requirements were established for geometry, mass property, and elastic mode identification as well as for control and slewing. A five-body simulation of the Shuttle and test article was built with the ALLFLEX computer program. A maximum likelihood estimator, the flight experiment timeline, and the LSS control development test plan are discussed.

Hannan, G. J.

1985-04-01

155

Computer graphics in support of Space Shuttle simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic scene generation plays an important role in simulation of the Space Shuttle at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Simulators for astronaut training, system integration and engineering development utilize both a moving camera\\/map board system as well as computer generated images. Launch, on-orbit, payload handling and landing tasks are simulated with shaded computer graphics to provide realtime visual

Richard Weinberg

1978-01-01

156

Voice loops as cooperative aids in space shuttle mission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In domains like air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations, and space mission control, practitioners coordinate their activities through voice loops that allow communication among groups of people who are spatially separate. Voice loops have evolved into essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in space shuttle mission control, as well as other domains. We describe how voice loops support the

Jennifer C. Watts; David D. Woods; James M. Corban; Emily S. Patterson; Ronald L. Kerr; LaDessa C. Hicks

1996-01-01

157

48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 ...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...228-72 Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. As prescribed...

2009-10-01

158

48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 ...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...228-72 Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services. As prescribed...

2010-10-01

159

Further analyses of human kidney cell populations separated on the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured human embryonic kidney cells were separated into electrophoretic subpopulations in laboratory experiments and in two separation experiments on the STS-8 (Challenger) Space Shuttle flight using the mid-deck Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator (CFES). Populations of cells from each fraction were cultured for the lifetime of the cells, and supernatant medium was withdrawn and replaced at 4-day intervals. Withdrawn medium was

Robin M. Stewart; Paul Todd; Kenneth D. Cole; Dennis R. Morrison

1992-01-01

160

Space Shuttle solid rocket booster separation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separation of the Shuttle's solid rocket boosters (SRB) is accomplished by a method somewhat similar to that used for the Titan III. However, due primarily to the presence of the orbiter, the design of the SRB separation system has had to satisfy unique requirements. The supersonic staging of parallel boosters to clear a thrusting, winged, and manned vehicle is a new development complicated by asymmetrical SRB thrust and complex aerodynamics. The SRB separation system, the separation sequence, and flight control method are described. The approach taken to verify the separation system for flight is presented, and its performance on STS-1 and STS-2, the first times that the integrated separation system was tested under true flight conditions, is summarized.

Elchert, K. C.

161

A two-axis laser boresight system for a shuttle experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-axis gimballed laser pointing mechanism is being developed for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) to be flown on the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle in February 1993. This report describes the design requirements and goals, the configuration, analysis, and testing plans for this laser pointing device.

Delorme, Joseph F.

1989-03-01

162

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle... (a) In agreements covering Space Shuttle services, certain ELV...

2009-10-01

163

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle... (a) In agreements covering Space Shuttle services, certain ELV...

2010-10-01

164

Power line based LAN on board the NASA Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without exception, vehicles have a power distribution system based on metallic conductors of some type. It would be advantageous to make this power distribution network perform double-duty, as an infrastructure supporting both power delivery and broadband digital connectivity. We study the possibility of re-using existing power cables on board the NASA Orbiter (also knows as the Space Shuttle) for providing

Stefano Galli; Thomas Banwell; David Waring

2004-01-01

165

Voice Loops as Coordination Aids in Space Shuttle Mission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium

Emily S. Patterson; Jennifer Watts-perotti; David D. Woods

1999-01-01

166

GPS detection of ionospheric perturbations following a Space Shuttle ascent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust plume of the Space Shuttle during its ascent is a very powerful source of energy that excites atmospheric acoustic perturbations. Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these low frequency acoustic perturbations induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. We computed ionospheric electron content time series using Global Positioning System data collected on

Eric Calais; J. Bernard Minster

1996-01-01

167

Using a Robot Control Architecture to Automate Space Shuttle Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes preliminary results from using an AI robot control software architecture, known as 3T, as the software framework for a procedure track- ing system for the space shuttle Remote Manipula- tor System (RMS). The system, called STPT, is de- signed to track the expected steps of the crew as they carry out RMS operations, detecting malfunctions in the

R. Peter Bonasso; David Kortenkamp; Troy Whitney

1997-01-01

168

Software Metrics Validation: Space Shuttle flight Software Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software quality metrics have potential for helping to ensure the quality of software on large projects such as theSpace Shuttle flight software. It is feasible to validate metrics for the purpose of controlling and predicting software quality during design by validating metrics against a quality factor. Quality factors, like reliability, are of more interest to customers than metrics, like complexity.

Norman F. Schneidewind

1995-01-01

169

Formalizing space shuttle software requirements: four case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes four case studies in which requirements for new flight software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed using mechanically supported formal methods. Three of the studies used standard formal specification and verification techniques, and the fourth used state exploration. These applications illustrate two thesis: (1) formal methods complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively and (2) formal methods

Judith Crow; Ben L. Di Vito

1998-01-01

170

Performance Assessment of Two GPS Receivers on Space Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space Shuttle STS-69 was launched on September 7, 1995, carrying the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-02) among its payloads. The mission included two GPS receivers: a Collins 3M receiver onboard the Endeavour and an Osborne flight TurboRogue, known as the Turbo...

C. A. Schroeder B. E. Schutz

1996-01-01

171

Ignition transient calculations in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented is part of an effort to develop a multidimensional ignition transient model for large solid propellant rocket motors. On the Space Shuttle, the ignition transient in the slot is induced when the igniter, itself a small rocket motor, is fired into the head-end portion of the main rocket motor. The computational results presented in this paper consider

Rhonald M. Jenkins; Winfred A. Foster Jr.

1993-01-01

172

SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) Environment Database Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The internal environment of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is being determined from hot firings of the prototype engines and from model tests using either air or water as the test fluid. The objectives are to develop a database system to facilitate ...

J. Reardon

1987-01-01

173

Risk Analysis of the Space Shuttle: Pre-Challenger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rogers Commission report on the space shuttle Challenger accident concluded that the accident was caused by a combustion gas leak through a joint in one of the booster rockets, which was sealed by a device called an O-ring. The commission further concluded that O-rings do not seal properly at low temperatures. In this article, data from the 23 preaccident

SIDDHARTHA R. DALAL; EDWARD B. FOWLKES; BRUCE HOADLEY

174

Celebrating 30 Years of the Space Shuttle Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shuttle has provided this Nation with many firsts, with many proud moments, and it has helped the united States to lead the world in space exploration. over three decades, this flagship program has become part of the fabric of our Nations history. Its...

2012-01-01

175

Flashbulb Memory Revisited: Children Recall the Space Shuttle Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing theoretical and methodological issues, the present study assessed the content, accuracy, and consistency of school-aged children's memories of a potentially emotional, historic event: the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986. A total of 345 children in kindergarten through eighth grade were tested. To examine…

Leubecker, Amye Warren; Springfield, Michael R.

176

Space Shuttle Plume Simulation Application. Results and Math Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pressure and gauge wind tunnel data from a transonic test of a 0.02 scale model of the space shuttle launch vehicle was analyzed to define the aerodynamic influence of the main propulsion system and solid rocket booster plumes during the transonic portion...

W. Boyle B. Conine

1978-01-01

177

The Flight of the Space Shuttle "Discovery" (STS-119)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, "Discovery" launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the…

Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

2010-01-01

178

Acoustic Emission Detection of Impact Damage on Space Shuttle Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia as a result of impact damage from foam debris during ascent has led NASA to investigate the feasibility of on-board impact detection technologies. AE sensing has been utilized to monitor a wide variety of impact cond...

W. H. Prosser M. R. Gorman E. I. Madaras

2004-01-01

179

Space Shuttle Fatigue Loads Spectra for Prelaunch and Liftoff Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fatigue loads spectra for the prelaunch and liftoff flight segments of the Space Shuttle were developed. A variety o methods were used to determine the distributions of several important parameters, such as time of exposure on the launch, pad, month of la...

J. Goldish R. Ortasse

1994-01-01

180

Distribution of Oceanic Features Seen in Space Shuttle Photography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to identify open ocean and coastal water features appearing within photographs taken during U.S. Space Shuttle missions (1981-1991) and to investigate their geographic and temporal occurrences. In addition to a comprehens...

L. S. Incze

1996-01-01

181

Space shuttle observation of an unusual transient atmospheric emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an observation of an unusual transient luminous event (TLE) detected in the near IR, south of Madagascar above the Indian Ocean. The event was imaged from the space shuttle Columbia during the MEIDEX sprite campaign [Yair et al., 2004]. It was delayed 0.23 seconds from a preceding visual lightning flash which was horizontally displaced >1000 km from the

Yoav Yair; Colin Price; Baruch Ziv; Peter L. Israelevich; Davis D. Sentman; Fernanda T. São-Sabbas; Adam D. Devir; Mitsuteru Sato; Craig J. Rodger; Meir Moalem; Eran Greenberg; Ofer Yaron

2005-01-01

182

Automated testing of the Space Shuttle high pressure turbopumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development testing of alternate turbopumps for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is conducted in a test facility simulating a full engine environment. This test facility utilizes a real time, closed loop control system to provide high pressure hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the turbopump's preburner. The system controls the pressurization and flow of propellants and maintains various pump inlet

Craig W. Tiroff

1992-01-01

183

Liquid oxygen sloshing in Space Shuttle External Tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics within the liquid oxygen tank of the Space Shuttle External Tank during liftoff. Before liftoff, the tank is filled with liquid oxygen (LOX) to approximately 97 percent with the other 3 percent containing gaseous oxygen (GOX) and helium. During liftoff, LOX is drained from the bottom of the tank, and GOX

M. D. Kannapel; A. J. Przekwas; A. K. Singhal; N. C. Costes

1987-01-01

184

Space Shuttle Orbiter Heat Pipe Applications. Volume 1 Synopsis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made to formulate and evaluate heat pipe applications for the space shuttle orbiter. Of the twenty-seven specific applications which were identified, a joint evaluation resulted in the selection of five of the most promising ones for ...

J. P. Alario R. C. Prager

1972-01-01

185

Space shuttle main propulsion system anomaly detection: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components, each of which must work precisely in order to achieve a successful mission. A critical component under study is the flow control valve (FCV) which controls the pressure of the gaseous hydrogen between the SSME

Bryan L. Matthews; Ashok N. Srivastava; David Iverson; Bob Beil

2011-01-01

186

Space Shuttle Main Engine Definition (Phase B). Volume 2: Avionics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advent of the space shuttle engine with its requirements for high specific impulse, long life, and low cost have dictated a combustion cycle and a closed loop control system to allow the engine components to run close to operating limits. These perfor...

1971-01-01

187

Space Shuttle: Costs for Hubble Servicing Mission and Implementation of Safety. Recommendations Not Yet Definitive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hubble's continued operation has been dependent on manned servicing missions using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) shuttle fleet. The fleet was grounded in early 2003 following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia, as NASA foc...

2004-01-01

188

Satellite Observations of Space Shuttle Main Engine Exhaust: Vertical Diffusion and Meridional Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment on NASA’s Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite has observed water vapor radiances near 6.6 microns on the Earth’s limb since the TIMED launch in December, 2001. Following a space shuttle launch, SABER typically observes enhanced water vapor emission between 90-110 km altitude near the east coast of the United States, where the shuttle injects about 300 metric tons of water vapor exhaust from its three main engines. SABER has observed plumes from 20 space shuttle launches since 2002, all within 25 hours of injection. The database of observations now consists of over 80 separate plume scans, each of which is identified with a peak altitude, a peak brightness and a plume thickness. We compare these SABER shuttle plume observations with a two-dimensional diffusion model that includes photodissociation to determine whether the time evolution of the plume altitude and thickness can be reproduced. Some observations indicate that the shuttle plume is subject to rapid meridional transport. We compare the inferred meridional motion of the plumes with a satellite-derived wind climatology. We include the effects of tidal variability on the shuttle plume and determine whether there is a time of year during which the wind climatology better explains the observed meridional transport.

Stevens, M. H.; Meier, R. R.; Plane, J. M.; Emmert, J. T.; Russell, J.

2010-12-01

189

Space Shuttle Accident: NASA's National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Actions to Address the Presidential Commission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a review of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) actions to address the recommendations presented in the Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, dated June 6, 1986. It presents in...

1987-01-01

190

The Shuttle activation monitor: a system for direct comparison of gamma-ray detector materials in a space environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental system which was used to compare gamma-ray detector materials in a space environment is described. Two 3-in×3-in scintillator detectors, NaI and BGO, were flown on the Space Shuttle Columbia as part of the Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM) experiment. The goals of this experiment were to compare the performance of the two detector materials in the same environment and

P. S. Haskins; J. E. McKisson; D. W. Ely; A. G. Weisenberger; R. B. Piercey; C. S. Dyer; A. V. Ramayya; D. C. Camp

1990-01-01

191

Space Shuttle Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Double delta Wing Space Shuttle Orbiter (M Equals 0.6 - 5.0).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This test program was the first wind tunnel investigation of a double delta wing space shuttle orbiter. The 0.004 scale model used for this test was the first model constructed of this configuration and as such lacked certain refinements incorporated in l...

M. Gamble R. R. Ellis

1972-01-01

192

Space Shuttle dosimetry measurements with RME-III  

SciTech Connect

A description of the radiation monitoring equipment (RME-III) dosimetry instrument and the results obtained from six Space Shuttle flights are presented. The RME-III is a self-contained, active (real-time), portable dosimeter system developed for the USAF and adapted for utilization in measuring the ionizing radiation environment on the Space Shuttle. This instrument was developed to incorporate the capabilities of two earlier radiation instruments into a single unit and to minimize crew interaction times with longer battery life and expanded memory capacity. Flight data has demonstrated that the RME-III can be used to accurately assess dose from various sources of exposure, such as that encountered in the complex radiation environment of space.

Hardy, K.A.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Atwell, W.; Quam, W. (USAF, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (United States) NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States) Rockwell International Corp., Space Transportation Systems Div., Houston, TX (United States) EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States))

1991-10-01

193

Pressure transient analysis of the Space Shuttle hydraulic system  

SciTech Connect

Detailed simulations of the Space Shuttle hydraulic system were developed to verify that all control functions could be performed under all unique conditions encountered during a space mission. These simulations have been used to analyze dynamic problems which could have threatened to destroy flight or test hardware. The RoHDA program was developed to analyze pressure transients in the time domain when the disturbances of interest occurred at frequencies below 100 hertz. The HSFR program was used to analyze transients that occurred above the 100 hertz. This program operates in the frequency domain. These programs were utilized on a digital computer to verify that the hydraulic system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was ready to fly.

Morse, A.C.

1984-01-01

194

Detection of Impact Damage on Space Shuttle Structures Using Acoustic Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the acoustic signals originating from impact damage on Space Shuttle components were undertaken. Sprayed on foam insulation and small aluminum spheres were used as impactors. Shuttle reinforced carbon-carbon panels, panels with Shuttle thermal protection tiles, and Shuttle main landing gear doors with tiles were targets. Ballistic speed and hypervelocity impacts over a wide range of impactor sizes, energies, and angles were tested. Additional tests were conducted to correlate the acoustic response of the test articles to actual Shuttle structures.

Madaras, Eric I.; Prosser, William H.; Gorman, Michael R.

2005-04-01

195

SIR-B-The Second Shuttle Imaging Radar Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 5, 1984, the second Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B) was launched into orbit aboard the space shuttle Challenger. SIR-B is part of an evolutionary radar program designed to progressively develop a multifrequency, multipolarization synthetic aperture radar with a variable Earth-imaging geometry. The SIR-B instrument is an upgraded version of SIR-A, with the additional capability of tilting the antenna mechanically

Jobea Cimino; Charles Elachi; Mark Settle

1986-01-01

196

Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.  

PubMed

Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains. PMID:12269347

Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

1999-01-01

197

The Flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-119)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, Discovery launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the ``CBS News'' space consultant. The spreadsheet provides detailed and authentic information about the prediction of the ascent of flight STS-119, the 36th flight of Discovery and the 125th shuttle flight to date. We have used the data for our calculations and the production of the graphs. A limited version of the ascent data is available on the ``CBS News'' STS-119 trajectory timeline.1

Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

2010-03-01

198

Space Shuttle thermal protection system inspection by 3D imaging laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has developed a sensor suite to inspect the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System while the Shuttle is flying in orbit. When the Space Shuttle returns to flight, it will carry a 3D Imaging Laser Radar as part of the sensor suite to observe the Thermal Protection System and indicate any damages that may need to be repaired before return

James C. Lamoreux; James D. Siekierski; J. P. N. Carter

2004-01-01

199

Failure analysis of the Columbia space shuttle glass windshields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silica glass windshields failed under brittle fracture conditions during the devastating destruction of the Columbia space shuttle. Macroscopic analysis and the use of a stereomicroscope on two fragments of the windows showed that each had\\u000a one critical crack origin. The crack tips could be traced by the Wallner lines making up the mirror zones along the fracture\\u000a surfaces of

K. Cohen; N. E. Martian; R. M. Deacon; A. R. Marder

2006-01-01

200

Columbia space shuttle: Failure analysis of a fuel valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crater was formed on a fuel valve of the Columbia by an unknown high-temperature heat source during re-entry and catastrophic failure of the space shuttle. Stereomicroscopy,\\u000a light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to analyze the failure.\\u000a Aluminum deposits were found on the surface of the valve as well as on the fracture surface, indicative

A. Notis; A. R. Marder

2006-01-01

201

Space Shuttle Columbia Post-Accident Analysis and Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and its crew was tragic, the circumstances offered a unique opportunity to\\u000a examine a multitude of components which had experienced one of the harshest environments ever encountered by engineered materials:\\u000a a break up at a velocity in excess of Mach 18 and an altitude exceeding 200,000 feet (63 KM), resulting in a

S. McDanels

202

Lateral Stability and Control Derivatives Extracted from Space Shuttle Challenger Flight Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flight data taken from six flights of the Space Transportation System shuttle Challenger (STS-6, 7, 8, 11, 13 and 17) during atmospheric entry are analyzed to determine the shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is appl...

J. R. Schiess

1988-01-01

203

Young people's perception of the space shuttle disaster: case study.  

PubMed

To explore how young people were affected by the space shuttle disaster, the responses of 79 females in 5th, 8th, and 12th grades and 18 males in 5th grade who had witnessed the event on video at school were examined. Six days after the Challenger accident, they were asked to list and rank the three things that had affected them most over the last seven days and to explain the reason behind their first choice. Only 8.9% of the females ranked the space shuttle first, and only 30.4% ranked it in the top three. Competing issues were school-related activities, grades, and family relations. Of the 5th-grade males, 88.9% mentioned the space shuttle and 38.9% saw it as their top concern. For both males and females, this choice was based on sadness and empathy. The youths did not relate the disaster to the fragility of modern technology or the threat of nuclear war. The relatively low response rate of the females who had witnessed this event was interpreted as being indicative of repression-denial. It was concluded that future research should address the extent to which post-crisis denial could be masking more significant psychological trauma in youth. PMID:1927662

Gould, B B; Gould, J B

1991-01-01

204

Visual registration for robotic operations on space-shuttle tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refurbishing the thermal-protection tiles on a space shuttle before each mission is a lengthy and labor-intensive process. A mobile robot is being developed to perform two of the required maintenance operations on the bottom side of the shuttle: (1) injection of a hydrophobic fluid, to prevent tiles from absorbing water, and (2) visual inspection, to detect anomalous tile conditions. Both operations depend on precise positioning of the robot end effector with respect to each tile. We describe our method for precise visual registration. The technique first detects the edges of the tile (whose approximate shape and dimensions are given from CAD data) and then uses correspondence between visual features in the postflight and preflight images to improve the registration accuracy. Results on actual tile images are presented.

Decurtins, Jeff; Cowan, Cregg K.

1992-11-01

205

Developmental Level and Children's Responses to the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Groups of children at three different developmental levels were each given a brief presentation by their classroom teachers regarding the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, one day after the shuttle exploded. The standardized presentation included information about where the shuttle was launched, the crew, the special significance of Mrs.…

Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

206

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-12-01

207

Human interactions in space: ISS vs. Shuttle/Mir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement of group tension to outside monitoring personnel, cultural differences, and leadership roles. Findings were based on the completion of a weekly questionnaire that included items from the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. An examination of issues investigated in both studies revealed much similarity in findings. There was little support for the presence of changes in levels of mood and group climate over time, and no evidence for a “3rd quarter phenomenon”. Both studies also provided evidence for the displacement of negative emotions to outside personnel in both crewmembers and mission control personnel. There were similar patterns of differences between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Finally, in both studies, the support role of the leader was related to group cohesion among crewmembers, and both the task and support roles of the leader were related to cohesion among mission control personnel. Thus, in these four areas, the ISS study substantially replicated the findings from the earlier Shuttle/Mir study, suggesting that common psychosocial issues affect people engaged in on-orbit space missions.

Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

2006-07-01

208

Science in Orbit. The Shuttle & Spacelab Experience: 1981-1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doing science in the Shuttle and Spacelab is a different experience than having an instrument on a satellite; science becomes more "personal." Interaction between scientists on the ground and the onboard crew in conducting experiments adds a new dimension to a science mission. It transforms the mission from a focus on machines, electronics, and…

Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL.

209

Shuttle Experiment NAVEX Completed on Spacelab Mission D1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From Oct. 30 to Nov. 6 1985 the first dedicated German Shuttle I Mission Dl with the Spacelab laboratory on board took place. One of the more than 70 experiments on board was the Navigation I Experiment NAVEX. A Cs- and a Rb-clock onboard were used for th...

H. Nau J. Hammesfahr S. Starker

1985-01-01

210

Science in Orbit. The Shuttle & Spacelab Experience: 1981-1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Doing science in the Shuttle and Spacelab is a different experience than having an instrument on a satellite; science becomes more "personal." Interaction between scientists on the ground and the onboard crew in conducting experiments adds a new dimension to a science mission. It transforms the mission from a focus on machines, electronics, and…

Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL.

211

Challenges of assuring crew safety in space shuttle missions with international cargoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top priority in America's manned space flight program is the assurance of crew and vehicle safety. This priority gained greater focus during and after the Space Shuttle return-to-flight mission (STS-26). One of the interesting challenges has been to assure crew safety and adequate protection of the Space Shuttle, as a national resource, from increasingly diverse cargoes and operations. The

C. Vongsouthy; P. A Stenger-Nguyen; H. V. Nguyen; P. H Nguyen; M. C Huang; R. G Alexander

2004-01-01

212

The Columbia Space Shuttle Tragedy: Third-Party Liability Implications for the Insurance of Space Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space flights are no longer rare events, but the commonplace is not necessarily safe. When disaster strikes, as in the Columbia Space Shuttle disaster of 2003, third parties as well as those directly involved are financially affected. This article considers how these issues are treated under international law. It also analyzes what products the insurance markets offer as protection against

Piotr Manikowski

2005-01-01

213

Interference effects on Space Station Freedom and Space Shuttle orbiter Ku-band downlinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle orbiter (SSO) Ku-band single access return (KSAR) link and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) KSAR link via the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) use the same carrier frequency. The interference between spacecraft is minimized by opposite antenna polarizations and by TDRSS antenna beam pointing, but if the SSF and SSO are in close proximity, it

Hyuck M. Kwon; Yin-Chung Loh; Kwei Tu

1993-01-01

214

Flow visualization study of a two-dimensional representation of the Space Shuttle launch pad configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger was caused by the failure of the aft joint O-ring seals in its right solid rocket booster. It has been suggested by several sources that wind conditions through a reduction in temperature of the right solid rocket booster caused by the wind blowing across the cold external tank, played a role in the O-ring failure. To check the plausibility of the wind theory, an experiment was carried out in a water towing tank to visualize the flow past a two-dimensional model representing a cross section of the Space Shuttle launch configuration. The periodic formation of vortices was found to characterize the wake generated by the model. It is suggested that this organized motion in the flow is the dominant mechanism that accomplishes heat transfer from the external tank to the right solid rocket booster. Flow visualization results consisting of photographs that show instantaneous streamline patterns of the flow are presented.

McLachland, B. G.; Zilliac, G. G.; Davis, S. S.

1987-06-01

215

SWUIS--An imaging camera\\/spectrograph for UV planetary studies aboard the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) is a low-cost, highly versatile wide-field UV imaging system developed to fly aboard the Space Shuttle as a mid-deck locker experiment. SWUIS made its maiden flight aboard STS-85 in August 1997. During this flight, SWUIS obtained mid-UV\\/VIS images of comet Hale-Bopp in a variety of key emission bands (see Colwell et al., this DPS

D. C. Slater; S. A. Stern; W. B. Tomlinson; D. E. Mahoney; J. Wm. Parker; P. M. Tamblyn; W. B. Colwell; P. R. Weissman; F. Vilas

1998-01-01

216

Osteoblasts subjected to spaceflight and simulated space shuttle launch conditions.  

