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1

Space Station Laboratory Module Exhibit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers from NASA's Glenn Research Center demonstrate the access to one of the experiment racks planned for the U.S. Destiny laboratory module on the International Space Station (ISS). This mockup has the full diameter, full corridor width, and half the length of the module. The mockup includes engineering mockups of the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. (The full module will be six racks long; the mockup is three racks long). Listening at center is former astronaut Brewster Shaw (center), now a program official with the Boeing Co., the ISS prime contractor. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

2000-01-01

2

Space Station Laboratory Module Exhibit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers from NASA's Glenn Research Center demonstrate the access to one of the experiment racks planned for the U.S. Destiny laboratory module on the International Space Station (ISS). This mockup has the full diameter, full corridor width, and half the length of the module. The mockup includes engineering mockups of the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. (The full module will be six racks long; the mockup is three racks long). Listening at left (coat and patterned tie) is John-David Bartoe, ISS research manager at NASA's Johnson Space Center and a payload specialist on Spacelab 2 mission (1985). Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

2000-01-01

3

Space station group activities habitability module study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

Nixon, David

1986-01-01

4

International Space Station Joint Airlock Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph depicts the International Space Station's (ISS) Joint Airlock Module undergoing exhaustive structural and systems testing in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) prior to shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The Airlock includes two sections. The larger equipment lock, on the left, will store spacesuits and associated gear and the narrower crewlock is on the right, from which the astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activity. The airlock is 18 feet long and has a mass of about 13,500 pounds. It was launched to the station aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-104 mission) on July 12, 2001. The MSFC is playing a primary role in NASA's development, manufacturing, and operations of the ISS.

2000-01-01

5

International Space Station Joint Airlock Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Joint Airlock Module for the International Space Station (ISS) awaits shipment to the Kennedy Space Center in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Airlock includes two sections. The larger equipment lock on the left is where crews will change into and out of their spacesuits for extravehicular activities, and store spacesuits, batteries, power tools, and other supplies. The narrower crewlock from which the astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activities, is on the right. The airlock is 18 feet long and has a mass of about 13,500 pounds. It was launched to the station aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-104 mission) on July 12, 2001. The MSFC is playing a primary role in NASA's development, manufacturing, and operations of the ISS.

2000-01-01

6

International Space Station (ISS) Laboratory Module Exhibit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomas Turk, an engineer with NASA's Glenn Research Center, waits for more visitors at a mockup of part of Destiny, the U.S. laboratory module that will be attached to the International Space Station (ISS) in Year 2001. Visible behind Turk are engineering models of the three racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) in the module. The mockup is full scale, although Destiny will be twice as long to accomodate six experiment racks along each side. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Expeprimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

2000-01-01

7

Space Station Freedom solar dynamic modules structural modelling and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Solar Dynamic Power Module effort, structural design studies were performed to investigate issues related to the design of the power module, its pointing capabilities, and the integration of the module into the SSF infrastructure. Of particular concern from a structural viewpoint are the dynamics of the power module, the impact of the power module on the Space Station dynamics and controls, and the required control effort for obtaining the specified Solar Dynamic Power Module pointing accuracy. Structural analyses were performed to determine the structural dynamics attributes of both the existing and the proposed structural dynamics module designs. The objectives of these analyses were to generate validated Solar Dynamic Power Module NASTRAN finite element models, combine Space Station and power module models into integrated system models, perform finite element modal analyses to assess the effect of the relocations of the power module center of mass, and provide modal data to controls designers for control systems design.

Lawrence, Charles; Morris, Ron

1991-01-01

8

Photovoltaic module on-orbit assembly for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the elements of the Space Station Freedom power system is the Photovoltaic (PV) module. These modules will be assembled on-orbit during the assembly phase of the program. These modules will be assembled either from the shuttle orbiter or from the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC). The different types of assembly operations that will be used to assemble PV Modules are described.

Sours, Thomas; Lovely, R.; Clark, D.

1989-01-01

9

Automation of Space Station module power management and distribution system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on automation of space station module (SSM) power management and distribution (PMAD) system are presented. Topics covered include: reasons for power system automation; SSM/PMAD approach to automation; SSM/PMAD test bed; SSM/PMAD topology; functional partitioning; SSM/PMAD control; rack level autonomy; FRAMES AI system; and future technology needs for power system automation.

Bechtel, Robert; Weeks, Dave; Walls, Bryan

1990-01-01

10

Evolution of the Space Station Freedom module pattern  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reanalysis of the evolution configuration module pattern for Space Station Freedom is presented. The module pattern is to consist of one habitation module, one airlock, one cupola, two Space Shuttle Orbiter pressurized docking adapters, one assured crew return vehicle, and one pressurized logistics module. Three laboratory modules are also included. A phased plan has been developed on the basis of utilization analysis being performed and derived through actual and projected user mission requirements for the growth of pressurized elements. The evolution requirement impacts to the module pattern are outlined. Application of the growth philosophy and the physical limitations resulted in a number of core element ground rules for module pattern growth. Nodes and modules are to be grown symmetrically in order to optimize poor flight control characteristics and maximize the capability for crew dual egress between elements. Core module pattern elements are not to be grown along Y-Y axis from nodes 1 or 2 due to physical clearance problems with the thermal control system radiators operational envelope.

Gould, Marston; Hendershot, James; Saucillo, Rudy

1992-01-01

11

Conceptual design of the Space Station combustion module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Combustion Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations in the US Laboratory Module of the ISSA. The SS FCF will support a multitude of fluids and combustion science investigations over the lifetime of the ISSA and return state-of-the-art science data in a timely and efficient manner to the scientific communities. This will be accomplished through modularization of hardware, with planned, periodic upgrades; modularization of like scientific investigations that make use of common facility functions; and through the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) for incorporation of new technology and new functionality. The SS FCF is scheduled to become operational on-orbit in 1999. The Combustion Module is presently scheduled for launch to orbit and integration with the Fluids/Combustion Facility in 1999. The objectives of this paper are to describe the history of the Combustion Module concept, the types of combustion science investigations which will be accommodated by the module, the hardware design heritage, the hardware concept, and the hardware breadboarding efforts currently underway.

Morilak, Daniel P.; Rohn, Dennis W.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

1994-01-01

12

Conceptual Design of the Space Station Fluids Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Fluids Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations in the US Laboratory Module of the ISSA. The SS FCF will support a multitude of fluids and combustion science investigations over the lifetime of the ISSA and return state-of-the-art science data in a timely and efficient manner to the scientific communities. This will be accomplished through modularization of hardware, with planned, periodic upgrades; modularization of like scientific investigations that make use of common facility functions; and use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) for incorporation of new technology and new functionality. Portions of the SS FCF are scheduled to become operational on-orbit in 1999. The Fluids Module is presently scheduled for launch to orbit and integration with the Fluids/Combustion Facility in 2001. The objectives of this paper are to describe the history of the Fluids Module concept, the types of fluids science investigations which will be accommodated by the module, the hardware design heritage, the hardware concept, and the hardware breadboarding efforts currently underway.

Rohn, Dennis W.; Morilak, Daniel P.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Peterson, Todd T.

1994-01-01

13

Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 6: Space Station Freedom/spacelab modules compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differences in rack requirements for Spacelab, the Shuttle Orbiter, and the United States (U.S.) laboratory module, European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module, and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of Space Station Freedom are identified. The feasibility of designing standardized mechanical, structural, electrical, data, video, thermal, and fluid interfaces to allow space flight hardware designed for use in the U.S. laboratory module to be used in other locations is assessed.

Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

1989-01-01

14

Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

1987-01-01

15

Utilization of common pressurized modules on the Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the preliminary design review of Space Station Freedom elements and subsystems, it was shown that reductions of cost, weight, and on-orbit integration and verification would be necessary in order to meet program constraints, particularly nominal Orbiter payload launch capability. At that time, the Baseline station consisted of four resource nodes and two 44 ft modules. In this study, the viability of a common module which maintains crew and payload accommodation is assessed. The size, transportation, and orientation of modules and the accommodation of system racks and user experiments are considered and compared to baseline. Based on available weight estimates, a module pattern consisting of six 28 ft common elements with three radial and two end ports is shown to be nearly optimal. Advantageous characteristics include a reduction in assembly flights, dual egress from all elements, logical functional allocation, no adverse impacts to international partners, favorable airlock, cupola, ACRV (Assured Crew Return Vehicle), and logistics module accommodation, and desirable flight attitude and control characteristics.

Mazanek, Daniel D.; Heck, Michael L.; Gould, Marston J.

1991-01-01

16

Utilization of common pressurized modules on the Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the preliminary design review of Space Station Freedom elements and subsystems, it was shown that reductions of cost, weight, and on-orbit integration and verification would be necessary in order to meet program constraints, particularly nominal Orbiter payload launch capability. At that time, the Baseline station consisted of four resource nodes and two 44 ft modules. In this study, the viability of a common module which maintains crew and payload accommodation is assessed. The size, transportation, and orientation of modules and the accommodation of system racks and user experiments are considered and compared to baseline. Based on available weight estimates, a module pattern consisting of six 28 ft. common elements with three radial and two end ports is shown to be nearly optimal. Advantageous characteristics include a reduction in assembly flights, dual egress from all elements, logical functional allocation, no adverse impacts to international partners, favorable airlock, cupola, ACRV (Assured Crew Return Vehicle), and logistics module accommodation, and desirable flight attitude and control characteristics.

Gould, Marston J.; Heck, Michael L.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

1991-01-01

17

Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. This paper presents the description and development status of the PVM thermal control system.

Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura S.

1992-01-01

18

Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

1994-01-01

19

Space station common module network topology and hardware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

1990-01-01

20

Space modules of Phobos-Grunt complex for prospective interplanetary stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standardized modules are considered, such as the main propulsion system, space platform, and reusable spacecraft, that were developed within the scope of the Phobos-Grunt project. It is proposed that long-term interplanetary stations for fundamental space research should be created based on these modules. A description is given of the alleged scientific space projects for the medium term.

Polishchuk, G. M.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Efanov, V. V.; Martynov, M. B.

2011-12-01

21

Work continues on Leonardo, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, in the Space Station Processing Faci  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work on Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The MPLM, a reusable logistics carrier, will be the primary delivery system used to resupply and return International Space Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo is the first of three MPLM carriers for the International Space Station. It is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Mission STS-102, targeted for June 2000. Leonardo shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), targeted for launch in September 1999, and Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, targeted for mission STS-98 in late April 2000.

1999-01-01

22

Space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

1989-01-01

23

Automation of the space station core module power management and distribution system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the Advanced Development Program for Space Station, Marshall Space Flight Center has been developing advanced automation applications for the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system inside the Space Station modules for the past three years. The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) test bed features three artificial intelligence (AI) systems coupled with conventional automation software functioning in an autonomous or closed-loop fashion. The AI systems in the test bed include a baseline scheduler/dynamic rescheduler (LES), a load shedding management system (LPLMS), and a fault recovery and management expert system (FRAMES). This test bed will be part of the NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration for 1990 featuring cooperating expert systems in various Space Station subsystem test beds. It is concluded that advanced automation technology involving AI approaches is sufficiently mature to begin applying the technology to current and planned spacecraft applications including the Space Station.

Weeks, David J.

1988-01-01

24

Battery reinitialization on the photovoltaic module of the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to electrical power, and an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) that houses electrical hardware and batteries for electric power regulation and storage.

G. Hajela; F. Cohen

2002-01-01

25

U.S. Laboratory Module (Destiny) for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center, being readied for shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

1998-01-01

26

U.S. Laboratory Module (Destiny) for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photograph, the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS) is shown under construction in the West High Bay of the Space Station manufacturing facility (building 4708) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

1997-01-01

27

U.S. Laboratory Module (Destiny) for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), under construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two end cones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

1997-01-01

28

International Space Station Alpha's bearing, motor, and roll ring module developmental testing and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design and developmental testing associated with the bearing, motor, and roll ring module (BMRRM) used for the beta rotation axis on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The BMRRM with its controllers located in the electronic control unit (ECU), provides for the solar array pointing and tracking functions as well as power and signal transfer across a rotating interface.

Obrien, David L.

1994-01-01

29

Multi-function Light Microscopy Module for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, Ohio) and Dynacs Engineering Co., Inc. are developing a multi-functional, remotely operated light microscope for telescience fluids physics research on the International Space Station (ISS). The module is designed for the Fluids and Combustion Facility in the U.S. Laboratory, and is manifested for flight in June, 2003. The design includes the following features: bright field,

Christian T. Lant; Andrew Resnick

2000-01-01

30

A Solid State Power Controller Module for the International Space Station EXPRESS Rack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solid State Power Controller Module (SSPCM) designed For the International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack is a remote-controlled power switching unit with both 120 V DC and 28 V DC solid state power controllers (SSPCs). The SSPCs distribute and protect power to the various loads within the EXPRESS Rack. The SSPCM is designed with two 120 V DC inputs

D. S. Hart; G. B. Prickett; C. R. Schwarz; M. Mohadjer

1997-01-01

31

International Space Station: Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

32

Stability Analysis for a Large-scale Space Power Network, International Space Station and Japanese Experiment Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS), which is scheduled to start the operation fully in early 2000's, is being developed and assembled on orbit since 1998 with international cooperation of the USA, Russia, Europe, Canada, and Japan. Japan participates in this ISS program and will provide the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, named ``Kibo\\

Masaaki Komatsu; Satoaki Arai

2004-01-01

33

Automation in the Space Station module power management and distribution Breadboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) Breadboard, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, models the power distribution within a Space Station Freedom Habitation or Laboratory module. Originally designed for 20 kHz ac power, the system is now being converted to high voltage dc power with power levels on a par with those expected for a space station module. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level process consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear, capable of quickly safing the system. The next level consists of local load center processors called Lowest Level Processors (LLP's). These LLP's execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. The level above the LLP's contains a Communication and Algorithmic Controller (CAC) which coordinates communications with the highest level. Finally, at this highest level, three cooperating Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems manage load prioritization, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. The system provides an excellent venue for developing and examining advanced automation techniques. The current system and the plans for its future are examined.

Walls, Bryan; Lollar, Louis F.

1990-01-01

34

The International Space Station's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Thermal Performance of the First Five Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Purpose Logistics Module is the primary carrier for transport of pressurized payload to the International Space Station. Performing five missions within a thirteen month span provided a unique opportunity to gather a great deal of information toward understanding and verifying the orbital performance of the vehicle. This paper will provide a brief overview of the hardware history and design capabilities followed by a summary of the missions flown, resource requirements and possibilities for the future.

Holladay, Jon; Cho, Frank

2003-01-01

35

Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

Cohen, Marc M. (editor); Eichold, Alice (editor); Heers, Susan (editor)

1987-01-01

36

Launch packaging options for the PV power module cargo element. [for space station power supplies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA recently embarked on the Space Station Freedom program, which will utilize the Shuttle Orbiter for transportation to orbit. Each flight is unique in terms of the hardware that is manifested and the method by which it is integrated to form viable cargo elements. Various constraints determine the packaging options for the three PV power module combined assemblies. Several packaging options for the PV power module cargo element are presented. These options are discussed in terms of their impact on the overall flight hardware manifest as determined by the various constraints.

Hoberecht, Mark A.; Vogt, Scott T.

1989-01-01

37

Space station data flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

1972-01-01

38

A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

Burattini, C.

39

Space station common module power system network topology and hardware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Candidate power system newtork topologies for the space station common module are defined and developed and the necessary hardware for test and evaluation is provided. Martin Marietta's approach to performing the proposed program is presented. Performance of the tasks described will assure systematic development and evaluation of program results, and will provide the necessary management tools, visibility, and control techniques for performance assessment. The plan is submitted in accordance with the data requirements given and includes a comprehensive task logic flow diagram, time phased manpower requirements, a program milestone schedule, and detailed descriptions of each program task.

Landis, D. M.

1985-01-01

40

Space Station structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

Schneider, W.

1985-04-01

41

Space Station structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

Schneider, W.

1985-01-01

42

Augmentation of the space station module power management and distribution breadboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard models power distribution and management, including scheduling, load prioritization, and a fault detection, identification, and recovery (FDIR) system within a Space Station Freedom habitation or laboratory module. This 120 VDC system is capable of distributing up to 30 kW of power among more than 25 loads. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear that is capable of quickly safing the system. At the next level are local load center processors, (LLP's) which execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. Above the LLP's are three cooperating artificial intelligence (AI) systems which manage load prioritizations, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. Recent upgrades to hardware and modifications to software at both the LLP and AI system levels promise a drastic increase in speed, a significant increase in functionality and reliability, and potential for further examination of advanced automation techniques. The background, SSM/PMAD, interface to the Lewis Research Center test bed, the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system, and future plans are discussed.

Walls, Bryan; Hall, David K.; Lollar, Louis F.

1991-01-01

43

A computer program for an analysis of the relative motion of a space station and a free flying experiment module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary analysis of the relative motion of a free flying experiment module in the vicinity of a space station under the perturbative effects of drag and earth oblateness was made. A listing of a computer program developed for determining the relative motion of a module utilizing the Cowell procedure is presented, as well as instructions for its use.

Butler, J. H.

1971-01-01

44

Overview of space station operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current planning and development for space-station operations in the 1990's are summarized. The system elements (habitat, power\\/utility module, multiple-docking\\/berthing module, logistics module, discipline-oriented modules, teleoperator maneuvering system, remote manipulation system, and ground support) and capabilities (experiments, satellite service, upper-stage basing and servicing, structural fabrication or assembly, and operation of tethered satellites) are characterized. It is shown that a station in

W. C. Schneider; J. H. Disher

1983-01-01

45

Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.  

PubMed

Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required. PMID:23603802

Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

2013-01-01

46

Space Station Spartan study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

1985-01-01

47

Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an overview of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed system and describes recent enhancements to that system. Four tasks made up the original contract: (1) common module power management and distribution system automation plan definition; (2) definition of hardware and software elements of automation; (3) design, implementation and delivery of the hardware and software making up the SSM/PMAD system; and (4) definition and development of the host breadboard computer environment. Additions and/or enhancements to the SSM/PMAD test bed that have occurred since July 1990 are reported. These include: (1) rehosting the MAESTRO scheduler; (2) reorganization of the automation software internals; (3) a more robust communications package; (4) the activity editor to the MAESTRO scheduler; (5) rehosting the LPLMS to execute under KNOMAD; implementation of intermediate levels of autonomy; (6) completion of the KNOMAD knowledge management facility; (7) significant improvement of the user interface; (8) soft and incipient fault handling design; (9) intermediate levels of autonomy, and (10) switch maintenance.

Miller, William (compiler); Britt, Daniel (compiler); Elges, Michael (compiler); Myers, Chris (compiler)

1994-01-01

48

The Capabilities of Space Stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

1995-01-01

49

Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

50

Free-free and fixed base modal survey tests of the Space Station Common Module Prototype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the testing aspects and the problems encountered during the free-free and fixed base modal surveys completed on the original Space Station Common Module Prototype (CMP). The CMP is a 40-ft long by 14.5-ft diameter 'waffle-grid' cylinder built by the Boeing Company and housed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) near Huntsville, AL. The CMP modal survey tests were conducted at MSFC by the Dynamics Test Branch. The free-free modal survey tests (June '90 to Sept. '90) included interface verification tests (IFVT), often referred to as impedance measurements, mass-additive testing and linearity studies. The fixed base modal survey tests (Feb. '91 to April '91), including linearity studies, were conducted in a fixture designed to constrain the CMP in 7 total degrees-of-freedom at five trunnion interfaces (two primary, two secondary, and the keel). The fixture also incorporated an airbag off-load system designed to alleviate the non-linear effects of friction in the primary and secondary trunnion interfaces. Numerous test configurations were performed with the objective of providing a modal data base for evaluating the various testing methodologies to verify dynamic finite element models used for input to coupled load analysis.

Driskill, T. C.; Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.

1992-01-01

51

International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

2010-01-01

52

Space Station Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program are outlined. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on draft and mass requirements are described with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

Baraona, C. R.

1984-01-01

53

International Space Station power reinitialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to electrical power, and an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) that houses electrical hardware and batteries for electric power regulation and storage.

G. Hajela; F. Cohen; P. Dalton

2003-01-01

54

Introduction to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station Freedom in FY 92 was appropriated. For FY 93, NASA is seeking $2.25 billion for the program; the planned budget for FY 94 is $2.5 billion. Further alterations to the hardware configuration for Freedom would be a serious setback; NASA intends 'to stick with the current baseline' and continue planning for utilization.

Kohrs, Richard

1992-01-01

55

Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

Vonehrenfried, Dutch

56

International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

2009-01-01

57

Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

Brush, Harold T.

1986-01-01

58

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

59

Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

2000-01-01

60

The International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

61

Madrid space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

1975-01-01

62

Space station executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

1972-01-01

63

The Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term

R. Sharples; J. Hieatt

1984-01-01

64

The Space Station era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The users, configuration, and uses of the manned Space Station planned by the U.S. are outlined. The station is to be operational by 1994 and will serve scientific and commercial purposes. It is noted that the exploration of space, like the exploration of any other newly discovered, remote territory, requires the establishment of a base camp. Invitations have been extended

J. M. Beggs

1984-01-01

65

Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

Woods, B. P.

1985-01-01

66

The space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

Munoz, Abraham

1988-01-01

67

Space Station-Baseline Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

1989-01-01

68

Space station propulsion test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

1989-01-01

69

Space station functional relationships analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

1988-01-01

70

Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

2006-01-01

71

International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

2013-01-01

72

Space Stations: Measure Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in pairs to measure each other's ankles with lengths of string. Learners make measurements both before and after lying on their backs with their feet in the air for 1 minute. This simulates the microgravity of space, where everything--including body fluids--floats! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Dr. Diane Byerly

2006-01-01

73

Light Microscopy Module: On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids Integrated Rack on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a remotely controllable, automated, on-orbit facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of physical science and biological science experiments within the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) on the International Space Station. Initially four fluid physics experiments in the FIR will use the LMM the Constrained Vapor Bubble, the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2, Physics of Colloids in Space-2, and Low Volume Fraction Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly. The first experiment will investigate heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments will investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties.

