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1

Space Station Group Activities Habitability Module Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Re...

D. Nixon

1986-01-01

2

International Space Station Propulsion Module Procurement Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Space Station Program in 1984 to provide for a permanent human presence in an orbiting laboratory. The original U.S. design included a propulsion module that could adjust the orientati...

2001-01-01

3

Pressurized modules for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crew workstations, storage, and facilities in the SSF Habitation module along with station housekeeping and supporting subsystems (power, thermal, and life support) are considered. The U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules are based on a common structural design. The pressurized logistics modules (PLMs) have maximum commonality with the other pressurized modules including common ring frames and waffle grid skin; multilayer insulation and debris shield; and one common endcone.

Hopson, George D.; Grant, Richard L.

1993-05-01

4

Conceptual design of the Space Station fluids module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Fluids Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids\\/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids\\/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations

Dennis W. Rohn; Daniel P. Morilak; Jennifer L. Rhatigan; Todd T. Peterson

1994-01-01

5

Conceptual design of the Space Station combustion module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Combustion Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids\\/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids\\/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations

Daniel P. Morilak; Dennis W. Rohn; Jennifer L. Rhatigan

1994-01-01

6

Battery Reinitialization of the Photovoltaic Module of the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to el...

F. Cohen G. Hajela P. Dalton

2002-01-01

7

Consideration of adding a commercial module to the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently assembling the International Space Station in Low Earth Orbit. One of NASA's program objectives is to encourage space commercialization. Through NASA's Engineering Research and Technology Development program, Boeing is conducting a study to ascertain the feasibility of adding a commercial module to the International Space Station. This module (facility) that can be added, following on-orbit assembly is described. The facility would have the capability to test large, engineering scale payloads in a space environment. It would also have the capability to provide services to co-orbiting space vehicles as well as gathering data for commercial terrestrial applications. The types of industries to be serviced are described as are some of the technical and business considerations that need to be addressed in order to achieve commercial viability.

Friefeld, J.; Fugleberg, D.; Patel, J.; Subbaraman, G.

1999-01-01

8

Introduction to Space Station Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support syste...

R. Kohrs

1992-01-01

9

Space Station Live: Russian Spacewalk  

NASA Video Gallery

Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan talks with Lawrence Thomas, the Increment 36 EVA manager, about the Russian spacewalk planned for June 24, 2013. During the spacewalk, Flight Engineers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin will replace a fluid flow control valve panel on the Zarya module, test Kurs automated docking cables for the arrival of a new Russian laboratory module later this year and install clamps to later hold cables bringing power from the U.S. segment of the station to that new Russian module. The two spacewalkers are also slated to install handholds for future spacewalk activities and retrieve experiments from the hull of the Zvezda service module.

Gerald T Wright

2013-06-21

10

The International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

11

New Crew Docks With Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The Soyuz TMA-22 spacecraft carrying NASA astronaut Dan Burbank and Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin docked to the International Space Station’s Poisk mini-research module at 12:24 a.m. EST Wednesday.

Gerald T Wright

2011-11-15

12

Radiation Monitoring System in Service Module of International Space Station. Eight Years of Functioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation monitoring system (RMS) installed on board the Russian module (RM) of the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) is an important part of radiation safety system of a spacecraft. RMS function practically continuously beginning from 1 August 2001 year. Integration the RMS with other systems of RM permits to transmit measured values to the Earth by the telemetry and to reflect the radiation environment data directly to crew by the personal com-puter. There is a possibility to correct the RMS software directly on board the ISS. It permits improve greatly a confidence, reliability and validity of an information obtaining. The report presents the data about the equipment functioning and results of dose rate measurements during the period from the August of 2001 up to the August of 2009 both for normal radiation environ-ment and during solar particle events (SPE). Comparison of an absorbed dose rate measured by the detectors located in various points of the RM showed that difference of doses measured in low and high shielded areas of the RM at undisturbed radiation conditions is notably stable and not exceeds a factor of 2. At the same time during the disturbances caused by SPE it can reach of 30. This fact confirms the efficiency of a crew passage in the high-shielded area for decreasing SCR dose. Comparison data obtained with the RMS silicon detectors with the R-16 ionizing chamber data showed that for equal shielding conditions the measured values coincide with accuracy rather then 20On the whole the dose rate dynamics for various solar cycle periods and during the SPE demonstrates reasonably high regularity of crewmembers dose. But it is clear that onboard and personal dosimetric control is necessary for implementation of ALARA principle and minimization of the crewmembers personal doses.

Benghin, Victor; Petrov, Vladislav; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Volkov, Aleksey; Nikolaev, Igor; Nechaev, Oleg; Lishnevskii, Andrey; Tel, Mikhail

13

Space Station Technology Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The completion of the Space Station Propulsion Advanced Technology Programs established an in-depth data base for the baseline gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen thruster, the waste gas resistojet, and the associated system operations. These efforts included...

R. Iacabucci S. Evans G. Briley R. A. Delventhal E. Braunscheidel

1989-01-01

14

Telerobot for Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a multiple arm dexterous manipulation system, will aid in the assembly, maintenance, and servicing of the space station. Fundamental ideas and basic conceptual designs for a shuttle-based telerobot system have been p...

L. M. Jenkins

1987-01-01

15

The International Space Station Habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

2003-01-01

16

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the Ku-band communications gear aboard the station.