PubMed

To understand further the effects of spaceflight on osteoblast-enriched cultures, normal chicken calvarial osteoblasts were flown aboard shuttle flight STS-77, and the total number of attached cells was determined. Spaceflight and control cultures were chemically fixed 3 h and 3 d after launch. These fixed cultures were processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis showed that with just 3 d of exposure to spaceflight, coverslip cultures contained 300 +/- 100 cells/mm2, whereas 1G control samples contained a confluent monolayer of cells (2400 +/- 200 cells/mm2). Although the cultures flown in space experienced a drastic decline in cell number in just 3 d, without further experimentation it was impossible to determine whether the decline was a result of microgravity, the harsh launch environment, or some combination of these factors. Therefore, this research attempted to address the effect of launch by subjecting osteoblasts to conditions simulating shuttle launch accelerations, noise, and vibrations. No differences, compared with controls, were seen in the number of total or viable cells after exposure to these various launch conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that the magnitude of gravitational loading (3G maximum) and vibration (7.83G rms maximum) resulting from launch does not adversely affect osteoblasts in terms of total or viable cell number immediately, but launch conditions, or the microgravity environment itself, may start a cascade of events that over several d contributes to cell loss. PMID:15117230

Kacena, Melissa A; Todd, Paul; Landis, William J

217

Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Vibration Analysis in Support of Rollout Fatigue Load Spectra Verification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Crawler Transporter (CT), designed and built for the Apollo Program in the 1960's and surpassing its initial operational life, has become an integral part of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). The CT transports the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) stack, ato...

A. M. Gosselin K. A. Meyer R. C. Burton R. N. Margasahayam S. M. Nerolich

2004-01-01

218

Structural design challenges for a shuttle-launched Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precision Structure Subsystem (PSS) for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a large composite structure designed to house the interferometer optics in a structurally and thermally stable environment on orbit. The resulting design requirements of the PSS must be weighed against the demands of the baseline launch vehicle: the Space Shuttle. While a Shuttle launch provides new opportunities for

David H. Brady; Kim M. Aaron; Brian D. Stumm; Allen J. Bronowicki; Irvin S. Chan; Peter A. Morris

2003-01-01

219

Design of H2-O2 Space Shuttle Apu. Volume 1: Apu Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The H2-O2 space shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) program is a NASA-Lewis effort aimed at hardware demonstration of the technology required for potential use on the space shuttle. It has been shown that a hydrogen-oxygen power unit (APU) system is an att...

E. Harris

1974-01-01

220

Processing Terahertz Ray Data in Space Shuttle Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz ray imaging is one of the most capable techniques to inspect the space shuttle external tank foam insulation. This technique, however, is limited in its current inspection protocol using indirect substrate reflections. An alternate signal processing approach, working directly on the flaw responses, was lately demonstrated to be able to overcome some of these limitations. In this paper, we report recent progresses made by utilizing this alternate signal processing procedure in additional samples to detect flaws that were missed by the current protocol. We also present a new detection approach using the probabilistic neural network in the context of Bayesian classification. Preliminary results showed that the new Bayesian classification approach can achieve even greater improvement over the alternate signal processing approach.

Chiou, Chien-Ping; Thompson, R. Bruce; Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey

2007-03-01

221

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) alternate turbopump design and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of high-pressure turbopumps for the 400,000-lb-thrust class Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is examined with attention given to reducing maintenance and improving turbopump life. The high-pressure turbopump is designed with single-crystal turbine blades, an integral disk/shaft, a stiff rotor with larger bearings, and advanced homogeneous structural housings. The High-pressure Fuel Turbopump is shown to raise the fuel pressure significantly to enhance injection at all thrust levels, and the High-pressure Oxidizer Turbopump enhances oxidizer pressure for adequate injection at all power levels. Both of the turbopumps are tested in a high-pressure facility with attention given to start and shutdown characteristics, and breakaway torque and inertias are shown to influence combustor priming, ignition, temperature spikes, and thrust.

Mitchell, J. P.; Price, J. L.

1992-08-01

222

Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

1992-04-01

223

Space shuttle observation of an unusual transient atmospheric emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an observation of an unusual transient luminous event (TLE) detected in the near IR, south of Madagascar above the Indian Ocean. The event was imaged from the space shuttle Columbia during the MEIDEX sprite campaign [Yair et al., 2004]. It was delayed 0.23 seconds from a preceding visual lightning flash which was horizontally displaced >1000 km from the event. The calculated brightness in the 860 (+/-50) nm filter was ~310 +/- 30 kR, and the morphology of the emitting volume did not resemble any known class of TLE (i.e., sprites, ELVES or halos). This TIGER event (Transient Ionospheric Glow Emission in Red) may constitute a new class of TLE, not necessarily induced by a near-by thunderstorm. We discuss possible generation mechanisms, including the conjugate sprite hypothesis caused by lightning at the magnetic mirror point, lightning-induced electron precipitation and an extraterrestrial source, meteoric or cometary.

Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Ziv, Baruch; Israelevich, Peter L.; Sentman, Davis D.; São-Sabbas, Fernanda T.; Devir, Adam D.; Sato, Mitsuteru; Rodger, Craig J.; Moalem, Meir; Greenberg, Eran; Yaron, Ofer

2005-01-01

224

Strain monitoring for the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and testing of the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system is discussed. The measurement system specifications are stated and the selection of signal conditioning and strain gauge system are described. The measurement system quality assurance and acceptance test plan is detailed, including: the strain gauge installation procedure; the thermal effect on null balance, on combined gauge factor and material modulus test, and on gauge factor; the effect on indicated strain of vacuum and moisture; the strain gauge fatigue test; the temperature measurement system calibration; and the thermal effects on the integrated system. The procedures for the strain gauge and temperature gauge shunt calibration are described, and the data processing and error budget analysis is summarized.

Weymouth, L. J.

225

Free flow electrophoresis in space shuttle program (biotex)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the space shuttle program free flow electrophoresis will be applied for separation of proteins, biopolymers and cells. Proteins are to be separated according to the ``Feldsprung-Gradienten'' procedure by Prof. H. Wagner, University of Saarbruecken, biopolymers are to be separated by the isotachophoresis technique by Prof. Schmitz, University of Muenster and we intend to separate cells in order to increase the efficiency of recovery of hybrid cells after electrofusion performed under microgravity in collaboration with Prof. U. Zimmermann, University of Wuerzburg. There are supposed two ways for reaching this goal: Enrichment of cells before electrofusion may enhance the probability that the cells of interest are immortalized. Separation of cells after electrofusion may help to clone the hybrid cells of interest. Under microgravity, the combination of improved electrophoresis with higher electrofusion rates may provide new possibilities for immortalization of cells. This may be a new way to obtain cellular products, which are physiologically glycosylated.

Hannig, Kurt; Bauer, Johann

226

High Density Liquid Rocket Boosters for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high density hydrogen peroxide/kerosene liquid rocket boosters (LRB) for the Space Shuttle is investigated as a replacement for the existing solid rocket boosters (SRB). It is shown that hydrogen peroxide/kerosene outperforms both solids, LOX/Kero, and LOX/LH2 as a general booster propellant due to its high density and moderate exhaust speed. With the same propellant mass and size as that of the current SRB's, computer simulations indicate that payload mass can be increased by a third from 24,950 kg to 33,140 kg for a 28.45°, 203.7 km circular orbit. Recovery of the boosters is performed at sea.

Pietrobon, S. S.

227

Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions.  

PubMed

A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. PMID:11708371

Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Gushin, V; Weiss, D S; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

228

Kennedy Space Center processing of Shuttle small payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many steps involved in preparing a payload for a mission into space on the Space Shuttle. Operations at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the last of those steps for the hardware before the payload is launched. To assure a successful and efficient KSC processing flow, a great deal of planning between the Robert H. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and KSC personnel is required before the payload arrives at KSC. After arrival, pre-flight operations occur between payload personnel, GSFC personnel, and KSC personnel for integration of the payload into its carrier (if required), in preparation for installation into a Orbiter. Once installed into an Orbiter, final test(s), checkout, and close-out of the payload is performed by GSFC and KSC personnel before launch. Mission support varies depending on the payload flying, but once the mission is complete and the Orbiter has returned to KSC, post-flight operations begin. This usually involves a reverse flow of the pre-flight operations. KSC operations conclude when the payload, its ground support equipment (GSE), and personnel depart KSC. A list of lessons learned is generated at the end of each payload flow, to avoid repeating the same mistakes (if any) for the next payload or for multiple repeat flights of the same payload. Always monitored are planned changes that may affect the payloads, GSE, KSC facilities, payload personnel, GSFC personnel, and/or KSC personnel.

Haddad, Michael E.

1993-10-01

229

Relative efficacy of the proposed Space Shuttle antimotion sickness medications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space motion sickness has been estimated as affecting between 1/3 and 1/2 of all space flight participants. NASA has at the moment proposed a combination of promethazine and ephedrine ( P/E) and one of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine ( S/D), both given orally, as well as a transdermally applied scopolamine (TAS), as preventive and ameliorative measures. The reported double-blind study tests the early phase actions and efficacy of the transdermal scopolamine (Transderm ™-V of ALZA Corporation) and compares these in detail to the oral medications. Motion sickness resistance was tested by standardized head movements while accelerating at 0.2°/sec 2 to a maximum rotation of 240°/sec, with an intermediate plateau of 10 min at 180°/sec. To permit weighting motion sickness protection against other system influences, cardiovascular, psychological (subjective and objective), and visual parameter changes were documented for the three therapeutic modes. The relative impact of the various modalities on operational and experimental components of space missions is discussed. A comparison to intramuscularly administered promethazine (a backup therapeutic mode suggested for Space Shuttle use) is also included.

Hordinsky, J. R.; Schwartz, E.; Beier, J.; Martin, J.; Aust, G.

230

14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. 1214.101 Section 1214... General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U...government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for...

2010-01-01

231

14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. 1214.101 Section 1214... General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U...government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for...

2009-01-01

232

Electro-science requirements for shuttle-attached antenna flight experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of an in-house electro-science task group organized to conduct studies of shuttle-attached flight experiments using the 15-meter hoop-column antennas as a research tool for developing both improved sensor technology and LSA technology are described. Some experiments could provide significant amounts of scientific data such as radio star mapping and definition of ocean current eddies over limited geographic regions. The experiments originate from the microwave remote sensing community and other areas which require the inherently higher resolution and boresite gain of large space antennas. Technology experiments are also being studied which would use the 15-meter antenna experiments as a stepping stone to 50 to 100 meter class reflector technology in the future. An antenna technology experiment using the 15-meter antenna in a shuttle-attached mission is discussed. Electromagnetic modeling is correct for each major subsystem and also to verify the interrelations of the subsystems.

Grantham, W. L.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schroeder, L. C.

1985-04-01

233

VLF wave stimulation by pulsed electron beams injected from the space shuttle  

SciTech Connect

Among the investigations conducted on the space shuttle flight STS 3 March 1982 was an experiment in which a 1-keV, 100-mA electron gun was pulsed at 3.25 and 4.87 kHz. The resultant waves were measured with a broadband plasma wave receiver. At the time of flight the experimental setup was unique in that the electron beam was square wave modulated and that the shuttle offered relatively long times for in situ measurements of the ionospheric plasma response to the VLF pulsing sequences. In addition to electromagnetic response at the pulsing frequencies the waves exhibited various spectral harmonics as well as the unexpected occurrence of satellite lines around those harmonics. Both phenomena occurred with a variety of different characteristics for different pulsing sequences.

Reeves, G.D.; Banks, P.M.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Neubert, T.; Buch, R.I. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Gurnett, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)); Raitt, W.J. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States))

1988-01-01

234

Diffuse far-ultraviolet cosmic background radiation field observed from the Space Shuttle  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents 17-A resolution spectra of the diffuse far-ultraviolet (1200-1700 A) cosmic background in eight regions of the sky obtained from the Johns Hopkins University UVX experiment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-61C) in January 1986. A spectrally flat background is found with brightnesses between 100 and 700 + or - 200 photons/sq cm s sr A, with some evidence for spatial variations, but not for the high-intensity regions found by other experiments. 30 references.

Murthy, J.; Henry, R.C.; Feldman, P.D.; Tennyson, P.D.

1989-01-01

235

Geo-location of Sprites Observed from the Space Shuttle Columbia during STS107 using ELF methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) on board the Columbia space shuttle, sprites, elves and other TLEs were observed by the astronauts using a multispectral CCD video camera. Simultaneously on the ground a number of groups collected extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic data to try to identify, locate, and quantify parameters related to the parent lightning that triggered the

E. Greenberg; C. Price; Y. Yair; Z. Levin; P. Israelevitch; A. Dvir; M. Moalem; G. Satori; M. Sato; Y. Takahashi; M. Fuellekrug

2003-01-01

236

Space shuttle based global CO measurements during April and October 1994, MAPS instrument, data reduction, and data validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Measurement of Air Pollution From Satellites (MAPS) experiment flew as a payload aboard the space shuttle during April and October 1994. The instrument and the data reduction procedure were modified from earlier flights in 1981 and 1984. The modifications to both are described, and selected portions of the data are compared to concurrent aircraft borne direct measurements that had

Henry G. Reichle; Bruce E. Anderson; Vickie S. Connors; Todd C. Denkins; David A. Forbes; Barbara B. Gormsen; Ray L. Langenfelds; Doreen O. Neil; Scott R. Nolf; Paul C. Novelli; Nikita S. Pougatchev; Marilee M. Roell; L. Paul Steele

1999-01-01

237

The Shuttle Potential and return electron experiment (SPREE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The Shuttle Potential and Return Electron Experiment (SPREE) was designed and fabricated for flight as part of the joint NASA\\/Agenzia\\u000a Spaziale Italiana Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) mission. The SPREE is a complex instrument package designed to measure\\u000a ion and electron particle flux and wave-particle interactions. The SPREE flight hardware consists of two multiangular electrostatic\\u000a analyzer units, two rotary tables, a

M. R. Oberhardt; D. A. Hardy; W. E. Slutter; J. O. McGarity; D. J. Sperry; A. W. Everest; A. C. Huber; J. A. Pantazis; M. P. Gough

1994-01-01

238

Laser imaging sensor system for on-orbit space shuttle inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shuttle Inspection Lidar (SIL) system is a derivative of a scanning lidar system being developed by MD Robotics and Optech. It incorporates a lidar, a camera, lights and video communications systems. The SIL is designed to meet the specific requirements for the on-orbit inspection and measurement of the Space Shuttle leading edge Reinforced-Carbon Carbon (RCC) and Thermal Protection System (TPS). The SIL has a flexible electrical and mechanical interface that enables it to be mounted on different locations including the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS, Canadarm), and the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) on the International Space Station (ISS). This paper describes the SIL system and the specifications of the imaging lidar scanner system, and discusses the application of the SIL for on-orbit shuttle inspection using the on-orbit SRMS. Ground-based measurements of the shuttle TPS taken by a terrestrial version of the imager are also presented.

Gregoris, Dennis J.; Ulitsky, Arkady; Vit, Dennis; Kerr, Andy; Dorcas, Peter; Bailak, George V.; Tripp, Jeffrey W.; Gillett, Ross; Woodland, Chris; Richards, Robert; Sallaberger, Christian

2004-09-01

239

Fractional consumption of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen during the space shuttle program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle uses the propellants, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to meet part of the propulsion requirements from ground to orbit. The Kennedy Space Center procured over 350 million liters of liquid hydrogen and over 200 million liters of liquid oxygen during the 30-year Space Shuttle Program. Because of the nature of the cryogenic propellants, approximately 54% of the total purchased liquid hydrogen and 32% of the total purchased liquid oxygen were used in the Space Shuttle Main Engines. The balance of the propellants were vaporized during operations for various purposes. This paper dissects the total consumption of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and determines the fraction attributable to each of the various processing and launch operations that occurred during the entire Space Shuttle Program at the Kennedy Space Center.

Partridge, Jonathan K.

2012-06-01

240

An analysis of energy deposition in a tissue equivalent proportional counter onboard the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved prediction for space radiations in the lower earth orbits measured by the shuttle TEPC is obtained when energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the detector are considered. A generalized analytic model is used to describe the energy deposition of direct ion interaction events in a micron-size detector. The transport calculation accounting for the shuttle configuration is

J. L. Shinn; G. D. Badhwar; M. A. Xapsos; F. A. Cucinotta; J. W. Wilson

1999-01-01

241

A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look

K. Dowling; R. Bennett; M. Blackwell; T. Graham; S. Gatrall; R. O'Toole; H. Schempf

1992-01-01

242

Wing in Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle, 1971-2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Shuttle is an engineering marvel perhaps only exceeded by the station itself. The shuttle was based on the technology of the 1960s and early 1970s. It had to overcome significant challenges to make it reusable. Perhaps the greatest challenges we...

G. Chapline H. Lane K. Lulla W. Hale

2011-01-01

243

Study of the Radiation Environment on Board the Space Shuttle Flight STS-57.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on space shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5 deg inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle...

G. D. Badhwar W. Atwell E. V. Benton A. L. Frank R. P. Keegan

1995-01-01

244

Analysis of Wing-Body Interaction Flutter for a Preliminary Space Shuttle Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Subsonic flutter analyses for a preliminary space shuttle design were performed to determine the effect of wing-body aerodynamic interaction on the vehicle flutter speed. It was found that the proximity of the large bodies of the shuttle to the wing reduc...

R. R. Chipman P. Shyprykevich

1974-01-01

245

Reconstruction of the 1st Space Shuttle (STS1) entry trajectory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the generation of the best estimate trajectory (BET) of the first Space Shuttle Orbiter entry flight is presented. The BET defines a time history of the state, attitude, and atmospheric relative parameters throughout the Shuttle entry from an altitude of approximately 183 km to rollout. The inertial parameters were estimated utilizing a weighted least squares batch filter

J. T. Findlay; G. M. Kelly; M. L. Heck

1982-01-01

246

Polar mesospheric clouds formed from space shuttle exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe a plume of water vapor in the Arctic above 85 km and a day after an August shuttle launch. Our satellite observations reveal that a discrete region of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) appears a week after that launch. We calculate that the water contained in the observed PMCs is consistent with the amount injected by the shuttle. This

Michael H. Stevens; Jörg Gumbel; Christoph R. Englert; Klaus U. Grossmann; Markus Rapp; Paul Hartogh

2003-01-01

247

Implementing the space shuttle data processing system with the space generic open avionics architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the application of the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) to the Space Shuttle Data Processing System (DPS) architecture design. This application has been performed to validate the SGOAA, and its potential use in flight critical systems. The paper summarizes key elements of the Space Shuttle avionics architecture, data processing system requirements and software architecture as currently implemented. It then summarizes the SGOAA architecture and describes a tailoring of the SGOAA to the Space Shuttle. The SGOAA consists of a generic system architecture for the entities in spacecraft avionics, a generic processing external and internal hardware architecture, a six class model of interfaces and functional subsystem architectures for data services and operations control capabilities. It has been proposed as an avionics architecture standard with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group, and is being considered by the Society of Aeronautic Engineers (SAE) as an SAE Avionics Standard. This architecture was developed for the Flight Data Systems Division of JSC by the Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company, Houston, Texas.

Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

1993-07-01

248

Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography  

SciTech Connect

The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O[sup 9] m[sup 3]. Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts.

Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

1993-06-01

249

A study of space shuttle plumes in the lower thermosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the space shuttle main engine burn, some 350 t of water vapor are deposited at between 100 and 115 km. Subsequent photodissociation of water produces large plumes of atomic hydrogen that can expand rapidly and extend for thousands of kilometers. From 2002 to 2007, the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) on NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite imaged many of these hydrogen plumes at Lyman ? (121.567 nm) while viewing in the nadir. The images reveal rapid plume expansion and occasional very fast transport to both north and south polar regions. Some plumes persist for up to 6 d. Near-simultaneous direct detections of water vapor were made with the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, also on TIMED. We compare the spreading of the hydrogen plume with a two-dimensional model that includes photodissociation as well as both vertical and horizontal diffusion. Molecular diffusion appears to be sufficient to account for the horizontal expansion, although wind shears and turbulent mixing may also contribute. We compare the bulk motion of the observed plumes with wind climatologies derived from satellite observations. The plumes can move much faster than predictions of wind climatologies. But dynamical processes not contained in wind climatologies, such as the quasi-two-day wave, can account for at least some of the high speed observations. The plume phenomena raise a number of important questions about lower thermospheric and mesospheric processes, ranging from dynamics and chemistry to polar mesospheric cloud formation and climatology.

Meier, R. R.; Stevens, Michael H.; Plane, John M. C.; Emmert, J. T.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, I.; Paxton, L. J.; Christensen, A. B.

2011-12-01

250

NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

Johnston, Patrick H.

251

Liquid oxygen sloshing in Space Shuttle External Tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics within the liquid oxygen tank of the Space Shuttle External Tank during liftoff. Before liftoff, the tank is filled with liquid oxygen (LOX) to approximately 97 percent with the other 3 percent containing gaseous oxygen (GOX) and helium. During liftoff, LOX is drained from the bottom of the tank, and GOX is pumped into the tank's ullage volume. There is a delay of several seconds before the GOX reaches the tank which causes the ullage pressure to decrease for several seconds after liftoff; this pressure 'slump' is a common phenomenon in rocket propulsion. When four slosh baffles were removed from the tank, the ullage gas pressure dropped more rapidly than in all previous flights. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether the removal of the baffles could have caused the increased pressure 'slump' by changing the LOX surface dynamics. The results show that the LOX surface undergoes very high vertical accelerations (up to 5 g) and, therefore, splashing almost certainly occurs. The number of baffles does not affect the surface if the structural motion is assumed; but, the number of baffles may affect the structural motion of the tank.

Kannapel, M. D.; Przekwas, A. J.; Singhal, A. K.; Costes, N. C.

1987-06-01

252

Space Shuttle/TDRSS communication and tracking systems analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the technical and operational problem areas and provide a recommendation, the enhancements to the Tracking and Data Delay Satellite System (TDRSS) and Shuttle must be evaluated through simulation and analysis. These enhancement techniques must first be characterized, then modeled mathematically, and finally updated into LinCsim (analytical simulation package). The LinCsim package can then be used as an evaluation tool. Three areas of potential enhancements were identified: shuttle payload accommodations, TDRSS SSA and KSA services, and shuttle tracking system and navigation sensors. Recommendations for each area were discussed.

Lindsey, W. C.; Chie, C. M.; Cideciyan, R.; Dessouky, K.; Su, Y. T.; Tsang, C. S.

1986-04-01

253

Psychosocial issues in space: results from Shuttle/Mir.  

PubMed

Important psychosocial issues involving tension, cohesion, leader support, and displacement of negative emotions were evaluated in a 4 1/2-year study involving five U.S. and four Russian Shuttle/Mir space missions. Weekly mood and group climate questionnaires were completed by five U.S. astronauts, eight Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control subjects. There were few findings that supported our hypothesized changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support in crew and ground subjects using various time models, although crewmembers reported decreasing leader support in the 2nd half of the missions, and astronauts showed some evidence of a novelty effect in the first few weeks. There was no evidence suggesting a 3rd quarter effect among crewmembers on any of the 21 subscales evaluated. In contrast, there was strong evidence to support the hypothesized displacement of tension and negative emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There were several significant differences in response between Americans vs. Russians, crewmembers vs. mission control personnel, and subjects in this study vs. people in comparable groups on Earth. Subject responses before, during, and after the missions were similar, and we did not find evidence for asthenia in space. Critical incidents that were reported generally dealt with events on-board the Mir and interpersonal conflicts, although most of the responses were from a relatively small number of subjects. Our findings have implications for future training and lead to a number of countermeasures. PMID:11865867

Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Weiss, D S; Gushin, V; Bostrom, A; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

2001-06-01

254

Performance and Analysis of Perfluorinated Grease used on Space Shuttle Actuators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Actuators used on the United States space shuttle fleet are lubricated with grease consisting of a perfluoropolyalkyl ether (PFPE) base oil thickened with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filler. The actuators were designed to operate for life without per...

E. V. Zaretsky K. W. Street W. Morales

2009-01-01

255

Summary of Results of Parametric Studies of Space Shuttle Booster, Orbiter, and Launch Vehicle Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analytical and experimental parametric studies of space shuttle booster, orbiter and launch vehicle aerodynamics are described. During this study over 1700 hours of experimental wind tunnel tests were conducted on several versions of the sh...