Motil, Susan M.

2002-01-01

74

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

75

Protecting Astronaut Health at First Entry into Vehicles Visiting the international Space Station: Insights from Whole-Module Offgas Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has accumulated considerable experience in offgas testing of whole modules prior to their docking with the International Space Station (ISS). Since 1998, the Space Toxicology Office has performed offgas testing of the Lab module, both MPLM modules, US Airlock, Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, ATV1, HTV1, and three commercial vehicles. The goal of these tests is twofold: first, to protect the crew from adverse health effects of accumulated volatile pollutants when they first enter the module on orbit, and secondly, to determine the additional pollutant load that the ISS air revitalization systems must handle. In order to predict the amount of accumulated pollutants, the module is sealed for at least 1/5th the worst-case time interval that could occur between the last clean air purge and final hatch closure on the ground and the crew's first entry on orbit. This time can range from a few days to a few months. Typically, triplicate samples are taken at pre-planned times throughout the test. Samples are then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the rate of accumulation of pollutants is then extrapolated over time. The analytical values are indexed against 7-day spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) to provide a prediction of the total toxicity value (T-value) at the time of first entry. This T-value and the toxicological effects of specific pollutants that contribute most to the overall toxicity are then used to guide first entry operations. Finally, results are compared to first entry samples collected on orbit to determine the predictive ability of the ground-based offgas test.

Meyers, Valerie

2014-01-01

76

A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

Sours, Thomas J.

1989-01-01

77

The International Space Station Habitat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as construction goes on. The habitability resources available to the crew are the crew sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to deal with ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of International Partner Laboratories. Also, Node 2 and 3 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The Node 3 module will provide additional Environmental Control and Life Support Capability. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is the effects of long duration space flight on humans, a result of this research they will determine what are the habitability requirements for long duration space flight.

Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

2003-01-01

78

Telerobot for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a multiple arm dexterous manipulation system, will aid in the assembly, maintenance, and servicing of the space station. Fundamental ideas and basic conceptual designs for a shuttle-based telerobot system have been produced. Recent space station studies provide additional concepts that should aid in the accomplishment of mission requirements. Currently, the FTS is in contractual source selection for a Phase B preliminary design. At the same time, design requirements are being developed through a series of robotic assessment tasks being performed at NASA and commercial installations. A number of the requirements for remote operation on the space station, necessary to supplement extravehicular activity (EVA), will be met by the FTS. Finally, technology developed for telerobotics will advance the state of the art of remote operating systems, enhance operator productivity, and prove instrumental in the evolution of an adaptive, intelligent autonomous robot.

Jenkins, Lyle M.

1987-01-01

79

Welding/brazing for Space Station repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

1990-01-01

80

The organized Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

81

The organized Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

1988-01-01

82

Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

1990-01-01

83

Space Station evolution study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

Evans, David B.

1993-01-01

84

A lunar space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

1989-01-01

85

Space Station Information Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of the Space Station is improved, the ability to manage and integrate its development and operation enhanced, and the cost and risk of developing the software for it is minimized by three major information systems. The Space Station Information System (SSIS) provides for the transparent collection and dissemination of operational information to all users and operators. The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) provides all the developers with timely and consistent program information and a project management 'window' to assess the project status. The Software Support Environment (SSE) provides automated tools and standards to be used by all software developers. Together, these three systems are vital to the successful execution of the program.

Pittman, Clarence W.

1988-01-01

86

Space station propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

1987-01-01

87

Space teleoperations technology for Space Station evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs on space teleoperations technology for space station evolution are presented. Topics covered include: shuttle remote manipulator system; mobile servicing center functions; mobile servicing center technology; flight telerobotic servicer-telerobot; flight telerobotic servicer technology; technologies required for space station assembly; teleoperation applications; and technology needs for space station evolution.

Gerald J. Reuter

1990-01-01

88

Space station ventilation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

1972-01-01

89

Space station commonality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

90

Designing Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

1986-01-01

91

Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

1979-01-01

92

Space Station fluid management logistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

Dominick, Sam M.

1990-01-01

93

Space Station lubrication considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

1987-01-01

94

Space Station Technology Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The completion of the Space Station Propulsion Advanced Technology Programs established an in-depth data base for the baseline gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen thruster, the waste gas resistojet, and the associated system operations. These efforts included testing of a full end-to-end system at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in which oxygen and hydrogen were generated from water by electrolysis at 6.89 MPa (1,000 psia), stored and fired through the prototype thruster. Recent end-to-end system tests which generate the oxygen/hydrogen propellants by electrolysis of water at 20.67 MPa (3,000 psia) were completed on the Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). Resistojet testing has included 10,000 hours of life testing, plume characterization, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing. Extensive 25-lbf thruster testing was performed defining operating performance characteristics across the required mixture ratio and thrust level ranges. Life testing has accumulated 27 hours of operation on the prototype thruster. A total of seven injectors and five thrust chambers were fabricated to the same basic design. Five injectors and three thrust chambers designed to incorporate improved life, performance, and producibility characteristics are ready for testing. Five resistojets were fabricated and tested, with modifications made to improve producibility. The lessons learned in the area of producibility for both the O2/H2 thrusters and for the resistojet have resolved critical fabrication issues. The test results indicate that all major technology issues for long life and reliability for space station application were resolved.

Iacabucci, R.; Evans, S.; Briley, G.; Delventhal, R. A.; Braunscheidel, E.

1989-01-01

95

International Space Station Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

Propp, Timothy William

2001-01-01

96

Boeing: International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

97

Space Station multiple access communications system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

Olson, Nanci A.

1986-01-01

98

Space Station multiple access communications system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

Olson, Nanci A.

99

International Space Station: Testing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing astronauts for a journey to the red planet has become NASA's research priority for the International Space Station. But such experiments will need more than the skeleton crew now running the station. Tony Reichhardt reports.

Tony Reichhardt

2005-01-01

100

Space Station Engineering Design Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

1989-01-01

101

NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

1999-01-01

102

Nodes packaging option for Space Station application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

1988-01-01

103

Space station internal propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned with a wireless communication system in place for the transmission of information between crew members on board. The clarity of transmission is paramount to an effective system of communication. A short overview is presented of the system including the requirements of interest, and a statement of the problem. The theory used to solve the problem is explored. The results given are for the experiments performed on a mockup of the proposed structure at NASA-Marshall. The requirements on the signal level are that there is a 45 dB signal to noise ratio from end to end, and that coverage over 99 pct. of the volume be maintained. The Rice probability distribution function, a simple extension of the Rayleigh distribution, is used to estimate the field strength inside a volume, where a significant line of sight from the transmitter to the receiver exists. For the SSF, this distribution will correspond to the summation of a coherent line of sight path between the transmitter and the receiver and an incoherent portion. The incoherent portion is the sum of reflections from the walls and the equipment inside the SSF. The Rice distribution was found to be the optimal distribution from the results.

Richie, J. E.

1991-01-01

104

Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 3: Appendixes. Book 2: Supporting data. [spacecraft modules and environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the module concepts are reviewed, and a number of functional elements are listed. Other areas examined include some of the following; (1) mission operations; (2) environmental control and life support subsystems concepts; (3) thermal heat rejection; (4) space radiation effect analysis; and (5) satellite power system test requirements.

1977-01-01

105

International Space Station Medical Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at the SMOT can be taken to the Mission Management Team meeting, which occurs biweekly from MCC-Houston. This meeting includes the other International Partners and all flight support and console position representatives via teleconference. ISS Crew Surgeons have handled many medical conditions on orbit; including skin rashes, dental abscesses, lacerations, and STT segment EKG changes. Fortunately to date, there have not been any forced medical evacuations from the ISS. This speaks well for the implementation of the primary, secondary and even tertiary prevention strategies invoked by the Integrated Medical Group, as there were several medical evacuations during the previous Russian space stations.

Jones, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

106

National Aeronautics and Space Administration International Space StationInternational Space Station  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration International Space StationInternational Space;International Space Station FactsInternational Space Station Facts Spacecraft Mass: 799,046 lb (362,441 kg;Assembly Complete ConfigurationAssembly Complete Configuration International Space Station External Payload

Christian, Eric

107

Space Station Freedom common berthing mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The two berthing halves, the active, and the passive, maintain a pressurized atmosphere to allow astronaut passage, as well as to provide a structural linkage between elements. The generic design of the CBM allows any Passive Berthing Mechanism to berth with any Active Berthing Mechanism, permitting a variety of pressurized module patterns to be built.

Illi, Erik

1992-01-01

108

Life in Space: The International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the International Space Station (ISS) with information about its structure, operation and key experiments. The ISS itself is an experiment in international cooperation to explore the potential for humans to live in space. The space station features state-of-the-art science and engineering laboratories to conduct research in medicine, materials and fundamental science to benefit people on Earth as well as people who will live in space in the future.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

109

Space Station-Baseline Configuration With Callouts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

1989-01-01

110

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfig- uration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures

G. D. Qualls; J. W. Wilson; C. Sandridge; F. A. Cucinotta; J. E. Nealy; J. H. Heinbockel; C. P. Hugger; J. Verhage; B. M. Anderson; W. Atwell

111

Internal contamination in the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmosphere trace contaminant control systems used in the past (Lunar Module and Skylab) and present (nuclear submarines and Shuttle) are discussed. Recommendations are made for the future Space Station contaminant control system. The prevention and control methods used are judicious material selection, detection, and specific removal equipment. Sources and effects of contamination relating to crew and equipment are also discussed.

Poythress, C.

1985-01-01

112

Express rack technology for space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EXPRESS Rack provides accommodations for standard Mid-deck Locker and ISIS drawer payloads on the International Space Station. A design overview of the basic EXPRESS rack and two derivatives, the Human Research Facility and the Habitat Holding Rack, is given in Part I. In Part II, the design of the Solid State Power Control Module (SSPCM) is reviewed. The SSPCM

Ted B. Davis; J. Brian Adams; Edward M. Fisher; Guy B. Prickett; Timothy G. Smith

1999-01-01

113

Vibrations and structureborne noise in space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The related literature was reviewed and a preliminary analytical model was developed for simplified acoustic and structural geometries for pressurized and unpressurized space station modules. In addition to the analytical work, an experimental program on structureborne noise generation and transmission was started. A brief review of those accomplishments is given.

Vaicaitis, R.

1985-01-01

114

Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

Williams, David E.

2004-01-01

115

Space station propulsion requirements study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

1985-01-01

116

International Space Station: Don Pettit Space Chronicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASAâs Human Space Flight program contains the observations and reflections of ISS Science Officer Don Pettit while on board the International Space Station. The journal-style entries describe living and working in space, including the preparations for a space walk. The site also offers videos of Pettitâs Saturday Morning Science experiments.

2006-09-29

117

Space station interior noise analysis program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

1987-01-01

118

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

119

Space Station Freedom user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

1992-01-01

120

Space Station Freedom food management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

1992-01-01

121

Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

1987-01-01

122

Sighting the International Space Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

Teets, Donald

2008-01-01

123

Social factors in space station interiors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the example of the chair, which is often written into space station planning but which serves no non-cultural function in zero gravity, difficulties in overcoming cultural assumptions are discussed. An experimental approach is called for which would allow designers to separate cultural assumptions from logistic, social and psychological necessities. Simulations, systematic doubt and monitored brainstorming are recommended as part of basic research so that the designer will approach the problems of space module design with a complete program.

Cranz, Galen; Eichold, Alice; Hottes, Klaus; Jones, Kevin; Weinstein, Linda

1987-01-01

124

Space station trash removal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large

Andrew J. Petro

1992-01-01

125

Space Station trash removal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large

Andrew J. Petro

1993-01-01

126

Liquid bridge pinch off and satelite drop formation under thermocapillary effect in Japanese Experiment Module 'Kibo' aboard the International Space Station  

E-print Network

The long-duration fluid physics experiments on a thermocapillary-driven flow have been carried out on the Japanese experiment module 'Kibo' aboard the International Space Station (ISS) since 2008. In these experiments, various aspects of thermocapillary convection in a half-zone (HZ) liquid bridge of high Prandtl number fluid have been examined under the advantages of the long-duration high-quality microgravity environment. This fluid dynamics video introduce a pinch off of liquid bridge of 30 mm in diameter as a part of the on-orbit experiments. The effect of thermocapillary-driven flow on the pinch off and satellite drop formation is examined.

Ueno, Ichiro; Ohnishi, Mitsuru; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Masato; Matsumoto, Satoshi

2012-01-01

127

Vibrations and structureborne noise in space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models were developed capable of predicting structural response and noise transmission to random point mechanical loads. Fiber reinforced composite and aluminum materials were considered. Cylindrical shells and circular plates were taken as typical representatives of structural components for space station habitability modules. Analytical formulations include double wall and single wall constructions. Pressurized and unpressurized models were considered. Parametric studies were conducted to determine the effect on structural response and noise transmission due to fiber orientation, point load location, damping in the core and the main load carrying structure, pressurization, interior acoustic absorption, etc. These analytical models could serve as preliminary tools for assessing noise related problems, for space station applications.

Vaicaitis, R.

1985-01-01

128

[Reply to ``Space Station?'' by L. H. Meredith] Way station  

Microsoft Academic Search

I agree with Les Meredith's statement of valid and nonvalid objectives for the space station. The problem with the space station that NASA is proposing is that it is designed to a nonvalid objective, specifically microgravity experimentation. I would support a space station that addressed the valid objective of a way station, but I cannot support NASA's current design.Meredith states

Jeffrey L. Warner

1987-01-01

129

The International Space Station (ISS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Site provides users with a comprehensive look at the International Space Station. Included in this broad overview are links to everything from basic facts and figures to information about individual missions including downloadable press kits.

Company, The B.

2003-10-10

130

International Space Station General Resource Reel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction and evolution of the International Space Station (ISS) is seen through various clips. Live footage shows the following: (1) the Zarya Module under construction and during launch preparations; (2) the Unity Module under construction, during launch preparations, and being lowered into the payload canister; (3) STS-88 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross and Jim Newman during training for their spacewalks, including activities in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL); (4) Zarya and Unity docking to the Service Module; (5) the Expedition 1 crew (William Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev) during emergency escape training in the Black Sea and during water survival training at Johnson Space Center; (6) the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle Drop Test; and (7) the US Destiny Laboratory Module, Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA), Service Module, Italian Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, US Airlock, and US Habitation Module under construction. Computerized animations show the following: (1) an ISS fly-around; (2) the STS-88 Space Shuttle as it docks with Zarya and attaches Zarya to the Unity Module; (3) the Space Shuttle as it docks with ISS and installs the Z1 truss segment and PMA; (4) the Soyuz spacecraft as it docks with ISS; (5) interior and exterior views of the Columbus Attached Pressurized Module; and (6) a Transhab animation showing the interior and exterior and marking the components.

1998-01-01

131

Space Station reference configuration description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

1984-01-01

132

Space Station Power System issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of attractive options are available for the Space Station Power System. These include a photovoltaic system or solar dynamic system for power generation, batteries or fuel cells for energy storage and ac or dc for power management and distribution. These options are being explored during the present preliminary design and definition phase of the Space Station Program. Final selections are presently targeted for January 1986.

Forestieri, A. F.

1985-01-01

133

Solar dynamic power systems for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

1986-01-01

134

Space station control center architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station control center (SSCC) is under the cognizance of the Johnson Space Center and is located adjacent to the Shuttle's mission control center. Responsibility for design, development, and operations of the control center is the responsibility of the mission operations directorate at JSC. Space Station Ground Systems Division is responsible for design and development of the control center systems which is currently in process under the mission support contractor team led by Loral Space Information Systems. It is early in the life cycle of the SSCC project. System functional design review was completed. Subsystem requirements are now being developed and reviewed. A new facility will be available for development activities.

Schmalz, Karen

1991-01-01

135

OSSA Space Station waste inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

1987-01-01

136

Space station user development program: Future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Space Agency's User Development Program (UDP) was established to ensure that Canada would be in a position to exploit its share of resources of the international space station. Objectives of the UDP include fostering research and development excellence among space station users, developing space station demonstration experiments with emphasis on commercializable technologies, assisting in development of space station

R. G. Wilkinson

1991-01-01

137

Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

138

Microbe-I: fungal biota analyses of the Japanese experimental module KIBO of the International Space Station before launch and after being in orbit for about 460 days.  

PubMed

In addition to the crew, microbes also find their way aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, microbial monitoring is necessary for the health and safety of the crew and for general maintenance of the facilities of this station. Samples were collected from three sites in the Japanese experimental module KIBO on the ISS (air diffuser, handrail, and surfaces) for analysis of fungal biota approximately 1 year after this module had docked with the ISS. Samples taken from KIBO before launch and from our laboratory were used as controls. In the case of KIBO, both microbe detection sheet (MDS) and swab culture tests of orbital samples were negative. The MDS were also examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy; no microbial structures were detected. However, fungal DNAs were detected by real-time PCR and analyzed by the clone library method; Alternaria sp. and Malassezia spp. were the dominant species before launch and in space, respectively. The dominant species found in specimens from the air conditioner diffuser, lab bench, door push panel, and facility surfaces on our laboratory (ground controls) were Inonotus sp., Cladosporium sp., Malassezia spp., and Pezicula sp., respectively. The fungi in the KIBO were probably derived from contamination due to humans, while those in our laboratory came from the environment (e.g., the soil). In conclusion, the cleanliness in KIBO was equivalent to that in a clean room environment on the ground. PMID:21950271

Satoh, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Sugita, Takashi; Tsukii, Yuuji; Takatori, Kosuke; Benno, Yoshimi; Makimura, Koichi

2011-12-01

139

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION PAYLOAD INTEGRATION  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION PAYLOAD INTEGRATION 1 Rod Jones, Research Integration Office Manager expand our remote laptop operation system that allows you to operate your payload anywhere the internet be manifested as early as 12 months prior to the mission Space is reserved for payloads that are defined later

Waliser, Duane E.

140

Space Stations: Sponge Spool Spine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate what happens to a human spine in space by making Sponge Spool Spines (alternating sponge pieces and spools threaded on a pipe cleaner). This represents a human spine on Earth, with the discs (sponges) pressed between the spinal vertebrae (the wooden spools). Learners measure the spine length, dip it in a glass of water (simulating microgravity), and then re-measure the spine. They will find it has expanded, just like in space! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Byerly, Diane; Institute, Lunar A.

2006-01-01

141

The space station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The manned space station is the next major NASA program. It presents many challenges to the power system designers. The power system in turn is a major driver on the overall configuration. In this paper, the major requirements and guidelines that affect the station configuration and the power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts, both fanciful and feasible, are described and linked to the present concept. The recently completed Phase B trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of the present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given for completeness.

Baraona, C. R.

1986-01-01

142

$425 million for space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station will funded at only about half of the $767 million requested in the 1988 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and overall the agency will receive $8,856 billion for the current fiscal year (FY) in the deficit-reduction package passed by Congress in late December. Despite an earlier complaint that reductions in the space station budget would kill the program and an apparent lack of support from the White House, NASA's official reaction was full of good cheer.NASA will be able to use the $425 million in two installments, $200 million now and $225 million in June. In October, NASA administrator James Fletcher stated in a letter to Senator Jake Garn (R-Utah) that if the space station received no more than $440 million, he would “recommend termination” of the program. But after the budget was approved, NASA said that the $425 million “reflected the strong commitment of the President and the Congress to proceed with the development of a space station.” A recent request to President Reagan from congressional proponents of the station for a letter of support for the multibillion dollar project was declined.

Maggs, William Ward

143

Vulnerability of Space Station Freedom Modules: A Study of the Effects of Module Perforation on Crew and Equipment. Volume 2; Analytical Modeling of Internal Debris Cloud Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this part of the report, a first-principles based model is developed to predict the overpressure and temperature effects of a perforating orbital debris particle impact within a pressurized habitable module. While the effects of a perforating debris particles on crew and equipment can be severe, only a limited number of empirical studies focusing on space vehicles have been performed to date. Traditionally, crew loss or incapacitation due to a perforating impact has primarily been of interest to military organizations and as such have focused on military vehicles and systems. The module wall considered in this study is initially assumed to be a standard Whippletype dual-wall system in which the outer wall protects the module and its inhabitants by disrupting impacting particles. The model is developed in a way such that it sequentially characterizes the phenomena comprising the impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the inner wall, the creation and motion of the debris cloud that enters the module interior, and the effects of the debris cloud within the module on module pressure and temperature levels. This is accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory.

Schonberg, William P.; Davenport, Quint

1995-01-01

144

SPACE STATION RESEARCH Issue Date Title Link  

E-print Network

International Space Station Benefits For Humanity View PDF (11 Mb) 2011 Fall 2011 International Space Station Utilization Statistics View PDF (10.5 Mb) Feb. 2011 International Space Station Overview: Research and On-Orbit Facilities Non-Partner Participation View PDF (4.6 Mb) Feb. 2011 International Space Station NASA Research

145

Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study. Space station program fluid management systems databook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commonality and integration of propulsion and fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements are being evaluated. The Space Station elements consist of the core station, which includes habitation and laboratory modules, nodes, airlocks, and trusswork; and associated vehicles, platforms, experiments, and payloads. The program is being performed as two discrete tasks. Task 1 investigated the components of the Space Station architecture to determine the feasibility and practicality of commonality and integration among the various propulsion elements. This task was completed. Task 2 is examining integration and commonality among fluid systems which were identified by the Phase B Space Station contractors as being part of the initial operating capability (IOC) and growth Space Station architectures. Requirements and descriptions for reference fluid systems were compiled from Space Station documentation and other sources. The fluid systems being examined are: an experiment gas supply system, an oxygen/hydrogen supply system, an integrated water system, the integrated nitrogen system, and the integrated waste fluids system. Definitions and descriptions of alternate systems were developed, along with analyses and discussions of their benefits and detriments. This databook includes fluid systems descriptions, requirements, schematic diagrams, component lists, and discussions of the fluid systems. In addition, cost comparison are used in some cases to determine the optimum system for a specific task.

Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Lydon, M.

1988-01-01

146

International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

2010-01-01

147

Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available to the International Space Station scientific community, introduces plans for extending microgravity analysis results to the newly arrived scientific laboratories, and provides summary information for known microgravity environment disturbers.

McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

2009-01-01

148

Space Station Freedom media handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook explains in lay terms, the work that is going on at the NASA Centers and contractors' plants in designing and developing the Space Station Freedom. It discusses the roles, responsibilities, and tasks required to build the Space Station Freedom's elements, systems, and components. New, required ground facilities are described, organized by NASA Center in order to provide a local angle for the media. Included are information on the historical perspective, international aspects, the utilization of the Space Station Freedom, a look at future possibilities, a description of the program, its management, program phases and milestones, and considerable information on the role of various NASA Centers, contractors and international partners. A list of abbreviations, a four-page glossary, and a list of NASA contacts are contained in the appendices.

1989-01-01

149

Vibro-acoustics for Space Station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical procedure has been developed to study noise generation in a double wall and single wall cylindrical shell due to mechanical point loads. The objective of this study is to develop theoretical procedures for parametetric evaluation of noise generation andd noise transmission for the habitability modules of the proposed Space Station operation. The solutions of the governing acoustic-structural equations are obtained utilizing modal decomposition. The numerical results include modal frequencies, deflection response spectral densities and interior noise sound pressure levels.

Vaicaitis, R.; Bofilios, D. A.

1986-01-01

150

Science Research Facilities - Versatility for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Science Lab Module (SLM) and its interfaces are designed to minimize complexity and maximize user accommodations. The facilities provided encompass life sciences research, the control of external payloads, the servicing of customer equipment, and general scientific investigations. The SLM will have the unprecedented ability to diagnose, service, and replace equipment while in orbit. In addition, the SLM will have significant operational advantages over previous spacecraft in terms of available volume, power, and crew interaction possibilities.

Giannovario, J. A.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Massey, K.; Solly, M.

1986-01-01

151

Space station trash removal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

Petro, Andrew J.

1992-05-01

152

Space Station trash removal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

Petro, Andrew J.

1993-09-01

153

Space station architectural elements model study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worksphere, a user controlled computer workstation enclosure, was expanded in scope to an engineering workstation suitable for use on the Space Station as a crewmember desk in orbit. The concept was also explored as a module control station capable of enclosing enough equipment to control the station from each module. The concept has commercial potential for the Space Station and surface workstation applications. The central triangular beam interior configuration was expanded and refined to seven different beam configurations. These included triangular on center, triangular off center, square, hexagonal small, hexagonal medium, hexagonal large and the H beam. Each was explored with some considerations as to the utilities and a suggested evaluation factor methodology was presented. Scale models of each concept were made. The models were helpful in researching the seven beam configurations and determining the negative residual (unused) volume of each configuration. A flexible hardware evaluation factor concept is proposed which could be helpful in evaluating interior space volumes from a human factors point of view. A magnetic version with all the graphics is available from the author or the technical monitor.

Taylor, T. C.; Spencer, J. S.; Rocha, C. J.; Kahn, E.; Cliffton, E.; Carr, C.

1987-01-01

154

Space Station - The next logical step  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is committed to the development of a permanently manned Space Station within a decade, in concert with European and Japanese space agencies. In addition to continuing scientific research, the Space Station will proceed with applied science and industrialization experiments. International cooperation opportunities arise within the Space Station program for users (in the definition of missions), for builders (in the development of station resources and capabilities), and operators (in the orbital maintenance of the Space Station).

Finn, T. T.; Hodge, J. D.

1984-01-01

155

Space Station information systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space operations information system is defined and characterized in a wide perspective. Interactive subsets of the total system are defined and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the concept of end-to-end systems and their repetitive population within the total system. High level program goals are reviewed and related to more explicit system requirements and user needs. Emphasis is placed on the utility and cost effectiveness of data system services from a user standpoint. Productivity, as a quantitative goal, in both development and operational phases is also addressed. Critical aspects of the approach to successful development of the data management system are discussed along with recommendations important to advanced development activities. Current and planned activity in both technology and advanced development areas are reviewed with emphasis on their importance to program success.

Swingle, W. L.; Mckay, C. W.

1983-01-01

156

Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that this evolution can be accomplished while conducting critical on-orbit operations with minimal hardware changes.

Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

2007-01-01

157

Space station rotary joint mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism which will be used on the space station to position the solar arrays and radiator panels for Sun pointing and Sun avoidance is described. The unique design features will be demonstrated on advanced development models of two of the joints being fabricated under contract to NASA-MSFC.

Driskill, Glen W.

1986-01-01

158

Shuttle-launch triangular space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A triangular space station deployable in orbit is described. The framework is comprized of three trusses, formed of a pair of generally planar faces consistine of foldable struts. The struts expand and lock into rigid structural engagement forming a repetition of equilater triangles and nonfolding diagonal struts interconnecting the two faces. The struts are joined together by node fittings. The framework can be packaged into a size and configuration transportable by a space shuttle. When deployed, the framework provides a large work/construction area and ample planar surface area for solar panels and thermal radiators. A plurity of modules are secured to the framework and then joined by tunnels to make an interconnected modular display. Thruster units for the space station orientation and altitude maintenance are provided.

Schneider, W. C. (inventor); Berka, R. B. (inventor); Kavanaugh, C. (inventor); Nagy, K. (inventor); Parish, R. C. (inventor); Schliesing, J. A. (inventor); Smith, P. D. (inventor); Stebbins, F. J. (inventor); Wesselski, C. J. (inventor)

1986-01-01

159

Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

Haines, R. F.

1975-01-01

160

Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

1993-01-01

161

Space station power semiconductor package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

1987-01-01

162

Space station propulsion system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

1987-01-01

163

The International Space Station in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

164

Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

1990-01-01

165

The partnership: Space shuttle, space science, and space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Space Station Program functions, design, and planned implementation is presented. The discussed functions for the permanently manned space facility include: (1) development of new technologies and related commercial products; (2) observations of the Earth and the universe; (3) provision of service facilities for resupply, maintenance, upgrade and repair of payloads and spacecraft; (4) provision of a transportation node for stationing, processing and dispatching payloads and vehicles; (5) provision of manufacturing and assembly facilities; (6) provision of a storage depot for parts and payloads; and (7) provision of a staging base for future space endeavors. The fundamental concept for the Space Station, as given, is that it be designed, operated, and evolved in response to a broad variety of scientific, technological, and commercial user interests. The Space Shuttle's role as the principal transportation system for the construction and maintenance of the Space Station and the servicing and support of the station crew is also discussed.

Culbertson, Philip E.; Freitag, Robert F.

1989-01-01

166

Space Station pressure wall repair techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station components are susceptible to hypervelocity impact damage from orbital debris and meteoroids. An especially vulnerable and critical space station component is the module pressure wall. Even with shielding, sufficiently large impacting particles can create penetrations ranging from pinholes to large jagged holes. This paper describes pressure wall damage repair patches along with procedures and tools for performing the repair. One patch incorporates an aluminum foil protected from the jagged hole edge with a Kevlar or foam pad. An adhesive holds the patch in place. Another patch uses a stiff plate held away from the damaged area by a low durrometer rubber ring which also seals the plate edge. An adhesive will also secure this patch in place. Procedures were developed to prepare the punctured wall surface and apply the patch under weightless and unpressurized conditions. The procedures were tested in a laboratory and in the MSFC Neutral Buoyancy Simulator with models of the patches and tools.

Gibbins, Martin N.; Stern, Paul H.; Reid, Donald H.

1988-01-01

167

Space Station life sciences guidelines for nonhuman experiment accommodation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life scientists will utilize one of four habitable modules which constitute the initial Space Station configuration. This module will be initially employed for studies related to nonhuman and human life sciences. At a later date, a new module, devoted entirely to nonhuman life sciences will be launched. This report presents a description of the characteristics of a Space Station laboratory facility from the standpoint of nonhuman research requirements. Attention is given to the science rationale for experiments which support applied medical research and basic gravitational biology, mission profiles and typical equipment and subsystem descriptions, issues associated with the accommodation of nonhuman life sciences on the Space Station, and conceptual designs for the initial operational capability configuration and later Space Station life-sciences research facilities.

Arno, R.; Hilchey, J.

1985-01-01

168

Space Station tethered elevator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

1989-01-01

169

Space station protective coating development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generic list of Space Station surfaces and candidate material types is provided. Environmental exposures and performance requirements for the different Space Station surfaces are listed. Coating materials and the processing required to produce a viable system, and appropriate environmental simulation test facilities are being developed. Mass loss data from the original version of the atomic oxygen test chamber and the improved facility; additional environmental exposures performed on candidate materials; and materials properties measurements on candidate coatings to determine the effects of the exposures are discussed. Methodologies of production, and coating materials, used to produce the large scale demonstration articles are described. The electronic data base developed for the contract is also described. The test chamber to be used for exposure of materials to atomic oxygen was built.

Pippin, H. G.; Hill, S. G.

1989-01-01

170

Space station operations task force summary report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

1987-01-01

171

VentureStar Space Station Docking - Computer generated graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 42-second clip has the cargo bay doors of the hypothetical future reusable launch vehicle VentureStar opening to reveal the bay door radiators and docking module then slowly approaching the International Space Station and finally docking at Pressurized Mating Adapter #2 attached to node two of the Station.

1996-01-01

172

Survey of environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbital living and working environment extending from the original Zarya control module built in 1998. The expected life span of the completed station is around 10 years and during this period it will be constantly manned. It is inevitable that the ISS will also be home to an unknown number of microorganisms. This

Natalia Novikova; Patrick De Boever; Svetlana Poddubko; Elena Deshevaya; Nikolai Polikarpov; Natalia Rakova; Ilse Coninx; Max Mergeay

2006-01-01

173

Space Station Freedom altitude strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom (SSF) altitude strategy provides guidelines and assumptions to determine an altitude profile for Freedom. The process for determining an altitude profile incorporates several factors such as where the Space Shuttle will rendezvous with the SSF, when reboosts must occur, and what atmospheric conditions exist causing decay. The altitude strategy has an influence on all areas of SSF development and mission planning. The altitude strategy directly affects the micro-gravity environment for experiments, propulsion and control system sizing, and Space Shuttle delivery manifests. Indirectly the altitude strategy influences almost every system and operation within the Space Station Program. Evolution of the SSF altitude strategy has been a very dynamic process over the past few years. Each altitude strategy in turn has emphasized a different consideration. Examples include a constant Space Shuttle rendezvous altitude for mission planning simplicity, or constant micro-gravity levels with its inherent emphasis on payloads, or lifetime altitudes to provide a safety buffer to loss of control conditions. Currently a new altitude strategy is in development. This altitude strategy will emphasize Space Shuttle delivery optimization. Since propellant is counted against Space Shuttle payload-to-orbit capacity, lowering the rendezvous altitude will not always increase the net payload-to-orbit, since more propellant would be required for reboost. This altitude strategy will also consider altitude biases to account for Space Shuttle launch slips and an unexpected worsening of atmospheric conditions. Safety concerns will define a lower operational altitude limit, while radiation levels will define upper altitude constraints. The evolution of past and current SSF altitude strategies and the development of a new altitude strategy which focuses on operational issues as opposed to design are discussed.

Mcdonald, Brian M.; Teplitz, Scott B.

1990-01-01

174

SPACE STATION RESEARCH Issue Date Title Link  

E-print Network

View PDF (5.1 Mb) Mar. 2012 International Space Station Benefits For Humanity View PDF (11 Mb) 2011 Fall 2011 International Space Station Utilization Statistics View PDF (10.5 Mb) Feb. 2011 International. 2011 International Space Station NASA Research: Outreach Seminar on the ISS, United Nations View PDF (1

175

Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

1990-01-01

176

Related Publications International Space Station Research and Development Reviews  

E-print Network

#12;i Related Publications International Space Station Research and Development Reviews Comprehensive International Space Station Research Accomplishments International Space Station Science Research-2009-213146-Revision A. Update expected 2012. Benefits of Space Research International Space Station

177

The Automated Planetary Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for a study on mission definition and design to determine broad technology directions and needs for advanced planetary spacecraft and future planetary missions. The discussion covers mission selection, system design, and technology assessment and review for a multicomponent spacecraft exploration facility provided with nuclear power propulsion. As an example, the Automated Planetary Space Station at Jupiter is examined as a generic concept which has the capability of conducting in-depth investigations of different aspects of the entire Jovian system. Mission planning is discussed relative to low-thrust trajectory control, automatic target identification and landing, roving vehicle operation, and automated sample analysis.

Ivie, C. V.; Friedman, L. D.

1977-01-01

178

National Aeronautics and Space Administration International Space Station  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts International Space Station Clearly visible with the naked eye in the night sky, the expansive International Space Station is a working) end to end Equivalent to a U.S. football field, including the end zones International Space Station

179

Microbiology on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

Pierson, Duane L. (editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (editor); Mishra, S. K. (editor); Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

1991-01-01

180

Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the frame of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station (ISS) is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European Columbus module the experiment “Dose Distribution Inside the ISS” (DOSIS), under the project and science lead of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The DOSIS experiment consists of a combination of “Passive Detector Packages” (PDP) distributed at eleven locations inside Columbus for the measurement of the spatial variation of the radiation field and two active Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTELs) with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) in a dedicated nomex pouch mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) for the measurement of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. The DOSIS experiment suite measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 2009 to June 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the follow up DOSIS 3D experiment. The hardware for DOSIS 3D was launched with Soyuz 30S to the ISS on May 15th 2012. The PDPs are replaced with each even number Soyuz flight starting with Soyuz 30S. Data from the active detectors is transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated once a month for this action. The presentation will give an overview of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D experiment and focus on the results from the passive radiation detectors from the DOSIS 3D experiment (2012 - 2014) in comparison to the data of the DOSIS experiment (2009 - 2011). The Polish contribution was supported by the National Science Centre (No DEC-2012/06/M/ST9/00423). The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are financially supported by BMWi under Grants 50WB0826, 50WB1026 and 50WB1232.

Berger, Thomas

181

Space Station program status and research capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Station will be a permanent orbiting laboratory in space which will provide researchers with unprecedented opportunities for access to the space environment. Space Station is designed to provide essential resources of volume, crew, power, data handling and communications to accommodate experiments for long-duration studies in technology, materials and the life sciences. Materials and coatings for exposure research will be

Alan C. Holt

1995-01-01

182

Space Station automation and robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of fifteen students in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, has been involved in a design project under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Systems Research Center (SRC) at UMCP. The goal of the NASA/USRA project was to first obtain a refinement of the design work done in Spring 1986 on the proposed Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) for the Space Station. This was followed by design exercises involving the OMV and two armed service vehicle. Three students worked on projects suggested by NASA Goddard scientists for ten weeks this past summer. The knowledge gained from the summer design exercise has been used to improve our current design of the MRMS. To this end, the following program was undertaken for the Fall semester 1986: (1) refinement of the MRMS design; and (2) addition of vision capability to our design.

1987-01-01

183

Tailoring the space station for mission operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of space station concepts is briefly discussed, taking into account Tsiolkovskii's work, von Braun's wheel-shaped space station, and NASA's Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory. Operations are discussed as a design driver. It is pointed out that Skylab, Space Shuttle, and Spacelab have demonstrated the operational utility of people in space. A description of space station mission operations is presented. It is found that science and applications missions for a space station can be divided into observational and experimental missions. Service operations are operations in which the space station does not conduct end-use missions, but instead provides services to those missions. In April of 1984, the Solar Max spacecraft was restored to full scientific operation after drifting in orbit without precision attitude control. A permanent space station provides the capability to carry out such servicing and repair missions when needed in a routine manner.

Hager, R. W.; Woodcock, G. R.

1984-10-01

184

Space station operating system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

1988-01-01

185

Emergency egress requirements for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective was to determine if the pressurized elements and hatchways of the Space Station Freedom support the emergency egress of crewmembers during operation of the station at the stage of Permanently Manned Capacity. Emergency egress was defined as the exit from a pressurized element when an event occurs which makes that element uninhabitable. The possible egress paths for four emergency scenarios considered were: (1) accident occurs in a module and crewmembers translate to the attached node; (2) accident occurs at a node and crewmembers translate through it to the safe node; (3) accident occurs at a module close to a node and crewmembers are not able to translate through the affected area; and (4) accident occurs at a node and crewmembers cannot translate through it. The structural design of the pressurized elements and the hatches studied is adequate for the emergence egress translation requirement. The current location of a few racks may cause some obstruction for egress to the orbiter. The egress time required in the worst situation is estimated to be about 3 mins. There is a chance of getting crewmembers trapped in a module in case of a severe accident. Aids are needed for emergency egress translation.

Ray, Paul S.

1991-01-01

186

Space Station Freedom: A foothold on the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Space Station Freedom is given. Its modules are discussed and illustrated along with its microgravity research facilities. These facilities include the advanced protein crystal growth facility, the containerless processing facility, a furnace facility, a combustion facility, and a fluid physics/dynamics facility. The topic of living in space is also addressed.

1989-01-01

187

Concrete: Potential material for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

Lin, T. D.

1992-01-01

188

International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

2005-01-01

189

Survey of International Space Station Charging Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

2009-01-01

190

Fault-Tolerance Verification of the Fluids and Combustion Facility of the International Space Station  

E-print Network

.S. Laboratory Module onboard the International Space Stations (ISS). The ability to withstand faults is vital of an experimental facility to be deployed at the International Space Station. Model checkers are designed to find), which is to become a permanent installation on board the International Space Station (ISS

Nesterenko, Mikhail

191

Space Station alpha joint bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

1987-01-01

192

Bioisolation on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal research on the Space Station presents the need for bioisolation, which is here defined as instrumental and operational provisions, which will prevent the exchange of particles greater than 0.3-micron size and microorganisms between crew and animals. Current design principles for the Biological Research Project thus call for: (1) use of specific pathogen-free animals; (2) keeping animals at all times in enclosed habitats, provided with microbial filters and a waste collection system; (3) placing habitats in a holding rack, centrifuge, and workbench, all equipped with particulate and odor filters, (4) washing dirty cage units in an equipment cleaner, with treatment and recycling of the water; (5) designing components and facilities so as to ensure maximal accessibility for cleaning; and (6) defining suitable operational procedures. Limited ground tests of prototype components indicate that proper bioisolation can thus be achieved.

Bonting, Sjoerd L.; Arno, Roger D.; Kishiyama, Jenny S.; Johnson, Catherine C.

1988-01-01

193

Space station trace contaminant control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different systems for the control of space station trace contaminants are outlined. The issues discussed include: spacecabin contaminant sources, technology base, contaminant control system elements and configuration, approach to contaminant control, contaminant load model definition, spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations, charcoal bed sizing and performance characteristics, catalytic oxidizer sizing and performance characteristics, special sorbent bed sizing, animal and plant research payload problems, and emergency upset contaminant removal. It is concluded that the trace contaminant control technology base is firm, the necessary hardware tools are available, and the previous design philosophy is still applicable. Some concerns are the need as opposed to danger of the catalytic oxidizer, contaminants with very low allowable concentrations, and the impact of relaxing materials requirements.

Olcutt, T.

1985-01-01

194

Space Station tethered waste disposal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Transportation System (STS) launches more payload to the Space Station than can be returned creating an accumulation of waste. Several methods of deorbiting the waste are compared including an OMV, solid rocket motors, and a tether system. The use of tethers is shown to offer the unique potential of having a net savings in STS launch requirement. Tether technology is being developed which can satisfy the deorbit requirements but additional effort is required in waste processing, packaging, and container design. The first step in developing this capability is already underway in the Small Expendable Deployer System program. A developmental flight test of a tether initiated recovery system is seen as the second step in the evolution of this capability.

Rupp, Charles C.

1988-01-01

195

Space Station EVA test bed overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current testing activities, testbed design goals, and future plans to support extravehicular activities (EVAs) of the Space Station are discussed. Developments include: (1) regenerative systems for carbon dioxide provision and removal; (2) increased space suit pressure to minimize prebreathe time; and (3) improved operational efficiencies for the extravehicular mobility units. Much novel technology will undergo integration to constitute the Space Station EVA System.

Stinson, Richard G.; Montz, Michael E.

1988-01-01

196

[Assessment of the Space Station Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This letter report by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board addresses comments on NASA's response to the Board's 1993 letter report, NASA's response to technical and management recommendations from previous NRC technical reports on the Space Station, and an assessment of the current International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) program.

Kerrebrock, Jack L.

1994-01-01

197

Space station operations enhancement using tethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space tethers represent a tool of unusual versatility for applications to operations involving space stations. The present investigation is concerned with a number of applications which exploit the dynamic, static, and electrodynamic properties of tethers. One of the simplest applications of a tethered system on the Space Station might be that of a remote docking port, allowing the Shuttle to

I. Bekey

1984-01-01

198

Historical annotated bibliography: Space Station documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is presented regarding documentation which has been produced in the Space Station program. This information will enable the researcher to locate readily documents pertinent to a particular study. It is designed to give the historian the necessary data from which to compile the written histories and to preserve records of historically significant aspects of Marshall's involvement in Space Shuttle and Space Station.

Whalen, Jessie E. (compiler); Mckinley, Sarah L. (compiler); Gates, Thomas G. (compiler)

1988-01-01

199

International Space Station power storage upgrade planned  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Earth-orbit International Space Station (ISS) grows, it needs more power which is generated by solar panels. For periods in which the planet Earth occults sunlight, energy is stored in the biggest set of batteries ever flown in space. Reliability of power is important in a space station because a failure requires costly launch of replacement components. Even greater

H. Oman

2003-01-01

200

Exobiology experiment concepts for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that stimulate the primitive earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

Griffiths, Lynn D.; Devincenzi, Donald L.