Gerald T Wright

2013-04-12

17

The organized Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

18

Space Station Commonality Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems a...

1988-01-01

19

Space station? statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date much of the Space Station discussion has focused on what it costs, how it will be managed, and its detailed configuration. There's been relatively little discussion of the objectives and requirements it must meet in spite of the fact that our experience has shown the criticallity of establishing well-defined objectives prior to initiating the development phase of such a program.

Meredith, L. H.

20

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

21

Progress Resupply Craft Docks to Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The 39th ISS Progress resupply vehicle automatically docked to the aft port of the Zvezda service module of the International Space Station at 7:58 a.m. EDT on September 12 using the Kurs automated rendezvous system.

Jim Wilson

2010-09-13

22

Space Station Tethered Elevator System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. E...

L. A. Anderson

1989-01-01

23

Boeing: International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

2005-11-03

24

Boeing: International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

25

Space Station power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DC primary power requirements are presented for Space Station Freedom. The power conversion system used is a current-fed push-pull (CFPP) converter. Large signal, small signal, and closed-loop control, analysis of the CFPP converter is presented. Both PSPICE circuit simulation and MATLAB control loop simulation along with experimental results confirm theoretical work. A prototype unit has been developed by using specially designed power components, which exhibit power conversion efficiency of more than 92 percent. By using the state-space averaging method, the Buck-like canonical model of the DC-to-DC converter unit was derived. The peak-current programming control is employed to ensure the cycle-to-cycle correction of small distribution. In the controller design, the interactions among line filter, power stage, and output filter have been taken into account.

Silva, Rosemary; Lee, Henry

26

International Space Station payload accommodations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbiting facility for conducting research in life science, microgravity, Earth observations, and Engineering Research and Technology. Assembled on-orbit at a nominal altitude of 220 nautical miles, it will provide a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting research in six laboratories: the US Laboratory (US Lab), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the European Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF), the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM), and the Russian Research Modules. Supplies will be replenished using the Multi-Purpose Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM), a conditioned pressurized transport carrier which will also return passive and perishable payload cargo to earth. External Earth observations can be performed by utilizing the payload attachment points on the truss, the Russian Science Power Platform, the JEM Exposed Facility (EF), and the COF backporch. The pressurized and external locations are equipped with a variety of electrical, avionics, fluids, and gas interfaces to support the experiments. ISS solar arrays, thermal radiators, communication system, propulsion, environmental control, and robotic devices provide the infrastructure to support sustained research. This paper, which reflects the design maturity of payload accommodations at the time of its submittal (10/20/98), is primarily based on the assembly complete configuration of the station. As the design matures, ISS Payload Accommodations will be updated to reflect qualification tests of components and associated analyses of the integrated performance.

Hartman, Daniel W.

1999-01-01

27

The ESA Space Station programme plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. offer for international cooperation in the Space Station program is discussed from the European Space Agency (ESA) point of view. A Long Term Preparatory Program, entrusted to ESA and concentrating on future European launchers beyond Ariane 4 and the build-up of a European In-Orbit Infrastructure, has given major emphasis to a nearer-term goal to prepare for a European participation in the U.S. Space Station program concerning pressurized modules and co-orbiting platforms. Activities are also under way in Europe to prepare for a Space Station program based on the Columbus program approved by ESA Council and which includes space and ground segments, payloads, and demo missions. A Space Station phase B agreement between NASA and ESA which defines the mutual relationships and mechanisms for coordination and exchange of information during phase B is under preparation.

Bignier, M.; Peters, G.; Altmann, G.

1984-10-01

28

Canada's role on space station.  

PubMed

The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space. PMID:16010765

Doetsch, Karl

29

$425 million for space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Station will funded at only about half of the $767 million requested in the 1988 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and overall the agency will receive $8,856 billion for the current fiscal year (FY) in the deficit-reduction package passed by Congress in late December. Despite an earlier complaint that reductions in the space station

William Ward Maggs

1988-01-01

30

Space Station Live: Seedling Growth  

NASA Video Gallery

Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Carol Jacobs, payload operations director at the Marshall Space Flight Center's POIC, about the Seedling Growth experiment talking place aboard the International Space Station.

Gerald T Wright

2013-06-05

31

A one-meter aperture wide-field camera for the Japanese exposure module on space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to construct and deploy a one-meter, wide field camera for cosmological, science education and other studies and site it on the International Space Station's Japanese Exposure Module (JEM). The SHOUT Telescope (for S_pace H_ands-O_n U_niverse T_elescope) is an inexpensive powerful instrument that will yield some of the most significant measurements in astrophysics. The detector would consist of a 15,000×15,000 pixel2 imaging CCD made of high-resistivity silicon, with quantum efficiency of approximately 50% at one micron. In addition, a single channel spectrograph is included for spectroscopy on any interesting photometric discoveries. Advances in graphite carbon mirrors and telescope construction enable an instrument weight of about 100-200 kg. Such a low-weight instrument could be placed on a mass-limited shuttle launch. This system would have a performance for finding point objects in a random field ~100x of that of the Advanced Camera system on HST at a wavelength of one micron. It would fill an under-exploited niche of the electromagnetic and time-variability spectrum and enable a broad range of synoptic measurements at high redshifts. In addition, cosmological effects measured in supernovae, quasars, galaxies, are large at z~1 to 2, ideally suited for I band studies-a region of great sensitivity for this instrument. The scientific program would include the discovery and follow-up of approximately 1000 Type 1a supernovae, discovery and studies of quasar lenses, a determination of this distribution and nature of micro-lensing sources, a deep field covering many square degrees in several colors to 27th magnitude and 0.2 arc-second resolution. A unique feature of this mission is that a strong collaboration between scientists, teachers, and students will be embedded in the operations of this system. Students will be able to collaborate on all of the science undertaken.