D. Bradley R. E. Buchholz

1972-01-01

256

Assessment of Relative Velocity as Independent Variable for Space Shuttle First Stage Guidance Attitude Command Tables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The selection of relative velocity as the independent variable for the space shuttle first stage guidance attitude command tables was assessed to support the first stage guidance point design. The criterion for selecting the independent variable for first...

M. Kimbrough

1977-01-01

257

NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle ...

R. V. Cook M. W. Fairbourn G. M. Wendel

2000-01-01

258

Application of Infrared Thermographic Inspection Techniques to the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center has been actively involved in the development of thermographic inspection techniques for more than 15 years. Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on the...

K. E. Cramer W. P. Winfree

2005-01-01

259

Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System Failure Detection and Identification Software Requirements (Uncontrolled).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Candidate designs and their software implementation are presented for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) Failure Detection and Identification (FDI) algorithms in the Redundance Management (RM) module of the Space Shuttle Guidance, Navigation, and Contro...

L. A. Damario J. P. Vullo

1976-01-01

260

Space Shuttle Main Engine Off-Nominal Low Power Level Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes Rocketdyne's successful analysis and demonstration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operation at off-nominal power levels during Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) evaluation tests. The nominal power level range for the SSME is from...

M. Bradley

1997-01-01

261

Modeling Cloudy and Clear Interval Length Probabilities Using Space Shuttle Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interval length probabilities provide an alternative to other characterizations of cloudy and clear regions as viewed from atop the atmosphere. This work attempts to accurately model these probabilities using very high resolution space shuttle orbiter ima...

G. F. Howard

1987-01-01

262

Summary of Longitudinal Stability and Control Parameters as Determined from Space Shuttle Challenger Flight Test Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha)...

W. T. Suit

1989-01-01

263

Implementation of the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final status report describes the actions taken by NASA in response to the recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (Mission 51-L). The Commission recommendations and NASA's responses to them are summari...

1987-01-01

264

Microencapsulation of Drugs in the Microgravity Environment of the United States Space Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device has been designed to produce pharmaceutical microspheres in a microgravitational environment. The device is designed to replace two storage lockers located on the middeck of the United States Space Shuttle. A working prototype of the device has b...

1990-01-01

265

Space Shuttle Hypergolic Bipropellant Rcs Engine Design Study, Bell Model 8701.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research program was conducted to define the level of the current technology base for reaction control system rocket engines suitable for space shuttle applications. The project consisted of engine analyses, design, fabrication, and tests. The specific ...

1974-01-01

266

Engineering Design Manual of Parachute Decelerator Characteristics for Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design criteria and characteristics of parachutes for recovery of the solid rocket boosters used with the space shuttle launch are presented. A computer program for analyzing the requirements of the parachute decelerators is described. The computer in...

D. L. Mansfield

1973-01-01

267

A Mathematical Model for the Longitudinal Control System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis of a fly-by-wire longitudinal control system, specifically that of the space shuttle orbiter, was undertaken in order to demonstrate the construction of a mathematical model depicting the relationships between forcing function and response. E...

C. J. Pierce

1977-01-01

268

Impact of Space Shuttle Support Facilities Construction on Special Interest Plant Species (Vandenberg AFB, Calif).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results and conclusions of studies conducted to evaluate the impact of ground support facility construction for the Space Shuttle program at Vandenberg AFB, California on listed and proposed threatened or endangered plant specie...

R. C. Wooten D. Strutz R. Hudson

1977-01-01

269

Microencapsulation of Drugs in the Microgravity Environment of the United States Space Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment has been designed to produce pharmaceutical microcapsules in a microgravitational environment. The Management information system equipment is designed to replace two storage lockers located on the middeck of the United States Space Shuttle. A wo...

T. R. Tice R. J. Holl

1991-01-01

270

Study of Critical Defects in Ablative Heat Shield Systems for the Space Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental results are presented for a program conducted to determine the effects of fabrication-induced defects on the performance of an ablative heat shield material. Exposures representing a variety of space shuttle orbiter mission environments-humid...

C. C. Miller W. D. Rummel

1974-01-01

271

Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (...

W. L. Ko L. Gong R. D. Quinn

2004-01-01

272

Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions.  

PubMed

To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies. PMID:11858274

Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Weiss, D S; Gushin, V; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

273

NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the tragic accident involving the space shuttle Columbia, the remainder of NASA's space shuttle fleet has been grounded indefinitely. This paper is "a periodically updated document demonstrating our progress toward safe return to flight and implementation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations." Nearly 250 pages in length, the paper looks at specific systems of the space shuttle and identifies those that need to be upgraded, replaced, or redesigned to ensure a greater level of safety for future missions. It also addresses scenarios for dealing with shuttle damage during a mission and repairing it. This document is Revision 1.1 of Volume 1, and many more revisions can be expected over the long process of returning to flight.

274

A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered necessary and timely. This is because existing information is not meant for a large population in spacecrafts. The paper therefore discusses the role of meteorology (specifically micrometeorology) in relation to internal communication, spacecraft instrumentation and physiologic comfort of astronauts and space passengers (the later may not necessarily be trained astronauts, but merely business men or tourist space travellers for business transactions in the International Space Station (ISS)). It is recognized that me eorology which is a fundamental science amongt multidiscplinary sciences has been found to be vital in space travels and communication. Space weather therefore appears in slightly different format where temperature and humidity changes and variability within the spacecraft exert very significant influences on the efficiency of astronauts and the effectiveness of the various delicate instrument gadgets aimed at reducing the frequency of computer failures and malfunction of other instruments on which safety of the spacecraft depends. Apart from the engineering and technological problems which space scientists must have to overcome when human population in space shuttles increases as we now expect, based on evidence from successful missions to ISS, the maint enace of physiologic comfort state of astronauts, which, as far as scientifically possible, should be as near as possible to their Earth-Atmosphere condition. This is one of the most important and also most difficult conditions to attain. It demands a mor e detailed research on space thermodynamics as future passengers to the ISS must be assured of their physiologic comfort and safety before they could accept to pay the huge cost for the space travels. The presentation of the paper is divided into the following four basic sections: (a) Take-off or Blast-off (b) Cruising and SpaceWalk (c) Re-entry into the Terrestial Atmosphere, and (d) Landing and Rescue Operations. Experience shows that each of the above four distinct stages of space travel demands a careful assessment of the micro-climate of the indoor spacecraft and these will each be investigated to ensure that relevant micro - climate information that will maintain effective physiologic comfort level of astronauts and specimen will be attained. Finally, the paper discusses a method to predict indoor weather condition in spacecrafts based on observed ambient data especially temperature and humidity and micro-indoor air circulation for differenct timescales during space shuttles to the ISS. An active multidisciplinary research in which Engineers, Meteorologists, Medical Experts, etc., will work together collaboratively on the problem on ambient indoor space weather for increased human population during proposed International Space Station shuttle missions later this century is strongly recommended.

Kalu, A.

275

Monopropellant Engine Investigation for Space Shuttle Reaction Control. Volume 2: Design, Fabrication, and Demonstration Test of a Catalytic Gas Generator for the Space Shuttle Apu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capability of a catalytic gas generator to meet the requirement specified for the space shuttle APU is established. A full-scale gas generator, designed to operate at a chamber pressure of 750 psia and a flow rate of 0.36 lbm/sec, was fabricated and s...

1975-01-01

276

Educational Planning for Utilization of Space Shuttle (ED-PLUSS). Final Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible educational uses of the proposed space-shuttle program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are outlined. Potential users of information developed by the project are identified and their characteristics analyzed. Other space-education programs operated by NASA are detailed. Proposals for a methodology for expanding…

Engle, Harry A.; Christensen, David L.

277

Application of Space Shuttle Project Hercules imagery in the investigation of ship cloud tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment is made as to the utility obtained via the Project HERCULES electronic still camera system, utilized onboard the Space Shuttle, toward the MAST Space Test Program investigation of ship-induced cloud tracks. Project HERCULES and MAST concepts are described. A detailed discussion is presented of the integration requirements, mission conduct, and payload support procedures involved in using the HERCULES system during the STS-56 mission to image potential shiptrack areas and Naval-related sites. Five HERCULES imagery cases are analyze with feature measurements. Alternate camera systems are described, and then compared with the HERCULES system. Recommendations are made for the MAST payload. Although utility is seen in the geolocation and digital format offered by HERCULES images, the present configuration permits only limited use in the shiptrack and Naval-related application. However, a firm procedural knowledge-base has been established for the MAST experiment.

Whitmeyer, Larry E.

1993-09-01

278

14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the Space Shuttle, non-U.S. government...Shuttle established by U.S. law and public policy. The NASA...To qualify for flight on the Space Shuttle, non-U.S....

2013-01-01

279

Analysis of differential absorption lidar from the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric analysis of the Shuttle-borne differential absorption lidar concept for the measurement of atmospheric trace constituent profiles in the nadir viewing mode is presented. The criterion of an optimum constituent optical depth is developed and applied to generate estimates of range resolved measurement errors. These errors emphasize the fundamental limitations for establishing the feasibility of range-resolved differential absorption lidar

Ellis E. Remsberg; Larry L. Gordley

1978-01-01

280

Space shuttle's impact on the stratosphere: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess their impact on the stratosphere, a launch scenario of nine shuttles and three Titans per year is simulated in a two-dimensional photochemistry and transport model that includes heterogeneous reactions on a stratospheric sulfate aerosol (SSA) layer and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). These rocket launches are predicted to cause small constituent changes in the stratosphere. Maximum total inorganic chlorine

Charles H. Jackman; David B. Considine; Eric L. Fleming

1996-01-01

281

Space Shuttle application of a GPS navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of GPS navigation to the Shuttle system will provide an autonomous navigation capability with continuous real-time state vector updates. This, in turn, will significantly increase mission effectiveness, improve propellant management, reduce postflight data reduction time for earth resource applications, and reduce risk margins in abort and contingency landing situations. In this paper, a brief introduction to the STS

A. van Leeuwen

1980-01-01

282

Current measurements by SAR along-track interferometry from a Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present one of the first studies on ocean current retrievals from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The InSAR system of SRTM was designed for high-resolution topographic mapping of the Earth's land surfaces, using two SAR antennas on a Space Shuttle with a cross-track separation of 60 m.

Roland Romeiser; Helko Breit; Michael Eineder; Hartmut Runge; P. Flament; Karin de Jong; J. Vogelzang

2005-01-01

283

A study of the radiation environment on board the Space Shuttle flight STS57  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on Space Shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The Shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5° inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle spectrometer, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and two area passive detectors consisting of combined NASA plastic nuclear track

G. D. Badhwar; W. Atwell; E. V. Benton; A. L. Frank; R. P. Keegan; V. E. Dudkin; O. N. Karpov; Yu. V. Potapov; A. B. Akopova; N. V. Magradze; L. V. Melkumyan; Sh. B. Rshtuni

1995-01-01

284

Observations of a Space Shuttle Burn by CINDI Instruments on C\\/NOFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 30, 2009 the space shuttle Endeavour flew within 87 km of the Air Force research satellite C\\/NOFS that was then near its perigee at an altitude of ~422 km. Just prior to the encounter the shuttle conducted a 9.5-second burn of its OMS engines pointed upward so that the satellite would encounter the upward moving exhaust plume just

R. A. Haaser; M. R. Hairston; W. R. Coley; R. A. Heelis; G. D. Earle; R. Stoneback; M. D. Perdue

2009-01-01

285

Development of the Rocket Extraction Escape System for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six tests have been successfully conducted for a Space Shuttle Rocket Extraction Escape System (REES) for astronauts, using a modified Convair 240 aircraft with a simulated Shuttle Orbiter hatch. All escape trajectories are judged to have been able to clear the Orbiter by an acceptable margin, and the crew-extraction loads were found to be within accepted physiological tolerances. The REES concept can be applied to numerous other aircraft configurations for crew escape.

Langsmith, Owen; Nagel, Steven R.

286

Experimental evaluation of joint designs for a space-shuttle orbiter ablative leading edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of two types of ablative leading-edge joints for a space-shuttle orbiter were tested and evaluated. Chordwise joints between ablative leading-edge segments, and spanwise joints between ablative leading-edge segments and reusable surface insulation tiles were exposed to simulated shuttle heating environments. The data show that the thermal performance of models with chordwise joints to be as good as

S. S. Tompkins; W. P. Kabana

1975-01-01

287

Further analyses of human kidney cell populations separated on the space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultured human embryonic kidney cells were separated into electrophoretic subpopulations in laboratory experiments and in two separation experiments on the STS-8 (Challenger) Space Shuttle flight using the mid-deck Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator (CFES). Populations of cells from each fraction were cultured for the lifetime of the cells, and supernatant medium was withdrawn and replaced at 4-day intervals. Withdrawn medium was frozen at -120°C for subsequent analysis. Enzyme assays, antibodies and gel electrophoresis were used as analytical tools for the detection and quantitation of plasminogen activators in these samples. These assays of frozen culture supernatant fluids confirmed the electrophoretic separation of plasminogen-activator producing cells from non-producing cells, the isolation of cells capable of sustained production, and the separation of cells that produce different plasminogen activators from one another.

Stewart, Robin M.; Todd, Paul; Cole, Kenneth D.; Morrison, Dennis R.

288

Further analyses of human kidney cell populations separated on the Space Shuttle.  

PubMed

Cultured human embryonic kidney cells were separated into electrophoretic subpopulations in laboratory experiments and in two separation experiments on the STS-8 (Challenger) Space Shuttle flight using the mid-deck Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator (CFES). Populations of cells from each fraction were cultured for the lifetime of the cells, and supernatant medium was withdrawn and replaced at 4-day intervals. Withdrawn medium was frozen at -120 degrees C for subsequent analysis. Enzyme assays, antibodies and gel electrophoresis were used as analytical tools for the detection and quantitation of plasminogen activators in these samples. These assays of frozen culture supernatant fluids confirmed the electrophoretic separation of plasminogen-activator producing cells from non-producing cells, the isolation of cells capable of sustained production, and the separation of cells that produce different plasminogen activators from one another. PMID:11537068

Stewart, R M; Todd, P; Cole, K D; Morrison, D R

1992-01-01

289

New Space Shuttle Observations of Transient Luminous Events During the MEIDEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) was conducted on-board the space shuttle Columbia during its last mission in January 2003. Nocturnal observations with a multispectral CCD video camera were targeted above thunderstorms near the Earth's limb, with the aim or recording Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the mesosphere. Most of our nighttime observations were conducted in the SE-Pacific (Australia and Papua-New Guinea), equatorial Africa, the southern Indian Ocean and South America. Relevant inputs and information on the active storms during a specific orbit were uplinked to the crew daily. The necessary shuttle attitude maneuvers were deduced based on the use of (almost) real-time IR satellite images and VLF lightning location data that were available on the Internet. In order to enhance the probability of success of each observation, the astronauts were instructed to visually observe lightning activity (easily discernable from the shuttle) and to direct the gimbaled camera toward these regions. A total of more than 8 hours of video obtained during the MEIDEX was saved, and it includes a considerable amount of new sprite data. Most events were captured at ranges 1600-1900 km from the shuttle, using the red filter (665nm). The results suggest the occurrence rate of sprites and elves over oceanic and continental storms may be higher than earlier estimates. Strong enhancements of the brightness of the airglow layer above lightning flashes were observed, with lateral dimensions on the order of 400-500 km. It is assumed that these may be Elves observed edge-on, though it may also be a new type of airglow enhancement. The calculated brightness of these events is in the range 2.2-8.8 MR. This phenomena seems to be widespread and is probably a manifestation of the interaction between lightning EMP and QE fields and the lower nocturnal ionosphere. A unique observation from space of the Congo basin in Africa caught a chain of events where in the span of less than 2 minutes two meteors penetrated above a thunderstorm, that immediately afterwards generated several Sprites and Elves in the same atmospheric volume. This seems to confirm earlier observations and theoretical work on the role of meteors in mesospheric TLE generation. International, multiple-station ground-based ELF-VLF data obtained during the mission is used for geo-location of the parent flashes of the optically visible TELs.

Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Israelevitch, P.; Devir, A.; Moalem, M.; Ziv, B.; Levin, Z.; Joseph, J.

2003-12-01

290

A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered

A. Kalu

2002-01-01

291

Ground-based detection of TLE-producing intense lightning during the MEIDEX mission on board the space shuttle Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2003 Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) also known as sprites and ELVES were observed by the astronauts on board of the Columbia space shuttle, during the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX). Throughout the 16-day mission, electromagnetic data at four ground-based Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) stations (Israel, Hungary, Japan and Antarctica) were collected to geo-locate and determine the parameters of

C. Price; E. Greenberg; Y. Yair; G. Sátori; J. Bór; H. Fukunishi; M. Sato; P. Israelevich; M. Moalem; A. Devir; Z. Levin; J. H. Joseph; I. Mayo; B. Ziv; A. Sternlieb

2004-01-01

292

Science, Space, and Shuttles: An Interview With Astronaut and AGU Member Piers Sellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 14 May, NASA is scheduled to launch what will likely be the final mission for space shuttle Atlantis. This mission will deliver cargo and science payloads—including the Russian-built Mini Research Module (MRM 1)—to the International Space Station (ISS). On board the shuttle will be Piers Sellers, an AGU member. Born in 1955 in Crowborough, United Kingdom, Sellers completed his doctorate in biometeorology at UK's Leeds University in 1981. He became an AGU Fellow in 1996 for research on how the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere interact; that same year, he was selected as an astronaut candidate. He has since logged more than 559 hours in space on two shuttle missions. In the course of those missions, he spent almost 41 hours on six space walks.

Kumar, Mohi

2010-05-01

293

Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA): A pathfinder for space-based laser altimetry and lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) is a Hitchhiker experiment now being integrated for first flight on STS-72 in November 1995. Four Shuttle flights of the SLA are planned at a rate of about a flight every 18 months. They are aimed at the transition of the Goddard Space Flight Center airborne laser altimeter and lidar technology to low Earth orbit as a pathfinder for operational space-based laser remote sensing devices. Future alser altimeter sensors such as the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), an Earth Observing System facility instrument, and the Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA), the land and vegetation laser altimeter for the NASA TOPSAT (Topography Satellite) Mission, will utilize systems and approaches being tested with SLA. The SLA Instrument measures the distance from the Space Shuttle to the Earth's surface by timing the two-way propagation of short (approximately 10 na noseconds) laser pulses. laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength are generated in a laser transmitter and are detected by a telescope equipped with a silicon avalanche photodiode detector. The SLA data system makes the pulse time interval measurement to a precision of about 10 nsec and also records the temporal shape of the laser echo from the Earth's surface for interpretation of surface height distribution within the 100 m diam. sensor footprint. For example, tree height can be determined by measuring the characteristic double-pulse signature that results from a separation in time of laser backscatter from tree canopies and the underlying ground. This is accomplished with a pulse waveform digitizer that samples the detector output with an adjustable resolution of 2 nanoseconds or wider intervals in a 100 sample window centered on the return pulse echo. The digitizer makes the SLA into a high resolution surface lidar sensor. It can also be used for cloud and atmospheric aerosol lidar measurements by lengthening the sampling window and degrading the waveform resolution. Detailed test objectives for the STS-72 mission center on the acquisition of sample data sets for land topography and vegetation height, waveform digitizer performance, and verification of data acquisition algorithms. The operational concept of SLA is illustrated in Fig. 1 where a series of 100 m footprints stretch in a profile of Earth surface topography along the nadir track of the Space Shuttle. The location of SLA as a dual canister payload on the Hitchhiker Bridge Assembly in Bay 12 of the Space Shuttle Endeavor can also be noted in this figure. Full interpretation of the SLA range measurement data set requires a 1 m knowledge of the Orbiter trajectory and better than 0.1 deg knowledge of Orbiter pointing angle. These ancillary data sets will be acquired during the STS-72 mission with an on-board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, K-band range and range-rate tracking of the Orbiter through TDRSS, and use of on-board inertial measurement units and star trackers. Integration and interpretation of all these different data sets as a pathfinder investigation for accurate determination of Earth surface elevation is the overall science of the SLA investigation.

Bufton, Jack; Blair, Bryan; Cavanaugh, John; Garvin, James

1995-09-01

294

Interpersonal issues in space: Shuttle/Mir and beyond.  

PubMed

Anecdotal reports from space and results from space analogue experiments on Earth have suggested a number of interpersonal issues that may negatively affect crewmember performance and well-being. We examined some of these issues in a questionnaire survey of 54 astronauts and cosmonauts who had flown in space and in a 135-d Mir Space Station simulation study in Moscow. We also conducted a NASA-funded study involving missions to the Mir Space Station, where 5 U.S. astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control subjects completed weekly mood and group climate questionnaires. There were few findings that supported hypothesized changes in tension and group behavior in terms of time on-orbit. Crewmembers reported decreasing leader support in the second half of their mission, and U.S. astronauts gave evidence for a novelty effect in the first few weeks. There was strong support for our hypothesized displacement of tension and negative emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There were several significant differences in response between Americans vs. Russians and crewmembers vs. mission control personnel. These findings have training countermeasure implications for future on-orbit space missions. During expeditionary type space missions, such as a trip to Mars, additional interpersonal stressors will need to be dealt with. These include increased crew autonomy, more dependence on onboard technical resources, communication delays with the Earth, increased isolation and monotony, and the Earth-out-of-view phenomenon. PMID:15943205

Kanas, Nick

2005-06-01

295

Failure analysis of the space shuttle Columbia RCC leading edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure analysis of the Columbia shuttle left T-seal 9 and an unidentified fragment of leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) composite material was\\u000a carried out to determine the causes of failure. Standard metallographic and microscopy procedures were employed to identify\\u000a and characterize the failure mode. The results indicate that erosion and cracking occurred. Erosion was caused by the extreme\\u000a temperatures and

M. Bykowski; A. Hudgins; R. M. Deacon; A. R. Marder

2006-01-01

296

A wideband-PCM recorder for the Space Shuttle orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle wideband-PCM recorder accomplishes recording on up to 14 data tracks with analog or digital data inputs. FM multiplexed analog frequencies of up to 2 MHz and digital rates of 1 Mb\\/s are accommodated at a tape speed of 120 in\\/s. Recording time in analog mode varies between 4 min for 2 MHz data to 80 min for 100

R. D. Petit

1976-01-01

297

Gamma-ray measurements from the space shuttle during a solar flare.  

PubMed

An X2/2B level solar flare occurred on 12 August, 1989, during the last day of the flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-28). Detectors on the GOES 7 satellite observed increased X-ray fluxes at approximately 1400 GMT and a solar particle event (SPE) at approximately 1600 GMT. Measurements with the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of the Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM) experiment on STS-28 showed factors of two to three increases in count rates at high latitudes comparable to those seen during South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) passages beginning at about 1100 GMT. That increased activity was observed at both north and south high latitudes in the 57 degrees, 300 kilometer orbit and continued until the detector was turned off at 1800 GMT. Measurements made earlier in the flight over the same geographic coordinates did not produce the same levels of activity. This increase in activity may not be entirely accounted for by observed geomagnetic phenomena which were not related to the solar flare. PMID:11537025

Haskins, P S; McKisson, J E; Weisenberger, A G; Ely, D W; Ballard, T A; Dyer, C S; Truscott, P R; Piercey, R B; Ramayya, A V

1992-01-01

298

Structural design challenges for a Shuttle-launched Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precision Structure Subsystem (PSS) for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a large composite structure de- signed to house the interferometer optics in a structurally stable and thermally benign environment on orbit. The design requirements of the PSS as a shelter for the optics must be weighed against the demands of the baseline launch vehicle: the Space Shuttle. Whle

David H. Brady; Kim Aaronb; Brian Stumm; Allen J. Bronowicki; S. Chan; Peter A. Morris

299

Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development

W. T. Powers; A. E. Cooper; T. L. Wallace; W. L. Buntine; K. Whitaker

1993-01-01

300

The real-time operations of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during rendezvous and proximity operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only U.S. spacecraft in operation today that routinely performs an orbital rendezvous with another spacecraft. The trajectory planning and training of both flight crews and ground operations personnel required to achieve a 100 percent success rate is considerable. The preflight planning and training can be reduced through very simple design considerations of a new space vehicle.

Dougherty, Andrew; Meyer, Chris

301

Space Shuttle System Program Definition. Volume 4: Cost and Schedule Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The supporting cost and schedule data for the second half of the Space Shuttle System Phase B Extension Study is summarized. The major objective for this period was to address the cost/schedule differences affecting final selection of the HO orbiter space...