1987-01-01

201

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

202

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference. Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference was held on 3-6 Aug. 1992 in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prospective space station researchers and the people in NASA and industry with whom they would be working to exchange information and discuss plans and opportunities for space station research. Topics covered include: research capabilities; research plans and opportunities; life sciences research; technology research; and microgravity research and biotechnology.

1993-01-01

203

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

204

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade - Duration: 8:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

205

Space Station engineering and technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historical background, costs, organizational assignments, technology development, user requirements, mission evolution, systems analyses and design, systems engineering and integration, contracting, and policies of the space station are discussed.

1985-01-01

206

Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Lousma is at the Apollo Telescope Mount EVA work station assembling one of the two 55-foot long sectionalized poles for the twin pole solar shield which was deployed to help cool the Orbital Workshop. Part of the Airlock Module's thermal/meteoroid curtain is in the left foreground.

1973-01-01

207

Part of the International Space Station is assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility look at the Passive Common Berthing Mechanism (PCBM) that will be attached to the Z1 integrated truss structure, a component of the International Space Station (ISS). The truss will be used for the temporary installation of the P6 truss segment to the Unity connecting module. The P6 truss segment contains the solar arrays and batteries which will provide early station power. The truss is scheduled to be launched aboard STS-92 in late 1999.

1998-01-01

208

Part of the International Space Station is assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Still suspended by a crane and cables in the Space Station Processing Facility, yet hidden by the top of the Z1 integrated truss structure, the Passive Common Berthing Mechanism (PCBM) is lowered onto the truss for attachment. Workers at the top of a workstand guide it into place. A component of the International Space Station (ISS), the Z1 truss will be used for the temporary installation of the P6 truss segment to the Unity connecting module. The P6 truss segment contains the solar arrays and batteries which will provide early station power. The truss is scheduled to be launched aboard STS-92 in late 1999.

1998-01-01

209

Part of the International Space Station is assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility watch as cables and a crane lift the Passive Common Berthing Mechanism (PCBM) before mating it to the Z1 integrated truss structure, a component of the International Space Station (ISS). The Z1 truss will be used for the temporary installation of the P6 truss segment to the Unity connecting module. The P6 truss segment contains the solar arrays and batteries which will provide early station power. The truss is scheduled to be launched aboard STS- 92 in late 1999.

1998-01-01

210

Part of the International Space Station is assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility watch the Passive Common Berthing Mechanism (PCBM) lifted high to move it over to the Z1 integrated truss structure at right. It will be mated to the Z1 truss, a component of the International Space Station (ISS). The Z1 truss will be used for the temporary installation of the P6 truss segment to the Unity connecting module. The P6 truss segment contains the solar arrays and batteries which will provide early station power. The truss is scheduled to be launched aboard STS-92 in late 1999.

1998-01-01

211

Part of the International Space Station is assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility look at the Passive Common Berthing Mechanism (PCBM) that will be attached to the Z1 integrated truss structure, a component of the International Space Station (ISS). The Z1 truss will be used for the temporary installation of the P6 truss segment to the Unity connecting module. The P6 truss segment contains the solar arrays and batteries which will provide early station power. The truss is scheduled to be launched aboard STS-92 in late 1999.

1998-01-01

212

Popocatepetl from the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Popocatepetl, or Popo, the active volcano located about 70 km southeast of Mexico City, sends a plume south on January 23, 2001. The astronaut crew on the International Space Station Alpha observed and recorded this image as they orbited to the northeast of the volcano. Popo has been frequently active for six years. On this day, the eruption plume reportedly rose to more than 9 km above sea level [for reference, Popo's summit elevation is 5426 m (17,800 feet)]. Note the smaller ash plume below the main plume (arrow). The perspective from the ISS allowed the astronauts this unique 3 dimensional view. Popo is situated between two large population centers: Mexico City (more than 18 million people, and just off the image to the right) and Puebla (about 1.2 million people). The region's dense population provides the potential for extreme impacts from volcanic hazards. Recent eruptions have been frequent, and have resulted in evacuations around the mountain. The image ISS01-ESC-5316 is provided and archived by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/

2002-01-01

213

Space station: A step into the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station is an essential element of NASA's ongoing program to recover from the loss of the Challenger and to regain for the United States its position of leadership in space. The Space Station Program has made substantial progress and some of the major efforts undertaken are discussed briefly. A few of the Space Station policies which have shaped the program are reviewed. NASA is dedicated to building a Station that, in serving science, technology, and commerce assured the United States a future in space as exciting and rewarding as the past. In cooperation with partners in the industry and abroad, the intent is to develop a Space Station that is intellectually productive, technically demanding, and genuinely useful.

Stofan, Andrew J.

1989-01-01

214

Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

2001-01-01

215

National Aeronautics and Space Administration International Space Station  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration International Space Station [ M I S S I O N S U M M. 17, 2012 THE SCIENCE: A Beehive of Activity #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon Station Mission Summary n Blood Cell Testing (Canadian Space Agency) Microflow1 is a new investigation

216

Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

Rose, M. Frank

1992-01-01

217

Space Station: Leadership for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No longer limited to occasional spectaculars, space has become an essential, almost commonplace dimension of national life. Among other things, space is an arena of competition with our allies and adversaries, a place of business, a field of research, and an avenue of cooperation with our allies. The space station will play a critical role in each of these endeavors. Perhaps the most significant feature of the space station, essential to its utility for science, commerce, and technology, is the permanent nature of its crew. The space station will build upon the tradition of employing new capabilities to explore further and question deeper, and by providing a permanent presence, the station should significantly increase the opportunities for conducting research in space. Economic productivity is, in part, a function of technical innovation. A major thrust of the station design effort is devoted to enhancing performance through advanced technology. The space station represents the commitment of the United States to a future in space. Perhaps most importantly, as recovery from the loss of Challenger and its crew continues, the space station symbolizes the national determination to remain undeterred by tragedy and to continue exploring the frontiers of space.

Martin, Franklin D.; Finn, Terence T.

1987-01-01

218

Space Station - New venture/old problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four key operations-related costs are associated with the Space Station: (1) transportation, (2) data management, (3) sustaining enginenering, and (4) integrated logistics. Life cycle cost principles will be utilized by the Space Station Program to assess operating costs associated with any particular design 'improvement' opportunity.

Cox, John T.

1988-01-01

219

Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

Gersh, Mark

1990-01-01

220

Advanced planar array development for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Advanced Planar Array Development for the Space Station contract are presented. The original objectives of the contract were: (1) to develop a process for manufacturing superstrate assemblies, (2) to demonstrate superstrate technology through fabrication and test, (3) to develop and analyze a preliminary solar array wing design, and (4) to fabricate a wing segment based on wing design. The primary tasks completed were designing test modules, fabricating, and testing them. LMSC performed three tasks which included thermal cycle testing for 2000 thermal cycles, thermal balance testing at the Boeing Environmental Test Lab in Kent, Washington, and acceptance testing a 15 ft x 50 in panel segment for 100 thermal cycles. The surperstrate modules performed well during both thermal cycle testing and thermal balance testing. The successful completion of these tests demonstrate the technical feasibility of a solar array power system utilizing superstrate technology. This final report describes the major elements of this contract including the manufacturing process used to fabricate modules, the tests performed, and the results and conclusions of the tests.

1987-01-01

221

Space station induced electromagnetic effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several mechanisms which can cause electric (E) and magnetic (B) field contaminations of the Space Station environment are identified. The level of E and B fields generated by some of them such as the motion of the vehicle across the ambient magnetic field B(0) and the 20-kHz leakage currents and charges can be controlled by proper design considerations. On the other hand, there are some mechanisms which are inherent to the interaction of large vehicles with the plasma and probably their contributions to E and B fields cannot be controlled; these include plasma waves in the wake and ram directions and the effects of the volume current generated by the ionization of neutrals. The interaction of high-voltage solar arrays with plasma is yet another rich source of E and B fields and it is probably uncontrollable. Wherever possible, quantitative estimates of E and B are given. A set of recommendations is included for further study in areas where indepth knowledge is seriously lacking.

Singh, N.

1988-01-01

222

78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-154)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory...

2013-12-23

223

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-091] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory...

2013-08-13

224

Materials Science Standard Rack on Interntional Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line drawing depicts the location of one of three racks that will make up the Materials Science Research Facility in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Other positions will be occupied by a variety of racks supporting research in combustion, fluids, biotechnology, and human physiology, and racks to support lab and station opertions. The Materials Science Research Facility is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

1999-01-01

225

Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the space station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full-scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Kurtz, R.J.; Barga, R.S.; Hutton, P.H.; Lemon, D.K.

1991-08-01

226

Knowledge-based machine vision systems for space station automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer vision techniques which have the potential for use on the space station and related applications are assessed. A knowledge-based vision system (expert vision system) and the development of a demonstration system for it are described. This system implements some of the capabilities that would be necessary in a machine vision system for the robot arm of the laboratory module in the space station. A Perceptics 9200e image processor, on a host VAXstation, was used to develop the demonstration system. In order to use realistic test images, photographs of actual space shuttle simulator panels were used. The system's capabilities of scene identification and scene matching are discussed.

Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

1989-01-01

227

Electrical power system design for the US space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multipurpose, manned, permanent space station will be our next step toward utilization of space. A multikilowatt electrical power system will be critical to its success. The power systems for the space station manned core and platforms that have been selected in definition studies are described. The system selected for the platforms uses silicon arrays and Ni-H2 batteries. The power system for the manned core is a hybrid employing arrays and batteries identical to those on the platform along with solar dynamic modules using either Brayton or organic Rankine engines. The power system requirements, candidate technologies, and configurations that were considered, and the basis for selection, are discussed.

Nored, Donald L.; Bernatowicz, Daniel T.

1986-01-01

228

STS-104 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This International Space Station (ISS) image was taken by the STS-104 crew during a fly-around inspection of the ISS after the installment of the Joint Airlock. The inspection occurred shortly after the orbiter Atlantis undocked from the ISS. The Canadarm2, or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), appears to be pointed toward the newly-installed airlock on the station's starboard side. The STS-104 mission marked the completion of the second phase of the station assembly. Since the begirning in July of 2000, 77 tons of hardware have been added to the complex, including the Russian Zvezda Module, the Z1 Truss Assembly, the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3, the P6 Truss and its 240-foot long solar arrays, the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, the Canadarm2, and finally the Quest Airlock. The launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-104 mission, occurred on July 21, 2001.

2001-01-01

229

Joint drive development for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parts of the design of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System's joint drive (the motor and drive electronics) have reached the proof of concept phase, while other parts (the joint drive module, joint housing, and joint electronic unit packaging) exist at present only as mockups of design concepts. The system requirements for the joint drive are outlined and the drive

W. J. Ballantyne

1990-01-01

230

Leonardo MPLM in the Space Station Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Center) The Multi-Purpose Launch Module, named Leonardo, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). At left is a Rack Insertion Device. Above the Leonardo are the windows of the tour room where visitors can watch the activities in the SSPF. Scheduled to be launched on STS-100 on Dec. 2, 1999, the Italian-built MPLM will be carried in the payload bay of the Shuttle orbiter, and will provide storage and additional work space for up to two astronauts when docked to the International Space Station. The Leonardo is the first of three modules being provided by Alenia Aerospazio. The second MPLM, to be handed over in April 1999, is named Raffaello. A third module, to be named Donatello, is due to be delivered in October 2000 for launch in January 2001.

1998-01-01

231

Fluid Physics Research on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a presentation in viewgraph format which reviews the laboratory facilities and their construction for the International Space Station(ISS). Graphic displays of the ISS are included, with special interest in the facilities available on the US Destiny module and other modules which will be used in the study of fluid physics on the ISS. There are also pictures and descriptions of various components of the Fluids and Combustion Facility.

Corban, Robert

2000-01-01

232

Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is a high resolution and wide dynamic range dual sensor-based accelerometry instrumentation system to be installed within the International Space Station's (ISS) US Laboratory Module. The MAMS instrument will provide highly accurate acceleration measurement data over the nano-g to milli-g range characterizing the Lab Module environment in the frequency spectrum from 10-4 Hz to

James E. Rice; James C. Fox; William G. Lange; Robert W. Dietrich; W. O. Wagar

1999-01-01

233

Simple analysis of Space Station downlinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information is presented which will allow an ordinary person with no specialized radio or language skills to monitor what cosmonauts are doing inside a Space Station. The times and places that cosmonauts can be overheard and the monitoring procedure are briefly addressed. Typical incidents that occurred from 1985 to 1987 and that had sound clues on the downlink are described, including an ice-cold rescue, a medical emergency, a station-to-station transfer, and extravehicular activities. The categories of signals and sounds which can be heard on a typical Space Station downlink are given and discussed.

Branegan, J.

1988-03-01

234

The role of tethers on space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of research and development that addressed the usefulness of tether applications in space, particularly for space station are described. A well organized and structured effort of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry and academia have defined the engineering and technological requirements of space tethers and their broad range of economic and operational benefits. The work directed by seven NASA Field Centers is consolidated and structured to cover the general and specific roles of tethers in space as they apply to NASA's planned space station. This is followed by a description of tether systems and operations. A summary of NASA's plans for tether applications in space for years to come is given.

Vontiesenhausen, G. (editor)

1985-01-01

235

47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Grandfathered short-spaced stations. 73.213 Section 73.213 Telecommunication...RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.213 Grandfathered short-spaced stations. (a) Stations at locations...

2010-10-01

236

Space Station Element Commonality between LEO and Lunar Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has considered the use of common space station modules launched by the Skylon reusable launch system to construct a large in-orbit infrastructure composed of many small space stations. This previous work assumed this infrastruc- ture extended out to geostationary and lunar locations but without detailed consideration of the implications of operations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper considers the implications of the extension of the approach to the geostationary and lunar environments. These environments impose both different requirements and constraints on the station modules. It is shown, through feasibility concept designs, that these new requirements can be easily incorporated in the core modules so that they can also be used both in LEO and in CIS-lunar space without any significant impact on their effectiveness, although all the requirements do need to be included at the start of the module development. It is also argued that the inclusion of lunar infrastructure requirements into the common modules completely scopes the additional requirements for operation in geostationary orbit. The concept is also extended to lunar surface bases and it is concluded while many new elements would be required some use of common modules is possible but may not be the optimum strategy.

Hempsell, M.

237

Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

2012-01-01

238

Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

2012-01-01

239

Raising the AIQ of the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert systems and robotics technologies are to be significantly advanced during the Space Station program. Artificial intelligence systems (AI) on the Station will include 'scars', which will permit upgrading the AI capabilities as the Station evolves to autonomy. NASA-Ames is managing the development of the AI systems through a series of demonstrations, the first, controlling a single subsystem, to be performed in 1988. The capabilities being integrated into the first demonstration are described; however, machine learning and goal-driven natural language understanding will not reach a prototype stage until the mid-1990s. Steps which will be taken to endow the computer systems with the ability to move from heuristic reasoning to factual knowledge, i.e., learning from experience, are explored. It is noted that the development of Space Station expert systems depends on the development of experts in Station operations, which will not happen until the Station has been used extensively by crew members.

Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

1987-01-01

240

Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

1991-01-01

241

Robotic systems for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic systems will play a critical role in the on-orbit assembly, external maintenance and operations of the International Space Station. This paper reviews the mission and tasks to be performed by the external robotic devices on the Station and provides an overview of the design of the mobile servicing system for the Station. The mobile servicing system represents the state-of-the-art

M. F. Stieber; C. P. Trudel; D. G. Hunter

1997-01-01

242

International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multi-band optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument.

Craig A. Jacobson

2007-01-01

243

OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

Cressy, Philip J.

244

Microdisturbances on the International Space Station during dynamic operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of analysis of microdisturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) at performing various dynamic operations are presented. Docking of transfer manned and cargo vehicles Progress and Soyuz to various docking modules of the ISS, docking of the Space Shuttle Discovery, the ISS orbit correction and, also, disturbances at "EVA" (Extra Vehicular Activity) operations during astronauts working on the external ISS surface are considered. The results of measuring microaccelerations by sensors of both Russian and American segments are analyzed.

Belyaev, M. Yu.; Volkov, O. N.; Ryabukha, S. B.

2013-07-01

245

78 FR 66964 - International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice: (13-128)] International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter...amendment of the charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee...amendment of the charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee is...

2013-11-07

246

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice (12-003)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-01-19

247

75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice (10-090)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee. The...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2010-08-23

248

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice 12-057] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-07-12

249

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice 12-090] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-11-01

250

Space Station Freedom Integrated Research and Development Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom is designed to be an Earth-orbiting, multidiscipline research and development (R&D) facility capable of evolution to accomodate a variety of potential uses. One evolution scenario is growth to an enhanced R&D facility. In support of the Space Station Freedom Program Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the NASA Langley Research Center Space Station Office is analyzing growth requirements and evaluating configurations for this R&D utilization. This paper presents a summary of FY1989 study results including time-phased growth plans, R&D growth issues and configurations, and recommendations for the program baseline design which will facilitate evolutionary R&D growth. This study consisted of three major areas of concentration: mission requirements analysis; Space Station Freedom systems growth analysis; and growth accomodations and trades. Mission requirements analysis was performed to develop a realistic mission model of post-Phase 1 R&D missions. A systems-level analysis was performed to project incremental growth requirements of Space Station Freedom needed to support these R&D missions. Identification of growth requirements and specific growth elements led to the need for special accomodations analyses and trades. These studies included identification of hooks and scars on the baseline design, determination of an optimal module growth pattern, analysis of the dual keel length, and determination of an optimal locaton for the customer servicing facility. Results of this study show that Space Station Freedom must be capable of evolving to a dual keel, eight pressurized module configuration (two growth habs and two growth labs); providing 275 kW power (for experimenters and station housekeeping); accomodating a crew of 24; and supporting other growth structures and special facilities to meet projected R&D mission requirements.

Meredith, Barry D.; Ahlf, P. R.; Saucillo, Rudy J.

1990-01-01

251

Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

Ruggeri, Robert T.

1987-01-01

252

Multivariable control of a soft coupled space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses a multivariable controller design for a control configured space station concept. The space station concept is novel in that mechanical filters (soft couplers) are used to reduce structural interaction between adjacent modules. The primary objective of this study is to provide stability augmentation to the soft coupled configuration. The control objective is achieved by a state feedback compensator design. To obtain the desired feedback gains, a modified LQR technique is developed which provides prescribed close-loop frequencies and damping ratios.

Sunkel, J. W.; Hotz, A. F.

1984-01-01

253

Space Station data management system architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

1987-01-01

254

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

2012-10-01

255

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

2013-10-01

256

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

2011-10-01

257

Alternative strategies for space station financing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attributes of the proposed space station program are oriented toward research activities and technologies which generate long term benefits for mankind. Unless such technologies are deemed of national interest and thus are government funded, they must stand on their own in the market place. Therefore, the objectives of a United States space station should be based on commercial criteria; otherwise, such a project attracts no long term funding. There is encouraging evidence that some potential space station activities should generate revenues from shuttle related projects within the decade. Materials processing concepts as well as remote sensing indicate substantial potential. Futhermore, the economics and thus the commercial feasibility of such projects will be improved by the operating efficiencies available with an ongoing space station program.

Walklet, D. C.; Heenan, A. T.

1983-01-01

258

The space station: Human factors and productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factor researchers and engineers are making inputs into the early stages of the design of the Space Station to improve both the quality of life and work on-orbit. Effective integration of the human factors information related to various Intravehicular Activity (IVA), Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and teletobotics systems during the Space Station design will result in increased productivity, increased flexibility of the Space Stations systems, lower cost of operations, improved reliability, and increased safety for the crew onboard the Space Station. The major features of productivity examined include the cognitive and physical effort involved in work, the accuracy of worker output and ability to maintain performance at a high level of accuracy, the speed and temporal efficiency with which a worker performs, crewmember satisfaction with their work environment, and the relation between performance and cost.

Gillan, D. J.; Burns, M. J.; Nicodemus, C. L.; Smith, R. L.

1986-01-01

259

Proximity operations in space station environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs on proximity operations in space station environment are presented. Topics covered include: automated flight; remote manual piloting; task requirements and constraints; problem formulation; and flight parameter flow\\/pilot interaction for proximity operations task.

Brandt Rhodes

1990-01-01

260

Vibrations and structureborne noise in space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical models were developed to predict vibrations and structureborne noise generation of cylindrical and rectangular acoustic enclosures. These models are then used to determine structural vibration levels and interior noise to random point input forces. The guidelines developed could provide preliminary information on acoustical and vibrational environments in space station habitability modules under orbital operations. The structural models include single wall monocoque shell, double wall shell, stiffened orthotropic shell, descretely stiffened flat panels, and a coupled system composed of a cantilever beam structure and a stiffened sidewall. Aluminum and fiber reinforced composite materials are considered for single and double wall shells. The end caps of the cylindrical enclosures are modeled either as single or double wall circular plates. Sound generation in the interior space is calculated by coupling the structural vibrations to the acoustic field in the enclosure. Modal methods and transfer matrix techniques are used to obtain structural vibrations. Parametric studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of interior noise environment to changes in input, geometric and structural conditions.

Vaicaitis, R.; Lyrintzis, C. S.; Bofilios, D. A.

1987-01-01

261

Overview of the Space Station communications networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the Space Station Freedom program, the communications and data-processing capabilities that will be used to handle the operational and scientific information needs will be provided by a Space Station information and communications system. This system will be composed of a variety of elements, networks, and subnetworks. The networks and how they are interconnected are described. The discussion covers communications system elements and services, elements of the onboard systems, wide-area transport network elements, and command and control elements.