Pennypacker, Carl; Ebisuzaki, Toshi; Handa, Toshihiro; Nugent, Peter; Fruchter, Andrew; Pain, Reynald; Aldering, Greg; Hammer, Francois; Groom, Don; Takahashi, Yoshi; Hadaway, James; Goobar, Ariel; Nomoto, Ken; Isaac, Maria; Goldhaber, Gerson; Perlmutter, Saul; MacKenty, John; Branch, David; Tsiopa, Olga; Gnedin, Yuri; Jochum, Josef

1999-01-01

32

Space Station - The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will augment Space Shuttle operations by retrieving and replacing satellites while expending far less propellant than the heavier manned vehicle would require. At the Space Station, the OMV will ferry logistics modules to and from the Shuttle's orbit some 130 n.m. below, deploy and dock OTVs, assemble modules, and retrieve satellites for servicing; it will then proceed to redeploy the satellites. OMV operations will be controlled either from the Shuttle or from a ground station, via video monitors.

Stephenson, Arthur G.

1988-11-01

33

Space Station Freedom research capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's plan for enhancing space-based research capabilities begins with extended-duration Space Shuttle missions that will double the research capability currently provided by Spacelab and culminate in Space Station Freedom. The 14-day USML 1 mission flown on the Space Shuttle in June 1992 was a space station precursor mission, dedicated to microgravity and life science research. Freedom will be a permanent space-based research facility, providing a working environment nearly free of buoyancy-driven convection, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressure and featuring access to the ultra-high vacuum of space (for external payloads). In its crew-tended phase, Space Station Freedom will provide 40 times Spacelab's capability, and in its permanently occupied phase, Freedom will provide 110 times Spacelab's capability. (The Russian space station, Mir, offers 26 times Spacelab's capabilities.) According to NASA's current schedule, the first launch of a space station element will take place in November 1995, with permanently occupied capability planned for September 1999. This year, NASA will conduct space station critical design reviews (CDR's). Work package design reviews will take place from February to April 1993, followed by a systems CDR.

Moorehead, Robert

34

Overview of Japanese policy on space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese space activities commission decided to participate in the space station program firstly with an experiment module construction and operation and later with a free flyer platform. The material science and processing and life science missions are in high priority for early phase, because they cannot be performed intensively with the currently available means in Japan. It is expected that Japan makes contribution to international cooperation in space as well as to the benefits of Japanese academic and industrial communities.

Kobayashi, Shigeo

35

Space Station Wardroom Habitability and Equipment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental designs in life-size mock-up form for the wardroom facility for the Space Station Habitability Module are explored and developed. In Phase 1, three preliminary concepts for the wardroom configuration are fabricated and evaluated. In Phase 2, ...

D. Nixon C. Miller R. Fauquet

1989-01-01

36

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Earth stations and other space stations. (e) A space station may transmit one-way communications. (f) Space telemetry transmissions may consist of specially coded messages intended to facilitate communications or related to the function...

2011-10-01

37

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Earth stations and other space stations. (e) A space station may transmit one-way communications. (f) Space telemetry transmissions may consist of specially coded messages intended to facilitate communications or related to the function...

2012-10-01

38

Space Station Live: ISS CREAM  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass) Principal Investigator Eun-Suk Seo to learn more about this experiment that will study cosmic ray physics from the International Space Station.

Mark Garcia

2013-05-28

39

Space Station Freedom Combustion Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspecti...

G. M. Faeth

1992-01-01

40

Space Station Wireless Local Area Network Signal Characteristics Modeling and Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the signal characteristic analysis of the International Space Station 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLANs). The test data indicate the Space Station RF environment is quite different from typical indoor environment. The empty Space Station modules may be regarded as oversized waveguides with very little propagation loss. The furnished Space Station modules are imperfect waveguides with

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh; Catherine C. Sham

2006-01-01

41

A one-meter aperture wide-field camera for the Japanese exposure module on space station  