1972-01-01

302

Real-Time Control for Manufacturing Space Shuttle Main Engines: Work in Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the manufacture of space-based assemblies such as Space Shuttle Main Engines, flexibility is required due to the high-cost and low-volume nature of the end products. Various systems have been developed pursuing the goal of adaptive, flexible manufa...

C. C. Ruokangas

1988-01-01

303

Environmental monitoring instrumentation and monitoring techniques for space shuttle launches. Final report, Jan 82-Jul 83  

SciTech Connect

The Space Shuttle emits undesired exhaust materials into the atmosphere during a launch including large quantities of hydrogen chloride (HCl). The fate of the HCl is not well understood but includes deposition and HCl gas revolatilization near the launch pad and downwind acid washout, acid rainout and HCl gas dispersion. The Air Force and NASA began monitoring missile exhaust effluents in the early 1970s. There has been an evolution in monitoring instrumentation, monitoring techniques and monitoring schemes developed jointly by the Air Force and NASA culminating in the efforts for Space Shuttle launches at Kennedy Space Center. This report reviews and evaluates these efforts and recommends an integrated program of ground monitors, aircraft monitors and remote sensors to monitor shuttle exhaust materials.

Swoboda, G.D.; Naugle, D.F.

1983-07-01

304

Microprocessor control of G-285 - A small self-contained Space Shuttle payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Colorado Getaway Special (GAS) G-285 payload, once in orbit on the Space Shuttle, will be activated by a payload specialist enabling a GAS Control Decoder (GCD) relay. To manage this autonomous GAS canister, a microprocessor will monitor and control the following: three experiments, several subsystems, data acquisition, and the environment. This paper will discuss the command and data handling design process in some detail, as well as how challenging problems were overcome. A general operational scenario is also included. Incorporated into the control scheme, key concepts in software systems concern the implementation of redundant systems, error detection, and error response, all of which help to avoid a single point failure.

Burkhardt, Robert; Schneringer, Julie; Morris, Johan C.; Livezey, Darrell

305

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. 1828.371 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING...

2012-10-01

306

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. 1828.371 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING...

2011-10-01

307

Development of an intelligent hypertext manual for the space shuttle hazardous gas detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-based Integrated Knowledge System (IKS), the Intelligent Hypertext Manual (IHM), is being developed for the Space Shuttle Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). The IHM stores all HGDS related knowledge and presents them in an interactive and intuitive manner. The IHM's purpose is to provide HGDS personnel with the capabilities of: enhancing the interpretation of real time data; recognizing and identifying possible faults in the Space Shuttle sub-system related to hazardous gas detections; locating applicable documentation related to procedures, constraints, and previous fault histories; and assisting in the training of personnel.

Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Bangasser, Carl; Fensky, Connie

308

Development and swimming behavior of Medaka fry in a spaceflight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107).  

PubMed

A space experiment aimed at closely observing the development and swimming activity of medaka fry under microgravity was carried out as a part of the S*T*A*R*S Program, a space shuttle mission, in STS-107 in January 2003. Four eggs laid on earth in an artificially controlled environment were put in a container with a functionally closed ecological system and launched on the Space Shuttle Columbia. Each egg was held in place by a strip of Velcro in the container to be individually monitored by close-up CCD cameras. In the control experiment, four eggs prepared using the same experimental set-up remained on the ground. There was no appreciable difference in the time course of development between space- and ground-based embryos. In the ground experiment, embryos were observed to rotate in place enclosed with the egg membrane, whereas those in the flight unit did not rotate. One of the four eggs hatched on the 8th day after being launched into space. All four eggs hatched in the ground unit. The fry hatched in space was mostly motionless, but with occasional control of its posture with respect to references in the experimental chamber. The fry hatched on ground were observed to move actively, controlling their posture with respect to the gravity vector. These findings suggest that the absence of gravity affects the initiation process of motility of embryos and hatched fry. PMID:15459450

Niihori, Maki; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Baba, Shoji A

2004-09-01

309

Processing ground-based near-infrared imagery of space shuttle re-entries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based high-resolution, calibrated, near-infrared (NIR) imagery of the Space Shuttle STS-134 Endeavour during reentry has been obtained as part of NASA's HYTHIRM (Hypersonic Thermodynamic InfraRed Measurements) project. The long-range optical sensor package called MARS (Mobile Aerospace Reconnaissance System) was positioned in advance to acquire and track part of the shuttle re-entry. Imagery was acquired during a few minutes, with the best imagery being processed when the shuttle was at 133 kft at Mach 5.8. This paper describes the processing of the NIR imagery, building upon earlier work from the airborne imagery collections of several prior shuttle missions. Our goal is to calculate the temperature distribution of the shuttle's bottom surface as accurately as possible, considering both random and systematic errors, while maintaining all physical features in the imagery, especially local intensity variations. The processing areas described are: 1) radiometric calibration, 2) improvement of image quality, 3) atmospheric compensation, and 4) conversion to temperature. The computed temperature image will be shown, as well as comparisons with thermocouples at different positions on the shuttle. A discussion of the uncertainties of the temperature estimates using the NIR imagery is also given.

Spisz, Thomas S.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Kennerly, Stephen W.; Osei-Wusu, Kwame; Gibson, David M.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Kerns, Robert V.; Shea, Edward J.; Mercer, C. David; Schwartz, Richard J.; Dantowitz, Ronald F.; Kozubal, Marek J.

2012-05-01

310

Cryogenic infrared /IR/ spectral measurements on board the Space Shuttle - CIRRIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intended applications of the AFGL Cryogenic IR Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS) experiment to evaluate the Shuttle environment contamination against an earthlimb background in the 2.5-25 micron region is described. There is concern that sensitive electro-optic systems will be contaminated by molecules outgassing from the Shuttle bay. The pollution sources include the fuel cells, the flash evaporator, and the reaction control system thrusters, with the primary contaminants identified as H2O and CO2. The CIRRIS has an accuracy of 0.5-1/cm resolution, to provide detailed identification of contaminants. The instrumentation comprises a high spectral resolution cryogenic Michelson interferometer-spectrometer linked to a high straylight rejection telescope with a coaligned photometer and cameras. Data gained using CIRRIS will be used to characterize the impacts of Shuttle induced contamination on future IR measurement programs

Ahmadjian, M.; Conley, T.; Huppi, R.; Baker, K.

311

Caenorhabditis elegans Survives Atmospheric Breakup of STS-107, Space Shuttle Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a popular organism for biological studies, is being developed as a model system for space biology. The chemically defined liquid medium, C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM), allows axenic cultivation and automation of experiments that are critical for spaceflight research. To validate CeMM for use during spaceflight, we grew animals using CeMM and standard laboratory conditions onboard STS-107, space shuttle Columbia. Tragically, the Columbia was destroyed while reentering the Earth's atmosphere. During the massive recovery effort, hardware that contained our experiment was found. Live animals were observed in four of the five recovered canisters, which had survived on both types of media. These data demonstrate that CeMM is capable of supporting C. elegans during spaceflight. They also demonstrate that animals can survive a relatively unprotected reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, which has implications with regard to the packaging of living material during space flight, planetary protection, and the interplanetary transfer of life.

Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; McLamb, William; Reed, David; Blumberg, Baruch S.; Conley, Catharine A.

2005-12-01

312

Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

313

Maturing monitoring agents into model based diagnostic agents for ground processing of the Space Shuttle and future exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Kennedy Space Center deploys rule-based software agents to help monitor the Space Shuttle ground telemetry data. The agents recognize predefined measurement patterns and issue notifications to Shuttle Engineers when various events occur. Hundreds of rules for thousands of measurements have been written. Currently, these agents possess only shallow knowledge. They do not lend themselves to more complex tasks, such

G. S. Semmel; L. Boloni

2006-01-01

314

Shuttle Molecular Gun: Smog. Potential Experiment for the Electrodynamic Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shuttle Molecular Gun for the Tethered Satellite System electrodynamic experiment consists of a facility complement to perform active and interactive experiments on and in the Earth's ionosphere. The viability of the critical ionization velocity conce...

G. Mastrantonio

1984-01-01

315

The Space Shuttle: America's team reaching for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This video features the different NASA research centers and their contribution toward NASA's space program. It includes the following research centers: NASA headquarters, Ames Research Center, Goddard Flight Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johnson Space Flight Center, Kennedy Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center.

1995-04-01

316

Upper limits on spacecraft-induced ultraviolet emissions from the space shuttle (STS-61C)  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet spacecraft-induced emissions from low Earth-orbiting satellites have been reported by several investigators. Several R/{angstrom} of ultraviolet emission were observed from the S3-4 satellite at altitudes between 180 and 250 km and from the Spacelab 1 shuttle mission at an altitude of 250 km. Conway et al. (1987) showed that N{sub 2} Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emissions were observed by S3-4 at night are probably the result of spacecraft interaction with the atmosphere. The authors have searched for band emission of N{sub 2}, OH, O{sub 2}, and NO in nightflow spectra obtained in January 1986 with the John Hopkins ultraviolet background experiment (UVX) flown on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-61C) at an altitude of 330 km. The experiment consisted of two Ebert monochromators spanning the spectral range from 1,200 to 1,700 {angstrom} at 17{angstrom} resolution and from 1,600 to 3,200 {angstrom} at 29 {angstrom} resolution. The spectra yield 3{sigma} upper limits for the following total band emission rates: NO {delta}, 0.6 R; NO {gamma}, 0.7 R; No {beta}, 3.5 R; O{sub 2} Herzberg I, 4.5 R; OH (A{sup 2} {Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} {minus} {Chi}{sup 2} {Pi}) (0,0) and (1,0), 0.1 R, and N{sub 2} LBH, 5.3 R. The upper limits for the N{sub 2} LBH emissions are consistent with the recent models of spacecraft induced LBH glow of Kofsky (1988), Swenson and Meyerott (1988), and Cuthbertson and Langer (1989) and with a (N{sub 2}){sup 3} or (N{sub 2}){sup 2}(O) altitude dependence.

Morrison, D.; Feldman, P.D.; Henry, R.C. (John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1992-02-01

317

Ram ion scattering caused by Space Shuttle v x B induced differential charging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of secondary, high-inclination ions streams have been reported in the literature. The authors of these previous papers attributed the source of the secondary ions to a disturbed region in the plasma about 10 m from the Space Shuttle Orbiter. A new theory has been developed which shows how v x B induced differential charging on the plasma diagnostics package

I. Katz; V. A. Davis

1987-01-01

318

Computer-Based Space Shuttle Simulation Teaches Children about the Sciences and Themselves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The space shuttle simulation, Totally Enclosed Modular Environment (TEME), was developed as a means for students to study group dynamics and how people adapt to their environment. This paper highlights features of this project. Topics reviewed include: (1) its historical development (tracing its origins as a year-long ecology course to current…

Roche, Barbara J.

319

Single event upsets for Space Shuttle flights of new general purpose computer memory devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement of the magnetic core with a well characterized semiconductor memory in the Space Shuttle orbiter general purpose computers (GPCs) has provided a wealth of on-orbit radiation effects data since 1991. The fault tolerant GPCs detect, correct, and downlink memory upset status and orbiter position information every few seconds, giving the ability to correlate 1400 upsets to date with

P. M. O'Neill; G. D. Badhwar

1994-01-01

320

New general guidance method in constrained optimal control, part 2: Application to space shuttle guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application and the performance of the neighboring optimal feedback scheme presented in Part 1 of this paper is demonstrated for the heating-constrained cross-range maximization problem of a space-shuttle-orbiter-type vehicle. This problem contains five state variables, two control variables, and a state variable inequality constraint of order zero.

B. Kugelmann; H. J. Pesch

1990-01-01

321

Shift Changes, Updates, and the On-Call Architecture in Space Shuttle Mission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted

Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods

2001-01-01

322

Successful application of software reliability engineering for the NASA Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software Subsystem (PASS) represents a successful integration of many of the computer industry's most advanced software engineering practices and approaches. Beginning in the late 1970's this software development and maintenance project has evolved one of the world's most mature software processes applying the principles of the highest levels of the Software

T. Keller; N. F. Schneidewind

1997-01-01

323

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING COMMODITIES AND ELECTRICITY FOR SPACE SHUTTLE OPERATIONS AT VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a preliminary screening study of the technical and economic feasibility of the on-site production of commodities (liquid propellant and gases) and electricity to support space shuttle launch activities at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Both commerci...

324

Buckling Testing and Analysis of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Cylinders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of full-scale buckling tests were performed on the space shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) cylinders. The tests were performed to determine the buckling capability of the cylinders and to provide data for analytical comparison. A nonline...

T. J. Weidner D. V. Larsen

2002-01-01

325

Space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives the findings of the space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team. The purpose of the team was to investigate the causes of main parachute deployment damage and to recommend methods to eliminate or substantially reduce the damage. The team concluded that the two primary causes of significant damage during deployment are vent entanglement and

G. Watts

1993-01-01

326

The Space Shuttle Disaster: Ethical Issues in Organizational Decision-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arguing that the issue of organizational decision making and bureaucratic responsibility in the use of technologies with potential for creating social harm should concern everyone, this paper explores the ethical issues raised by organizational decisions concerning the launch of the space shuttle "Challenger." The paper first describes a…

Kramer, Ronald C.; Jaksa, James A.

327

Graviperception in the flagellate Euglena gracilis during a shuttle space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a recent space flight, gravitaxis of the unicellular photosynthetic flagellate, Euglena gracilis, was studied on board of the American shuttle Columbia. Accelerations were varied between 0 and 1.5 × g using a slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI). The cells showed a sigmoidal response curve for the dependence of the precision of gravitaxis on acceleration which is indicative of the

Donat-P. Häder; Andreas Rosum; Jochen Schäfer; Ruth Hemmersbach

1996-01-01

328

How Children Reacted to Televised Coverage of the Space Shuttle Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effects of live television coverage of the space shuttle Challenger disaster on school children. Finds that children tended to react according to gender stereotypes of impersonal regret versus personal involvement and respond with either a cognitive orientation or a social and emotional orientation. (MS)

Wright, John C.; And Others

1989-01-01

329

Report at a Glance: Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accident of Space Shuttle Challenger, mission 51-L, interrupting for a time one of the most productive engineering, scientific and exploratory programs in history, evoked a wide range of deeply felt public responses. There was grief and sadness for th...

W. P. Rogers N. A. Armstrong D. C. Acheson E. E. Covert R. P. Feynman

1986-01-01

330

Emotional Response as a Cause of Interpersonal News Diffusion: The Case of the Space Shuttle Tragedy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a diffusion study that examined how a group of college students learned about the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger, and how they employed interpersonal exchanges and the media to cope with the news. The relationship between mass and interpersonal communication is discussed, and future studies are suggested. (19 references) (LRW)

Kubey, Robert W.; Peluso, Thea

1990-01-01

331

Developmental Level and Children's Responses to the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children at three different developmental levels were given a brief presentation by their classroom teacher regarding the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, one day after the explosion. Conversations and comments were recorded and analyzed according to the cognitive developmental levels of the learner, employing primarily a Piagetian perspective.…

Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

1987-01-01

332

Catastrophic events, contagion, and stock market efficiency: the case of the space shuttle challenger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the stock returns experienced by NASA contractors associated with the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion. Because of the extensive public interest in the explosion and the intensive and stirring news coverage, this event is a candidate for an irrational market response such as a selloff, a panic, or a contagion effect. The market evidence shows that on the

Jerry Frederick; Robin Bornkamp; Marci Brier; Kendis Brown

1996-01-01

333

Shielding measurements of the space shuttle (part I - meeting the test challenge)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) at Pax River teamed with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to perform a shielding test of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter “Endeavour.” Pax River was responsible for testing in the high frequency range up to 18 GHz. NASA imposed some very tight limitations on the time allotted to perform the test

Buzz Brezinski; D. Kempf; R. Scully

2006-01-01

334

Launching the Space Shuttle Challenger: disciplinary deficiencies in the analysis of engineering data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published and archival testimony of participants in the decision to launch the Challenger Space Shuttle and new lessons from the decision process for engineering training and engineering managers are analyzed. Examination of interview testimony, published hearings, and tabular data examined by the decision participants at the time of the Challenger launch shows that analysis of data and reasoning were flawed

Frederick F. Lighthall

1991-01-01

335

Group Decision Fiascoes Continue: Space Shuttle Challenger and a Revised Groupthink Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the decision situation surrounding the decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger in January 1986 in the light of the groupthink hypothesis. A revised framework is presented that proposes time and leadership style as moderators of the manner in which group characteristics lead to groupthink symptoms.

Gregory Moorhead; Richard Ference; Chris P. Neck

1991-01-01

336

Report at a glance: Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident of Space Shuttle Challenger, mission 51-L, interrupting for a time one of the most productive engineering, scientific and exploratory programs in history, evoked a wide range of deeply felt public responses. There was grief and sadness for the loss of seven brave members of the crew; firm national resolve that those men and women be forever enshrined in

William P. Rogers; Neil A. Armstrong; David C. Acheson; Eugene E. Covert; Richard P. Feynman; Robert B. Hotz; Donald J. Kutyna; Sally K. Ride; Robert W. Rummel; Joseph F. Sutter

1986-01-01

337

The Space Shuttle Disaster: Ethical Issues in Organizational Decision-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that the issue of organizational decision making and bureaucratic responsibility in the use of technologies with potential for creating social harm should concern everyone, this paper explores the ethical issues raised by organizational decisions concerning the launch of the space shuttle "Challenger." The paper first describes a…

Kramer, Ronald C.; Jaksa, James A.

338

Risk Analysis of the Space Shuttle: Pre-Challenger Prediction of Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rogers Commission report on the space shuttle Challenger accident concluded that the accident was caused by a combustion gas leak through a joint in one of the booster rockets, which was sealed by a device called an O-ring. The commission further concluded that O-rings do not seal properly at low temperatures. In this article, data from the 23 preaccident

Siddhartha R. Dalal; Edward B. Fowlkes; Bruce Hoadley

1989-01-01

339

Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's problem reporting and corrective action system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Program's Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were; to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The

David J. Korsmeyer; John A. Schreiner

2001-01-01

340

Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's problem reporting and corrective action system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Program's Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were; to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The

J. A. Schreiner

341

Structural analysis of a frangible nut used on the NASA Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural analysis methodology has been developed for the NASA 2.5-inch frangible nut used on the Space Shuttle. Two of these nuts are used to secure the External Tank to the aft end of the Orbiter. Both nuts must completely fracture before the Orbiter can safely separate from the External Tank. Ideally, only one of the two explosive boosters contained

K. E. Metzinger

1993-01-01

342

Transition from ring to beam arc distributions of water ions near the space shuttle orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution function of water ions produced near the space shuttle by charge exchange between ionospheric oxygen ions and outgassed water molecules is investigated using solutions of Liouville's equation with a source term modeling the charge exchange process. A transition from ring distributions to beamlike distributions termed beam arc distributions is found with decreasing distance upstream from the orbiter. This

Iver H. Cairns

1990-01-01

343

Concepts and Embodiment Design of a Reentry Recumbent Seating System for the NASA Space Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, ...

S. Mcmillan B. Looby C. Devany C. Chudej B. Brooks

1993-01-01

344

Space Shuttle Reaction Control System Thruster Metal Nitrate Removal and Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Shuttle hypergolic primary reaction control system (PRCS) thrusters continue to fail-leak or fail-off at a rate of approximately 1.5 per flight, attributed primarily to metal nitrate formation in the nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) pilot operated valv...

R. L. Saulsberry P. A. Mccartney

1993-01-01

345

Reentry heating analysis of space shuttle with comparison of flight data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface heating rates and surface temperatures for a space shuttle reentry profile were calculated for two wing cross sections and one fuselage cross section. Heating rates and temperatures at 12 locations on the wing and 6 locations on the fuselage are presented. The heating on the lower wing was most severe, with peak temperatures reaching values of 1240 C for

L. Gong; R. D. Quinn; W. L. Ko

1982-01-01

346

Vibration Effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Bellows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A welded metal bellows was subjected to a series of vibration tests in a 400 psi oxygen environment to evaluate the effects of the bellows convolutes rubbing on the damper ring in the high pressure oxidizer turbopump of the space shuttle main engine. The ...

J. A. Harp

1978-01-01

347

Space Shuttle Low Pressure Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem Design Definition Design Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed description of recommended low pressure auxiliary propulsion subsystems (APS) for a space shuttle orbiter and booster is presented. The APS designs are the product of a study to identify and evaluate APS concepts, and to perform in-depth design...

A. E. Bruns J. G. Gray

1971-01-01

348

Formation of Leading-Edge Pinholes in the Space Shuttle Wings Investigated.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The space shuttle wing leading edge and nose cap are composed of a carbon/carbon composite that is protected by silicon carbide. The coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch leads to cracks in the silicon carbide. The outer coating of the silicon carbide...

N. S. Jacobson

2000-01-01

349

Wind-Tunnel Roll-Damping Measurements of a Winged Space Shuttle Configuration in Launch Attitude.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ground-wind load studies were conducted on three model configurations to assess the importance of aeroelastic instabilities of erected space shuttle vehicles. Roll damping was measured on a fuselage-alone model, which had a D cross section, and a fuselage...

R. W. Hess E. E. Davenport

1973-01-01

350

Metallographic Preparation of Space Shuttle Reaction Control System Thruster Electron Beam Welds for Electron Backscatter Diffraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Space Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) thruster failed during a firing test at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Las Cruces, New Mexico. The firing test was being conducted to investigate a previous electrical malfunction. A number of crac...

J. Martinez

2011-01-01

351

Sonic boom measurement test plan for Space Shuttle STS4 reentry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal documentation for measurement procedures and system specifications, and general information relating to the Space Shuttle STS-4 Sonic Boom Measurement Program are supplied. This test plan is designed to provide information, guidance, and assignment of responsibilities for the acquisition of sonic boom and atmospheric measurements, timing correlation, communications and other necessary supporting tasks. Specifically included are details such as mobile

H. R. Henderson

1982-01-01

352

Sonic boom measurement test plan for Space Shuttle STS1 reentry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal documentation for measurement procedures and system specifications, and general information are relating to the Space Shuttle STS-1 Sonic Boom Measurement Program are supplied. This test plan is designed to provide information, guidance, and assignment of responsibilities for the acquisition of sonic boom and atmospheric measurements, timing correlation, communications and other necessary supporting tasks. Specifically included are details such as

H. R. Henderson

1981-01-01

353

Sonic boom measurement test plan for Space Shuttle STS2 reentry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures and system specifications associated with the space shuttle STS-2 sonic boom measurement program are described. Specifically included are details such as mobile data acquisition station locations, measurement systems calibration levels, predicted sonic boom overpressure levels, overpressure level assignment for each data acquisition station, data recording times on and off, universal coordinate time, and measurement system descriptions.

H. R. Henderson

1981-01-01

354

Redesigned Gas Mass Flow Sensors for Space Shuttle Pressure Control System and Fuel Cell System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program was conducted to determine if a state of the art micro-machined silicon solid state flow sensor could be used to replace the existing space shuttle orbiter flow sensors. The rather aggressive goal was to obtain a new sensor which would also be a...

1996-01-01

355

The space shuttle orbiter's advanced display designs and an analysis of its growth capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes the growth capability of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS). MEDS is a new 'glass cockpit' system, using Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) to replace the existing Orbiter cockpit instruments. The primary goals were to analyze the MEDS growth capabilities and to propose advanced Orbiter displays using the MEDS. Analysis of the Orbiter

Baoquoc Tranthien

1995-01-01

356

A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the space shuttle during launch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionosphere was monitored during the fourth space shuttle (STS 4) launch in June 1982 by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar. A long-lived, large-amplitude, traveling ionospheric disturbance with dominant wave moles of â¼ 15 and 75 min was observed shortly after the launch. The disturbance wave train is likely the product of a variety of wave modes. The disturbance front

S. T. Noble

1990-01-01

357

Animation Graphic Interface for the Space Shuttle Onboard Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graphics interfaces designed to operate on space qualified hardware challenge software designers to display complex information under processing power and physical size constraints. Under contract to Johnson Space Center, MICROEXPERT Systems is currently ...

J. Wike P. Griffith

1989-01-01

358

Challenges of assuring crew safety in space shuttle missions with international cargoes.  