Smith, Joseph F.; Willett, Daniel; Paul, Sunil

1990-01-01

262

Live from Space Station Learning Technologies Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Final Report for the Live From Space Station (LFSS) project under the Learning Technologies Project FY 2001 of the MSFC Education Programs Department. AZ Technology, Inc. (AZTek) has developed and implemented science education software tools to support tasks under the LTP program. Initial audience consisted of 26 TreK in the Classroom schools and thousands of museum visitors to the International Space Station: The Earth Tour exhibit sponsored by Discovery Place museum.

2001-01-01

263

Gravitational biology on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

1983-01-01

264

International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multiband optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument. This analysis supported the preliminary studies to determine feasibility of utilizing the International Space Station as an observing platform for a SHORE type of instrument. Rigorous analyses will be performed if a SHORE flight program is initiated. The analysis begins with the discussion of the coordinate systems involved and then conversion from the target coordinate system to the instrument coordinate system. Next the geometry of remote observations from the Space Station is investigated including the effects of the instrument location in Space Station and the effects of the line of sight to the target. The disturbance and error environment on Space Station is discussed covering factors contributing to drift and jitter, accuracy of pointing data and target and instrument accuracies.

Jacobson, Craig A.

2007-01-01

265

Coping with data from Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume of data from future NASA space missions will be phenomenal. Here, we examine the expected data flow from the Space Station Freedom and describe techniques that are being developed to transport and process that data. Networking in space, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data systems (CCSDS), NASA institutional ground support, communications system architecture, and principal data types and formats are discussed.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1991-01-01

266

Space station thermal control surfaces. Volume 1: Interim report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. space program goals for long-duration manned missions place particular demands on thermal-control systems. The objective of this program is to develop plans which are based on the present thermal-control technology, and which will keep pace with the other space program elements. The program tasks are as follows: (1) requirements analysis, with the objectives to define the thermal-control-surface requirements for both space station and 25 kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal-control-surface technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements; (2) technology assessment, with the objectives to perform a literature/industry survey on thermal-control surfaces, to compare current technology with the requirements developed in the first task, and to determine what technology advancements are required for both the space station and the 25 kW power module; and (3) program planning that defines new initiative and/or program augmentation for development and testing areas required to provide the proper environment control for the space station and the 25 kW power module.

Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.

1978-01-01

267

International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

Showstack, Randy

268

Space Station Engineering and Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolving space station program will be examined through a series of more specific studies: maintainability; research and technology in space; solar thermodynamics research and technology; program performance; onboard command and control; and research and technology road maps. The purpose is to provide comments on approaches to long-term, reliable operation at low cost in terms of funds and crew time.

1985-01-01

269

Remote sensing from the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time has come to give serious thought to the use of the International Space Station (ISS) as a space platform to advance remote sensing research in several scientific disciplines. The European scientific community has been developing instrumentation for deployment on the ISS for some time now. Recently, NASA opened competitions for scientific programs to be supported as ``Missions of

A. Lyle Broadfoot

2001-01-01

270

Remote sensing from the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time has come to give serious thought to the use of the International Space Station (ISS) as a space platform to advance remote sensing research in several scientific disciplines. The European scientific community has been developing instrumentation for deployment on the ISS for some time now. Recently, NASA opened competitions for scientific programs to be supported as “Missions of

A. Lyle Broadfoot

2001-01-01

271

Space Station RT and E Utilization Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descriptive information on a set of 241 mission concepts was reviewed to establish preliminary Space Station outfitting needs for technology development missions. The missions studied covered the full range of in-space technology development activities envisioned for early Space Station operations and included both pressurized volume and attached payload requirements. Equipment needs were compared with outfitting plans for the life sciences and microgravity user communities, and a number of potential outfitting additions were identified. Outfitting implementation was addressed by selecting a strawman mission complement for each of seven technical themes, by organizing the missions into flight scenarios, and by assessing the associated outfitting buildup for planning impacts.

Wunsch, P. K.; Anderson, P. H.

1989-01-01

272

Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

Santy, Patricia A.

1990-01-01

273

Planetary mission departures from Space Station orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of orbital assembly and launch of oversized planetary (or lunar) spacecraft from a Space Station is rapidly coming of age. This prospect raises a host of new problems demanding timely resolution. The one most serious issue involved in launch from a rapidly precessing Space Station orbit (about -7.2 deg/day) is the need to cope with the generally out-of-plane orientation of the V-infinity departure vector. Methods dealing with single or multiple injection maneuvers, deep space plane changes, nodal shift caused by reboost strategy modifications, and departure window duration analysis are discussed.

Sergeyevsky, Andrey B.

1989-01-01

274

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

275

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 upon its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

276

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000- pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

277

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

278

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000-pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

279

Vision requirements for Space Station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems which will be encountered by computer vision systems in Space Station operations are discussed, along with solutions be examined at Johnson Space Station. Lighting cannot be controlled in space, nor can the random presence of reflective surfaces. Task-oriented capabilities are to include docking to moving objects, identification of unexpected objects during autonomous flights to different orbits, and diagnoses of damage and repair requirements for autonomous Space Station inspection robots. The approaches being examined to provide these and other capabilities are television IR sensors, advanced pattern recognition programs feeding on data from laser probes, laser radar for robot eyesight and arrays of SMART sensors for automated location and tracking of target objects. Attention is also being given to liquid crystal light valves for optical processing of images for comparisons with on-board electronic libraries of images.

Crouse, K. R.

1985-01-01

280

Artificial magnetic field for the space station (Protecting space stations in future space missions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Explanation Strong solar storms and cosmic rays make great disturbances for equip-ment outside the magnetosphere. Also these disturbances are so harmful for biological process of living cells. If one decides to stay more outside the Earth, one's healthy is in a great danger. To investigate space station situation against strong solar storms, 5 recent strong solar storms have been

Ahmadi Tara

2010-01-01

281

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

2001-01-01

282

EXPRESS Rack Technology for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EXPRESS rack provides accommodations for standard Mid-deck Locker and ISIS drawer payloads on the International Space Station. A design overview of the basic EXPRESS rack and two derivatives, the Human Research Facility and the Habitat Holding Rack, is given in Part I. In Part II, the design of the Solid State Power Control Module (SSPCM) is reviewed. The SSPCM is a programmable and remotely controllable power switching and voltage conversion unit which distributes and protects up to 3kW of 12OVDC and 28VDC power to payloads and rack subsystem components. Part III details the development and testing of a new data storage device, the BRP EXPRESS Memory Unit (BEMU). The BEMU is a conduction-cooled device which operates on 28VDC and is based on Boeing-modified 9GB commercial disk-drive technology. In Part IV results of a preliminary design effort for a rack Passive Damping System (PDS) are reported. The PDS is intended to isolate ISPR-based experiment racks from on-orbit vibration. System performance predictions based on component developmental testing indicate that such a system can provide effective isolation at frequencies of 1 Hz and above.

Davis, Ted B.; Adams, J. Brian; Fisher, Edward M., Jr.; Prickett, Guy B.; Smith, Timothy G.

1999-01-01

283

A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.

1985-01-01

284

Practical Applications of a Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential uses of a special station for civil and commercial applications is examined. Five panels of experts representing user-oriented communities, and a sixth panel which dealth with system design considerations, based their studies on the assumption that the station would be a large platform, capable of housing a wide array of diverse instruments, and could be either manned or unmanned. The Earth's Resources Panel dealt with applications of remote sensing for resource assessment. The Earth's Environment Panel dealt with the Earth's atmosphere and its impact on society. The Ocean Operations Panel looked at both science and applications. The Satellite Communications Panel assessed the potential role of a space station in the evolution of commercial telecommunication services up to the year 2000. The Materials Science and Engineering panel focused on the utility of a space station environment for materials processing.

1984-01-01

285

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

286

Space Station Science Supported by Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science program at Marshall Space Flight Center will be reviewed in the context of the overall NASA science program. An overview will be given on how Marshall science supports the International Space Station research program. The Microgravity research capabilities at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall civil service and contractor scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in New Initiative Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. The specific scientific instruments that have been developed for Materials Science and Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station will be discussed.

Whitaker, Ann F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Smith, Tommy R.

2003-01-01

287

Comparative analyses of space-to-space central power stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technological and economical impact of a large central power station in Earth orbit on the performance and cost of future spacecraft and their orbital transfer systems are examined. It is shown that beaming power to remote users cannot be cost effective if the central power station uses the same power generation system that is readily available for provision of onboard power and microwave transmission and reception of power through space for use in space is not cost competitive with onboard power or propulsion systems. Laser and receivers are required to make central power stations feasible. Remote power transmission for propulsion of orbital transfer vehicles promises major cost benefits. Direct nuclear pumped or solar pumped laser power station concepts are attractive with laser thermal and laser electric propulsion systems. These power stations are also competitive, on a mass and cost basis, with a photovoltaic power station.

Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

1981-01-01

288

Space Station and the life sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous fundamental research in space life sciences is examined, and consideration is devoted to studies relevant to Space Station activities. Microgravity causes weight loss, hemoconcentration, and orthostatic intolerance when astronauts returns to earth. Losses in bone density, bone calcium, and muscle nitrogen have also been observed, together with cardiovascular deconditioning, fluid-electrolyte metabolism alteration, and space sickness. Experiments have been performed with plants, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, tissue cultures, invertebrate species, and with nonhuman vertebrates, showing little effect on simple cell functions. The Spacelab first flight will feature seven life science experiments and the second flight, two. Further studies will be performed on later flights. Continued life science studies to optimize human performance in space are necessary for the efficient operation of a Space Station and the assembly of large space structures, particularly in interaction with automated machinery.

White, R. J.; Leonard, J. I.; Cramer, D. B.; Bishop, W. P.

1983-01-01

289

Nuclear applications in manned space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zirconium hydride reactor, coupled to a thermo-electric or Brayton conversion system, and the Pu 238 isotope/Brayton system, are considered to be the viable nuclear candidates for the modular space station electrical power system. The basic integration aspects of these nuclear electrical power systems are reviewed, including unique requirements imposed by the buildup and incremental utilization considerations of the modular station. Also treated are the various programmatic aspects of nuclear power system design and selection.

Brooksbank, W. A., Jr.; Sieren, G. J.

1972-01-01

290

Opportunities for space station wave experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans are underway to implement the Solar-Terrestrial Observatory on the Space Station in the 1990's. As conceived now, the Solar-Terrestrial Observatory includes a cluster of instruments for observing solar activity attached to the Manned Station, a cluster of instruments for remotely observing the terrestrial atmosphere attached to the Polar Platform, and clusters of instruments to make in-situ measurements of the

Stanley D. Shawhan

1988-01-01

291

The First Results of the Russian EVA Space Suits Operation in the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year of 2001 saw the first EVAs of the International Space Station (ISS) crews using the Russian "Orlan-M" space suits. This marked the beginning of a new stage of activities on putting into operation of the next ISS modules. The paper reviews the results of the Russian space suits' operation in the course of extravehicular activity (EVA) by the crews of the first ISS expeditions. The paper also reviews differences in operation of the "Orlan-M" in the ISS and "Mir" orbiting station resulting from space suit (SS) systems design, peculiarities of the station airlocks and EVA performance methods. The paper presents data on EVA results and comments on space suit systems' operation. The paper gives diagrams for main parameters of the space suits' life support systems (LSS) and comments about them. In conclusion the paper reviews the "Orlan-M" improvements being performed and prospects of "Orlan-M" usage in the ISS.

Abramov, I. P.; Albats, E. A.; Glazov, G. M.

292

Rendezvous missions: From ISS to lunar space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There was a lot of experience gained in the rendezvous of different vehicles in the LEO during the years of human space exploration. In the framework of the Apollo program when the astronauts landed on the surface of the Moon, the docking of the Lunar Module launched from the Moon's surface to the Apollo Command Module was successfully implemented in the near-Moon orbit. Presently many space agencies are considering a return to the Moon. It is necessary to solve the new task of docking the vehicle launched from the Earth to the long-term near-Moon orbital station taking into account specific constraints. Based on the ISS experience the author proposes a number of ballistic rendezvous strategies that provide for docking to the near-Moon orbital station with minimum propellant consumption. The trade-off analysis of the given rendezvous strategies is presented.

Murtazin, Rafail

2014-08-01

293

Planning for orbital repairs to the Space Station and equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes an extensive study that was performed to establish a baseline for tools, materials, and repair techniques that will be needed for an astronaut to repair structures in an orbital environment, with a view towards future on-orbit repairs to the Space Station. The study program confirmed the premise that repairs must and can be made by astronauts while in an orbital environment. Scenarios for both welding repair and composite repair techniques are presented, along with a discussion of human factors considerations. A Space Station maintenance work station module is described, followed by a discussion of the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator test facility used to evaluate crew work performance in zero g conditions.

Haber, Harry S.; Quinn, Alberta

1988-01-01

294

Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications systems design approach which is intended to satisfy the stringent link requirements. The operational scenario, system configuration, signal design, antenna system management, and link performance analysis are discussed in detail. It is shown that the return link can transmit up to 21.6 Mb/s and maintain at least a 3-dB link margin through proper power and antenna management control at a maximum distance of 37 km. It is suggested that the proposed system, which is compatible with the space station multiple-access system, can be a model for other space station interoperating elements or users to save the development cost and reduce the technical and schedule risks.

Arndt, D.; Novosad, S. W.; Tu, K.; Loh, Y. C.; Kuo, Y. S.

1988-01-01

295

Space Station Freedom Data Assessment Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SSF Data Assessment Study was initiated to identify payload and operations data requirements to be supported in the Space Station era. To initiate the study payload requirements from the projected SSF user community were obtained utilizing an electronic questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire were incorporated in a personal computer compatible database used for mission scheduling and end-to-end communications analyses. This paper discusses data flow paths and associated latencies, communications bottlenecks, resource needs versus availability, payload scheduling 'warning flags' and payload data loading requirements for each major milestone in the Space Station buildup sequence. This paper also presents the statistical and analytical assessments produced using the data base, an experiment scheduling program, and a Space Station unique end-to-end simulation model. The modeling concepts and simulation methodologies presented in this paper provide a foundation for forecasting communication requirements and identifying modeling tools to be used in the SSF Tactical Operations Planning (TOP) process.

Johnson, Anngienetta R.; Deskevich, Joseph

1990-01-01

296

Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

1989-01-01

297

Tethered nuclear power for the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

Bents, D. J.

1985-01-01

298

Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

Bents, D. J.

1985-01-01

299

Space Shuttle orbiter modifications to support Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter required to support Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly and operations are described. Attention is given to berthing modifications, Shuttle Remote Manipulator System upgrades, docking modifications, and Spacelab mission modifications. For SSF assembly missions, the Space Shuttle orbiter will transport elements of the SSF to a 28.5 deg inclination, 220 nm altitude (nominal) orbit.

Randall Segert; Allyson Lichtenfels

1992-01-01

300

Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

Wade, Donald C. (inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (inventor); Schliesing, John A. (inventor)

1995-01-01

301

XTP for the NASA space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Station is a truly international effort; therefore, its communications systems must conform to established international standards. Thus, NASA is requiring that each network-interface unit implement a full suite of ISO protocols. However, NASA is understandably concerned that a full ISO stack will not deliver performance consistent with the real-time demands of Space Station control systems. Therefore, as a research project, the suitability of the Xpress transfer protocol (XTP) is investigated along side a full ISO stack. The initial plans for implementing XTP and comparing its performance to ISO TP4 are described.

Weaver, Alfred C.

1990-01-01

302

A strategy for Space Station user integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach for the development of a flexible end-to-end user integration process for the Space Station is proposed. Users are assigned to an integration class based on the integration complexity of their payloads. The user, user sponsor, and payload accomodations manager develop an integration timeline for the user. The development of techniques to manage multiple payloads and increments over the life of the Space Station, while minimizing interactions between the integration flows of individual users is considered. The integration classes are defined and the strategic, tactical, and execution planning phases of the process are described.

Levitt, Paul A.

1989-01-01

303

Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

1989-01-01

304

Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

1987-01-01

305

Space station proximity operations and window design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

Haines, Richard F.

1988-01-01

306

Health maintenance on Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical support for extended manned missions aboard such spacecraft as the NASA Space Shuttle must encompass prevention, diagnosis, and therapy capabilities in the preflight and postflight as well as actual mission phases. An evaluation is presently made of the technological and management challenges that must be met in order to furnish an adequate inflight health care delivery system that possesses adequate inflight health care, real-time environmental monitoring, physiological countermeasures, and medical rescue/recovery facilities for ill or injured crew members.

Logan, J. S.

1987-01-01

307

The MSFC space station\\/space operations mechanism test bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Station\\/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed consists of the following: a hydraulically driven, computer controlled Six Degree-of-Freedom Motion System (6DOF); a six degree-of-freedom force and moment sensor; remote driving stations with computer generated or live TV graphics; and a parallel digital processor that performs calculations to support the real time simulation. The function of the Mechanism Test Bed is

William G. Sutton; Patrick A. Tobbe

1991-01-01

308

National Aeronautics and Space Administration International Space Station Photosynth Scavenger Hunt  

E-print Network

- National Aeronautics and Space Administration International Space Station Photosynth Scavenger Hunt Welcome to the International Space Station Photosynth Scavenger Hunt. I hope you have taken bell The International Space Station continues the maritime tradition of ringing the ships bell

309

Scientific Utilization Planning for Chinese Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The program of building Chinese Space Station (CSS) , which is planned to be launched around 2020-2022, was approved in 2010 by Chinese government. As the key task for CSS program, the scientific utilization planning started even earlier. With contribution from hundreds of scientists, the science domain for CSS is now defined at present, and the related experimental facilities are also preliminary determined. The scientific utilization plan for Chinese space station covers 9 fields, which will be human medical science, space life science and space bio-technology, microgravity fluid physics and combustion, space Material science, fundamental physics in microgravity, space physics and space environment, space astronomy, space geo-science, and new technology demonstration for space utilization. This paper will give a brief introduction about technical background of CSS, scientific utilization plan in main field, and general information of the research facilities. CSS will serve on orbit for almost 10 years, and the utilization planning for CSS is a long-term and sustained process. The utilization plan will be updated and extended in the further, and make CSS an outstanding solution for space utilization of larger scale.

Yidong, Gu

310

Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

Willits, Charles

1990-01-01

311

Radiological assessment for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circumstances have made it necessary to reassess the risks to Space Station Freedom crewmembers that arise from exposure to the space radiation environment. An option is being considered to place it in an orbit similar to that of the Russian Mir space station. This means it would be in a 51.6 deg inclination orbit instead of the previously planned 28.5 deg inclination orbit. A broad range of altitudes is still being considered, although the baseline is a 407 km orbit. In addition, recent data from the Japanese A-bomb survivors has made it necessary for NASA to have the exposure limits reviewed. Preliminary findings of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements indicate that the limits must be significantly reduced. Finally, the Space Station will be a laboratory where effects of long-term zero gravity on human physiology will be studied in detail. It is possible that a few crewmembers will be assigned to as many as three 1-year missions. Thus, their accumulated exposure will exceed 1,000 days. Results of this radiation risk assessment for Space Station Freedom crewmembers finds that females less than 35 years old will be confined to mission assignments where the altitude is less than about 400 km. Slight restrictions may also need to be made for male crewmembers less than 35 years old.

Badhwar, Gautam D.; Hardy, Alva C.; Robbins, Donald E.; Atwell, William

1993-01-01

312

Berthing simulator for space station and orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a real-time man-in-the-loop berthing simulator is in progress at NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) to conduct a parametric study and to measure forces during contact conditions of the actual docking mechanisms for the Space Station Freedom and the orbiter. In berthing, the docking ports of the Space Station and the orbiter are brought together using the orbiter robotic arm to control the relative motion of the vehicles. The berthing simulator consists of a dynamics docking test system (DDTS), computer system, simulator software, and workstations. In the DDTS, the Space Station, and the orbiter docking mechanisms are mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) table and a fixed platform above the table. Six load cells are used on the fixed platform to measure forces during contact conditions of the docking mechanisms. Two Encore Concept 32/9780 computers are used to simulate the orbiter robotic arm and to operate the berthing simulator. A systematic procedure for a real-time dynamic initialization is being developed to synchronize the Space Station docking port trajectory with the 6 DOF table movement. The berthing test can be conducted manually or automatically and can be extended for any two orbiting vehicles using a simulated robotic arm. The real-time operation of the berthing simulator is briefly described.

Veerasamy, Sam

1991-01-01

313

Productivity in an evolutionary space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station productivity is treated from a systems point of view, considering the functions and attributes of space station development, formation, and operation that affect productivity. An optimum planning method is needed to assure that the station will have mission flexibility, technology advancement, maintainability, and evolutionary capability. Advanced technology will be designed into the housekeeping and utility functions of the station. Greater risk taking may be allowed into designs if the potential benefits of the advanced system support the risk, and if the system can be buffered from causing a failure cascade throughout the station. A common data base is needed to store and track all designs, developments, and changes in the station subsystems. Systems that can be automated and free the human inhabitants for more productive work are favored, as are modular components that are highly fault-free. Human control must also be possible, especially during check-out and verification, and also for teaching the automated systems new or modified tasks.

Anderson, J. L.; Carlisle, R. F.

1983-01-01

314

Risk analysis of space transportation during the space station era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study addresses the operational risks of manned space transportation during the era of space station deployment along with alternative launch vehicle architectures to reduce the risks. Vehicle architectures considered included shuttle only, an additional unmanned launch vehicle, and a second manned/unmanned launch vehicle. Projections are made for the operational parameters and flight event probabilities. Using these projections and Space Station era mission models, the operability of alternative vehicle architectures are examined, and implications to future manned space program plans are summarized.

1989-01-01

315

The Canadian Space Agency's Space Station Remote Manipulator System arrives at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers guide a segment of the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) past the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The segment joins two others for a campaign of prelaunch processing activities. CSA's first contribution to the International Space Station (ISS), the SSRMS is the primary means of transferring payloads between the orbiter payload bay and the ISS for assembly. The 56-foot-long robotic arm includes two 12- foot booms joined by a hinge. Seven joints on the arm allow highly flexible and precise movement. Latching End Effectors are mounted on each end of the arm for grappling. Video cameras mounted on the booms and end effectors will give astronauts maximum visibility for operations and maintenance tasks on the ISS. The SSRMS is scheduled to be launched aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-100, currently planned for July 2000.