SciTech Connect

We propose to construct and deploy a one-meter, wide field camera for cosmological, science education and other studies and site it on the International Space Station{close_quote}s Japanese Exposure Module (JEM). The SHOUT Telescope (for S{underscore}pace H{underscore}ands-O{underscore}n U{underscore}niverse T{underscore}elescope) is an inexpensive powerful instrument that will yield some of the most significant measurements in astrophysics. The detector would consist of a 15,000{times}15,000 pixel{sup 2} imaging CCD made of high-resistivity silicon, with quantum efficiency of approximately 50{percent} at one micron. In addition, a single channel spectrograph is included for spectroscopy on any interesting photometric discoveries. Advances in graphite carbon mirrors and telescope construction enable an instrument weight of about 100{endash}200 kg. Such a low-weight instrument could be placed on a mass-limited shuttle launch. This system would have a performance for finding point objects in a random field {approximately}100x of that of the Advanced Camera system on HST at a wavelength of one micron. It would fill an under-exploited niche of the electromagnetic and time-variability spectrum and enable a broad range of synoptic measurements at high redshifts. In addition, cosmological effects measured in supernovae, quasars, galaxies, are large at z{approximately}1 to 2, ideally suited for I band studies{emdash}a region of great sensitivity for this instrument. The scientific program would include the discovery and follow-up of approximately 1000 Type 1a supernovae, discovery and studies of quasar lenses, a determination of this distribution and nature of micro-lensing sources, a deep field covering many square degrees in several colors to 27th magnitude and 0.2 arc-second resolution. A unique feature of this mission is that a strong collaboration between scientists, teachers, and students will be embedded in the operations of this system. Students will be able to collaborate on all of the science undertaken. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Pennypacker, C.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Groom, D.; Isaac, M.; Goldhaber, G.; Perlmutter, S. [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ebisuzaki, T. [Riken Laboratory, 2-6 Hirozawa, Wako City, 351-01 (Japan); Handa, T.; Nomoto, K. [University of Tokyo, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181 (Japan); Fruchter, A.; MacKenty, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, Maryland, 21218 (United States); Pain, R.; Hammer, F. [Observatorire de Paris---Section de Meudon, University of Paris (France); Takahashi, Y.; Hadaway, J. [University of Alabama at Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, 35899 (United States); Goobar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Stockholm, S-11346, Stockhom (Sweden); Branch, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019-0225 (United States); Tsiopa, O.; Gnedin, Y. [Pulkovo Observatory, Central Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russia); Jochum, J. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Munich, Garching, (Germany)] [!DOCTYPE SPIN PUBLIC ``-//AIP//DTD aipspin//EN``

1999-01-01

42

Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on...

2006-01-01

43

Space Station Solar Arrays  

NASA Website

(3 April 2013) -- This close-up picture of a Zvezda Service Module array, reflecting bright rays of the sun, thus creating an artistic scene, was photographed on April 3 by one of the Expedition 35 crew members as part of an External Survey from ...

44

$425 million for space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station will funded at only about half of the $767 million requested in the 1988 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and overall the agency will receive $8,856 billion for the current fiscal year (FY) in the deficit-reduction package passed by Congress in late December. Despite an earlier complaint that reductions in the space station budget would kill the program and an apparent lack of support from the White House, NASA's official reaction was full of good cheer.NASA will be able to use the $425 million in two installments, $200 million now and $225 million in June. In October, NASA administrator James Fletcher stated in a letter to Senator Jake Garn (R-Utah) that if the space station received no more than $440 million, he would “recommend termination” of the program. But after the budget was approved, NASA said that the $425 million “reflected the strong commitment of the President and the Congress to proceed with the development of a space station.” A recent request to President Reagan from congressional proponents of the station for a letter of support for the multibillion dollar project was declined.

Maggs, William Ward

45

Evolutionary Construction Facility for Space Station Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs and discussion on an evolutionary construction facility for Space Station Freedom are presented. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support permanent human presence in space and has the potential to enable scientific and exploratory endeavors une...

R. M. Gates R. W. Buchan L. M. Waters

1990-01-01

46

Space Station evolution - A Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper notes aspects of Space Station evolution important to Canada and the ways in which Canadian space efforts will support continued growth and utilization of the Space Station. Important to Canada as a Supplier-Owner-Operator of a vital part of the core Station, is evolution in directions that increase external activity and expand the size of the Station. Increased use

K. H. Doetsch; R. B. Erb; D. R. Smith

1992-01-01

47

Propagation characteristics of International Space Station wireless local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the application of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) for Space Station 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLAN) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh

2004-01-01

48

Space Station Crew Welcomes World's First Commercial Cargo Craft  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA, Flight Engineer Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency and Flight Engineer Joe Acaba of NASA grappled and berthed the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft to the station’s Harmony module May 25, 2012, marking a milestone in spaceflight history. Dragon became the first commercially developed space vehicle to be launched to the station to join Russian, European and Japanese resupply craft that service the complex while restoring a U.S. capability to deliver cargo to the orbital laboratory.

Russell Todd D

2012-05-25

49

Space Station Contamination Control Study: Internal Combustion, Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed o...

R. T. Ruggeri

1987-01-01

50

Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence stems, flowers, and fruits in the Plant Experiment Unit. In addition, the senescence of rosette leaves was found to be delayed in microgravity.

Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

2013-03-01

51

ISS Update: Earth Observations From Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Cynthia Evans, Space Station Associate Program Scientist for Earth Observations, as NASA prepares to celebrate Earth Day. Evans discusses the types of observational data that can be collected by crew members and scientific instruments aboard the space station and their uses in understanding our world. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Gerald T Wright

2012-04-20

52

International space station wire program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

May, Todd

1995-11-01

53

Transceiver for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.

1990-07-01

54

Space Station Maintenance Studies Using Plaid Graphics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Graphics Analysis Facility (GRAF) has been used frequently to study extravehicular activity (EVA) maintenance scenarios on Space Station Freedom. The ability to use 3-dimensional visualization gives one a more accurate estimate of the Space Station en...