PubMed

The top priority in America's manned space flight program is the assurance of crew and vehicle safety. This priority gained greater focus during and after the Space Shuttle return-to-flight mission (STS-26). One of the interesting challenges has been to assure crew safety and adequate protection of the Space Shuttle, as a national resource, from increasingly diverse cargoes and operations. The control of hazards associated with the deployment of complex payloads and cargoes has involved many international participants. These challenges are examined in some detail along with examples of how crew safety has evolved in the manned space program and how the international partners have addressed various scenarios involving control and mitigation of potential hazards to crew and vehicle safety. PMID:14606499

Vongsouthy, C; Stenger-Nguyen, P A; Nguyen, H V; Nguyen, P H; Huang, M C; Alexander, R G

2004-02-01

359

Stratospheric aerosol measurements by the Lidar in Space Technology Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lidar in Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a three-wavelength backscatter lidar developed by NASA Langley Research Center to demonstrate and explore the capabilities of space lidar. LITE was flown on space shuttle Discovery in September 1994. Among the primary experimental objectives of LITE was the measurement of stratospheric aerosols. High-quality stratospheric aerosol measurements at 532 nm and 355 nm

Mary T. Osborn; Geoffrey S. Kent; Charles R. Trepte

1998-01-01

360

The Space Shuttle and expendable launch systems - A U.S. commercial customer perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of space transportation systems for commercial satellite launches is reviewed. A comparison of the Ariane system with the Space Shuttle is presented. The performance capability, reliability, and availability of the two systems are analyzed; the Ariane 4 is capable of launching payloads of 1900-4200 kg into transfer orbits and is better positioned than the Shuttle to handle commercial payloads greater than 1900 kg. The insurance costs, and spacecraft and launcher integration complexity for the two systems are discussed. The launch cost and postponement penalties are studied. NASA's launch cost is based on the length or mass of the payload multiplied by the fixed Shuttle cost, with Ariane attempting to keep prices $1-3 million lower, in order to be competitive with the Shuttle. NASA offers one free postponement and penalties as high as 55 percent; Ariane's penalties range from 6-18 percent of the launch price. The need for lower prices, an easier integration process, customer convience, and less severe postponement and reflight policies in order for the space transportation systems to be commercially useful, is discussed.

Savage, M.; Chagnon, R.

1985-10-01

361

Measurement of LET distribution and dose equivalent on board the space shuttle STS65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called “Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)” utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and others are conventional detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track

Takayoshi Hayashi; Tadayoshi Doke; Jun Kikuchi; Ryuichi Takeuchi; Nobuyuki Hasebe; Koichi Ogura; Shunji Nagaoka; Mitsuyasu Kato; Gautam D. Badhwar

1996-01-01

362

High-performance, AMLCD-based “smart” display for the Space Shuttle glass cockpit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production program is underway for an Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Shuttle glass cockpit upgrade. A “smart” display architecture is used with a powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processing element and custom graphics accelerator that can render two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D), fully anti-aliased graphical images at

Scott V. Thomsen; William R. Hancock

1994-01-01

363

Developmental problems and their solution for the Space Shuttle main engine alternate liquid oxygen high-pressure turbopump: Anomaly or failure investigation the key  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate high-pressure liquid oxygen pump experienced synchronous vibration and ball bearing life problems that were program threatening. The success of the program hinged on the ability to solve these development problems. The design and solutions to these problems are engirded in the lessons learned and experiences from prior programs, technology programs, and the ability

R. Ryan; L. A. Gross

1995-01-01

364

Space Shuttle Exhaust Modifications of the Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Plasma As Diagnosed By Ground Based Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines have been used since the early days of the STS program for active ionospheric modification experiments designed to be viewed by ground based ionospheric radar systems. In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory initiated the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) Program using dedicated Space Shuttle OMS burns scheduled through the US Department of Defense's Space Test Program. SIMPLEX objectives include generation of localized ion-acoustic turbulence and the formation of ionospheric density irregularities for injections perpendicular to the local magnetic field, creating structures which can scatter incident UHF radar signals. We discuss radar observations made during several recent SIMPLEX mid-latitude experiments conducted over the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar system in Westford, Massachusetts. OMS engine firings release 10 kg/s of CO2, H2, H2O, and N2 molecules which charge exchange with ambient O+ ions in the F region, producing molecular ions and long lived electron density depletions as recombination occurs with ambient electrons. Depending on the magnetic field angle, the high velocity of the injected reactive exhaust molecules relative to the background ionosphere can create longitudinal propagating ion acoustic waves with amplitudes well above normal thermal levels and stimulate a wide variety of plasma instability processes. These effects produce high radar cross section targets readily visible to the Millstone Hill system, a high power large aperture radar designed to measure very weak scatter from the quiescent background ionosphere. We will survey the plasma instability parameter space explored to date and discuss plans for future SIMPLEX observations.

Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.; Bhatt, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

2009-12-01

365

Transition from ring to beam arc distributions of water ions near the space shuttle orbiter  

SciTech Connect

The distribution function of water ions produced near the space shuttle by charge exchange between ionospheric oxygen ions and outgassed water molecules is investigated using solutions of Liouville's equation with a source term modeling the charge exchange process. A transition from ring distributions to beamlike distributions termed beam arc distributions is found with decreasing distance upstream from the orbiter. This beam arc distribution corresponds to a finite section of a ring distribution and not to a conventional beam distribution. The ratio of water ion number density to oxygen ion number density is calculated; typical values within 50 m of the shuttle are in excess of 2% with a maximum value of the order of 20% for nominal parameters, suggsting that these ions must be considered with interpreting particle data from near the space shuttle. An argument for a plasma density enhancement of the order of 10% very close to the shuttle, due to kinematic effects (corresponding to pileup of plasma) and not to plasma creation, is also presented. This kinetmatic density enhancement is insufficient, by an order of magnitude, to explain the plasma density enhancements inferred from Spacelab 2 data.

Cairns, I.H. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1990-09-01

366

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Start-Up Experience  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with several industry partners, are collaborating with SuperShuttle of Denver, Colorado, to evaluate natural gas vans added to the SuperShuttle fleet in 1999. Brand new (1999 model year) dedicated and bi-fuel compressed natural gas (CNG) vans manufactured by Ford Motor Company will be operated side-by-side with several similar gasoline vehicles in normal revenue service. Once the study is complete, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will analyze and compile the results for release.

Eudy, L.

1999-05-18

367

Coordinated Global Measurements of TLEs from the Space Shuttle and Ground Stations during MEIDEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) is scheduled to fly on-board the Columbia in May 2002, in a 39º inclination orbit for 16 days, passing over the major thunderstorm regions on Earth. The primary science instrument is a Xybion IMC-201 image-intensified radiometric camera with 6 narrow band filters (340nm, 380nm, 470nm, 555nm, 665nm, 860nm). A Sekai color video camera is a boresighted wide-FOV viewfinder. The cameras are mounted on a single-axis gimbal with a cross-track scan of ±22º degrees, inside a pressurized canister sealed with a coated quartz window that is mounted in the shuttle cargo bay. Data will be recorded in 3 digital VCRs and downlinked to the ground. During the night-side of the orbit there will be dedicated observations toward the Earth's limb above areas of active thunderstorms, in an effort to image TLEs from space. While earlier shuttle flights have succeeded in recording several ionospheric discharges by using cargo bay video cameras, MEIDEX offers a unique opportunity to conduct targeted observations with a calibrated, multispectral instrument. The Xybion camera has a rectangular FOV of 14.04(H) x 10.76 (V) degrees, that covers a volume of 466km (H) x 358km (V) at the Earth's limb, 1900km away from the shuttle. The spatial resolution is 665m (H) x 745m (V) per pixel, enabling to resolve some structural features of TLEs. Optical observations from space will be conducted with the 665nm filter that matches the observed wide peak centered at 670nm that typifies red sprites, and also with the 380 and 470nm filters to record blue jets. Observations will consist of a continuous recording of the Earth's limb, from the direction of the dusk terminator towards the night side. Areas of high convective activity will be forecast by using global aviation SIG maps, and uplinked to the crew before the observation. The astronaut will direct the camera toward areas with lightning activity, observed visually through the windows and on monitors in the crew cabin. Simultaneously with the optical observations from space, dedicated ground measurements will be conducted on a global scale. Two field sites in the Negev Desert in Israel will be used to collect electromagnetic data in the ELF and VLF frequency range. Additional ground stations in Germany, Hungary, USA, Antarctica, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Taiwan and Japan will also record Schumann Resonance and VLF signals. The coordinated measurements from various locations on Earth and from space will enable us to triangulate the location, and determine the polarity and charge moment of the parent lightning of the optically observed TLEs. The success of the campaign will further clarify the global picture of TLE occurrence.

Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Levin, Z.; Israelevitch, P.; Devir, A.; Ziv, B.; Jospeh, J.; Mekler, Y.

2001-12-01

368

Compilation of Technology Spinoffs from the US Space Shuttle Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the successful transfer of NASA-developed technology is a stated mission of NASA, the documentation of such transfer is vital in support of the program. The purpose of this report is to document technology transfer, i.e. 'spinoffs', from the U.S. Space...

D. J. Jackson

1993-01-01

369

Calibration and Radiometric Stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SSBUV is part of the National Plan for monitoring the stratosphere. Ozone monitoring from space employs backscatter ultraviolet-type instruments on NOAA operational, NASA research and foreign environmental satellites. The SSBUV provides calibration data for these instruments using nearly coincident observations of the Earth's ultraviolet albedo from a series of Space Shuttle flights. The SSBUV also measures the middle ultraviolet

E Hilsenrath; D E Williams; R T Caffrey; R P Cebula; S J Hynes

1993-01-01

370

Neutron Diffraction Characterization of Residual Strain in Welded Inconel 718 for NASA Space Shuttle Flow Liners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work quantitatively assesses residual strains and stresses associated with the weld repair process used to repair cracks on NASA's space shuttle flow liners. The coupons used in this investigation were made of the same INCONEL 718 alloy used for the flow liners. They were subjected to identical welding and certification procedures that were carried out on the space shuttle. Neutron diffraction measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory determined residual strains at selected locations in a welded coupon at 293 K and 135 K. The weld repair process introduced Mises effective residual stresses of up to 555 MPa. On comparing the measurements at 293 K and 135 K, no significant change to the residual strain profile was noted at the low temperature. This indicated minimal mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the base metal and the weld.

Rathod, C. R.; Livescu, V.; Clausen, B.; Bourke, M. A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Femminineo, M.; Vaidyanathan, R.

2004-06-01

371

Composition of individual particles in the wakes of an Athena II rocket and the space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument was used to obtain the first in situ measurements of the composition of particles in the wakes of solid rocket motor (SRMs) launch vehicles. PALMS acquired mass spectra of over 2300 exhaust particles within the plumes of an Athena II rocket and the Space Shuttle. The majority of positive spectra indicated the presence of primary and trace components of the aluminum fuel and the combustion catalyst. Negative spectra showed chlorine from the oxidizer. Nitrate and phosphate fragments and water were common features of spectra acquired during the Space Shuttle encounters. Elemental carbon (EC) was a significant particle type observed in the Athena II plume. The data show that particles emitted by SRMs are more diverse and probably more reactive than previously considered.

Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Thomson, D. S.; Ross, M. N.

2002-11-01

372

Neutron Diffraction Characterization of Residual Strain in Welded Inconel 718 for NASA Space Shuttle Flow Liners  

SciTech Connect

This work quantitatively assesses residual strains and stresses associated with the weld repair process used to repair cracks on NASA's space shuttle flow liners. The coupons used in this investigation were made of the same INCONEL 718 alloy used for the flow liners. They were subjected to identical welding and certification procedures that were carried out on the space shuttle. Neutron diffraction measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory determined residual strains at selected locations in a welded coupon at 293 K and 135 K. The weld repair process introduced Mises effective residual stresses of up to 555 MPa. On comparing the measurements at 293 K and 135 K, no significant change to the residual strain profile was noted at the low temperature. This indicated minimal mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the base metal and the weld.

Rathod, C.R.; Vaidyanathan, R. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (United States); Livescu, V.; Clausen, B.; Bourke, M. A. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Notardonato, W.U.; Femminineo, M. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 32899 (United States)

2004-06-28

373

Dynamic interpretation of space shuttle photographs: deepwater internal waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible images of deep-ocean internal waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean taken by the space shuttle Atlantis during mission STS 44 in 1991 are interpreted and analyzed. The internal waves occurred in the form of a multisoliton packet in which there are about a dozen solitons. The average wavelength of the solitons is 1.8+\\/-0.5 km, ranging from 1.1 to

Quanan Zheng; Vic Klemas; Xiao-Hai Yan

1995-01-01

374

Failure analysis of a titanium strut tank support in the space shuttle Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A titanium midtank strut support from the Columbia space shuttle was submitted for failure analysis. Stereomicroscopy, light optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy\\u000a with energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate the failed part. Evidence of melting was found on the fracture\\u000a surface. Additionally, the high temperature associated with the melting was combined with cooling from the ?-phase field,\\u000a as indicated

C. Butler; R. M. Deacon; A. R. Marder

2006-01-01

375

Incoherent scatter measurements of ring-ion beam distributions produced by space shuttle exhaust injections into the ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the space shuttle Orbiting Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines burn in the ionosphere, two types of effects are produced. First, charge exchange between the exhaust molecules and the ambient O+-ions yields beams of high-speed molecular ions that can excite plasma turbulence. Second, the molecular ions eventually recombine with electrons to yield a plasma hole. The ion-beam interactions and the formation of artificial plasma holes in the ionosphere have been studied with ground-based, incoherent-scatter radars (ISRs) during the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) series of experiments. The SIMPLEX II experiment took place in late July 1999 during the STS-93 flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines provided controlled ion injections over the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facilities located at Arecibo, Puerto Rico to excite unusual radar signatures. After charge exchange between the exhaust and the ambient plasma, pickup ions were produced with velocities near 10 km/s using a ram-burn orientation of the OMS engines relative to the vehicle orbit vector. During the SIMPLEX II experiment, the ISR spectra of the exhaust-modified plasma were obtained for the first time. The formation of ring-ion beam distributions was determined from curve fitting to the radar spectra. These spectra show the presence of the nonthermal ion distributions and enhanced scatter from electrons for thermal ion distributions with elevated ion temperatures. Analysis of the ion distributions in the modified ionosphere indicates that they were unstable and may have quickly generated plasma waves that along with ion-neutral collisions changed the ion-velocity distributions. The observations show that the perpendicular ion speed was rapidly reduced from 10 km/s to about 1 km/s. These observations open up the possibility of conducting a new series of experiments studying ring-ion beam instabilities that occur naturally in the auroral-region ionosphere and artificially in the space shuttle exhaust where there is large relative motion between the ion and neutral species.

Bernhardt, P. A.; Sulzer, M. P.

2004-02-01

376

Interference effects on Space Station Freedom and space shuttle orbiter Ku-band downlinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space shuttle orbiter (SSO) and Ku-band single access return (KSAR) link and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) KSAR link via the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) use the same carrier frequency. The interference between spacecraft is minimized by opposite antenna polarizations and by TDRSS antenna beam pointing, but if the SSF and SSO are in close proximity, it is expected that mutual interference will be significant. Recently, Tsang and Su (1988, 1989) simulated the mutual interference effects, using a practical nonlinear bandlimited channel. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a simplified (i.e., linear band-limited channel) analytical approach will yield adequate accuracy for the expected range of operating conditions. Relative degradation in bit energy-to-thermal noise power spectral density ratio to achieve a 10 exp -5 coded bit-error-probability is determined to be 4 dB for the Ku-band SSO-to-TDRS I-channel return link with a 4.5 dB effective signal-to-interference total power ratio (S/I) when the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link interferes, whereas Su's simulation yields approximately 5 dB degradation. For the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link, both analysis and simulation results yield a relative signal degradation of 0.4 dB at the effective S/I = 21.6 dB. In conclusion, interference on the Ku-band SSO-to-TDRS I-channel return link is significant, but on the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link it is negligible.

Kwon, Hyuck M.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Tu, Kwei

1993-01-01

377

The future of U.S./International life sciences cooperation for Space Shuttle and beyond - A guide for the young professional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current international capabilities in the space life sciences/technology areas are reviewed focusing on the cooperative potential of the international community as applied to advanced Shuttle/Spacelab flights. The review of the international experience base and mutual cooperative benefits of the United States and international partners presented in the paper provides a guide to the young professional in planning for a space life sciences career.

Garshnek, V.; Davies, P.; Ballard, R.

378

X-SAR: The X-band synthetic aperture radar on board the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) is the German/Italian contribution to the NASA/JPL Shuttle Radar Lab missions as part of the preparation for the Earth Observation System (EOS) program. The Shuttle Radar Lab is a combination of several radars: an L-band (1.2 GHz) and a C-band (5.3 GHz) multipolarization SAR known as SIR-C (Shuttle Imaging Radar); and an X-band (9.6 GHz) vertically polarized SAR which will be operated synchronously over the same target areas to deliver calibrated multifrequency and multipolarization SAR data at multiple incidence angles from space. A joint German/Italian project office at DARA (German Space Agency) is responsible for the management of the X-SAR project. The space hardware has been developed and manufactured under industrial contract by Dornier and Alenia Spazio. Besides supporting all the technical and scientific tasks, DLR, in cooperation with ASI (Agencia Spaziale Italiano) is responsible for mission operation, calibration, and high precision SAR processing. In addition, DLR developed an airborne X-band SAR to support the experimenters with campaigns to prepare for the missions. The main advantage of adding a shorter wavelength (3 cm) radar to the SIR-C radars is the X-band radar's weaker penetration into vegetation and soil and its high sensitivity to surface roughness and associated phenomena. The performance of each of the three radars is comparable with respect to radiometric and geometric resolution.

Werner, Marian U.

1993-05-01

379

A robust ballistic design approach for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust design approach has been developed for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that enhances the potential for program success. This is accomplished by application of state of the art ballistic modelling techniques coupled with an aggressive contingency planning methodology. Application of this approach addresses the design challenges associated with development of the ASRM because of it's large size, high length to diameter ratio, and demanding thrust-time trace shape requirements. Advanced ballistic modelling techniques applied include deformed grain modelling, spatial burn rate mapping, erosive burning response characterization, and ballistic/structural/CFD flow-grain interactions. Model fidelity is further improved by utilizing the extensive RSRM experience base for validation proposes. In addition to this modelling approach, development of contingency plans covers the remaining prediction uncertainties, and readily allows fine tuning of the propellant grain configuration to meet design objectives after the first motor firing. This approach promises to produce an optimum flight motor design that meets all performance objectives while accommodating program development uncertainties.

Eagar, M. A.; Jordan, F. W.; Stockham, L. W.

1993-06-01

380

Preliminary Design of an Auxiliary Power Unit for the Space Shuttle. Volume 2 Component and System Configuration Screening Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The auxiliary power unit (APU) for the space shuttle is required to provide hydraulic and electrical power on board the booster and orbiter vehicles. Five systems and their associated components, which utilize hot gas turbines to supply horsepower at gear...

W. L. Burriss M. L. Hamilton

1972-01-01

381

Engineering Report. Part 2: Nasa Wheel and Brake Material Tradeoff Study for Space Shuttle Type Environmental Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study included material selection and trade-off for the structural components of the wheel and brake optimizing weight vs cost and feasibility for the space shuttle type application. Analytical methods were used to determine section thickness for vari...

L. D. Bok

1973-01-01

382

Fluid Flow Analysis of the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) High Pressure Fuel and Oxidizer Turbine Coolant Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to provide improved analysis capability for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbine coolant systems. Each of the systems was analyzed to determine fluid flow rate and thermodynamic and transport proper...

G. A. Teal

1989-01-01

383

Actions to Implement the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Report to the President.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of the implementation of the recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident is reported. The implementation of recommendations in the following areas is detailed: (1) solid rocket motor design; (2) shutt...

1986-01-01

384

Actions to Implement the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of the implementation of the recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident is reported. The implementation of recommendations in the following areas is detailed: (1) solid rocket motor design; (2) shutt...

1986-01-01

385

ROTEX: space telerobotic flight experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 1993 the space robot technology experiment ROTEX flew with the space-shuttle Columbia (spacelab mission D2 on flight STS-55 from April 26 to May 6). A multisensory robot on board the space-craft successfully worked in autonomous modes, teleoperated by astronauts, as well as in different telerobotic ground control modes. These include on-line teleoperation and tele-sensor-programming, a task-level oriented programming technique involving `learning by showing' concepts in a virtual environment. The robot's key features were its multisensory gripper and the local sensory feedback schemes which are the basis for shared autonomy. The corresponding man-machine interface concepts using a 6 dof non-force- reflecting control ball and visual feedback to the human operator are explained. Stereographic simulation on ground was used to predict not only the robot's free motion but even the sensor based path refinement on board; prototype tasks performed by this space robot were the assembly of a truss structure, connecting/disconnecting an electric plug (orbit replaceable unit exchange ORU), and grasping free-floating objects.

Hirzinger, Gerd; Landzettel, Klaus L.; Heindl, J.

1993-12-01

386

LET distribution measurement with a new real-time radiation monitoring device-III onboard the Space Shuttle STS84  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device, RRMD-III, consisting of three double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) has been constructed and used onboard the Space Shuttle mission STS-84. The Space Shuttle cruised at an altitude of 300–400 km and an inclination angle of 51.6° for 221.3 h. RRMD-III succeeded in measuring the linear energy transfer (LET) distribution over the range

T. Sakaguchi; T. Doke; N. Hasebe; T. Hayashi; T. Kashiwagi; J. Kikuchi; S. Kono; S. Nagaoka; T. Nakano; T. Takagi; K. Takahashi; S. Takahashi

1999-01-01

387

Plasma waves observed in the near vicinity of the space shuttle  

SciTech Connect

The OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions found intense broadband waves in the near vicinity of the space shuttle. This paper contains a detailed observational characterizaiton and theoretical investigation of the plasma waves observed within about 10 m of the space shuttle during the XPOP roll period of theSpacelab 2 mission. High wave levels are found from 31 Hz to 10 kHz (near the lower hybrid frequency). Above 10 kHz the wave levels decrease with frequency, reaching the background level near 56 kHz. The frequency distribution of wave electric is best interpreted in terms of three components below about 10 kHz and a high-frequency tail. The primary component is a fairly uniform, high level of waves covering the frequency range from 31 Hz to 10 kHz. The two superposed components in this frequency range have electric fields of order twice the uniform level. The second component corresponds to a low-frequency peak in the range 100-178 Hz. The third component is found near, and follows the trend of, the lower hybrid frequency. The waves show a pronounced amplitude and frequency variation with the quantity V{sub parallel}/V{sub T} {approximately} 1 and the shuttle is moving primarily along the magnetic field. This implies that the waves are probably driven by water pickup ions. A new theory involving Doppler-shifted lower hybrid waves driven by beamlike distributions of water ions near the space shuttle is developed using linear theory.

Cairns, I.H.; Gurnett, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-08-01

388

Bistatic LIDAR experiment proposed for the Shuttle/tethered satellite system missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new experiment concept has been proposed for the Shuttle/tethered satellite system missions, which can provide high-resolution, global density mappings of certain ionospheric species. The technique utilizes bistatic LIDAR to take advantage of the unique dual platform configuration offered by these missions. A tuned, Shuttle-based laser is used to excite a column of the atmosphere adjacent to the tethered satellite, while triangulating photometric detectors on the satellite are employed to measure the fluorescence from sections of the column. The fluorescent intensity at the detectors is increased about six decades over both ground-based and monostatic Shuttle-based LIDAR sounding of the same region. In addition, the orbital motion of the Shuttle provides for quasi-global mapping unattainable with ground-based observations. Since this technique provides such vastly improved resolution on a synoptic scale, many important middle atmospheric studies, heretofore untenable, may soon be addressed.

McComas, D. J.; Karl, R. R.; Horak, H. G.; Spence, H. E.; Wilkerson, T. D.

1985-05-01

389

Shuttle Showcase: Firsts  

NASA Video Gallery

The space shuttle has defined an era and broken boundaries both in space and on Earth. Among the hundreds of people who have flown on the shuttle, many have been firsts -- for their race, their country or their profession.

Gerald T Wright

2011-07-10

390

Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy and in addition produced a viable test stand vehicle health monitor. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data.

Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, T. L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K.

391

Study of hydraulic actuation system for Space Shuttle main engine propellant valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent performance concerns involving the Space Shuttle Main Engine Propellant Valve Actuator assemblies prompted the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to request an independent design assessment. Moog Inc. responded to this request and received a study contract with objectives of increasing valve reliability, decreasing maintenance costs while preserving the existing design interfaces. The results of the Propellant Valve Actuation System review focus on contamination control and the bypass valve design. Three proof of concept bypass valves employing design changes were built and successfully tested. Test results are presented.