1999-01-01

316

Progress Resupply Craft Docks to Space Station - Duration: 2:21.  

NASA Video Gallery

The 39th ISS Progress resupply vehicle automatically docked to the aft port of the Zvezda service module of the International Space Station at 7:58 a.m. EDT on September 12 using the Kurs automated...

317

Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage  

SciTech Connect

A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

1990-02-01

318

Space Station overall management approach for operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

Paules, G.

1986-01-01

319

Research opportunities on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two interdisciplinary facilities that have been proposed for the Space Station, the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility and the Cosmic Dust Collector Facility, are reviewed. Both of these facilities provide opportunities for scientists interested in carbon related research to perform experiments in earth orbit.

Fogleman, Guy

1990-01-01

320

Simple analysis of Space Station downlinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is presented which will allow an ordinary person with no specialized radio or language skills to monitor what cosmonauts are doing inside a Space Station. The times and places that cosmonauts can be overheard and the monitoring procedure are briefly addressed. Typical incidents that occurred from 1985 to 1987 and that had sound clues on the downlink are described,

J. Branegan

1988-01-01

321

Microgravity Particle Research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

Squyres, Steven W. (editor); Mckay, Christopher P. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor)

1987-01-01

322

Aeronomy from the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lessons learned with The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) a new NASA experiment studying the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from a vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. The RAIDS mission focuses on the coupling and transition from the coldest part of the atmosphere, the mesopause near 85 km, up to the hottest

A. B. Christensen; S. A. Budzien; R. L. Bishop; A. W. Stephan

2010-01-01

323

Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment are presented. After a brief overview of the SSE, the implementation approach and the current and planned functionality are described. The implications and future potential of this common environment for software development and sustaining engineering are also discussed.

Voigt, Susan J.

1990-01-01

324

The International Space Station and Atmospheric Drag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze an altitude graph of the International Space Station to understand its rate of altitude loss as a result of atmospheric drag and solar activity. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

325

Telemedicine for the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical care for the integrated crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will require close co-operation between the partner agencies in the areas of selection, medical surveillance, countermeasures, and handling of acute medical problems. Based on a commonly accepted policy of shared care and responsibilities medical guidelines, procedures, and standards for medical data and communication need to be harmonised

D. Wilke; D. Padeken; Th. Weber; R. Gerzer

1999-01-01

326

Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important aspect of planning for Space Station Freedom at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the placement of the viewing windows and cameras for optimum crewmember use. Researchers and analysts are evaluating the placement options using a three-dimensional graphics program called PLAID. This program, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), is being used to determine the extent to which the viewing requirements for assembly and operations are being met. A variety of window placement options in specific modules are assessed for accessibility. In addition, window and camera placements are analyzed to insure that viewing areas are not obstructed by the truss assemblies, externally-mounted payloads, or any other station element. Other factors being examined include anthropometric design considerations, workstation interfaces, structural issues, and mechanical elements.

Goldsberry, B. S.; Lippert, B. O.; McKee, S. D.; Lewis, J. L.; Mount, F. E.

327

Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important aspect of planning for Space Station Freedom at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the placement of the viewing windows and cameras for optimum crewmember use. Researchers and analysts are evaluating the placement options using a three-dimensional graphics program called PLAID. This program, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), is being used to determine the extent to which the viewing requirements for assembly and operations are being met. A variety of window placement options in specific modules are assessed for accessibility. In addition, window and camera placements are analyzed to insure that viewing areas are not obstructed by the truss assemblies, externally-mounted payloads, or any other station element. Other factors being examined include anthropometric design considerations, workstation interfaces, structural issues, and mechanical elements.

Goldsberry, B. S.; Lippert, B. O.; Mckee, S. D.; Lewis, J. L., Jr.; Mount, F. E.

1989-01-01

328

NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

1985-01-01

329

Performance requirements analysis for payload delivery from a space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operations conducted from a space station in low Earth orbit which have different constraints and opportunities than those conducted from direct Earth launch were examined. While a space station relieves many size and performance constraints on the space shuttle, the space station's inertial orbit has different launch window constraints from those associated with customary Earth launches which reflect upon upper stage capability. A performance requirements analysis was developed to provide a reference source of parametric data, and specific case solutions and upper stage sizing trade to assist potential space station users and space station and upper stage developers assess the impacts of a space station on missions of interest.

Friedlander, A. L.; Soldner, J. K.; Bell, J. (editor); Ricks, G. W.; Kincade, R. E.; Deatkins, D.; Reynolds, R.; Nader, B. A.; Hill, O.; Babb, G. R.

1983-01-01

330

Application of robotic mechanisms to simulation of the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the European COLUMBUS Module is to be attached to the International Space Station. On the way to the successful planning, deployment and operation of the module, computer generated and animated models are being used to optimize performance. Under contract of the German Space Agency DLR, it has become IRF's task to provide a Projective Virtual Reality System to

E. Freund; J. Rossmann; C. Turner

2003-01-01

331

Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and telepresence/kinetic processes), (3) subsystem tests of advanced nuclear power, nuclear propulsion and communication systems (using boom extensions, remote station-keeping platforms and mobile EVA crew and robots), and (4) logistics support (crew and equipment) and command and control of deep space transport assembly, maintenance, and refueling (using a station-keeping platform).

Holt, Alan C.

1993-01-01

332

Remote sensing from the space shuttle and space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, we have prepared and flown telescopes and spectrographs on five Shuttle flights with considerable success. We believe that the attributes of the Shuttle and Space Station should be re-examined by the segment of the scientific community that uses remote sensing instrumentation as a research tool. These space platforms could play a greater role in future

A. L. Broadfoot

1997-01-01

333

Remote sensing from the Space Shuttle and Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, we have prepared and flown telescopes and spectrographs on five Shuttle flights with considerable success. We believe that the attributes of the Shuttle and Space Station should be re-examined by the segment of the scientific community that uses remote sensing instrumentation as a research tool. These space platforms could play a greater role in future

A. L Broadfoot

1997-01-01

334

Space Station power system autonomy demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Systems Autonomy Demonstration Program (SADP) represents NASA's major effort to demonstrate, through a series of complex ground experiments, the application and benefits of applying advanced automation technologies to the Space Station project. Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will first jointly develop an autonomous power system using existing Space Station testbed facilities at each center. The subsequent 1990 power-thermal demonstration will then involve the cooperative operation of the LeRC/MSFC power system with the Johnson Space Center (JSC's) thermal control and DMS/OMS testbed facilities. The testbeds and expert systems at each of the NASA centers will be interconnected via communication links. The appropriate knowledge-based technology will be developed for each testbed and applied to problems requiring intersystem cooperation. Primary emphasis will be focused on failure detection and classification, system reconfiguration, planning and scheduling of electrical power resources, and integration of knowledge-based and conventional control system software into the design and operation of Space Station testbeds.

Kish, James A.; Dolce, James L.; Weeks, David J.

1988-01-01

335

Photovoltaic power for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom is described with special attention given to its electric power system. The photovoltaic arrays, the battery energy storage system, and the power management, and distribution system are also discussed. The current design of Freedom's power system and the system requirements, trade studies, and competing factors which lead to system selections are referenced. This will be the largest power system ever flown in space. This system represents the culmination of many developments that have improved system performance, reduced cost, and improved reliability. Key developments and their evolution into the current space station solar array design are briefly described. The features of the solar cell and the array including the development, design, test, and flight hardware production status are given.

Baraona, Cosmo R.

1990-01-01

336

STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

2001-01-01

337

Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences program: to ensure the health, safety, and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental knowledge of biological processes. Space-based research has already shown that people and plants respond the same way to the microgravity environment: they lose structure. However, the mechanisms by which they respond are different, and researchers do not yet know much about these mechanisms. Life science research accommodations on Freedom will include facilities for experiments designed to address this and other questions, in fields such as gravitational biology, space physiology, and biomedical monitoring and countermeasures research.

Phillips, Robert W.

1992-01-01

338

Telepresence and Space Station Freedom workstation operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom workstation system is a distributed network of computer based workstations that provides the man-machine interfaces for controlling space station systems. This includes control of external manipulator, robotic and free flyer devices by crewmembers in the space station's pressurized shirt-sleeve environment. These remotely controlled devices help minimize the requirement for costly crew extravehicular activity (EVA) time for such tasks as station assembly and payload support. Direct window views may be used for controlling some of the systems, but many activities will be remote or require levels of detail not possible by direct observation. Since controlling remote devices becomes more difficult when direct views are inadequate or unavailable, many performance enhancing techniques have been considered for representing information about remote activities to the operator. Described here are the telepresence techniques under consideration to support operations and training. This includes video enhancements (e.g., graphic and text overlays and stereo viewing), machine vision systems, remote activity animation, and force reflection representation.

Jensen, Dean G.; Adam, Susan C.; Stramler, James H.; Wilmington, Robert P.

1990-01-01

339

Space station dynamics, attitude control and momentum management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Attitude Control System software test-bed provides a rigorous environment for the design, development and functional verification of GN and C algorithms and software. The approach taken for the simulation of the vehicle dynamics and environmental models using a computationally efficient algorithm is discussed. The simulation includes capabilities for docking/berthing dynamics, prescribed motion dynamics associated with the Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) and microgravity disturbances. The vehicle dynamics module interfaces with the test-bed through the central Communicator facility which is in turn driven by the Station Control Simulator (SCS) Executive. The Communicator addresses issues such as the interface between the discrete flight software and the continuous vehicle dynamics, and multi-programming aspects such as the complex flow of control in real-time programs. Combined with the flight software and redundancy management modules, the facility provides a flexible, user-oriented simulation platform.

Sunkel, John W.; Singh, Ramen P.; Vengopal, Ravi

1989-01-01

340

Space Station Engineering and Technology Development: Proceedings of the Panel on In-Space Engineering Research and Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1984 the ad hoc committee on Space Station Engineering and Technology Development of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) conducted a review of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space station program planning. The review addressed the initial operating configuration (IOC) of the station. The ASEB has reconstituted the ad hoc committee which then established panels to address each specific related subject. The participants of the panels come from the committee, industry, and universities. The proceedings of the Panel on In Space Engineering Research and Technology Development are presented in this report. Activities, and plans for identifying and developing R&T programs to be conducted by the space station and related in space support needs including module requirements are addressed. Consideration is given to use of the station for R&T for other government agencies, universities, and industry.

1985-01-01

341

Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the international space station (ISS) in the frame of DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project - results from the active instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR has been launched on July 15 (th) 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18 (th) . It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (Dosimetry Telescopes = DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a Nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The active components of the DOSIS experiment were operational from July 18 (th) 2009 to June 16 (th) 2011. After refurbishment the hardware has been reactivated on May 15 (th) 2012 as active part of the DOSIS 3D experiment and provides continuous data since this activation. The presentation will focus on the latest results from the two DOSTEL instruments as absorbed dose, dose equivalent and the related LET spectra gathered within the DOSIS (2009 - 2011) and DOSIS 3D (2012 - 2014) experiment. The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are financially supported by BMWi under Grants 50WB0826, 50WB1026 and 50WB1232

Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes

342

Habitability design elements for a space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Habitability in space refers to the components, characteristics, conditions, and design parameters that go beyond but include the basic life sustaining requirements. Elements of habitability covered include internal environment, architecture, mobility and restraint, food, clothing, personal hygiene, housekeeping, communications, and crew activities. All elements are interrelated and need to be treated as an overall discipline. Designing for a space station is similar to designing on earth but with 'space rules' instead of ground rules. It is concluded that some habitability problems require behavioral science solutions.

Dalton, M. C.

1983-01-01

343

Animal research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for in-depth, long- and short-term animal experimentation in space to qualify man for long-duration space missions, and to study the effects of the absence and presence of Earth's gravity and of heavy particle radiation on the development and functioning of vertebrates is described. The major facilities required for these investigations and to be installed on the Space Station are: modular habitats for holding rodents and small primates in full bioisolation; a habitat holding facility; 1.8 and 4.0 m dia centrifuges; a multipurpose workbench; and a cage cleaner/disposal system. The design concepts, functions, and characteristics of these facilities are described.

Bonting, S. L.; Arno, R. D.; Corbin, S. D.

1987-01-01

344

Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

2005-01-01

345

The AMS-02 TRD for the International Space Station  

E-print Network

The AMS-02 TRD for the International Space Station Florian Hauler on behalf of the AMS-02 TRD Group Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is an experiment which will be mounted on the international space station on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure primary cosmic ray spectra in space for three years

Roma "La Sapienza", UniversitĂ  di

346

NASA/TP2009213146REVISION A International Space Station  

E-print Network

NASA/TP­2009­213146­REVISION A International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During of the International Space Station Program Scientist NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Judy Tate-Brown, Tracy­213146­REVISION A International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During the Assembly Years

347

Impact of suntracking on Space Station controllability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multibody dynamics of the Space Station is studied as affected by the suntracking motions of the photovotaic arrays. Dynamic responses are simulated for the Station being controlled by control moment gyros (CMGs). Controllability is shown to be a function of flight orientation, stage (inertial properties, CP-CG offset) and the suntracking dynamics. For certain combinations of these parameters, the aerodynamic, inertial disturbances and motor torques from alpha joint(s) arising from near-perfect suntracking are too large for the control moment gyro system to control. However, by imposing slight restrictions on the dynamics of the suntracking, CMGs are able to provide Station attitude stability with excellent pointing performance and an excellent microgravity environment.

Chipman, Richard; Hu, Tsay-Hsin G.; Barber, Mark; Holmes, Eric

1993-01-01

348

Mechanically Induced g-Jitter from Space Station Rotary Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the International Space Station is to provide a working laboratory in orbit for research in engineering, life sciences, and microgravity. Among the microgravity disciplines that are preparing to utilize this international resource are materials processing, combustion, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and fundamental physics. The Station promises to enable significant advances in each of these areas by making available a research facility in which gravitational and other accelerations, and their corresponding buoyancy and diffusion effects on various physical processes, are orders of magnitude lower than they are on Earth. In order to fulfill this promise, it is not enough for the Space Station to simply replicate a typical terrestrial scientific laboratory in orbit. Although an orbiting laboratory is free of most of the effects of gravitational acceleration by virtue of its free fall condition, it also produces structural vibration or jitter that can interfere with the processes under study. To ensure the quality of the acceleration environment and enable a successful mission, the Space Station Program has limited potential disturbances in two ways: first, by isolating the most sensitive payloads from the vehicle structure, and second, by quieting major disturbances at their sources. The first area, payload isolation, is implemented inside the pressurized modules at the rack level. Sub-rack level isolators have also been developed. This paper addresses the second area, disturbance source limits, for one of the major sources of mechanical noise on the Space Station: the Solar Alpha Rotary Joints. Due to the potential for large disturbances to the microgravity environment, an initial analytical prediction of rotary joint vibration output was made. Key components were identified and tested to validate the analytical predictions. Based on the component test results, the final vibration output of the joints was verified by a test on each fully assembled flight unit. This paper describes the Space Station microgravity requirements, the rotary joint hardware, and the disturbance producing aspects of joint operation. The test setup, instrumentation, test conditions, and results for the component level and system level measurements are described. An overall forcing function that describes the maximum torque imparted to the Station is created based on the test results, and these disturbances are shown to meet the applicable Space Station microgravity requirements.

Boucher, Robert L.

2000-01-01

349

Electrical breakdown of Space Station Freedom surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be the largest and highest power spacecraft that the U.S. has put into orbit. The solar array will generate 160 volts nominal when in sunlight, and the present baseline design is for the negative end of the solar array to be tied to SSF structure. Due to the balance of leakage currents through the plasma, the structure will be driven approximately 140 volts negative of the ambient conductive ionospheric plasma. Surface materials such as anodized aluminum will have this voltage drop across a thin dielectric which may not have sufficient dielectric strength to prevent dielectric breakdown. This can lead to arcing on the exterior surfaces of Space Station.

Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Bechtel, R. T.; Gray, P. A.

1992-01-01

350

Space station human productivity study, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal was to develop design and operations requirements for direct support of intra-vehicular activity (IVA) crew performance and productivity. It was recognized that much work had already been accomplished which provided sufficient data for the definition of the desired requirements. It was necessary, therefore, to assess the status of such data to extract definable requirements, and then to define the remaining study needs. The explicit objectives of the study were to: review existing data to identify potential problems of space station crew productivity and to define requirements for support of productivity insofar as they could be justified by current information; identify those areas that lack adequate data; and prepare plans for managing studies to develop the lacking data, so that results can be input to the space station program in a timely manner.

1985-01-01

351

Space station attached payload program support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The USRA is providing management and technical support for the peer review of the Space Station Freedom Attached Payload proposals. USRA is arranging for consultants to evaluate proposals, arranging meeting facilities for the reviewers to meet in Huntsville, Alabama and management of the actual review meetings. Assistance in developing an Experiment Requirements Data Base and Engineering/Technical Assessment support for the MSFC Technical Evaluation Team is also being provided. The results of the project will be coordinated into a consistent set of reviews and reports by USRA. The strengths and weaknesses analysis provided by the peer panel reviewers will by used NASA personnel in the selection of experiments for implementation on the Space Station Freedom.

Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Brown, Bardle D.

1989-01-01

352

1International Space Station Status to the NAC HEO Committee March 7, 2012 INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION STATUS  

E-print Network

1International Space Station Status to the NAC HEO Committee ­ March 7, 2012 INTERNATIONAL SPACE Director, International Space Station Division Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate center beneath the SSRMS. #12;2International Space Station Status to the NAC HEO Committee ­ March 7

Waliser, Duane E.

353

Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

1989-01-01

354

Estimating Maintenance Demands Of A Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RENEW computer program simulates maintenance events and estimates data pertinent to maintenance demands. Developed in support of Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Work Package 4. Uses data on reliability and maintainability (R&M) as well as logistical data to estimate both average and time-dependent maintenance demands. Estimates failure and repair times by use of Monte Carlo simulations. Written in BASIC and Assembly language.

Bream, B. L.

1995-01-01

355

Space station pressurized laboratory safety guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Before technical safety guidelines and requirements are established, a common understanding of their origin and importance must be shared between Space Station Program Management, the User Community, and the Safety organizations involved. Safety guidelines and requirements are driven by the nature of the experiments, and the degree of crew interaction. Hazard identification; development of technical safety requirements; operating procedures and constraints; provision of training and education; conduct of reviews and evaluations; and emergency preplanning are briefly discussed.

Mcgonigal, Les

1990-01-01

356

Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

1990-01-01

357

Space Station-era ground data handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning is underway for the handling of the peak return link data rates ranging from 300 to 1200 Mbps that are associated with the emerging Space Station orbital-systems era. Ground data handling services encompass the enhancement of on-board ancilliary data packets to furnish standard calibrations and transformations not available on-board; remote access to an interactive data base will allow users

Gene A. Smith

1989-01-01

358

[Comment on “Space station?”] Not now  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the shuttle development started, its acceptance was greatly supported by the promise of a $100/kg transport fare. From 1985, this has risen to $ll,000/kg (and never dropped since), which gives an interesting clue to the reliability of cost estimates for the Space Station. It is very likely that the Challenger disaster will cause another price jump due to increase safety requirements and may lift the price per transported kilogram beyond perhaps $20,000/kg.

Keppler, Erhard

359

Space Station EVA System Evolution Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Space Station Freedom support of manned exploration is in progress to identify SSF EVA system evolution requirements and capabilities. The output from these studies will provide data to support the preliminary design process to ensure that Space Station EVA system requirements for future missions (including the Transportation Node) are adequately considered and reflected. The study considers SSF support of future missions and the EVA system baseline to determine adequacy of EVA requirements and capabilities, and to identify additional requirements, capabilities, and necessary technology upgrades. EVA demands levied by formal requirements and indicated by evolution mission scenarios are high for the out-years of Space Station Freedom. An EVA system designed to meet the baseline requirements can easily evolve to meet evolution demands with few exceptions. Results to date indicate that upgrades or modifications to the EVA system may be necessary to meet all forseeable hangar induced EVA environments. Work continues to quantity the EVA capability in this regard. Evolution mission scenarios with EVA in and around unshielded nuclear propulsion engines are inconsistent with anthropomorphic EVA capabilities.

Rouen, Michael N. (Technical Monitor); Slade, H. G.; Panzarella, L. N.; Anderson, D. E.; Simonds, C.

1990-01-01

360

Physics Research on the International Space Station  

E-print Network

The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

CERN. Geneva

2012-01-01

361

High-frequency ac power distribution in Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A utility-type 20-kHz ac power distribution system for the Space Station, employing resonant power-conversion techniques, is presented. The system converts raw dc voltage from photovoltaic cells or three-phase LF ac voltage from a solar dynamic generator into a regulated 20-kHz ac voltage for distribution among various loads. The results of EASY5 computer simulations of the local and global performance show that the system has fast response and good transient behavior. The ac bus voltage is effectively regulated using the phase-control scheme, which is demonstrated with both line and load variations. The feasibility of paralleling the driver-module outputs is illustrated with the driver modules synchronized and sharing a common feedback loop. An HF sinusoidal ac voltage is generated in the three-phase ac input case, when the driver modules are phased 120 deg away from one another and their outputs are connected in series.

Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C. Y.

1990-01-01

362

Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

2003-01-01

363

The International Space Station: A National Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After more than a decade of assembly missions and the end of the space shuttle program, the International Space Station (ISS) has reached assembly completion. With other visiting spacecraft now docking with the ISS on a regular basis, the orbiting outpost now serves as a National Laboratory to scientists back on Earth. The ISS has the ability to strengthen relationships between NASA, other Federal entities, higher educational institutions, and the private sector in the pursuit of national priorities for the advancement of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The ISS National Laboratory also opens new paths for the exploration and economic development of space. In this presentation we will explore the operation of the ISS and the realm of scientific research onboard that includes: (1) Human Research, (2) Biology & Biotechnology, (3) Physical & Material Sciences, (4) Technology, and (5) Earth & Space Science.