M. E. Helm

1993-01-01

55

JEM on the Space Station: Current Status and Scientific Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international Space Station project is gradually in progress with various comments on yes or no. Space Activities Commission (a steering committee of all space activities in Japan) has reviewed current activities and proposed measures to promote space environment utilization for Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the Space Station. JEM has the exposed facility for space observations which will be available from 2001. In this report I describe a recent status of space activities for JEM briefly, and I would like to give a personal comment what kinds of high energy astrophysics missions should be considered or fit for the exposed facility for JEM.

Matsuoka, Masaru

56

Design and Development of a Space Station Hazardous Material System for Assessing Chemical Compatibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Space Station nears reality in funding support from Congress, NASA plans to perform over a hundred different missions in the coming decade. Incrementally deployed, the Space Station will evolve into modules linked to an integral structure. Each mod...

R. T. Congo

1990-01-01

57

The space station millimeter facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large millimeter wavelength interferometer array is proposed for construction on the planned Space Station (The Space Station Millimeter Facility--SSMF). It will have manifold applications in both basic and applied research and will be the premier instrument in the world at high radio frequencies. Earth resource mapping, middle atmospheric studies, and high frequency radio astronomy are only a few of the areas which will be significantly advanced by the availability of such an instrument. Particularly in astronomy, the ability to do observations above the disturbing and absorbing effects of the Earth's atmosphere will allow opportunities for exploration of all objects from the Sun, through the Solar System bodies, to the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies, and out to the most distant quasars with resolution and sensitivity equalling or exceeding all existing or planned millimeter wavelength telescopes. One of the last unexplored regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the mm-IR gap, can finally be closed. A flexible design for the SSMF is proposed, and estimate of its construction costs is made, and numerous scientific applications in a number of disciplines are discussed.

Weiler, K. W.; Dennison, B. K.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Spencer, J. H.; Johnston, K. J.

1986-06-01

58

Human Factors in Space Station Architecture 1: Space Station Program Implications for Human Factors Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: lau...

M. M. Cohen

1985-01-01

59

Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of fluids and biology experiments within NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facili...

M. P. Doherty S. M. Motil J. H. Snead D. V. W. Griffin

2001-01-01

60

Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains

Donald F. Martin; Kenneth D. Mellott

1989-01-01

61

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference. Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference was held on 3-6 Aug. 1992 in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prospective space station researchers and the people in NASA and industry with whom they would be working to exchange information and discuss plans and opportunities for space station research. Topics covered include: research capabilities; research plans and opportunities; life sciences research; technology research; and microgravity research and biotechnology.

1993-03-01

62

International Space Station External Contamination Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch...

C. Soares R. Mikatarian

2010-01-01

63

Solar power stations in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic features of several design concepts for a solar power station to be located in a geostationary orbit are discussed, including a solar thermal power station (Patha et al., 1974), the satellite solar power station (SSPS) proposed by Glaser (1974), and the modular solar energy satellite, (MOSES) proposed by Ruth (1974). Technological obstacles in the development of a design combining

R. Ockert; G. Wirths

1975-01-01

64

Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. Th...

K. L. Moe C. M. Emerson D. R. Eike T. B. Malone

1985-01-01

65

Key Structures Mechanical Issues of the European Space Station and Platform Program Columbus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main technical features of the Columbus space segment: the Attached Pressurized Module (APM), integrated into NASA's Space Station Freedom; the Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF), Europe's first step into autonomy in space, and the Polar Platform (PPF) are ...

S. Gazey E. Winkelhoff

1989-01-01

66

Microgravity Environment on the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A primary feature of the International Space Station will be its microgravity environment--an environment in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requir...

R. DeLombard K. Hrovat E. Kelly K. McPherson

2004-01-01

67

Earth Views From the International Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

In celebration of Earth Day, NASA presents images of Earth captured by cameras aboard the International Space Station. Traveling at an approximate speed of 17,500 miles per hour, the space station orbits Earth every 90 minutes from an altitude of approximately 220 miles, and can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. Its crew experiences 16 sunrises and sunsets each day.

Jim Wilson

2010-06-21

68

Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A? flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

Gersh, Mark

1990-11-01

69

Space hands-on universe telescope and orbiting wide-angle light-collector telescope to be built on the Japanese experiment module exposure facility of the international space station  

SciTech Connect

A concept study to build great observatories on, and deploy from, the ISS is presented. Use of the ISS infra-structure including robotic arms and astronauts{close_quote} EVA would permit a construction of very large optical telescopes. We envisage that the second phase of the ISS after its initial construction can landmark a new era for both ISS and Space Sciences. Ultimately, this study would plan a 10-or 20-meter class space telescope. For its first step, we envisioned an immediate extension of the Exposed Facility of ISS for building a {open_quotes}Work-bench{close_quotes} for this purpose. Initial activities can begin with two modest-sized telescopes soon after the ISS construction. These early missions being studied are space Hands-On Universe Telescope (SHOUT) and Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collector (OWL). SHOUT is a 1-m telescope for science education. It will be built and adjusted on the exposure module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station by using a robotic arm and the EVA of astronauts. We also seek the possibility to release it from ISS after its perfection on orbit, so that it is free from the vibrations and gas contaminations on and around the ISS. SHOUT is an engineering prototype of 10-m Space Telescope (Space SUBARU Telescope). It would be scaled from the Space-SUBARU telescope so that the testing with the SHOUT would warrant the required specifications for the 10-meter Space-SUBARU construction on the ISS. The goal of the test with the SHOUT is to warrant a spatial resolution of 0.01 arc-seconds using the active/adaptive optics. It will test the following three major engineering challenges: (1) active/adaptive optics in space; (2) building of large structures by astronauts; and (3) release of a spacecraft from ISS to a free-flying orbit. The present feasibility study for the next generation great observatories that are to be built on the JEM Exposure Facility (EF) has been already funded by the Japan Space Forum, under the auspices of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. Included in this study are SHOUT, Space SUBARU telescope as well as OWL, Large Area gamma-ray Telescope (LAGT), and Space Submilimeter and Infrared Telescope (S-SIT). {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Takahashi, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Ebisuzaki, T. [The Institute of the Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Pennypacker, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1999-01-01