Ewel, Bob

1993-06-01

392

Environmental effects of space shuttle exhaust on materials. Final report, April 1986-August 1987  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted at Vandenberg Air Force Base to monitor the indoor environments associated with ground-based electronics at Shuttle Launch Complex 6 (SLC-6). Phase I, which is summarized in this report, was designed to determine baseline data prior to first launch of the space shuttle from this facility. During the course of the program, additional but similar studies were made at Vandenberg SLC-4 and Sunnyvale Air Force Station. Results at SLC-6 showed very low indoor pollutant levels, particularly with respect to reactive chlorides. Severity levels, as defined by corrosion monitoring, were exceptionally low at all locations, indicating that baseline conditions were very satisfactory for modern electronics. However, humidity and humidity cycling problems associated with HVAC operations were demonstrated at several locations. This raised the possibility for high corrosion rates on electronic components where reactive chloride infiltration occurred.

Abbott, W.H.

1989-01-01

393

A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look at mechanics, electronics, and software. Salient features of the mobile robot include omnidirectionality, high reach, high stiffness and accuracy with safety and self-reliance integral to all aspects of the design. The robot system is shown to meet task, facility, and NASA requirements in its design resulting in unprecedented specifications for a mobile-manipulation system.

Dowling, K.; Bennett, R.; Blackwell, M.; Graham, T.; Gatrall, S.; O'Toole, R.; Schempf, H.

1992-11-01

394

Pathfinder: Shuttle exhibit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This video introduces the Pathfinder Shuttle Exhibit, a joint project between the Marshall Space Flight Center and the State of Alabama's Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville. The exhibit features a never flown Shuttle vehicle, Pathfinder, that was used in early ground tests in the Shuttle Program, as well as an actual external fuel tank and set of booster rockets. The video includes footage of actual launches, the Pathfinder Shuttle Exhibit, and shots of the Space Camp at Alabama's Space and Rocket Center.

1988-08-01

395

Effects of Space Shuttle flight on the reflectance characteristics of diffusers in the near-infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many remote sensing instruments employ diffuse targets for calibration. These targets usually consist of diffusers with high Lambertian characteristics illuminated by a calibrated irradiance source. There is increasing interest in conducting in-orbit radiance calibration checks of remote sensing instruments using sunlight reflected off a diffuser. We report on the effects of space flight on the reflectance properties of polytetrafluoroethylene and aluminum diffuser samples flown on three Space Shuttle flights. These experiments showed good stability of both diffuser types in the visible and near infrared but experienced measurable degradation in the ultraviolet. Degradation varied from flight to flight and seemed to be related to different levels of contamination experienced on the three flights.

Hilsenrath, Ernest; Herzig, Howard H.; Williams, Donald E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Stiegman, Albert E.

1994-11-01

396

Observations of a Space Shuttle Burn by CINDI Instruments on C/NOFS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 30, 2009 the space shuttle Endeavour flew within 87 km of the Air Force research satellite C/NOFS that was then near its perigee at an altitude of ~422 km. Just prior to the encounter the shuttle conducted a 9.5-second burn of its OMS engines pointed upward so that the satellite would encounter the upward moving exhaust plume just over 29 seconds later. The CINDI instruments on board C/NOFS consist of an ion velocity meter (IVM) and a neutral wind meter (NWM). As C/NOFS passed through the plume both the IVM and the NWM detected a ~11-second long flow of ions and neutral particles in the direction corresponding to the plume’s motion. In addition the IVM also measured the temperature of the plume ions to be higher than the ambient plasma. Also, the retarding potential analyzer (RPA) on the IVM detected heavier ions than are normally present in this region of the ionosphere. All the results from this short encounter will be presented. A second attempt to measure a shuttle exhaust plume is planned for September 9, 2009 and if successful, those results will also be presented.

Haaser, R. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Stoneback, R.; Perdue, M. D.

2009-12-01

397

A study of the radiation environment on board the space shuttle flight STS-57  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on space shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5 deg inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle spectrometer, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and two area passive detectors consisting of combined NASA plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), and Russian nuclear emulsions, PNTD's, and TLD's. All the detector systems were shielded by the same shuttle mass distribution. This makes possible a direct comparison of the various dose measurement techniques. In addition, measurements of the neutron energy spectrum were made using the proton recoil technique. The results show good agreement between the integral LET spectrum of the combined galactic and trapped particles using the tissue equivalent proportional counter and track detectors between about 15 keV/micron and 200 keV/micron. The LET spectrum determined from nuclear emulsions was systematically lower by about 50%, possibly due to emulsion fading. The results show that the TEPC measured an absorbed dose 20% higher than TLD's, due primarily to an increased TEPC response to neutrons and a low sensitivity of TLD's to high LET particles under normal processing techniques. There is a significant flux of high energy neutrons that is currently not taken into consideration in dose equivalent calculations. The results of the analysis of the spectrometer data will be reported separately.

Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Keegan, R. P.; Dudkin, V. E.; Karpov, O. N.; Potapov, V.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.

1995-03-01

398

14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false...non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. 1214.101 Section 1214.101 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE...

2012-01-01

399

Positive spacecraft charging as measured by the Shuttle Potential and Return Electron Experiment  

SciTech Connect

During the deployed phase of the Tethered Satellite System 1 Mission (TSS-1), the Orbiter was observed to charge positively on a number of occasions during operation of the 100 mA, 1 keV Fast Pulsed Electron Gun (FPEG) of the Shuttle Electrodynamic Tether System (SETS). The occurrence of positive charging was determined both through the measurement of the voltages in the system and through observation of the charging peaks in the electron spectra measured by the Shuttle Potential and Return Electron Experiment (SPREE). Here the authors present data from the two cases of highest positive charging during the deployed phase of the TSS-1 mission. These cases occurred in darkness during periods of depressed ambient plasma density. Positive Orbiter charging was observed from ten to a hundred volts. During the operation of the FPEG prior to Orbiter charging, the SPREE electrostatic analyzers measured intense fluxes of electrons at energies up to the energy of the emitted beam. During the charging periods, the SPREE electron spectra displayed a peak whose position in energy was consistent with the positive potential of the Orbiter as determined from SETS and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) Deployer and Satellite Core Equipment (DCORE and SCORE) measurements. At energies above the charging peak, the shape of the electron distribution function during charging was consistent with a simple acceleration of the precharging spectrum by the electric field produced by the positively charged Orbiter. At energies below the charging peak, intense, isotropic fluxes of electrons were measured either with a power law spectrum or with a spectrum peaked at 10 to 20 eV.

Oberhardt, M.R.; Hardy, D.A. (Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States)); Thompson, D.C.; Raitt, W.J. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Melchioni, E. (Instituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Frascati (Italy)); Bonifazi, C. (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Rome (Italy)); Gough, M.P. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom). Space Science Centre)

1993-12-01

400

Synoptic and Mesoscale Forcing of Convective Activity Over Cape Canaveral during Easterly Flow and Nowcasting for Space Shuttle Landings at Kennedy Space Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Shuttle landings at Kennedy Space Center are subject to strict weather related landing flight rules. Landing rules demand very accurate nowcast (short-term forecasts of less than 2 h) of cloud, wind, visibility, precipitation, turbulence, and lightning at the Shuttle launches and landings. Challenges to U.S. Air Force forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Station and National Weather Service\\/Spaceflight Meteorology Group

William Henry Bauman III

1995-01-01

401

The epistemic integrity of NASA practices in the Space Shuttle Program.  

PubMed

This article presents an account of epistemic integrity and uses it to demonstrate that the epistemic integrity of different kinds of practices in NASA's Space Shuttle Program was limited. We focus on the following kinds of practices: (1) research by working engineers, (2) review by middle-level managers, and (3) communication with the public. We argue that the epistemic integrity of these practices was undermined by production pressure at NASA, i.e., the pressure to launch an unreasonable amount of flights per year. Finally, our findings are used to develop some potential strategies to protect epistemic integrity in aerospace science. PMID:23432770

De Winter, Jan; Kosolosky, Laszlo

2013-01-01

402

Implementation of the recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This final status report describes the actions taken by NASA in response to the recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (Mission 51-L). The Commission recommendations and NASA's responses to them are summarized in the Executive Summary, which is accompanied by a schedule showing significant program milestones. A detailed discussion of the activities undertaken by NASA to implement each of the nine Commission recommendations is included and other related NASA actions required for safe return to flight are discussed. A copy of the interim plan submitted to the President one year ago and other significant reference documents are included as appendixes.

1987-06-01

403

The space shuttle orbiter's advanced display designs and an analysis of its growth capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis analyzes the growth capability of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS). MEDS is a new 'glass cockpit' system, using Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) to replace the existing Orbiter cockpit instruments. The primary goals were to analyze the MEDS growth capabilities and to propose advanced Orbiter displays using the MEDS. Analysis of the Orbiter state vectors resulted in designs for real-time graphical displays for use during the ascent, orbital entry and rendezvous phases of the mission.

Tranthien, Baoquoc

1995-03-01

404

Recent space shuttle observations of the South Atlantic Anomaly and the radiation belt models.  

PubMed

Active instruments consisting of a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a proton and heavy ion detector (PHIDE) have been carried on a number of Space Shuttle flights. These instruments have allowed us to map out parts of the South Atlantic Particle Anomaly (SAA) and to compare some of its features with predictions of the AP-8 energetic proton flux models. We have observed that consistent with the generally observed westward drift of the surface features of the terrestrial magnetic field the SAA has moved west by about 6.9 degrees longitude between the epoch year 1970 of the AP-8 solar maximum model and the Space Shuttle observations made twenty years later. However, calculations indicate that except for relatively brief periods following very large magnetic storms the SAA seems to occupy the same position in L-space as in 1970. After the great storm of 24 March 1991 reconfiguration of the inner radiation belt and/or proton injection into the inner belt, a second energetic proton belt was observed to form at L approximately = 2. As confirmed by a subsequent flight observations, this belt was shown to persist at least for six months. Our measurements also indicate an upward shift in the L location of the primary belt from L = 1.4 to L = 1.5. In addition we confirm through direct real time observations the existence and the approximate magnitude of the East-West effect. PMID:11540035

Konradi, A; Badhwar, G D; Braby, L A

1994-10-01

405

Report at a glance: Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accident of Space Shuttle Challenger, mission 51-L, interrupting for a time one of the most productive engineering, scientific and exploratory programs in history, evoked a wide range of deeply felt public responses. There was grief and sadness for the loss of seven brave members of the crew; firm national resolve that those men and women be forever enshrined in the annals of American heroes, and a determination, based on that resolve and in their memory, to strengthen the Space Shuttle program so that this tragic event will become a milestone on the way to achieving the full potential that space offers to mankind. The President, who was moved and troubled by this accident in a very personal way, appointed an independent Commission made up of persons not connected with the mission to investigate it. The mandate of the Commission was to: (1) Review the circumstances surrounding the accident to establish the probable cause or causes of the accident; and (2) Develop recommendations for corrective or other action based upon the Commission's finding and determinations.

Rogers, William P.; Armstrong, Neil A.; Acheson, David C.; Covert, Eugene E.; Feynman, Richard P.; Hotz, Robert B.; Kutyna, Donald J.; Ride, Sally K.; Rummel, Robert W.; Sutter, Joseph F.

1986-06-01

406

The Ascent Study - Understanding the Market Environment for the Follow-on to the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ASCENT Study - Understanding the Market Environment for the Follow-on to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, awarded a contract (base plus option amounting to twenty months of analysis) to Futron Corporation in June 2001 to investigate the market environment, and explore the price elasticity attributes, relevant for the introduction of the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (the follow-on to the Space Shuttle) in the second decade of this century. This work is known as the ASCENT Study (Analysis of Space Concepts Enabled by New Transportation) and data collection covering a total of 42 different sectors took place during 2001. Modeling and forecasting activities for 26 of these markets (all of them international in nature) have been taking place throughout 2002, and the final results of the ASCENT Study, which include 20 year forecasts, are due by the end of January, 2003. This paper describes the markets being analyzed for the ASCENT Study, and includes some preliminary findings in terms of launch vehicle demand during the next 20 years, broken down by mass class and mission type. Amongst these markets are the potential public space travel opportunities. When completed, the final report of the ASCENT Study is expected to represent a significant reference document for all business development, financing and planning activities in the space industry for some time to come. One immediate use will be as a key factor in determining the cargo capability and launch rates to be used for designing the follow-on to the Space Shuttle. The Study will also provide NASA with a quantified indication of the extent to which the lower cost to orbit, made possible by a new class of launch vehicle, will bring into being new markets.

Webber, Derek

2002-01-01

407

EXCALIBIR - A space experiment in orbital debris lethality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study proposes a space experiment using extended Space Shuttle external tanks to test the impact of orbital debris. The External Tank Calibrated Impact Response test, EXCALIBIR, is a low-cost low-risk, high-payoff approach to investigating the threat to resident space objects posed by untrackable orbital debris, to provide lethality data to the kinetic energy weapons community, and to aid in

Robert D. Culp; Michael R. Dickey

1991-01-01

408

Control of plasma waves associated with the space shuttle by the angle between the orbiter's velocity vector and the magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between water outgassed from the space shuttle and the ionospheric plasma leads to production of water ions by charge exchange and an active and complex plasma wave environment for the space shuttle. The authors show that the amplitude and spectral character of some of these waves are controlled by the angle between the magnetic field and the shuttle's velocity vector V{sub T} relative to the ionospheric plasma. When the flow is approximately perpendicular to the magnetic field (V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T}{approximately}0), large wave amplitudes and characteristic mushroom wave structures are observed, whereas more nearly parallel flows {vert bar}V{parallel}{vert bar} {approximately} V{sub {perpendicular}} are characterized by low wave levels. They show that linear instability theory predicts the growth of Doppler-shifted lower hybrid waves in the observed frequency range when driven by the ring and/or beam distributions of water ions produced by charge exchange in the vicinity of the space shuttle. Two mutually compatible interpretations for the V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T} effect exist. The first interpretation involves the path lengths available for growth of waves driven by pickup ions varying with the quantity V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T} and being limited by spatial variations in the water ion distribution. The second interpretation follows directly from the linear theory: decreasing the ring/beam speed V{sub {perpendicular}} of the pickup ions driving the waves (increasing V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T} results in smaller growth rates), with zero growth rate below some threshold value of V{sub {perpendicular}}.These results have immediate implications for future shuttle missions and orbiting platforms subject to outgassing of water. If these facilities are used for ionospheric plasma studies or active experiments involving plasma waves, the plasma wave background due to pickup ions associated with the orbiter should be minimized.

Cairns, I.H.; Gurnett, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1991-05-01

409

Space Shuttle Impacts on Mesospheric Clouds and Iron Layers as Observed by Lidars and Satellites in the Antarctic and Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteoric iron layers and mesospheric clouds are two layered phenomena that have been used as tracers to study the global thermal and dynamic structures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. In January 2003, three days after the Columbia Space Shuttle was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, an iron (Fe) Boltzmann lidar detected strong sporadic Fe layers in the altitude

X. Chu; R. L. Collins; M. H. Stevens; J. M. Plane; R. R. Meier; M. T. Deland; M. C. Kelley; M. J. Nicolls; B. Thurairajah; R. H. Varney; K. Mizutani; Z. Yu

2009-01-01

410

Modifications to CTVS TV cameras for space shuttle compatibility and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five all solid state cockpit television system (CTVS) cameras, built to USAF requirements for high performance type F-16 aircraft, were modified and tested for possible use in the closed circuit television system on the space shuttle orbiter. The 400 HZ power supply in the electronics unit assembly was replaced with two DC/DC converters to enable operation from 28VDC spacecraft-type power sources. Nonessential circuit functions were deleted to minimize input power requirements. The normal 31 mm focal length lense assemblies were replaced with wider field-of-view 19 mm focal length lenses. Base plates for and housings were redesigned to facilitate mounting and heat-sinking of the camera in the space environment and short length (14") adapter cables were designed, fabricated, and tested to meet requirements for cameras configured to mount on the astronauts helmet/visor assembly. Technical requirements, design implementation, environmental tests, Modifications prodedures, and reliability/quality efforts are discussed. Schematics are included.

Hoagland, K.

1981-08-01

411

A simulation model for probabilistic analysis of Space Shuttle abort modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation model which was developed to provide a probabilistic analysis tool to study the various space transportation system abort mode situations is presented. The simulation model is based on Monte Carlo simulation of an event-tree diagram which accounts for events during the space transportation system's ascent and its abort modes. The simulation model considers just the propulsion elements of the shuttle system (i.e., external tank, main engines, and solid boosters). The model was developed to provide a better understanding of the probability of occurrence and successful completion of abort modes during the vehicle's ascent. The results of the simulation runs discussed are for demonstration purposes only, they are not official NASA probability estimates.

Hage, R. T.

1993-11-01

412

Risk Analysis of the Space Shuttle: Pre-Challenger Bayeisan Prediction of Failure  

SciTech Connect

Dalal et al performed a statistical analysis of field and nozzle O-ring data collected prior to the ill-fated launch of the Challenger in January 1986. The purpose of their analysis was to show how statistical analysis could be used to provide information to decisionmakers prior to the launch, information that could have been expected to lead to a decision to abort the launch due to the low temperatures (~30o F.) present at the launch pad on the morning of the scheduled launch. Dalal et al. performed a frequentist analysis of the O-ring data, and found that a logistic regression model provided a relatively good fit to the past data. In the second portion of their paper, Dalal et al. propagated parameter uncertainties through the fitted logistic regression model in order to estimate the probability of shuttle failure due to O-ring failure at the estimated launch temperature of ~30o F. Because their analysis was frequentist in nature, probability distributions representing epistemic uncertainty in the input parameters were not available, and the authors had to resort to an approximate approach based on bootstrap confidence intervals. In this paper, we will re-evaluate the analyses of Dalal et al. from a Bayesian perspective. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling will be used to sample from the joint posterior distribution of the model parameters, and to sample from the posterior predictive distributions at the estimated launch temperature, a temperature that had not been observed in prior launches of the space shuttle. Uncertainties, which are represented by probability distributions in the Bayesian approach, are propagated through the model to obtain a probability distribution for O-ring failure, and subsequently for shuttle failure as a result of O-ring failure. No approximations are required in the Bayesian approach and the resulting distributions can be input to a decision analysis to obtain expected utility for the decision to launch.

Dana L. Kelly

2008-02-01

413

Correlative Observations with Space-Borne Direct Doppler Wind Instruments of the Rapid Transport of Shuttle Exhaust Plumes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched by Space Shuttle STS-48 on 12 September 1991 and included a direct Doppler experiment, the High Resolution Doppler Imager, HRDI. Ten years later, the TIMED Doppler Interferometer, TIDI, joined HRDI in direct neutral wind observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The removal of instrumental artifacts from the raw spectra, complicated by the loss of good attitude knowledge for HRDI and unexpected signal contamination for TIDI has matured to a level where excellent agreement exists for common volume measurements between them. The two experiments were able to perform overlapping measurements of tidal and planetary wave fields for three years permitting unprecedented clarity in the description of the cyclical behaviour of the MLT. The exhaust plume left in the wake of the launch of STS-107 (16 January 2003) provided a stringent test between TIDI, HRDI, and independent imagery, the latter of which showed rapid transport across the equator to the Antarctic. Though TIDI and HRDI observed the atmosphere at the plume’s location at different local solar times, all correlative observations supported the hypothesis indicated by once-a-day images of the plume - rapid southern transport over thousands of kilometers. A simple spectral analysis of simultaneous observations of the neutral winds by HRDI and TIDI indicates that a classical two-day wave (longitudinal wavenumber = 3) exists in the southern hemisphere during the ~80-hour transit time coinciding with the transport of the plume exhaust from launch to the Antarctic. A least-squares fit of the wave in the meridional wind indicates maximum amplitude in the MLT of ~80 m/s southwards. Other shuttle launches have also been accompanied by evidence that implies rapid transport of exhaust plumes to Arctic latitudes. This paper will summarize correlative HRDI and/or TIDI wind observations of these events and associated spectral analysis of the meridional wind in the MLT. There is no question that TIDI and HRDI confirm the rapid implied motion suggested by space-borne imagery of shuttle exhaust plumes. Empirical and first-principle physical models of MLT dynamics fall short in describing the amplitude and long life of strong meridional flow. The consistency between TIDI, HRDI, and independent observations of rapid plume transport indicate that our understanding of MLT dynamics is far from complete.

Niciejewski, R.; Meier, R. R.; Stevens, M. H.; Skinner, W. R.; Cooper, M.; Marshall, A.; Ortland, D. A.; Wu, Q.

2010-12-01

414

Radar, lidar, and optical observations in the polar summer mesosphere shortly after a space shuttle launch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2007, a noctilucent cloud (NLC) campaign was organized in Alaska. Radar, lidar, and photographic methods were used. Due to lighting conditions, the campaign was carried out near the end of the NLC season. Sporadic radar and lidar echoes were obtained until the very end of the campaign, when an exceptionally intense event occurred on the local time night of 10-11 August. This late-season event followed the launch of the space shuttle on 8 August. At least twice before, solstice launches of the shuttle have been followed by unique observations of NLC and sporadic iron layers in the polar regions. This was the case here as well. The iron layer increased in altitude and density, the latter by a factor of 20, compared to the previous night. And, for the first time, (1) polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) were recorded by a radar in an event of this nature and (2) an intense sporadic E layer was collocated with the iron atom layer. At the UHF radar frequency used, very large Schmidt numbers are required for PMSE. Indeed, the PMSE was found at and just above the particles responsible for Mie scatter. Such large particles are likely needed to yield large Schmidt numbers. Additionally, similar lidar and sporadic E layers were detected over Greenland on the previous night. Here we consider the ion chemistry that could lead to the collocated atom and iron layers and conclude that considerably enhanced water vapor content was required.

Kelley, M. C.; Nicolls, M. J.; Varney, R. H.; Collins, R. L.; Doe, R.; Plane, J. M. C.; Thayer, J.; Taylor, M.; Thurairajah, B.; Mizutani, K.

2010-05-01

415

Reconstruction of the 1st Space Shuttle (STS-1) entry trajectory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discussion of the generation of the best estimate trajectory (BET) of the first Space Shuttle Orbiter entry flight is presented. The BET defines a time history of the state, attitude, and atmospheric relative parameters throughout the Shuttle entry from an altitude of approximately 183 km to rollout. The inertial parameters were estimated utilizing a weighted least squares batch filter algorithm. Spacecraft angular rate and acceleration data derived from the Inertial Measurement Unit were utilized to predict the state and attitude which was constrained in a weighted least squares process to fit external tracking data consisting of ground based S-band and C-band data. Refined spacecraft altitude and velocity during and post rollout were obtained by processing artificial altimeter and Doppler data. The BET generation process is discussed. Software and data interface discussions are included. The variables and coordinate systems utilized are defined. STS-1 mission peculiar inputs are summarized. A listing of the contents of the actual BET is provided.

Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.

1982-06-01

416

Space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report gives the findings of the space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team. The purpose of the team was to investigate the causes of main parachute deployment damage and to recommend methods to eliminate or substantially reduce the damage. The team concluded that the two primary causes of significant damage during deployment are vent entanglement and contact of the parachutes with the main parachute support structure. As an inexpensive but effective step towards damage reduction, the team recommends modification of the parachute packing procedure to eliminate vent entanglement. As the most effective design change, the team recommends a pilot chute-deployed soft-pack system. Alternative concepts are also recommended that provide a major reduction in damage at a total cost lower than the pilot chute-deployed soft pack.

Watts, G.

1993-01-01

417

Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to [approximately]90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above [approximately]110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

Fritts, D.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Dingyi Wang (Inst. for Space and Terrestrial Sciences, North York, Ontario (Canada)); Blanchard, R.C. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States))

1993-03-15

418

Crystallographic oxide phase identification of char deposits obtained from space shuttle Columbia window debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Char deposits on recovered fragments of space shuttle Columbia windowpanes were analyzed to further understand the events that occurred during orbiter reentry and breakup. The TEM analysis demonstrated that oxides of aluminum and titanium mixed with silicon oxides to preserve a history of thermal conditions to which portions of the vehicle were exposed. The presence of Ti during the beginning of the deposition process, along with the thermodynamic phase precipitation upon cool down, indicated that temperatures well above the Ti melt point were experienced. The stratified observations implied that additional exothermic reactions, expectedly metal combustion of a Ti-6Al-4V structure, had to occur for oxide formation. Results are significant for aerospace vehicles, where thermal protection system (TPS) breaches could cause material originally designed for substructural applications to be in direct path with reentry plasma.

Olivas, J. D.; Wright, M. C.; Christoffersen, R.; Cone, D. M.; McDanels, S. J.