Giblin, Timothy W.

2012-01-01

364

Skylab 2 Astronaut during EVA at Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slylab 2 Astronaut performs extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the station. Kerwin is just outside the Airlock Module.

1973-01-01

365

Differential Space-Time modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time coding and modulation exploit the presence of multiple transmit antennas to improve the performance on multipath radio channels. Thus far, most work on space-time coding has assumed that perfect channel estimates are available at the receiver. In certain situations, however, it may be difficult or costly to estimate the channel accurately, in which case it is natural to consider

Brian L. Hughes

2000-01-01

366

Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station – overview and comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the

T. Berger; M. Hajek; L. Summerer; N. Vana; Y. Akatov; V. Shurshakov; V. Arkhangelsky

2004-01-01

367

Remote sensing in the Space Station and Columbus programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans for terrestrial remote sensing from the International Space Station are reviewed, with an emphasis on ESA activities (the Columbus program). The advantages of large, long-duration (servicable) multiple-instrument platforms for remote sensing are indicated; the history of the Space Station and Columbus is briefly traced; and relevant results from the UK Space Station Utilization Study (1986) are summarized in tables.

D. D. Hardy

1987-01-01

368

International Space Station Leak Localization Using Attitude Disturbance Estimation  

E-print Network

International Space Station Leak Localization Using Attitude Disturbance Estimation Jong-Woo Kim present a new method to local- ize air leaks on the International Space Station based on the spacecraft be multiple leak locations for a given re- sponse, but the actual geometric structure of the space station

Crassidis, John L.

369

IAC-04-A.4.10 INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION LEAK  

E-print Network

IAC-04-A.4.10 INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION LEAK LOCALIZATION USING VENT TORQUE ESTIMATION Jong in this paper to localize air leaks on the International Space Station based on the spacecraft attitude and rate for a given response, but the actual geometric structure of the space station eliminates many of the possible

Crassidis, John L.

370

International Space Station Leak Localization Using Attitude Response Data  

E-print Network

International Space Station Leak Localization Using Attitude Response Data Jong-Woo Kim, John L leaks on the International Space Station based on the spacecraft attitude and rate behavior produced system. Introduction The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting in a 51.6 inclination near

Crassidis, John L.

371

Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two storage containers are disclosed within which food or biological samples may be stored for transfer in a module by the space shuttle to a space station while maintaining the food or samples at very low temperatures. The container is formed in two parts, each part having an inner shell and an outer shell disposed about the inner shell. The space between the shells is filled with a continuous wrap multi-layer insulation and a getter material. The two parts of the container have interlocking members and when connected together are sealed for preventing leakage from the space between the shells. After the two parts are filled with frozen food or samples they are connected together and a vacuum is drawn in the space between the shells and the container is stored in the module. For the extremely low temperature requirements of biological samples, an internal liner having a phase change material charged by a refrigerant coil is disposed in the space between the shells, and the container is formed from glass fiber material including honeycomb structural elements. All surfaces of the glass fiber which face the vacuum space are lined with a metal foil.

Owen, James W. (Inventor); Dean, William G. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

372

Space Station Freedom - A resource for aerospace education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals of the Space Station are reviewed, and particular attention is given to education projects such as the Davis Planetarium Student Space Station, the Starship McCullough, the Space Habitat, the working Space Station model in Austin, TX, the Challenger Center for Space Life Education, Space M+A+X, and the Space Science Student Involvement Program. Also examined are learning-theory aspects of aerospace education: child vs adult learners, educational objectives, teaching methods, and instructional materials.

Brown, Robert W.

1988-01-01

373

Astronaut 'Checks In' From Space Station - Duration: 1:07.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA astronaut and International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock became the first person to "check in" from space Friday using the mobile social networking application Foursquare. Wheelock's ...

374

Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

375

Space Station battery system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Electric Power System will rely on nickel-hydrogen batteries in its photovoltaic power subsystem for energy storage to support eclipse and contingency operations. These 81-Ah batteries will be designed for a 5-year life capability and are configured as orbital replaceable units (ORUs), permitting replacement of worn-out batteries over the anticipated 30-year Station life. This paper describes the baseline design and the development plans for the battery assemblies, the battery ORUs and the battery system. Key elements reviewed are the cells, mechanical and thermal design of the assembly, the ORU approach and interfaces, and the electrical design of the battery system. The anticipated operational approach is discussed, covering expected performance as well as the processor-controlled charge management and discharge load allocation techniques. Development plans cover verification of materials, cells, assemblies and ORUs, as well as system-level test and analyses.

Haas, R. J.; Chawathe, A. K.; Van Ommering, G.

1988-01-01

376

Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor

1990-01-01

377

Modem simulations for possible use in Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two candidate modem structures for use in the Space Station Multiple-Access Communications System were simulated using a software simulation package to obtain symbol error-rate curves. These systems represent an evolutionary QPSK-through-8 PSK modulation format for the input data streams. It was found that the use of phase-staggered QPSK modems would give lower expected implementation loss than a modem based upon the polarity-Costas-loop method. However, the latter would represent a simpler hardware investment to realize the modem structure for both QPSK and 8 PSK.

Horan, Stephen

1988-01-01

378

Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) will support the operation of the many payloads that may be located within the pressurized modules or on external attachment points. The transaction management (TM) approach presented provides a set of overlapping features that will assure the effective and safe operation of the SSFMB and provide a schedule that makes potentially hazardous operations safe, allocates resources within the capability of the resource providers, and maintains an environment conducive to the operations planned. This approach provides for targets of opportunity and schedule adjustments that give the operators the flexibility to conduct a vast majority of their operations with no conscious involvement with the TM function.

Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

1990-01-01

379

Performance evaluation of SPE electrolyzer for Space Station life support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An static water-vapor feed electrolyzer has been developed as a candidate for Space Station life-support oxygen generation. The five-cell electrolysis module has eliminated the need for phase separation devices, pumps, and deionizers by transporting only water vapor to the solid polymer electrolyte cells. The introduction of an innovative electrochemical hydrogen pump allows the use of low-pressure reclaimed water to generate gas pressures of up to 230 psia. The electrolyzer has been tested in a computer-controlled test stand featuring continuous, cyclic, and standby operation (including automatic shutdown with fault detection).

Erickson, A. C.; Puskar, M. C.; Zagaja, J. A.; Miller, P. S.

1987-01-01

380

High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

1988-01-01

381

Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

1984-01-01

382

A space station Structures and Assembly Verification Experiment, SAVE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station structure has been baselined to be a 5 M (16.4 ft) erectable truss. This structure will provide the overall framework to attach laboratory modules and other systems, subsystems and utilities. The assembly of this structure represents a formidable EVA challenge. To validate this capability the Space Station Structures/Dynamics Technical Integration Panel (TIP) met to develop the necessary data for an integrated STS structures flight experiment. As a result of this meeting, the Langley Research Center initiated a joint Langley/Boeing Aerospace Company study which supported the structures/dynamics TIP in developing the preliminary definition and design of a 5 M erectable space station truss and the resources required for a proposed flight experiment. The purpose of the study was to: (1) devise methods of truss assembly by astronauts; (2) define a specific test matrix for dynamic characterization; (3) identify instrumentation and data system requirements; (4) determine the power, propulsion and control requirements for the truss on-orbit for 3 years; (5) study the packaging of the experiment in the orbiter cargo bay; (6) prepare a preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the experiment; and (7) provide a list of potential follow-on experiments using the structure as a free flyer. The results of this three month study are presented.

Russell, R. A.; Raney, J. P.; Deryder, L. J.

1986-01-01

383

A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

1991-01-01

384

A space station onboard scheduling assistant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the goals for the Space Station is to achieve greater autonomy, and have less reliance on ground commanding than previous space missions. This means that the crew will have to take an active role in scheduling and rescheduling their activities onboard, perhaps working from preliminary schedules generated on the ground. Scheduling is a time intensive task, whether performed manually or automatically, so the best approach to solving onboard scheduling problems may involve crew members working with an interactive software scheduling package. A project is described which investigates a system that uses knowledge based techniques for the rescheduling of experiments within the Materials Technology Laboratory of the Space Station. Particular attention is paid to: (1) methods for rapid response rescheduling to accommodate unplanned changes in resource availability, (2) the nature of the interface to the crew, (3) the representation of the many types of data within the knowledge base, and (4) the possibility of applying rule-based and constraint-based reasoning methods to onboard activity scheduling.

Brindle, A. F.; Anderson, B. H.

1988-01-01

385

Absorbed dose of secondary neutrons from galactic cosmic rays inside the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the flux and energy spectra of neutrons generated as a result of galactic cosmic ray proton interactions with the material of International Space Station (ISS) inside Zvezda Service Module, the Airlock between Russian and USA segments and one of Russian Research Modules for a full configuration of ISS. Calculations

I. Getselev; S. Rumin; N. Sobolevsky; M. Ufimtsev; M. Podzolko

2004-01-01

386

Solar dynamic power for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a computer code which provides a significant advance in the systems analysis capabilities of solar dynamic power modules. While the code can be used to advantage in the preliminary analysis of terrestrial solar dynamic modules its real value lies in the adaptions which make it particularly useful for the conceptualization of optimized power modules for space applications. In particular, as illustrated in the paper, the code can be used to establish optimum values of concentrator diameter, concentrator surface roughness, concentrator rim angle and receiver aperture corresponding to the main heat cycle options - Organic Rankine and Brayton - and for certain receiver design options. The code can also be used to establish system sizing margins to account for the loss of reflectivity in orbit or the seasonal variation of insolation. By the simulation of the interactions among the major components of a solar dynamic module and through simplified formulations of the major thermal-optic-thermodynamic interactions the code adds a powerful, efficient and economic analytical tool to the repertory of techniques available for the design of advanced space power systems.

Archer, J. S.; Diamant, E. S.

1986-01-01

387

QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

388

Roll ring assemblies for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom requires the transmission of high power and signals through three different rotational interfaces. Roll ring technology was baselined by NASA for rotary joints to transfer up to 65.5 kW of power for 30 years at greater than 99 percent efficiency. Signal transfer requirements included MIL-STD-1553 data transmission and 4.5 MHz RS250A base and color video. A unique design for each rotary joint was developed and tested to accomplish power and signal transfer. An overview of roll ring technology is presented, followed by design requirements, hardware configuration, and test results.

Batista, J.; Vise, J.; Young, K.

1994-01-01

389

Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography lists 967 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1987 and June 30, 1987. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to the researcher, manager, and designer in technology development and mission design according to system, interactive analysis and design, structural and thermal analysis and design, structural concepts and control systems, electronics, advanced materials, assembly concepts, propulsion, and solar power satellite systems. The coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future space station.

1987-01-01

390

Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

Sawyer, C. R.

1994-01-01

391

Intermodule ventilation studies for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the ability of the Space Station intermodule ventilation system to maintain centralized control of CO2 removal and O2 supply. The resulting concentration gradients that will arise are calculated by assuming steady state, ideal gas, isothermal conditions, and perfect mixing of air within and between the pressurized elements. In order to estimate the degree of mixing actually obtained for a given ventilation scheme, a program has been developed based on a potential flow solution technique. Preliminary results from this study indicate that substantial short circuiting and recirculation air flow patterns could arise if a simple duct and diffuser air exchange method at the docking port interface were employed.

Davis, Roy G.; Reuter, James L.

1987-01-01

392

Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.

Ferguson, Dale C.; Gardner, Barbara

2002-01-01

393

Launching lunar missions from Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative orbital motion of Space Station Freedom and the moon places practical constraints on the timing of launch/return transfer trajectories. This paper describes the timing characteristics as well as the Delta-V variations over a representative cycle of launch/return opportunities. On average, the minimum-Delta-V transfer opportunities occur at intervals of 9 days. However, there is a significant nonuniform variation in this timing interval, as well as the minimum stay time at the moon, over the short cycle (51 days) and the long cycle (18.6 years). The advantage of three-impulse transfers for extending the launch window is also described.

Friedlander, Alan; Young, Archie

1990-01-01

394

The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

2004-01-01

395

International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant, nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason.

Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

1998-01-01

396

Outreach Education Modules on Space Sciences in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionospheric Radio Science Laboratory (IRSL) at Institute of Space Science, National Central University in Taiwan has been conducting a program for public outreach educations on space science by giving lectures, organizing camps, touring exhibits, and experiencing hand-on experiments to elementary school, high school, and college students as well as general public since 1991. The program began with a topic of traveling/living in space, and was followed by space environment, space mission, and space weather monitoring, etc. and a series of course module and experiment (i.e. experiencing activity) module was carried out. For past decadal, the course modules have been developed to cover the space environment of the Sun, interplanetary space, and geospace, as well as the space technology of the rocket, satellite, space shuttle (plane), space station, living in space, observing the Earth from space, and weather observation. Each course module highlights the current status and latest new finding as well as discusses 1-3 key/core issues/concepts and equip with 2-3 activity/experiment modules to make students more easily to understand the topics/issues. Meanwhile, scientific camps are given to lead students a better understanding and interesting on space science. Currently, a visualized image projecting system, Dagik Earth, is developed to demonstrate the scientific results on a sphere together with the course modules. This system will dramatically improve the educational skill and increase interests of participators.

Lee, I.-Te; Tiger Liu, Jann-Yeng; Chen, Chao-Yen

2013-04-01

397

Conceptual design and integration of a space station resistojet propulsion assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistojet propulsion module is designed as a simple, long life, low risk system offering operational flexibility to the space station program. It can dispose of a wide variety of typical space station waste fluids by using them as propellants for orbital maintenance. A high temperature mode offers relatively high specific impulse with long life while a low temperature mode can propulsively dispose of mixtures that contain oxygen or hydrocarbons without reducing thruster life or generating particulates in the plume. A low duty cycle and a plume that is confined to a small aft region minimizes the impacts on the users. Simple interfaces with other space station systems facilitate integration. It is concluded that there are no major obstacles and many advantages to developing, installing, and operating a resistojet propulsion module aboard the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station.

Tacina, Robert R.

1987-01-01

398

The MSFC space station/space operations mechanism test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed consists of the following: a hydraulically driven, computer controlled Six Degree-of-Freedom Motion System (6DOF); a six degree-of-freedom force and moment sensor; remote driving stations with computer generated or live TV graphics; and a parallel digital processor that performs calculations to support the real time simulation. The function of the Mechanism Test Bed is to test docking and berthing mechanisms for Space Station Freedom and other orbiting space vehicles in a real time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. Typically, the docking and berthing mechanisms are composed of two mating components, one for each vehicle. In the facility, one component is attached to the motion system, while the other component is mounted to the force/moment sensor fixed in the support structure above the 6DOF. The six components of the contact forces/moments acting on the test article and its mating component are measured by the force/moment sensor.

Sutton, William G.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

1991-01-01

399

Gram staining apparatus for space station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

1990-01-01

400

Animal research facility for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated animal research facility is planned by NASA for Space Station Freedom which will permit long-term, man-tended experiments on the effects of space conditions on vertebrates. The key element in this facility is a standard type animal habitat which supports and maintains the animals under full bioisolation during transport and during the experiment. A holding unit accommodates the habitats with animals to be maintained at zero gravity; and a centrifuge, those to be maintained at artificial gravity for control purposes or for gravity threshold studies. A glovebox permits handling of the animals for experimental purposes and for transfer to a clean habitat. These facilities are described, and the aspects of environmental control, monitoring, and bioisolation are discussed.

Bonting, Sjoerd L.

1992-01-01

401

Gram staining apparatus for space station applications.  

PubMed Central

A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space. Images PMID:1690529

Molina, T C; Brown, H D; Irbe, R M; Pierson, D L

1990-01-01

402

Space station microscopy: Beyond the box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopy aboard Space Station Freedom poses many unique challenges for in-flight investigations. Disciplines such as material processing, plant and animal research, human reseach, enviromental monitoring, health care, and biological processing have diverse microscope requirements. The typical microscope not only does not meet the comprehensive needs of these varied users, but also tends to require excessive crew time. To assess user requirements, a comprehensive survey was conducted among investigators with experiments requiring microscopy. The survey examined requirements such as light sources, objectives, stages, focusing systems, eye pieces, video accessories, etc. The results of this survey and the application of an Intelligent Microscope Imaging System (IMIS) may address these demands for efficient microscopy service in space. The proposed IMIS can accommodate multiple users with varied requirements, operate in several modes, reduce crew time needed for experiments, and take maximum advantage of the restrictive data/ instruction transmission environment on Freedom.

Hunter, N. R.; Pierson, Duane L.; Mishra, S. K.

403

MSFC Space Station Program Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations Listing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center maintains an active history program to assure that the foundation of the Center's history is captured and preserved for current and future generations. As part of that overall effort, the Center began a project in 1987 to capture historical information and documentation on the Marshall Center's roles regarding Space Shuttle and Space Station. This document is MSFC Space Station Program Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations Listing. It contains acronyms and abbreviations used in Space Station documentation and in the Historian Annotated Bibliography of Space Station Program. The information may be used by the researcher as a reference tool.

Gates, Thomas G.

1988-01-01

404

Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial

C. R. Doarn; C. W. Lloyd

1992-01-01

405

REMARKS FOR ADMINISTRATOR BOLDEN INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND MARS CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

1 REMARKS FOR ADMINISTRATOR BOLDEN INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND MARS CONFERENCE April 6, 2011 in the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS is the centerpiece of our human spaceflight endeavors for the coming decade ­ it's our anchor for human exploration. The station's extension to at least 2020 will allow

Waliser, Duane E.

406

Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a rich history of bilateral and multilateral cooperation among space faring nations. Three key organizations were established, they include the agency or senior level Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), and the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). All three are staffed by senior medical personnel within each of the partner organizations of the ISS and each has specific roles and responsibilities. These three entities strive to protect the human element of spaceflight through highly effective interaction in a multilingual, multicultural program. This paper reviews the creation of this tripartite approach to the development of medical policy for ISS.

Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Williams, Richard S.; Comtois, Jean-Marc; Damann, Volker; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Pool, Sam L.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Knowingkov, Oleg L.; Doarn, Charles R.

2009-09-01

407

Space Station Freedom electric power system availability study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are detailed of follow-on availability analyses performed on the Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS). The scope includes analyses of several EPS design variations, these are: the 4-photovoltaic (PV) module baseline EPS design, a 6-PV module EPS design, and a 3-solar dynamic module EPS design which included a 10 kW PV module. The analyses performed included: determining the discrete power levels that the EPS will operate at upon various component failures and the availability of each of these operating states; ranking EPS components by the relative contribution each component type gives to the power availability of the EPS; determining the availability impacts of including structural and long-life EPS components in the availability models used in the analyses; determining optimum sparing strategies, for storing space EPS components on-orbit, to maintain high average-power-capability with low lift-mass requirements; and analyses to determine the sensitivity of EPS-availability to uncertainties in the component reliability and maintainability data used.

Turnquist, Scott R.

1990-01-01

408

Space station long-term lubrication analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this program are: (1) to perform a complete tribology survey of every point of contact in the space station subject to relative motion regarding the materials, environment, and operation characteristics, (2) to review each point of relative motion regarding the selected materials and lubricants from the standpoint of the required operating characteristics and environmental conditions, (3) to make recommendations for improvements where the lubricants and/or materials are not considered optimum, and (4) to perform or recommend simulated or full-scale tests on components where problems are possible or likely because of new designs, significant design extensions beyond current practice, or sensitivity of other components to problems with a particular point of contact. The project is to be conducted over a 3-year time frame in two phases. Phase 1 will be a preliminary analysis conducted during the preliminary design phases of the Space Station. Phase 2 will be a more detailed analysis conducted during the period when the design becomes more established.

Dufrane, K. F.; Montgomery, E. E.

1985-01-01

409

Medical impact analysis for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, Space Station medical care priorities were determined by a medical impact analysis of two analog populations, U.S. Army and U.S. Navy personnel. Diseases and injuries in the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) were ranked, using a Medical Impact Score (MIS) combining modified incidence rate and a function of disease outcome. The validity of the analysis method was tested by measuring rank order correlation between the two analog populations. Despite virtually identical age and sex distributions, Army and Navy incidence rates differed significantly for half of the ICD-9-CM categories, p less than 0.05. Disability rates differed for 76 percent, p less than 0.05. Nevertheless, Army and Navy MIS rank orders for categories and sections were not significantly different, p less than 0.001. In critical ways, the Space Station will be a safer environment than earth. Cardiac events, musculoskeletal injuries, affective psychoses, and renal calculi were among the highest scoring categories.

Nelson, Brent D.; Gardner, Reed M.; Ostler, David V.; Schulz, John M.; Logan, James S.

1990-01-01

410

International Space Station: An Interactive Reference Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA can really put together a website, and the dramatic visual and audio introduction to their online interactive guide to the world of the International Space Station (ISS) is worth sitting back and watching in its entirety. After the introduction, visitors can listen to Commander Mike Fincke talk about the various scientific endeavors that are part of the Station's mission. The rest of the materials on the site are divided into three sections: "How the Crew Lives", "How it Works", and "ISS 360 Tour". While all of the sections are equally interesting, the "How the Crew Lives" is quite a treat, as visitors can watch videos demonstrating how the crew eats, sleeps, and exercises. Of course, visitors with a penchant for engineering technology should definitely not miss the "How it Works" area, which contains explanations of how the ISS is operated and supported. Finally, the site also contains a music video which blends together what sounds like early 1990s-techno music with in-flight scenes of space scientists at work and play.