70

Space hands-on universe telescope and orbiting wide-angle light-collector telescope to be built on the Japanese experiment module exposure facility of the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept study to build great observatories on, and deploy from, the ISS is presented. Use of the ISS infra-structure including robotic arms and astronauts' EVA would permit a construction of very large optical telescopes. We envisage that the second phase of the ISS after its initial construction can landmark a new era for both ISS and Space Sciences. Ultimately, this study would plan a 10-or 20-meter class space telescope. For its first step, we envisioned an immediate extension of the Exposed Facility of ISS for building a ``Work-bench'' for this purpose. Initial activities can begin with two modest-sized telescopes soon after the ISS construction. These early missions being studied are space Hands-On Universe Telescope (SHOUT) and Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collector (OWL). SHOUT is a 1-m telescope for science education. It will be built and adjusted on the exposure module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station by using a robotic arm and the EVA of astronauts. We also seek the possibility to release it from ISS after its perfection on orbit, so that it is free from the vibrations and gas contaminations on and around the ISS. SHOUT is an engineering prototype of 10-m Space Telescope (Space SUBARU Telescope). It would be scaled from the Space-SUBARU telescope so that the testing with the SHOUT would warrant the required specifications for the 10-meter Space-SUBARU construction on the ISS. The goal of the test with the SHOUT is to warrant a spatial resolution of 0.01 arc-seconds using the active/adaptive optics. It will test the following three major engineering challenges: (1) active/adaptive optics in space; (2) building of large structures by astronauts; and (3) release of a spacecraft from ISS to a free-flying orbit. The present feasibility study for the next generation great observatories that are to be built on the JEM Exposure Facility (EF) has been already funded by the Japan Space Forum, under the auspices of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. Included in this study are SHOUT, Space SUBARU telescope as well as OWL, Large Area gamma-ray Telescope (LAGT), and Space Submilimeter and Infrared Telescope (S-SIT).

Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Pennypacker, Carlton

1999-01-01

71

Space committee weighs cost of space station redesign  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Space Station Redesign Team has completed the task of reducing its spending by a total of $15 billion over the next 5 years through redesigning the Space Station. President Clinton mandated the redesign last February. The team, led by NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, presented its study to the House space subcommittee at an over-crowded hearing on June 8. Several

Susan Bush

1993-01-01

72

July Space Station Spacewalks to be Previewed and Broadcast on NASA TV  

NASA Website

Two Expedition 36 astronauts will venture outside the International Space Station twice in July on spacewalks to prepare for a new Russian module and perform additional installations on the station's backbone.

73

Utilization of Space Station Freedom for Technology Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space Station Freedom presents a unique opportunity for technology developers to conduct research in the space environment. Research can be conducted in the pressurized volume of the Space Station's laboratories or attached to the Space Station truss in t...

D. E. Avery

1992-01-01

74

The Space Station - A new frontier thesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several firm equipment, configuration and applications concepts have emerged from preliminary design studies for the Space Station (SS), although budgetary considerations have already caused the projected launch to slip from 1993 to 1995. The baseline design requires strung-together compatible modules. The SS will serve commercial, basic sciences and military needs, provide a staging area for building structures larger than transportable whole by the STS, and will have power requirements that begin at 75 kWp. Compatibility with a 10 ft diam orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) is required, and crew will be rotated every 90-180 days. NASA will manage the project, a departure from prime contractor practices of past large programs. The initial SS will house four persons and is to be expandable to indeterminate dimensions. Photovoltaics are foreseen as the providers of initial power supplies.

Rhea, J.

1985-04-01

75

Space station user development program: Future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian Space Agency's User Development Program (UDP) was established to ensure that Canada would be in a position to exploit its share of resources of the international space station. Objectives of the UDP include fostering research and development excellence among space station users, developing space station demonstration experiments with emphasis on commercializable technologies, assisting in development of space station hardware, and providing opportunities to access microgravity on a regular basis. At present, the scope of the UDP includes sciences and applications requiring a microgravity environment, but support for experiments in life sciences, earth observation, remote sensing, communications, and technology development is considered on a case-by-case basis. Subprograms of the UDP include the aircraft program, which provides regular access to a milligravity environment on three research aircraft: the rocket program, which provides access to microgravity conditions on the Canadian microgravity rocket, and a program supporting long-duration experiments in space.

Wilkinson, R. G.

76

Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.

77

Visiting the International Space Station--my mission diary.  