2010-09-01

419

Cargo spaceships after Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Space Shuttle derivatives and new heavy-lift launch vehicles proposed to deliver cargo to space for the construction of large space structures are discussed. It is suggested that the best way to meet future payload requirements would be to develop a Space Shuttle derivative for smaller payloads and an all new launcher for larger ones. NASA has found that launchers

D. Baker

1979-01-01

420

Microencapsulation of Drugs in the Microgravity Environment of the United States Space Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Southern Research Institute tested the feasibility of making biodegradable, time-release, pharmaceutical microspheres in space. We designed, built, safety tested, and flew hardware we call the Microencapsulation in Space (MIS) experiment. The MIS experime...

T. R. Tice R. J. Holl

1993-01-01

421

Docking Offset Between the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station and Resulting Impacts to the Transfer of Attitude Reference and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the International Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agre...

K. M. Pohlkamp W. J. Helms

2011-01-01

422

A Millimeter-wave Radiometer Technique For Measuring Ice Thickness On The Surface Of The Space Shuttle's External Fueltank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external tanks of the Space Shuttle are composed of reservoirs filled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to provide the propulsion necessary for launch. Because these reservoirs are maintained at very low temperatures, a 3.9-cm thick layer of foam material is used to cover the aluminum surface of the tanks in order to provide thermal insulation between the tank

F. T. Ulaby; J. R. Kendra; T. Haddock; Steve Wu

1991-01-01

423

Shuttle LOX Loading Transient Study. Task 2 Milestone Report. National Space and Technology Laboratories (Nstl) LOX Loading Facility Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transient thermodynamic analyses were made of the LOX loading system proposed for the space shuttle main propulsion test article (MPTA). This system is made up of a LOX replenish system and a main LOX line which include the barge tank, the lines, pumps, a...

V. L. Glasgow

1975-01-01

424

Framing Arguments in a Technical Controversy: Assumptions about Science and Technology in the Decision to Launch the Space Shuttle Challenger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the assumptions about science and technology held by the engineers who attempted to delay the launch of the Challenger Space Shuttle. Reveals three dominant conceptions of science and technology which guided the engineers' persuasive efforts and which appeared to account for why the engineers did not succeed in their attempt to influence…

Miller, Christine M.

1993-01-01

425

Material Modeling of Space Shuttle Leading Edge and External Tank Materials For Use in the Columbia Accident Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon the commencement of the analytical effort to characterize the impact dynamics and damage of the Space Shuttle Columbia leading edge due to External Tank insulating foam, the necessity of creating analytical descriptions of these materials became evident. To that end, material models were developed of the leading edge thermal protection system, Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC), and a low density

Kelly Carney; Matthew Melis; Edwin L. Fasanella; Karen H. Lyle; Jonathan Gabrys

426

Estimates of the Climatic Impact of Aerosols Produced by Space Shuttles, SST's, and other High Flying Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft and Space Shuttles flying through the stratosphere over the next several decades will add sulfuric acid and aluminum oxide particles, respectively, to this region of the atmosphere. To evaluate the effect of these additional aerosols on the global heat balance, we have performed solar and terrestrial radiative transfer calculations. The solar calculations employed an accurate numerical method for solving

James B. Pollack; Owen B. Toon; Andrey Summers; Warren van Camp; Betty Baldwin

1976-01-01

427

Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Ogee-Wing Space Shuttle Orbiter Concept at a Mach Number of 2.01.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation has been made at a Mach number of 2.01 to determine the effects of a flared rudder on the aerodynamic characteristics of an ogee-wing space-shuttle orbiter configuration. Also investigated were the effects of an upper-aft fuselage fairing...

L. E. Putnam

1972-01-01

428

Experimental Surface Flow Patterns and Flow-Field Phenomena of a delta-Wing Space-Shuttle Orbiter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Composite photographs of the surface flow and shadow-graphs of the shock wave pattern are presented that depict the hypersonic flow field of a typical delta wing space shuttle orbiter. Results from a wind tunnel test in air are given in side, oblique, and...

J. W. Cleary

1972-01-01

429

SWUIS-A compact astronomical UV/VIS/IR imaging system for manned space-based platforms including the space shuttle and the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SWUIS is a compact, low-cost ultraviolet/visible/infrared imaging system designed for remote sensing observations from a manned platform in space. SWUIS operates in two modes: (1) telescope science mode (TSM), and (2) camera science mode (CSM). The main hardware components in TSM consist of an 18-cm UV-transmissive Maksutov-Cassegrain telescope feeding an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The detector is an ICCD imaging camera sensitive to UV/visible/near-IR wavelengths that frames at video rates. Data is output from the ICCD as an RS-170 video signal and recorded onto a video recorder. A custom window mounting bracket allows SWUIS to attach to the Space Shuttle side-hatch window for UV observations (and which could be adapted to fit aboard an ISS window). In TSM, SWUIS has a field-of-view (FOV) that can be varied between 0.3-0.6° (full cone). In CSM, SWUIS operates with the ICCD and an attached wide-field lens giving a FOV of 12.5°. SWUIS collected >4.1×105 images of comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 on its maiden voyage aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-85). Details of the SWUIS hardware are presented, as well as its performance during STS-85. Plans for future flights aboard STS-93 and future Shuttle missions, as well as it becoming a permanent astronomical facility aboard the ISS are also described.

Slater, D. C.; Stern, S. A.; Tomlinson, W. M.; Mahoney, D. E.; Parker, J. Wm.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Colwell, W. B.; Durda, D. D.; Weissman, P. R.; Vilas, F.

1999-01-01

430

KOVEC studies of radioisotope thermoelectric generator response (In connection with possible NASA space shuttle accident explosion scenarios)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study leading to a final report (NUS-4543, Report of the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Explosion Working Group (EWG), June 8, 1984), concerned with PuO/sub 2/ dispersal should the NASA space shuttle explode during the proposed Galileo and ISPN launches planned for 1986. At DOE's request, LLNL furnished appendices that describe hydrocode KOVEC calculations of potential damage to the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators, fueled by PuO/sub 2/, should certain explosion scenarios occur. These appendices are contained in this report.

Walton, J.; Weston, A.; Lee, E.

1984-06-26

431

High-Frequency Data Observations from Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Fuel Turbopump Discharge Duct Flex Joint Tripod Failure Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations made by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers during their participation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation are summarized. New signal processing ...

T. F. Zoladz R. A. Farr

1991-01-01

432

Variations in digestive physiology of rats after short duration flights aboard the US space shuttle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of microgravity on several endogenous and microbial parameters of digestive physiology. On the occasion of two Spacelab Life Sciences missions, SLS-1 (a 9-day space flight) and SLS-2 (a 14-day space flight), Sprague-Dawley rats flown aboard the US space shuttle were compared to age-matched ground-based controls. In both flights, exposure to microgravity modified cecal fermentation: concentration and profile of short-chain fatty acids were altered, whereas urea and ammonia remained unchanged. Only in SLS-1 was there an induction of intestinal glutathione-S-transferase. Additional analyses in SLS-2 showed a decrease of hepatic CYP450 and of colonic goblet cells containing neutral mucin. After a postflight recovery period equal to the mission length, only modifications of the hepatic and intestinal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes still persisted. These findings should help to predict the alterations of digestive physiology and detoxification potential likely to occur in astronauts. Their possible influence on health is discussed. PMID:11052306

Rabot, S; Szylit, O; Nugon-Baudon, L; Meslin, J C; Vaissade, P; Popot, F; Viso, M

2000-09-01

433

Shuttle Showcase: STS-124  

NASA Video Gallery

The second in a series of flights to assemble the Japanese segment of the International Space Station saw the mammoth Kibo module delivered to the complex complements of Discovery and its crew on the STS-124 mission. Kibo, the Japanese word for “hope” would house dozens of experiments and serve as a platform for external payloads brought to the complex on subsequent Shuttle flights and the Japanese “Kounotori” H-2 Transfer Vehicle cargo ship.

Gerald T Wright

2011-07-10

434

Shuttle Atlantis: From the Inside  

NASA Video Gallery

An unprecedented up close, inside look at space shuttle Atlantis as it was readied for "towback" from Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility runway to Orbiter Processing Facility-1 following its May 26 landing on STS-132. After every shuttle landing, about 150 trained workers assist the crew out and prepare the shuttle for towing to its processing hanger.

Jim Wilson

2010-06-10

435

Utilization of Shuttle Small Payload Accommodations in the DOD Space Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past 27 years, the U.S. Air Force, as executive agent for the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program, has flown approximately 325 space experiments for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and other DOD agencies. These experiments have made signifi...

T. Hagler E. Czajkowski

1993-01-01

436

Instrumentation, control and communication systems for sounding rockets and shuttle-borne experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report deals with the design, development, fabrication, analysis, and field support of signal processing, control systems and telemetry systems for space vehicles. Sounding rocket programs discussed include BEAR, COLDR, LIFE AND SPEAR I. Shuttle-borne programs include IMPS, IBSS/CIV, and GAS/VIPER. Brief studies were made of airborne optical disk recording systems and packet telemetry. A telemetry system for vibration and shock testing and electro-mechanical release systems were also developed. PL (formerly GL) scientists were provided consultation and assistance in monitoring the EXCEDE-III and SPIRIT-II program.

Rochefort, J. S.; Oconnor, Lawrence J.; Sukys, Raimundas; Poirier, Norman C.; Morin, Richard L.

1991-07-01

437

NASDA next-generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. These include the Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU), Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) and another VFEU for marine fish. Each facility had functions such as life support for up to 15 days, water quality control system, gas exchange by artificial

M. Masukawa; T. Ochiai; S. Kamigaichi; S. Uchida; Y. Kono; T. Takamatsu; T. Sakimura

2002-01-01

438

Results of space experiments.  

PubMed

Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. PMID:7480627

Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

1995-08-01

439

Toward quantifying uncertainty in travel time tomography using the null-space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solution of large linear tomographic inverse problems is fundamentally non-unique. We suggest to explore the non-uniqueness explicitly by examining the null-space of the forward operator. We show that with the null-space shuttle it is possible to assess robustness in tomographic models, and we illustrate the concept for the global P-wave model MIT-P08. We found a broad range of acceptable solutions compatible with the travel time data. The root mean square (RMS) velocity perturbations vary from 0.2 to 0.6% in the lowermost mantle and from 0.3 to 1.3% in the upper mantle. Such large variations in average amplitudes prohibit meaningful inferences on temperature or chemical variations in the Earth from tomographic models alone. On a global scale much short wavelength structure resides in the null-space of the forward operator, suggesting that the data do not everywhere resolve structure on the smallest length scale (<200 km) allowed by the (block) parameterization used in MIT-P08 and similar models. This indicates that great care should be taken when interpreting such structure. As a practical measure, we suggest that only those structures for which the wave speed perturbations do not change sign within the range of models permitted by the data should be considered robust. With this criterion, the model null-space analysis shows that the high velocity anomalies in the lower mantle, which are often interpreted as remnants of slabs of subducted lithosphere, are required by the seismic data. Low-velocity anomalies underneath, for instance, Hawaii, Iceland, and Africa show varying degrees of robustness.

de Wit, R. W. L.; Trampert, J.; van der Hilst, R. D.

2012-03-01

440

Pulling Up the Drawbridge: A Case Study of Rockwell International's Public Response Policy Following the Destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor of the United States space shuttle program, following the 1986 destruction of the Challenger, and evaluates that policy in terms of its utility to Rockwell and its impact on public dissemination of information about the shuttle

Kaufman, John A.

441

Pulling Up the Drawbridge: A Case Study of Rockwell International's Public Response Policy Following the Destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor of the United States space shuttle program, following the 1986 destruction of the Challenger, and evaluates that policy in terms of its utility to Rockwell and its impact on public dissemination of information about the shuttle

Kaufman, John A.

442

First results from the PROTEIN experiment on board the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 15 2009 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched, carrying the Process Unit of the Protein Crystallization Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) to the International Space Station. It contained the PROTEIN experiment, aiming at the in-situ observation of nucleation and crystal growth behaviour of proteins. After installation in the European Drawer Rack (EDR) and connection to the PCDF Electronics Unit, experiment runs

Klaas Decanniere; Lothar Potthast; Vladimir Pletser; Dominique Maes; Fermin Otalora; Jose A. Gavira; Luis David Pati; Peter Lautenschlager; Robert Bosch

2010-01-01

443

Shuttle project for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selection of 200 semifinalists has begun for the first national Space Shuttle Student Involvement Project, a joint effort of NASA and the National Science Teachers Association. The semi finalists are being selected from 1500 entries.Objective of the project is to stimulate study of science and technology in grades 9 through 12. Students compete to develop payload experiments suitable for flight aboard the shuttle. The 1500 entries, grouped into 10 geographic areas, are being reviewed by interdisciplinary teams of teachers, scientists, and engineers. Twenty students from each region will be selected. Ten finalists will then be chosen on their scientific or engineering merit. The 10 national winners and their teachers will attend a special education conference late this summer at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

444

The role of the space shuttle videotapes in the discovery of sprites, jets and elves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sequence of videotape observations of the upper atmospheric optical flashes called sprites, jets, starters, and ELVES are described in the successive phases of search, discovery, confirmation, and exploration for the years before 1993. Although there were credible eyewitness accounts from ground observers and pilots, these reports did not inspire a systematic search for hard evidence of such phenomena. The science community would instead wait for serendipitous observations to move the leading edge of this science forward. The phenomenon, now known as a sprite, was first accidently documented on ground based videotape recordings on the night of 6 July, 1989. Video observations from the space shuttle acquired from 1989-1991 provided 17 additional examples to confirm the existence of the sprite phenomenon. Successful video observations from a mountain ridge by Lyons, starting on 7 July, 1993, and night-time aircraft video observations by Sentman and Wescott on 8 July, 1993 established the basic science of the sprite phenomena by acquiring and analyzing data based on hundreds of new events. The 1994 Sprites campaign and the video entitled ``Red Sprites and Blue Jets'' popularized the name sprite and provided a vocabulary of terms to describe the visual attributes. Prior to this video, investigators used a variety of vague descriptive words to describe the individual events. Also, during the 1994 campaign, Wescott and coworkers obtained the first quantitative measurements of jets and provided the name `blue jets'. A third phenomenon was discovered in video from the STS-41 mission (October 1990) in the lower ionosphere directly above an active thunderstorm. It consisted of a large horizontal brightening several hundred kilometers across at the altitude of the airglow layer. In 1995, Lyons and associates confirmed the existence of this type of very brief brightening which they named Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations From Electromagnetic Pulse Sources (ELVES). Because sprites, jets, and ELVES have appeared for millennia, their discovery was inevitable. The partial history related in this paper outlines the unsophisticated activities using space shuttle videotapes and the dissemination of the results by video presentations during the early phases of sprite research. This paper does not attempt to evaluate the advances in the science based on the measurement campaigns of Lyons, Sentman and many other investigators.

Boeck, W. L.; Vaughan, O. H.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Vonnegut, B.; Brook, M.

1998-05-01

445

Lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE); NASA's first in-space lidar system for atmospheric research  

SciTech Connect

The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is being developed by NASA/Langley Research Center for flight on the Space Shuttle. The system will detect stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols, probe the planetary boundary layer, measure cloud top heights, and measure atmospheric temperature and density in the range of 10 to 40 km. The system consists of a nominal 1 m diameter telescope receiver, a three-color neodymium:YAG laser transmitter, and the system electronics. The instrument makes extensive use of Space Shuttle resources for electrical power, thermal control, and command and data handling. The instrument will fly on the Space Shuttle in mid-1993. This paper presents the engineering aspects of the design, fabrication, integration, and operation of the instrument. A companion paper by members of the LITE Science Steering Group that details the science aspects of LITE is the preparation and will be published at a later time.

Couch, R.H.; Rowland, C.W.; Ellis, K.S.; Blythe, M.P.; Regan, C.P.; Koch, M.R.; Antill, C.W.; Kitchen, W.L.; Cox, J.W.; DeLorme, J.F.; Crockett, S.K.; Remus, R.W. (NASA/Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (US)); Casas, J.C. (SpaceTec Ventures, Hampton, VA (US)); Hunt, W.H. (Wyle Lab., Hampton, VA (US))

1991-01-01

446

Ram ion scattering caused by space shuttle v times B induced differential charging  

SciTech Connect

Observations of secondary, high-inclination ions streams have been reported in the literature. The authors of these previous papers attributed the source of the secondary ions to a disturbed region in the plasma about 10 m form the space shuttle Orbiter. A new theory has been developed which shows how v {times} B induces differential charging on the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) can scatter the ram ion flux. Some of these ions are reflected back to the PDP and may be the source of the observed ion distributions. The effect is unique to large spacecraft; it occurs only when the magnitude of the induced v {times} B potentials are much larger than the electron thermal energy and of the order of the ion ram energy. That the ion streams observed at large angles must have been reflected from the PDP surface is demonstrated with three-dimensional sheath and particle trajectory calculations using the low earth orbit version of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP/LEO).

Katz, I.; Davis, V.A. (S-Cubed Div. of Maxwell Labs., La Jolla, CA (United States))

1987-08-01

447

Ram ion scattering caused by Space Shuttle v x B induced differential charging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of secondary, high-inclination ions streams have been reported in the literature. The authors of these previous papers attributed the source of the secondary ions to a disturbed region in the plasma about 10 m from the Space Shuttle Orbiter. A new theory has been developed which shows how v x B induced differential charging on the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) can scatter the ram ion flux. Some of these ions are reflected back to the PDP and may be the sorce of the observed ion distributions. The effect is unique to large spacecraft; it occurs only when the magnitude of the induced v x B potentials are much larger than the electron thermal energy and of the order of the ion ram energy. That the ion streams observed at large angles must have been reflected from the PDP surface is demonstrated with three-dimensional sheath and particle trajectory calculations using the low earth orbit version of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP/LEO).

Katz, I.; Davis, V. A.

1987-08-01

448

Thermochemical Degradation Mechanisms for the Reinforced Carbon/Carbon Panels on the Space Shuttle  

SciTech Connect

The wing leading edge and nose cone of the Space Shuttle are fabricated from a reinforced carbon/carbon material (RCC). The material attains its oxidation resistance from a diffusion coating of SiC and a glass sealant. During re-entry, the RCC material is subjected to an oxidizing high temperature environment, which leads to degradation via several mechanisms. These mechanisms include oxidation to form a silica scale, reaction of the SiO2 with the SiC to evolve gaseous products, viscous flow of the glass, and vaporization of the glass. Each of these is discussed in detail. Following extended service and many missions, the leading-edge wing surfaces have exhibited small pinholes. A chloridation/oxidation mechanism is proposed to arise from the NaCl deposited on the wings from the sea-salt laden air in Florida. This involves a local chloridation reaction of the SiC and subsequent re-oxidation at the external surface. Thermodynamic calculations indicate the feasibility of these reactions at active pits. Kinetic calculations predict pore depths close to those observed.

Jacobson, N.S.; Rapp, R.A.

1995-01-01

449

Space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blade cracking  

SciTech Connect

The analytical results from two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) finite element model investigations into the cracking of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) first- and second-stage turbine blades are presented. Specifically, the initiation causes for transverse cracks on the pressure side of the firststage blade fir tree lobes and face/corner cracks on the downstream fir tree face of the second-state blade are evaluated. Because the blade material, MAR-M-246 Hf (DS), is highly susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement in the -100 F to 400 F thermal environment, a steady-state condition (full power level = 109 percent) rather than a start-up or shut-down transient was considered to be the most likely candidate for generating a high-strain state in the fir tree areas. Results of the analyses yielded strain levels on both first- and second-stage blade fir tree regions that are of a magnitude to cause hydrogen assisted low cycle fatigue cracking. Also evident from the analysis is that a positive margin against fir tree cracking exists for the planned design modifications, which include shot peening for both first- and second-stage blade fir tree areas.

Lee, H.

1988-05-01

450

Flow/thermal analysis with verification by testing for redesign of the Space Shuttle SRM igniter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the success of the insulation j-joints in the Redesigned Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field and nozzle to case joints, the igniter joints were redesigned to incorporate j-joints in the inner and outer igniter joints. The j-joints eliminated the putty that had previously been used to block hot motor gases from reaching the gasket seals. The gasket seals required the addition of a heater during the SRM redesign to increase the dynamic response of the seals to a gap opening in the joints upon motor ignition. The igniter redesign also reduced or eliminated these gap openings thus allowing a lower launch commit temperature criterion. The flow/thermal analyses discussed in this paper are ones used to support the igniter redesign and development phase specifically including tests where motor pressure was allowed to reach the primary seals as a result of intentionally flawing the j-joints. The test data, including pressure, temperature and erosion measurements, were used to support model verification. A good correlation between analysis results and test data was found.

O'Malley, M. J.

1993-06-01

451

Structural analysis of a frangible nut used on the NASA Space Shuttle  

SciTech Connect

A structural analysis methodology has been developed for the NASA 2.5-inch frangible nut used on the Space Shuttle. Two of these nuts are used to secure the External Tank to the aft end of the Orbiter. Both nuts must completely fracture before the Orbiter can safely separate from the External Tank. Ideally, only one of the two explosive boosters contained in each nut must detonate to completely break a nut. However, after an uncontrolled change in the Inconel 718 material processing, recent tests indicate that in certain circumstances both boosters may be required. This report details the material characterization and subsequent structural analyses of nuts manufactured from two lots of Inconel 718. The nuts from the HSX lot were observed to consistently separate with only one booster, while the nuts from the HBT lot never completely fracture with a single booster. The material characterization requires only tensile test data and the determination of a tearing parameter based on a computer simulation of a tensile test. Subsequent structural analyses using the PRONTO2D finite element code correctly predict the differing response of nuts fabricated from these two lots. This agreement is important because it demonstrates that this technique can be used to screen lots of Inconel 718 before manufacturing frangible nuts from them. To put this new capability to practice, Sandia personnel have transferred this technology to the Pyrotechnics Group at NASA-JSC.

Metzinger, K.E.

1993-11-01

452

Reentry heating analysis of space shuttle with comparison of flight data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface heating rates and surface temperatures for a space shuttle reentry profile were calculated for two wing cross sections and one fuselage cross section. Heating rates and temperatures at 12 locations on the wing and 6 locations on the fuselage are presented. The heating on the lower wing was most severe, with peak temperatures reaching values of 1240 C for turbulent flow and 900 C for laminar flow. For the fuselage, the most severe heating occured on the lower glove surface where peak temperatures of 910 C and 700 C were calculated for turbulent flow and laminar flow, respectively. Aluminum structural temperatures were calculated using a finite difference thermal analyzer computer program, and the predicted temperatures are compared to measured flight data. Skin temperatures measured on the lower surface of the wing and bay 1 of the upper surface of the wing agreed best with temperatures calculated assuming laminar flow. The measured temperatures at bays two and four on the upper surface of the wing were in quite good agreement with the temperatures calculated assuming separated flow. The measured temperatures on the lower forward spar cap of bay four were in good agreement with values predicted assuming laminar flow.

Gong, L.; Quinn, R. D.; Ko, W. L.

453

Statistical and dynamical analysis of internal waves on the continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight from space shuttle photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

By interpreting two space shuttle photographs taken with a Linhof camera on June 8, 1991, a total of 34 internal soliton packets on the continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight are recognized. The internal soliton field has a three-level structure: packet groups with average wavelength of 17.5 km, packets with average wavelength of 7.9 km, and solitons with average

Quanan Zheng; Xiao-Hai Yan; Vic Klemas

1993-01-01

454

Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system for in-situ nondestructive inspection of Space Shuttle RCC heat shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) heat shield components on the Space Shuttle's wings must withstand harsh atmospheric reentry environments where the wing leading edge can reach temperatures of 3,000 F. Potential damage includes impact damage, micro cracks, oxidation in the silicon carbide-to-carbon-carbon layers, and interlaminar disbonds. Since accumulated damage in the thick, carbon-carbon and silicon-carbide layers of the heat shields can

Dennis Patrick Roach; Phillip D. Walkington; Kirk A. Rackow

2005-01-01

455

Effects of initial geometric imperfections on the non-linear response of the Space Shuttle superlightweight liquid-oxygen tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an analytical study of the elastic buckling and non-linear behavior of the liquid-oxygen tank for the new Space Shuttle superlightweight external fuel tank are presented. Selected results that illustrate three distinctly different types of non-linear response phenomena for thin-walled shells which are subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads are presented. These response phenomena consist of a

Michael P. Nemeth; Richard D. Young; Timothy J. Collins; James H. Starnes Jr.