411

Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

1986-01-01

412

Octafluoropropane Concentration Dynamics on Board the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since activating the International Space Station s (IS9 Service Module in November 2000, archival air quality samples have shown highly variable concentrations of octafluoropropane in the cabin. This variability has been directly linked to leakage from air conditioning systems on board the Service Module, Zvezda. While octafluoro- propane is not highly toxic, it presents a significant chal- lenge to the trace contaminant control systems. A discussion of octafluoropropane concentration dynamics is presented and the ability of on board trace contami- nant control systems to effectively remove octafluoropro- pane from the cabin atmosphere is assessed. Consideration is given to operational and logistics issues that may arise from octafluoropropane and other halo- carbon challenges to the contamination control systems as well as the potential for effecting cabin air quality.

Perry, J. L.

2003-01-01

413

International Space Station LABS: Mathematics Activity 1 Surface Area: Saving Space Station Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about using solar arrays to provide power to the space station. Learners will solve a scenario-based problem by calculating surface areas and determining the amount of power or electricity the solar arrays can create. This is mathematics activity 1 of 2 found in the ISS L.A.B.S. Educator Resource Guide.

414

Space crew productivity: A driving factor in space station design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The criteria of performance, cost, and mission success probability (program confidence) are the principal factors that program or project managers and system engineers use in selecting the optimum design approach for meeting mission objectives. A frame of reference is discussed in which the interrelationships of these pertinent parameters can be made visible, and from which rational or informed decisions can be derived regarding the potential impact of adjustments in crew productivity on total Space Station System effectiveness.

Wolbers, H. L.

1985-01-01

415

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a...

2013-10-01

416

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a...

2011-10-01

417

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a...

2012-10-01

418

Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testbed role of an early (1990-95) manned space station in large space structures technology development is defined and conceptual designs for large space structures development missions to be conducted at the space station are developed. Emphasis is placed on defining requirements and benefits of development testing on a space station in concert with ground and shuttle tests.

1983-01-01

419

COTS 2 Mission Press Kit SpaceX/NASA Launch and Mission to Space Station  

E-print Network

Overview of the International Space Station 17 Overview of NASA's COTS Program 19 SpaceX Company Overview Officer International Space Station Program Lead NASA Johnson Space Center 281-483-5111 Michael Braukus that a commercial company will attempt to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station, something only a few

Waliser, Duane E.

420

Worms on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

C. elegans was proposed as a model system for space biology studies in 1991 and has since flown on STS-42, STS-76, and STS-95. Data obtained from these flights have confirmed that C. elegans requires adequate in flight oxygenation and displays an increased rate of mutation, much like other organisms in space. Unlike vertebrates, C. elegans has been observed to successfully complete two continuous full life cycles in space without gross developmental abnormalities. These observations, could with the utility of C. elegans as a terrestrial, fully sequenced, model system make C. elegans a good candidate for long term research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). We are currently working on technology to support biological studies aboard the ISS. A component of this effort is in the development of the Space Station Biological Research Program (SSBRP) Incubator which will be able to house organisms at a constant temperature setpoint ranging from 4deg C to 45deg C. The SSBRP Incubator provides air exchange, power, data and video ports and, when placed in the collaborative NASA/NASDA 2.5M centrifuge rotor, will be capable of providing a lg gravity control. Current plans for validation of the Incubator include video monitoring and periodic sampling of C. elegans in the Incubator onboard the ISS. Once returned to earth, samples will be distributed for analysis via a specimen sharing plan and analyzed for gene expression and other parameters of growth and development in space flight. These data should provide the C. elegans research community with a baseline from which to propose studies for future flights. We have also been developing an appropriate method of culturing C. elegans in liquid media in order to remove the need for the crew to assure that strains are properly fed. Currently, we are growing strains in the chemically defined, axenic, media developed by Dr. Nancy Lu. Wild-type animals complete multiple generations and appear generally healthy after being grown in unchanged media for a minimum of three to four weeks. To assure proper oxygenation we have chosen to grow animals in ten milliliter OptiCells(TradeMark). The choice of the OptiCell(TradeMark) also allows for automation of culturing as demonstrated for cell cultures grown in the OptiCell(TradeMark). Arrangements have been made for the liquid media to be commercially produced by Mediatech, Inc. and OptiCells(TradeMark) are available from BioCrystal Ltd.

Szewczyk, Nate; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Conley, Cassie

2002-01-01

421

Role of the Space Station in Private Development of Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is well underway in the assembly process and progressing toward completion. In February 2001, the United States laboratory "Destiny" was successfully deployed and the course of space utilization, for laboratory-based research and development (R&D) purposes, entered a new era - continuous on-orbit operations. By completion, the ISS complex will include pressurized laboratory elements from Europe, Japan, Russia and the U.S., as well as external platforms which can serve as observatories and technology development test beds serviced by a Canadian robotic manipulator. The international vision for a continuously operating, full service R&D complex in the unique environment of low-Earth orbit is becoming increasingly focused. This R&D complex will offer great opportunities for economic return as the basic research program proceeds on a global scale and the competitive advantages of the microgravity and ultravacuum environments are elucidated through empirical studies. In parallel, the ISS offers a new vantage point, both as a source for viewing of Earth and the Cosmos and as the subject of view for a global population that has grown during the dawning of the space age. In this regard, the ISS is both a working laboratory and a powerful symbol for human achievement in science and technology. Each of these aspects bears consideration as we seek to develop the beneficial attributes of space and pursue innovative approaches to expanding this space complex through private investment. Ultimately, the success of the ISS will be measured by the outcome at the end of its design lifetime. Will this incredible complex be de-orbited in a fiery finale, as have previous space platforms? Will another, perhaps still larger, space station be built through global government funding? Will the ISS ownership be transferred to a global, non-government organization for refurbishment and continuation of the mission on a privately financed basis? Steps taken by the ISS partnership today will effect the later outcome. This paper reviews the range of activities underway in the U.S., as well those being pursued on a multilateral basis across the partnership. It will report on the status of NASA planning for establishment of a non-governmental organization (NGO) to manage the U.S. share of ISS user resources and accommodations. This initiative is unprecedented for a human-rated space craft of ISS magnitude and represents an extraordinarily complex undertaking due to the multi-mission, multi-partner nature of the program. Nonetheless, major advances are scheduled for 2002, as a new NASA Administrator takes the helm and declares the study phase is over. On the global front, the ISS Partners have formed a Multilateral Commercialization Group (MCG) charged to develop Recommended Guidelines for ISS Commercial Activities. Areas such as advertising, merchandising, entertainment, and sponsorship are actively under consideration with plans to advance to the long-awaited decision phase. In conjunction with this project, the challenging issue of how to create, protect, and potentially market the ISS brand to the benefit of the Partners, as well as the scientific, technological and commercial users of the station, is approaching resolution. In the area of space product development, the NASA Commercial Space Centers are entering the era of the space station with new operating principles and practices that promise a focused and sustainable research and development program. This portfolio of seventeen cooperative agreements spans applications in biotechnology, agriculture, remote sensing, and advanced materials. The rate-limiting step has long been access to space and we now stand ready to seize the opportunities afforded by a continuously operating, full-service laboratory in orbit. Each of these initiatives will have a marked effect on evolution of the space station program from a commercial development perspective and each offers the potential to open up economic development of low-Earth orbit in the first h

Uhran, M. L.

2002-01-01

422

Solar terrestrial and plasma processes experiments on space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The currently planned utilization of the space station to perform investigations in solar terrestrial physics and plasma physics is outlined. The investigations and instrumentation planned for the Solar Terrestrial Observatory and its associated space station accommodation requirements are described. In addition, the planned placement of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory instruments are discussed along with typical operational scenarios. In the area of plasma physics, some preliminary plans for scientific investigations and for the accommodation of a plasma physics facility attached to the space station called the Plasma Processes Laboratory are outlined. These preliminary experiment concepts use the space environment around the space station as an unconfined plasma laboratory.

Roberts, W. T.; Kropp, J. L.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Shawhan, S. D.

1986-01-01

423

Hierarchical control of intelligent machines applied to space station telerobots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hierarchical architecture is described which supports space station telerobots in a variety of modes. The system is divided into three hierarchies: task decomposition, world model, and sensory processing. Goals at each level of the task decomposition hierarchy are divided both spatially and temporally into simpler commands for the next lower level. This decomposition is repeated until, at the lowest level, the drive signals to the robot actuators are generated. To accomplish its goals, task decomposition modules must often use information stored in the world model. The purpose of the sensory system is to update the world model as rapidly as possible to keep the model in registration with the physical world. The architecture of the entire control system hierarchy and how it can be applied to space telerobot applications are discussed.

Albus, J. S.; Lumia, R.; Mccain, H.

1987-01-01

424

Space station electrical power system availability study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ARINC Research Corporation performed a preliminary reliability, and maintainability (RAM) anlaysis of the NASA space station Electric Power Station (EPS). The analysis was performed using the ARINC Research developed UNIRAM RAM assessment methodology and software program. The analysis was performed in two phases: EPS modeling and EPS RAM assessment. The EPS was modeled in four parts: the insolar power generation system, the eclipse power generation system, the power management and distribution system (both ring and radial power distribution control unit (PDCU) architectures), and the power distribution to the inner keel PDCUs. The EPS RAM assessment was conducted in five steps: the use of UNIRAM to perform baseline EPS model analyses and to determine the orbital replacement unit (ORU) criticalities; the determination of EPS sensitivity to on-orbit spared of ORUs and the provision of an indication of which ORUs may need to be spared on-orbit; the determination of EPS sensitivity to changes in ORU reliability; the determination of the expected annual number of ORU failures; and the integration of the power generator system model results with the distribution system model results to assess the full EPS. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

Turnquist, Scott R.; Twombly, Mark A.

1988-01-01

425

Utilization of Space Station Freedom for technology research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom presents a unique opportunity for technology developers to conduct research in the space environment. Research can be conducted in the pressurized volume of the Space Station's laboratories or attached to the Space Station truss in the vacuum of space. Technology developers, represented by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST), will have 12 percent of the available Space Station resources (volume, power, data, crew, etc.) to use for their research. Most technologies can benefit from research on Space Station Freedom and all these technologies are represented in the OAST proposed traffic model. This traffic model consists of experiments that have been proposed by technology developers but not necessarily selected for flight. Experiments to be flown in space will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (A.O.) process. The A.O. is expected to be released in August, 1992. Experiments will generally fall into one of the 3 following categories: (1) Individual technology experiments; (2) Instrumented Space Station; and (3) Guest investigator program. The individual technology experiments are those that do not instrument the Space Station nor directly relate to the development of technologies for evolution of Space Station or development of advanced space platforms. The Instrumented Space Station category is similar to the Orbiter Experiments Program and allows the technology developer to instrument subsystems on the Station or develop instrumentation packages that measure products or processes of the Space Station for the advancement of space platform technologies. The guest investigator program allows the user to request data from Space Station or other experiments for independent research. When developing an experiment, a developer should consider all the resources and infrastructure that Space Station Freedom can provide and take advantage of these to the maximum extent possible. Things like environment, accommodations, carriers, and integration should all be taken into account. In developing experiments at Langley Research Center, an iterative approach is proving useful. This approach uses Space Station utilization and subsystem experts to advise and critique experiment designs to take advantage of everything the Space Station has to offer. Also, solid object modeling and animation computer tools are used to fully visualize the experiment and its processes. This process is very useful for attached payloads and allows problems to be detected early in the experiment design phase.

Avery, Don E.

1992-01-01

426

Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JCS. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 1, containing the main body and Appendices A through J.

Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

1988-01-01

427

Nutritional Requirements for Space Station Freedom Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report was to set preliminary nutritional requirements for crewmembers flying from 90 to 180 day missions on Space Station Freedom. Specific recommendations included providing crewmembers with in flight feedback on nutritional intake, weight and strength, and incorporating issues of energy intake, body weight, body composition, strength, and protein intake in the flight medicine program. Exercise must be considered an integral part of any plan to maintain nutritional status, especially those modes that stress the skeleton and maintain body weight. Nutrient intake, amount of exercise, and drugs ingested must be recorded daily; high priority should be given to development of fully automated record systems that minimize astronauts' effort. A system of nutritional supplements should be developed to provide a method for reducing intake deficits that become apparent. Finally, post flight monitoring should include bone density, muscle mass and function, and iron status at three and six months after landing.

Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara L.; Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

1992-01-01

428

Space station ECLSS simplified integrated test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of the Space Station Simplified Integrated Test (SIT) was conducted. The first in a series of three integrated Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system tests, the primary objectives of the SIT were to verify proper operation of ECLS subsystems functioning in an integrated fashion as well as to gather preliminary performance data for the partial ECLS system used in the test. A description of the SIT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements and water and gas samples taken during the test are included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test is reported providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item.

Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathyrn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

1989-01-01

429

Platform options for the Space Station program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Platforms for polar and 28.5 deg orbits were studied to determine the platform requirements and characteristics necessary to support the science objectives. Large platforms supporting the Earth-Observing System (EOS) were initially studied. Co-orbiting platforms were derived from these designs. Because cost estimates indicated that the large platform approach was likely to be too expensive, require several launches, and generally be excessively complex, studies of small platforms were undertaken. Results of these studies show the small platform approach to be technically feasible at lower overall cost. All designs maximized hardware inheritance from the Space Station program to reduce costs. Science objectives as defined at the time of these studies are largely achievable.

Mangano, M. J.; Rowley, R. W.

1986-01-01

430

Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

1992-01-01

431

Space station onboard propulsion system: Technology study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to prepare for the design of the space station propulsion system. Propulsion system concepts were defined and schematics were developed for the most viable concepts. A dual model bipropellant system was found to deliver the largest amount of payload. However, when resupply is considered, an electrolysis system with 10 percent accumulators requires less resupply propellant, though it is penalized by the amount of time required to fill the accumulators and the power requirements for the electrolyzer. A computer simulation was prepared, which was originally intended to simulate the water electrolysis propulsion system but which was expanded to model other types of systems such as cold gas, monopropellant and bipropellant storable systems.

Mcallister, J. G.; Rudland, R. S.; Redd, L. R.; Beekman, D. H.; Cuffin, S. M.; Beer, C. M.; Mccarthy, K. K.

1987-01-01

432

International Space Station Research Plan: Assembly Sequence. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These viewgraphs discuss the International Space Station's Research Plan. The goals for the International Space Station Utilization are to provide a state-of-the-art research facility on which to study gravity's effects on physical, chemical, and biological systems. It is also an advanced testbed for technology and human exploration as well as a commercial platform for space research and development.

2000-01-01

433

Space Station Freedom, technology applications in vehicle electrical power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers the Space Station Freedom electrical power system (EPS) design and shows how the application of that technology in aircraft (and other vehicles) electrical power distribution systems can reduce weight and volume, and improve reliability and maintainability. The design and development of the Space Station EPS was a major milestone in large-scale space power management and distribution. The

Allan Gregg; George Kaelin

1994-01-01

434

STS-100 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, and sporting a readily visible new addition in the form of the Canadarm2 or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the International Space Station was photographed following separation from the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

2001-01-01

435

Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology development of the space station is examined as it relates to space station growth and equipment requirements for future missions. Future mission topics are refined and used to establish a systems data base. Technology for human factors engineering, space maintenance, satellite design, and laser communications and tracking is discussed.

Robert, A. C.

1983-01-01

436

Advanced Capabilities Division International Space Station (ISS) Science Portfolio  

E-print Network

i Advanced Capabilities Division International Space Station (ISS) Science Portfolio Determination and Management #12;ii Advanced Capabilities Division International Space Station (ISS) Science Portfolio ..........................................................................................................3 2.4 NASA Internal Analyses for ISS Utilization for Implementing the Vision for Space Exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

437

Making on-orbit structural repairs to Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the key factors dictating the safety and durability of the proposed U.S. Space Station is the ability to repair structural damage while remaining in orbit. Consequently, studies are conducted to identify the engineering problems associated with accomplishing structural repairs on orbit, due to zero gravity environment and exposure to extreme temperature variations. There are predominant forms of structural failure, depending on the metallic or composite material involved. Aluminum is the primary metallic material used in space vehicle applications. Welding processes on aluminum alloy structures were tested, resulting in final selection of electron beam welding as the primary technique for metallic material repair in Space. Several composite structure repair processes were bench-tested to define their applicability to on-orbit EVA requirements: induction heating prevailed. One of the unique problems identified as inherent in the on-orbit repair process is that of debris containment. The Maintenance Work Station concept provides means to prevent module contamination from repair debris and ensure the creation of a facility for crew members to work easily in a microgravity environment. Different technologies were also examined for application to EVA repair activities, and the concept selected was a spring-loaded, collapsible, box-like Debris Containement and Collection Device with incorporated fold-down tool boards and handholes in the front panel.

Haber, Harry S.; Quinn, Alberta

1989-01-01

438

The space station tethered elevator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

Anderson, Loren A.

1989-01-01

439

IVA the robot: Design guidelines and lessons learned from the first space station laboratory manipulation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first interactive Space Station Freedom (SSF) lab robot exhibit was installed at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, and has been running daily since. IntraVehicular Activity (IVA) the robot is mounted in a full scale U.S. Lab (USL) mockup to educate the public on possible automation and robotic applications aboard the SSF. Responding to audio and video instructions at the Command Console, exhibit patrons may prompt IVA to perform a housekeeping task or give a speaking tour of the module. Other exemplary space station tasks are simulated and the public can even challenge IVA to a game of tic tac toe. In anticipation of such a system being built for the Space Station, a discussion is provided of the approach taken, along with suggestions for applicability to the Space Station Environment.

Konkel, Carl R.; Powers, Allen K.; Dewitt, J. Russell

1991-01-01

440

FDMA system design and analysis for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station FDMA communications system requirements, design, and analysis are addressed. The analysis is primarily based on numerical results generated by a computer simulation system called SCSS. The time-line communications performance during real time mission operation is also discussed. The purpose of this paper is three-fold: introduction to Space Station multiple access communications system requirements, demonstration of system analysis by a computer tool, and design of an FDMA communications system for the Space Station.

Tsang, Chit-Sang; Chie, Chak-Ming; Ratliff, James E.

1986-01-01

441

47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...210 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...All space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service used for domestic...

2013-10-01

442

Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission - Duration: 5:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

443

Engineering Research and Technology Development on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report identifies and assesses the kinds of engineering research and technology development applicable to national, NASA, and commercial needs that can appropriately be performed on the space station. It also identifies the types of instrumentation that should be included in the space station design to support engineering research. The report contains a preliminary assessment of the potential benefits to U.S. competitiveness of engineering research that might be conducted on a space station, reviews NASA's current approach to jointly funded or cooperative experiments, and suggests modifications that might facilitate university and industry participation in engineering research and technology development activities on the space station.

1996-01-01

444

International Space Station Research Racks - Duration: 12:28.  

NASA Video Gallery

The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

445

[Results of statistical analysis of the dynamics of ionizing radiation dose fields in the service module of the International Space Station in 2000-2012].  

PubMed

The on-going 24th solar cycle (SC) is distinguished from the previous ones by low activity. On the contrary, levels of proton fluxes from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are high, which increases the proton flow striking the Earth's radiation belts (ERB). Therefore, at present the absorbed dose from ERB protons should be calculated with consideration of the tangible increase of protons intensity built into the model descriptions based on experimental measurements during the minimum between cycles 19 and 20, and the cycle 21 maximum. The absorbed dose from GCR and ERB protons copies galactic protons dynamics, while the ERB electrons dose copies SC dynamics. The major factors that determine the absorbed dose value are SC phase, ISS orbital altitude and shielding of the dosimeter readings of which are used in analysis. The paper presents the results of dynamic analysis of absorbed doses measured by a variety of dosimeters, namely, R-16 (2 ionization chambers), DB8-1, DB8-2, DB8-3, DB8-4 as a function of ISS orbit altitude and SC phase. The existence of annual variation in the absorbed dose dynamics has been confirmed; several additional variations with the periods of 17 and 52 months have been detected. Modulation of absorbed dose variations by the SC and GCR amplitudes has been demonstrated. PMID:25035897

Mitrikas, V G

2014-01-01

446

External induced contamination environment assessment for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the Space Station Freedom performance as affected by the external induced contamination environment is in progress. The assessment procedure involves comparing the Space Station Freedom external contamination requirements, SSP 30426, Revision B (1991), with calculated molecular deposition, molecular column density, and other effects from potential sources of contamination. The current assessment comprises discussions of Space Shuttle proximity operations, Space Shuttle waste-water dumps (while docked to the Space Station), Space Station fluid and waste-gas venting, system gas leakage, external material outgassing, and a combined contamination assessment. This performance assessment indicates that Space Station Freedom contamination requirements are realistic and can be satisfied when all contamination sources are included.

Leger, Lubert; Ehlers, Horst; Hakes, Charles; Theall, Jeff; Soares, Carlos

1993-01-01

447

Space Power Facility Readiness for Space Station Power System Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides information which shows that the NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Power Facility (SPF) will be ready to execute the Space Station electric power system thermal vacuum chamber testing. The SPF is located at LeRC West (formerly the Plum Brook Station), Sandusky, Ohio. The SPF is the largest space environmental chamber in the world, having an inside horizontal diameter of 100 ft. and an inside height at the top of the hemisphere of 122 ft. The vacuum system can achieve a pressure lower than 1 x 10(exp -5) Torr. The cryoshroud, cooled by gaseous nitrogen, can reach a temperature of -250 F, and is 80 ft. long x 40 ft. wide x 22 ft. high. There is access to the chamber through two 50 ft. x 50 ft. doors. Each door opens into an assembly area about 150 ft. long x 70 ft. wide x 80 ft. high. Other available facilities are offices, shop area, data acquisition system with 930 pairs of hard lines, 7 megawatts of power to chamber, 245K gal. liquid nitrogen storage, cooling tower, natural gas, service air, and cranes up to 25 tons.

Smith, Roger L.

1995-01-01

448

Model reduction for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

Williams, Trevor

1992-01-01

449

The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

2004-01-01

450

Accomplishments in Bioastronautics Research Aboard International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 16 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space flight on the crew members and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes, muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; and changes in immune function. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS . Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program.

Uri, John J.

2003-01-01

451

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

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