PubMed

Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle 'Endeavour', with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed 'Raffaello' logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US 'Destiny' module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main tasks during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station. PMID:15008205

Guidoni, G

2001-08-01

78

The Space Station: In the beginning...  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of interest in and development of the space station concept is given. It is pointed out that the decision to base manned lunar missions on the 'lunar orbit rendezvous method', as opposed to Earth orbit staging, slowed development of space station proposals in the 1960s. Planned use of Skylab as a space station with Space Shuttle resupply failed when skylab returned to Earth in 1979 before the first Space Shuttle could be launched. The reluctance of Johnson Space Center officials to involve astronauts in the kind of lengthy extra-vehicular activity (EVA) required for space station construction was, and continues to be, a major sticking point. After a symposium in 1983 aired the EVA isues extensively, a proposal was presented for a baseline configuration space station program, and it was accepted on December 1, 1983. A series of reconsiderations of the baseline configuration led to the space station Freedom concept, which would cost significatly more than original estimates. This led to deterioration in interest in the program, leading to near death of the program by 1992. A major reconsideration study mandated by the Clinton Administration has resulted in abandonment of the Freedom concept and a return to a reduced-scope version of the project. Congress approved the program by a narrow margin on June 21, 1993.

Mark, Hans

1993-12-01

79

Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the space station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full-scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Kurtz, R.J.; Barga, R.S.; Hutton, P.H.; Lemon, D.K.

1991-08-01

80

Regenerative fuel cell systems for space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems are the leading energy storage candidates for Space Station. Key design features are the advanced state of technology readiness and high degree of system level design flexibility. Technology readiness was demonstrated through testing at the single cell, cell stack, mechanical ancillary component, subsystem, and breadboard levels. Design flexibility characteristics include independent sizing of power and energy storage portions of the system, integration of common reactants with other space station systems, and a wide range of various maintenance approaches. The design features led to selection of a RFC system as the sole electrochemical energy storage technology option for the space station advanced development program.

Hoberecht, M. A.; Sheibley, D. W.

1985-07-01

81

Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station

Ronald J. Davenport; Franz H. Schubert; David J. Grigger

1991-01-01

82

The CALET Misson for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CALorimetric Electron Telescope, CALET, mission is proposed for the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility, JEM-EF, of the International Space Station. The major goals of the mission are to reveal the origin of cosmic-ray electrons and the diffusion characteristics in the Galaxy. The instrument will be composed of an imaging calorimeter of scintillating fibers and a total absorption calorimeter. The

S. Torii; Y. Shimizu; N. Tateyama; T. Ohuchi; K. Yoshida; T. Kashiwagi; K. Kashiwagi; J. Nishimura; T. Yamagami; F. Makino; M. Takayanagi; Y. Katayose; H. Murakami; T. Kobayashi; M. Shibata; K. Kasahara; K. Mizutani; M. Ichimura; Y. Uchihori; H. Kitamura; Y. Komori; T. Terasawa; R. E. Streitmatter; J. W. Mitchell; L. M. Barbier; A. A. Moiseev; J. F. Krizmanic; J. F. Ormes; W. R. Binns; M. H. Israel; H. S. Krawzczynski; G. Case; M. L. Cherry; T. G. Guzik; J. B. Isbert; J. P. Wefel; P. S. Marrocchesi; P. Maestro; M. G. Bagliesi; V. Millucci; M. Meucci; G. Bigongiari; R. Zei; F. Ligabue; F. Morsani; O. Adriani; P. Papini; P. Spillantini; L. Bonechi; E. Vannuccini; J. Chang; W. Gan; T. Lu

2001-01-01

83

International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multi-band optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument.

Craig A. Jacobson

2007-01-01

84

Orbit lifetime characteristics for Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors that influence the orbital lifetime characteristics of the NASA Space Station are discussed. These include altitude, attitude, launch date, ballistic coefficient, and the presence of large articulating solar arrays. Examples from previous program systems studies are presented that illustrate how each factor affects Station orbit lifetime. The effect of atmospheric density models on orbit lifetime predictions is addressed

L. Deryder; G. M. Kelly; M. Heck

1988-01-01

85

Operations Considerations in Space Station Freedom Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of planning the on-orbit operations inherent in the Space Station Freedom assembly sequence is discussed. Any solution to the assembly puzzle requires the simultaneous satisfaction of many diverse constraints, including: on-orbit assembly o...

S. C. Doering W. G. Bastedo

1989-01-01

86

Space Station Displays and Controls Technology Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

G. C. Blackburn

1990-01-01

87

Peter Gabriel Talks With Space Station Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

Singer-songwriter Peter Gabriel and family visit Mission Control Houston and talk with Expedition 33 Commander Kevin Ford and Flight Engineers Tom Marshburn and Chris Hadfield aboard the International Space Station.

Gerald T Wright

2013-02-21

88

View of Hurricane Igor From Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Cameras mounted on the International Space Station captured new views of Hurricane Igor heading westward over the Atlantic Ocean the morning of Sept. 13. Igor was at Category 4 strength with maximum sustained winds near 150 mph.

Jimmy Couch

2010-09-13

89

Experimental Cosmochemistry in the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of two workshops was to identify and discuss experiments in cosmochemistry that cannot be conducted under the conditions available in terrestrial laboratories, but may be carried out successfully in the proposed Space Station. The scientific d...