2002-01-01

456

Continuous oxygen monitoring of mammalian cell growth on space shuttle mission STS93 with a novel radioluminescent oxygen sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact, flow-through oxygen sensor device based on luminescence quenching was used to monitor dissolved oxygen levels during\\u000a mammalian cell growth on the STS-93 mission of the Columbia space shuttle. Excitation of an oxygen-sensitive ruthenium complex\\u000a was provided by a radiolumin escent light source (0.9 mm in diameter, 2.5 mm long), and the intensity of the resulting luminescence\\u000a was measured

Julie S. Reece; Michael J. Miller; Mark A. Arnold; Cris Waterhouse; Ted Delaplaine; Laura Cohn; Tom Cannon

2003-01-01

457

Incoherent scatter measurements of ring-ion beam distributions produced by space shuttle exhaust injections into the ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the space shuttle Orbiting Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines burn in the ionosphere, two types of effects are produced. First, charge exchange between the exhaust molecules and the ambient O+-ions yields beams of high-speed molecular ions that can excite plasma turbulence. Second, the molecular ions eventually recombine with electrons to yield a plasma hole. The ion-beam interactions and the formation

P. A. Bernhardt; M. P. Sulzer

2004-01-01

458

Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

1993-11-01

459

Cryogenic explosion environment modeling and testing of space shuttle and light-weight radioisotope heater unit interactions  

SciTech Connect

In order to assess the risk to the world's populace in the event of a Space Shuttle accident when radioisotope-containing heat sources are on board, testing of that system must be performed to determine release point, environments required, and the size distribution of the released fuel. To evaluate the performance of the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) (101 of these 1-W items are placed on the Galileo spacecraft which will be launched from the Space Shuttle), some high-velocity impact and flyer plate testing was carried out. The results showed that a bare urania-fueled LWRHU clad (approximately 1-mm thick platinum-30 wt % rhodium alloy) will withstand 1100 m/s flyer plate (3.5-mm thick aluminum) impacts and 330 m/s impacts upon the Space Shuttle floor (approximately 12-mm thick aluminum) without rupture or fuel release. Velocities in the order of 600 m/s on a steel surface will cause clad failure with fuel release. The fuel breakup patterns were characterized as to quantity in a specific size range. These data were employed in the formal Safety Analysis Report for the LWRHU to support the planned 1986 Galileo launch. 19 figs.

Johnson, E.W.

1985-10-01

460

Development of a Flexible Framework for Hypersonic Navier-Stoke Space Shuttle Orbiter Meshes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flexible framework constructing block structured volume grids for hypersonic Navier-Strokes flow simulations was developed for the analysis of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia. The development of the framework, which was partially basedon the requirements o...

S. J. Alter J. J. Reuthler R. D. McDaniel

2004-01-01

461

Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Volume 2 and 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents(Appendices): Independent Test Team Report to the Commission; Personal Observations on Reliability of Shuttle; Human Factors Analysis; Flight Readiness Review Treatment of O-ring Problems; NASA Pre-Launch Activities Team Report; NASA Miss...

1986-01-01

462

Developmental Problems and Their Solution for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Alternate Liquid Oxygen High-Pressure Turbopump: Anomaly or Failure Investigation the Key.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate high-pressure liquid oxygen pump experienced synchronous vibration and ball bearing life problems that were program threatening. The success of the program hinged on the ability to solve these development pro...

R. Ryan L. A. Gross

1995-01-01

463

Space Experiment Module: A new low-cost capability for education payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Experiment Module (SEM) concept is one of a number of education initiatives being pursued by the NASA Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) in an effort to increase educational access to space by means of Space Shuttle Small Payloads and associated activities. In the SEM concept, NASA will provide small containers ('modules') which can accommodate small zero-gravity experiments designed and constructed by students. A number, (nominally ten), of the modules will then be flown in an existing Get Away Special (GAS) carrier on the Shuttle for a flight of 5 to 10 days. In addition to the module container, the NASA carrier system will provide small amounts of electrical power and a computer system for controlling the operation of the experiments and recording experiment data. This paper describes the proposed SEM carrier system and program approach.

Goldsmith, Theodore C.; Lewis, Ruthan

1995-09-01

464

Space debris and micrometeorite events experienced by WL experiment 701 in prolonged low earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air Force Systems Command Weapons Laboratory experiment 701 (Space Environment Effects on Fiber optic Systems) was housed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility and placed into orbit on April 6, 1984, by the shuttle challenger. It was retrieved 69 months later by the shuttle Columbia on January 12, 1990. During this period in orbit, the experiment experienced numerous debris or micrometeorite impacts. Impact flux values, crater characteristics, and shock phenomena on the experiment's space-exposed surfaces were observed to be similar to returned materials of the Solar Max satellite. This paper presents the analysis of preliminary data, describes data reduction techniques, and outlines areas of future study.

McKnight, D. S.; Dueber, R. E.; Taylor, E. W.

1991-06-01

465

The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

1993-10-01

466

The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been submitted for contributions to this report.

Goldsmith, F.; Mosier, F.L.

1995-09-01

467

The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

1992-10-01

468

Space active modular materials experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ballistic Missile Defence Organization is flying the Space Active Modular Materials Experiments (SAMMES), test of contamination and space environment effects on materials on board the Space Test Research Vehicle-2. This paper describes the experiment architecture, the instruments, and the sample suite. Notional descriptions of operations are provided to highlight the objectives and capabilities of SAMMES.

Graham S. Arnold; David E. Brinza; P. Joshi; D. N. Keener

1998-01-01

469

Shuttle Astronauts Play Chess  

NASA Video Gallery

STS-134 astronauts Greg Johnson and Greg Chamitoff ponder their next move for the Earth vs. Space chess match. The shuttle crew members also discuss their activities aboard the International Space Station and the benefits of playing chess.

Mark Garcia

2011-05-25

470

The effect of microgravity on the fragrance of a miniature rose, ``Overnight Scentsation™'' on Space Shuttle (STS-95)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the effects of microgravity on the production of aroma constituents, the OVERNIGHT SCENTSATION™ rose plant with both an unopened bud and a half bloom was sent into the space aboard NASA space shuttle STS-95 for 9 days, from October 29 through November 6, 1998. While the flower was blooming in space, it was analyzed over four consecutive days using IFF's proprietary Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method. After returning to Earth on November 6, the information collected in space was analyzed and compared with the data collected from the same type of rose plant on the ground. The comparative results of the space rose and the Earth rose showed a drastic difference in their fragrance molecules. .

Mookherjee, Braja D.; Patel, Subha; Zhou, Weijia

2000-01-01

471

You, Too, Can Go into Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Space Shuttle Student Involvement Project which attempts to stimulate high school student interest in science and technology by engaging students in a competition to develop experiments suitable for flight aboard the Space Shuttle. Also describes "Getaway Specials" which allow individuals to send up experiments in the shuttle. (DS)

Aviation/Space, 1981

1981-01-01

472

An Event Spacing Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Events in self-timed rings can propagate evenly spaced or as bursts. By studying these phenomena, we obtain a better understanding of the underlying dynamics of self-timed pipelines, which is a necessary precursor to utilizing these dynamics to obtain higher performance. We show that standard bounded delay models are inadequate to discriminate between bursting and evenly spaced behaviours and show that

Mark R. Greenstreet; Anthony Winstanley; Aurelien Garivier

2002-01-01

473

Identification and Evaluation of Educational Uses and Users for the STS. Executive Summary. Educational Planning for Utilization of Space Shuttle (ED-PLUSS). Final Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study to consider the educational uses of the space shuttle/space lab. Several specific tasks were identified and accomplished during the study and the summary addresses itself to five that are considered pertinent: (1) Potential User and Identification; (2) Identification and Analysis of Space Education Programs; (3) Planning…

Engle, H. A.; Christensen, D. L.

474

The Risk of Catastrophic Failure of the Solid Rocket Boosters on the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Challenger disaster evoked a national resolve to reduce the risk of future space flight tragedies. A part of that resolve was to estimate the present risks as accurately as possible. This article illustrates and compares several such ways of incorporating past experience into the process of estimating such risks. Failure data from five military solid rocket programs, as well

H. F. Martz; W. J. Zimmer

1992-01-01

475

On the fast zonal transport of the STS-121 space shuttle exhaust plume in the lower thermosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meier et al. (2011) reported rapid eastward transport of the STS-121 space shuttle (launch: July 4, 2006) main engine plume in the lower thermosphere, observed in hydrogen Lyman ? images by the GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite. In order to study the mechanism of the rapid zonal transport, diagnostic tracer calculations are performed using winds from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) simulation of July, 2006. It is found that the strong eastward jet at heights of 100-110 km, where the exhaust plume was deposited, results in a persistent eastward tracer motion with an average velocity of 45 m/s. This is generally consistent with, though faster than, the prevailing eastward shuttle plume movement with daily mean velocity of 30 m/s deduced from the STS-121 GUVI observation. The quasi-two-day wave (QTDW) was not included in the numerical simulation because it was found not to be large. Its absence, however, might be partially responsible for insufficient meridional transport to move the tracers away from the fast jet in the simulation. The current study and our model results from Yue and Liu (2010) explain two very different shuttle plume transport scenarios (STS-121 and STS-107 (launch: January 16, 2003), respectively): we conclude that lower thermospheric dynamics is sufficient to account for both very fast zonal motion (zonal jet in the case of STS-121) and very fast meridional motion to polar regions (large QTDW in the case of STS-107).

Yue, Jia; Liu, Han-Li; Meier, R. R.; Chang, Loren; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Russell, James, III

2013-03-01

476

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station: Part I – results from the test flight on the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) was flown on the space shuttle Discovery during flight STS-91 (June 1998) in a 51.7° orbit at altitudes between 320 and 390km.A search for antihelium nuclei in the rigidity range 1–140GV was performed. No antihelium nuclei were detected at any rigidity. An upper limit on the flux ratio of antihelium to helium of <1.1×10?6 was

M. Aguilar; J. Alcaraz; B. Alpat; G. Ambrosi; H. Anderhub; L. Ao; A. Arefiev; P. Azzarello; E. Babucci; L. Baldini; M. Basile; D. Barancourt; F. Barao; G. Barbier; G. Barreira; R. Battiston; U. Becker; L. Bellagamba; P. Béné; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; A. Biland; S. Bizzaglia; G. Boella; M. Boschini; L. Brocco; G. Bruni; M. Buénerd; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; C. Camps; P. Cannarsa; M. Capell; D. Casadei; J. Casaus; G. Castellini; C. Cecchi; Y. H. Chang; H. S. Chen; Z. G. Chen; N. A. Chernoplekov; T. H. Chiueh; K. Cho; M. J. Choi; Y. Y. Choi; Y. L. Chuang; F. Cindolo; V. Commichau; A. Contin; E. Cortina-Gil; M. Cristinziani; J. P. da Cunha; T. S. Dai; C. Delgado; J. D. Deus; N. Dinu; L. Djambazov; I. D'Antone; Z. R. Dong; P. Emonet; J. Engelberg; F. J. Eppling; T. Eronen; G. Esposito; P. Extermann; J. Favier; E. Fiandrini; P. H. Fisher; G. Fluegge; N. Fouque; Yu. Galaktionov; M. Gervasi; P. Giusti; D. Grandi; O. Grimms; W. Q. Gu; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; V. Hermel; H. Hofer; M. A. Huang; W. Hungerford; M. Ionica; R. Ionica; M. Jongmanns; K. Karlamaa; W. Karpinski; G. Kenney; J. Kenny; D. H. Kim; G. N. Kim; K. S. Kim; M. Y. Kim; A. Klimentov; R. Kossakowski; V. Koutsenko; M. Kraeber; G. Laborie; T. Laitinen; G. Lamanna; E. Lanciotti; G. Laurenti; A. Lebedev; C. Lechanoine-Leluc; M. W. Lee; S. C. Lee; G. Levi; P. Levtchenko; C. L. Liu; H. T. Liu; I. Lopes; G. Lu; Y. S. Lu; K. Lübelsmeyer; D. Luckey; W. Lustermann; C. Maña; A. Margotti; F. Mayet; R. R. McNeil; B. Meillon; M. Menichelli; A. Mihul; A. Mourao; A. Mujunen; F. Palmonari; A. Papi; H. B. Park; W. H. Park; M. Pauluzzi; F. Pauss; E. Perrin; A. Pesci; A. Pevsner; M. Pimenta; V. Plyaskin; V. Pojidaev; M. Pohl; V. Postolache; N. Produit; P. G. Rancoita; D. Rapin; F. Raupach; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Ribordy; J. P. Richeux; E. Riihonen; J. Ritakari; S. Ro; U. Roeser; C. Rossin; R. Sagdeev; D. Santos; G. Sartorelli; C. Sbarra; S. Schael; A. Schultz von Dratzig; G. Schwering; E. S. Seo; J. W. Shin; V. Shoutko; E. Shoumilov; R. Siedling; D. Son; T. Song; M. Steuer; G. S. Sun; H. Suter; X. W. Tang; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; M. Tornikoski; J. Torsti; J. Trümper; J. Ulbricht; S. Urpo; E. Valtonen; J. Vandenhirtz; F. Velcea; E. Velikhov; B. Verlaat; I. Vetlitsky; F. Vezzu; J. P. Vialle; G. Viertel; D. Vité; H. Von Gunten; S. Waldmeier Wicki; W. Wallraff; B. C. Wang; J. Z. Wang; Y. H. Wang; K. Wiik; C. Williams; S. X. Wu; P. C. Xia; J. L. Yan; C. G. Yang; J. Yang; M. Yang; S. W. Ye; P. Yeh; Z. Z. Xu; H. Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; W. Z. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi; B. Zimmermann; P. Zuccon

2002-01-01

477

Microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned aboard the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) with its first two elements already launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a tremendous opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from their own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Glenn Research

Bhim S. Singh; J. Iwan D. Alexander

2000-01-01

478

Measurements of the secondary particle energy spectra in the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the energy spectra of secondary particles produced by galactic cosmic rays and trapped protons due to the nuclear interactions of these particles with the Shuttle shielding provide a powerful tool for validating radiation transport codes. A code validated in this way can be used to better estimate the dose and dose equivalent to body organs, measurements that cannot

Jagdish U. Patel; Francis A. Cucinotta; John W. Wilson

1995-01-01

479

A fault tolerant joint drive system for the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of an improved joint drive system for the shuttle remote manipulator system (SRMS), capable of sustaining a single actuator failure, is presented. This system employs a differential gear train with dual input actuators driving a single load. The mathematical model for the drive system includes: gearbox flexibility and damping, motor damping, high gear ratio, and high load impedance.

Eugene Wu; Myron Diftler; James Hwang; John Chladek

1991-01-01

480

Space Shuttle: Declining budget and tight schedule could jeopardize space station support. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management and the District of Columbia, Committee on Governmental Affairs, US Senate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA plans to use the space shuttle on 21 flights over a 5-year period to assemble the International Space Station. To meet this requirement, the shuttle will have to undergo substantial redesign to gain additional lift capability. The General Accounting Office (GAO) has examined the extent to which the shuttle program can support the the space station's assembly requirements. The impacts of a declining shuttle budget and a demanding schedule to support the space station were examined. GAO made recommendations that the Administrator of NASA establish an independent review team to (1) assess NASA's systems integration plan for the lift-increasing enhancements, (2) identify the associated technical and programmatic risks, and (3) weigh the costs and benefits of NASA's tight scheduling of shuttle flights to assemble the space station. The findings are (1) that some of the hardware redesign programs have experienced early development problems, and the potential exists for additional problems; (2) NASA's schedule for meeting the space station's launch requirements appears questionable, and (3) the shuttle's modification and launch enhancement program includes plans to defer some recertification activities and forgo full integration testing of the propulsion system. Given the magnitude and complexity of the shuttle enhancement program, GAO believes it is prudent to take additional measures to ensure that (1) the implications of integrating numerous individual design changes are fully understood and (2) safety is not compromised.

1995-07-01

481

Optimum data analysis procedures for Titan 4 and Space Shuttle payload acoustic measurements during lift-off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical expressions have been derived to describe the mean square error in the estimation of the maximum rms value computed from a step-wise (or running) time average of a nonstationary random signal. These analytical expressions have been applied to the problem of selecting the optimum averaging times that will minimize the total mean square errors in estimates of the maximum sound pressure levels measured inside the Titan IV payload fairing (PLF) and the Space Shuttle payload bay (PLB) during lift-off. Based on evaluations of typical Titan IV and Space Shuttle launch data, it has been determined that the optimum averaging times for computing the maximum levels are (1) T (sub o) = 1.14 sec for the maximum overall level, and T(sub oi) = 4.88 f (sub i) (exp -0.2) sec for the maximum 1/3 octave band levels inside the Titan IV PLF, and (2) T (sub o) = 1.65 sec for the maximum overall level, and T (sub oi) = 7.10 f (sub i) (exp -0.2) sec for the maximum 1/3 octave band levels inside the Space Shuttle PLB, where f (sub i) is the 1/3 octave band center frequency. However, the results for both vehicles indicate that the total rms error in the maximum level estimates will be within 25 percent the minimum error for all averaging times within plus or minus 50 percent of the optimum averaging time, so a precise selection of the exact optimum averaging time is not critical. Based on these results, linear averaging times (T) are recommended for computing the maximum sound pressure level during lift-off.

Piersol, Allan G.

1991-12-01

482

First Light from the MAUI Space Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of MAUI (Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections) is to measure the spatial and spectral properties of Shuttle engine exhaust interactions with the low-Earth orbit environment and to validate the chemical kinetics and transport physics implemented in a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) computer model, SOCRATES-P. The code is a research tool that can be applied towards the development of a future maneuver characterization capability. MAUI was manifested during the past 4 Space Shuttle missions. STS-115 resulted in a unique MSSS observation opportunity at conditions where the orbiter was in sunlight while the optical station was in darkness (terminator pass). The crew was ready to conduct a series of burns per MAUI request. The experiment was scrubbed due to concern related to an unidentified object in the vicinity of the orbiter. Instead, MSSS was tasked to image the tail section of the orbiter to ensure the object was not the parachute door. STS-115 passed over MSSS in an attitude in which the Shuttle axis was locked to the MSSS line-of-sight. This required a large number of attitude maneuvers. Unfortunately, the optical station had to reconfigure its telescopes on very short notice, and the fact that the new mission represented an interesting burn observation opportunity, did not register with the ground crew, so only unfiltered images were taken. Nevertheless, the 0.33 deg field-of-view LAAT acquisition scope of the 3.6 m adaptive optic tracking telescope, AEOS, provided extremely interesting unfiltered imagery. A total of 22 attitude control pulsed firings were recorded at very good lighting conditions. Each firing involved 2 or 3 PRCS engines firing bursts between 80 and 320 ms long. In every case, the thrust axis was perpendicular to the line of sight, providing a unique and optimal viewing geometry. By far the most interesting white-light features were transients observed at engine start up and shut-down. These transients are due to droplets, or frozen particles, of un-burnt propellant or condensed exhaust that effectively scatter sunlight. The imagery is such that the velocity of the transients can be accurately determined, thereby providing an excellent opportunity to validate state-of-the-art two-phase flow models implemented in SOCRATES-P. An analysis of the transient speeds based on known PRCS engine start-up and shutdown information will be presented.

Dressler, R.; Sydney, P.; Roberts, L.; Hamada, K.; Kervin, P.; Meza, A.; Walker, D.; McLeroy, J.; Bernstein, L.; Braunstein, M.; Hester, B.

483

Experiences in Space Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains descriptions of space science activities that can be conducted with simple equipment. There are activities suitable for both elementary and secondary school children. Activities are placed under the headings: Astronomy, Atmosphere, Universal Gravitation, Aerodynamics, Guidance and Propulsion, Tracking and Communications,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

484

Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's double proboscis containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

1999-06-01

485

Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79.  

PubMed

The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated. PMID:11542403

Sakaguchi, T; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Takashima, T; Takahashi, K; Nakano, T; Nagaoka, S; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

1997-12-01

486

Photogrammetry and ballistic analysis of a high-flying projectile in the STS-124 space shuttle launch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method combining photogrammetry with ballistic analysis is demonstrated to identify flying debris in a rocket launch environment. Debris traveling near the STS-124 Space Shuttle was captured on cameras viewing the launch pad within the first few seconds after launch. One particular piece of debris caught the attention of investigators studying the release of flame trench fire bricks because its high trajectory could indicate a flight risk to the Space Shuttle. Digitized images from two pad perimeter high-speed 16-mm film cameras were processed using photogrammetry software based on a multi-parameter optimization technique. Reference points in the image were found from 3D CAD models of the launch pad and from surveyed points on the pad. The three-dimensional reference points were matched to the equivalent two-dimensional camera projections by optimizing the camera model parameters using a gradient search optimization technique. Using this method of solving the triangulation problem, the xyz position of the object's path relative to the reference point coordinate system was found for every set of synchronized images. This trajectory was then compared to a predicted trajectory while performing regression analysis on the ballistic coefficient and other parameters. This identified, with a high degree of confidence, the object's material density and thus its probable origin within the launch pad environment. Future extensions of this methodology may make it possible to diagnose the underlying causes of debris-releasing events in near-real time, thus improving flight safety.

Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.; Carilli, Robert A.; Long, Jason M.; Shawn, Kathy L.

2010-07-01

487

Application of laser-based methods and finite element analysis to bond verfication of space shuttle tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel application of a laser-based vibration measuring system and finite element modeling to evaluate the bond condition of Space Shuttle thermal protection system tiles. This application is based on characterizing the vibrational response of tiles when excited by an audible acoustic energy. Finite element models for tile assemblies which are comprised of tiles, SIP, and RTV layers attached to the Orbiter aluminum skin are first developed. The mathematical model considered the actual orthotropic material properties, different geometrical configurations as well as different bond conditions. The tiles' natural frequencies and mode shapes are then determined and their frequency responses due to simulated sound pressure are computed. The computed frequency response of a tile having a disbond indicates a decrease in its natural frequencies. This can be used to quickly identify the disbonded tiles. However, the exact size and location of the disbond are determined from the computed rigid- body vibrational modes. The finite element results are compared with experimentally determined frequency responses of a 17-tile test panel, where a rapid scan laser system was employed. An excellent degree of correlation between the mathematical simulation and experimental results is realized. The paper also reports on laser-based modal and shearographic testing performed on tiles of Space Shuttle Columbia. Again, the results demonstrate that experimental modal analysis, when combined with finite element modeling, can be successfully used as a reliable nondestructive, non-contact technique for tile bond verification.

Moslehy, Faissal A.; Mueller, Steven A.; Davis, Richard M.

1993-10-01

488

Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation, volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is the Executive Summary of a technical report on a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Space Shuttle vehicle performed under the sponsorship of the Office of Space Flight of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It briefly summarizes the methodology and results of the Shuttle PRA. The primary objective of this project was to support management and engineering decision-making with respect to the Shuttle program by producing (1) a quantitative probabilistic risk model of the Space Shuttle during flight, (2) a quantitative assessment of in-flight safety risk, (3) an identification and prioritization of the design and operations that principally contribute to in-flight safety risk, and (4) a mechanism for risk-based evaluation proposed modifications to the Shuttle System. Secondary objectives were to provide a vehicle for introducing and transferring PRA technology to the NASA community, and to demonstrate the value of PRA by applying it beneficially to a real program of great international importance.

Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; McFadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

1995-02-01

489

Artificial disturbances of the ionosphere over the Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar from dedicated burns of the space shuttle orbital maneuver subsystem engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ionospheric modification experiments were carried out over the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) located at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts. These experiments are part of the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) program at the Naval Research Laboratory. The experiments use 10-s burns of the dual orbital maneuver subsystem (OMS) engines to produce the injection of high-speed molecules in the ionosphere near 380 km altitude. Charge exchange between the high-speed exhaust molecules and the ambient oxygen ions yields molecular ion beams that disturb the natural state of the ionosphere. Radar scatter provides measurements of the ion velocity distributions and plasma turbulence that result from the ion beam interactions. Ground-based observations with the University of Massachusetts Digisonde record the ionospheric density depressions resulting from recombination of the molecular ions with electrons. Prompt signatures of nonequilibrium ion distributions in the OMS engine plume are seen in the data taken during the SIMPLEX III and IV experiments for the space shuttle flights STS-108 and STS-110, respectively. The SIMPLEX III observations are much weaker than those during SIMPLEX IV. These differences are primarily attributed to the changes in the viewing directions for the radar beam. During SIMPLEX IV, the radar is looking more downstream from the exhaust injection and the stimulation of plasma turbulence is seen with the ISR for over 30 s at distances up to 200 km from the burn altitude along the radar beam. Strong backscatter in the radar spectra is attributed to ion acoustic waves driven by the pickup ion beams. Both experiments provide large-scale cavities detected by the Digisonde for up to 20 min after the engine burn. These cavities are the result of ion-electron recombination of the pickup ions.

Bernhardt, Paul A.; Erickson, Philip J.; Lind, Frank D.; Foster, John C.; Reinisch, Bodo W.

2005-05-01