A. Duba

1987-01-01

90

Space station architectural concepts and functional capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space program goals that NASA can best achieve by the construction of a space station in keeping with the 1958 directive to maintain U.S. pre-eminence in space technology are discussed. Science goals that can be satisfied by a suitable equipped space station include a deeper understanding of the earth/sun system and the earth as a planet, the acquisition of new data on the evolution of the solar system, of life, and of the universe, and the extended study of the laws governing the state of matter and energy. Application goals that can be pursued with a space station include assaying all renewable and nonrenewable earth resources, predicting environment, weather, and climatic changes, studying ocean dynamics, using space to develop new processes and materials, and using space for information transmission on a global basis. The space station can serve as a waypoint for voyages by manned or unmanned spacecraft, as a laboratory, observation platform, and technology proving station, and as a base for deployment and repair of other spacecraft.

Herman, D. H.

1983-03-01

91

Microdisturbances on the International Space Station during dynamic operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of analysis of microdisturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) at performing various dynamic operations are presented. Docking of transfer manned and cargo vehicles Progress and Soyuz to various docking modules of the ISS, docking of the Space Shuttle Discovery, the ISS orbit correction and, also, disturbances at "EVA" (Extra Vehicular Activity) operations during astronauts working on the external ISS surface are considered. The results of measuring microaccelerations by sensors of both Russian and American segments are analyzed.

Belyaev, M. Yu.; Volkov, O. N.; Ryabukha, S. B.

2013-07-01

92

Planning for Canadian Space Station utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's contribution to the Space Station Freedom will be a Mobile Servicing System (MSS) and a Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator which will be used to assist in the assembly, checkout, and maintenance of the Station, and for the transfer of equipment and payloads to and from the Shuttle and between various areas of the Station. In return for contributing the MSS, Canada is entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations, as well as contribute to 3 percent of astronaut flight crew opportunities over the 30-year life of the Station. Attention is given to the Canadian user community, the Canadian user selection process, the user support program, and funding support.

Wetter, Barry; Smith, Don; Faulkner, Jim

1992-08-01

93

International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

Showstack, Randy

94

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew

K. L. Peddicord; W. E. Bolch

1991-01-01

95

Some thoughts on space station science  

Microsoft Academic Search

US government proposals to cut the scientific budget of the ISS are placed within the historical context of the US space program. The author divides this into three phases—early days to the end of Apollo, the Shuttle era, and the Space Station era—and shows that all of these have suffered from decisions to reduce scientific capabilities. Even without cuts, it

John H. McElroy

2001-01-01

96

Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the

Mark S. Deuser; John C. Vellinger; Juanita R. Hardin; Marian L. Lewis

1998-01-01

97

Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom Utilization Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equal...

J. Faulkner R. Wilkinson

1992-01-01

98

International Space Station on UStream  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

99

Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

Bents, D.J.

1985-01-01

100

Science - The Space Station design driver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some examples are presented of the possible areas of scientific research for the Space Station. Attention is given to the unique advantages presented by the space environment for the observation of deep space objects. A configuration for a VLA radiotelescope is presented which would permit an astronomical resolution of about 10 to the -6th arcsec. Several other devices currently under development are described, including a Gamma Ray Observatory for the Shuttle, a Coded Mask telescope, and the Gravity Probe B experiment which would measure the effect of curved space-time around the earth on the orbital motion of two ultraprecise gyroscopes in order to test Einstein's general theory of relativity.

Friedman, H.

1984-10-01

101

Space Shuttle and Space Station radio frequency (RF) exposure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipments. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in space shuttle and space station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh; Catherine C. Sham; Quin D. Kroll

2005-01-01

102

Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the

Mark S. Deuser; John C. Vellinger; Juanita R. Hardin; Marian L. Lewis

1998-01-01

103

High-energy astronomy with the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe is one of the major partners building the International Space Station (ISS) and European Industry, together with ESA, is responsible for many Station components including the Columbus Orbital Facility, the Automated Transport Vehicle, two connecting modules and the European Robotic Arm. Together with this impressive list of contributions, there is a strong desire within the ESA Member States to benefit from this investment by using the unique capabilities of the ISS to perform world-class science. Indeed, ESA has ambitious plans to utilise the ISS for future high-energy astronomy missions.

Parmar, A. N.; Gianfiglio, G.; Schiemann, J.

2002-05-01

104

Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth

1998-01-01

105

Overview of Space Station Freedom program environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of selected environments that the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program must consider during design. Examples of why environments must be part of the design effort for SSF are included. Each environment is discussed in terms of definition and how requirements are implemented to ensure SSF\\/environments compatibility for the 30 year mission in LEO.

Sherman Avans; Dana Brewer; Dennis Camp

1993-01-01

106

Space Station: Key to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

107

Hurricane Sandy From the International Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The International Space Station flew high above Hurricane Sandy just before 12 p.m. CDT Thursday. The storm was located about 85 miles south-southeast of Great Exuma Island. The storm’s maximum sustained winds are currently 105 mph, making it a Category 2 Hurricane. It is currently moving north at 16 mph.

Rebecca Goodman

2012-10-25

108

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section...SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a...

2011-10-01

109

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section...SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a...

2012-10-01

110

Life In Space: An Introduction To Space Life Sciences And The International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the space environment upon living organisms is profound. Its effects range from alterations in sub-cellular processes to changes in the structure and function of whole organ systems. As the number of astronaut and cosmonaut crews flown in space has grown, so to has our understanding of the effects of the space environment upon biological systems. There are many parallels between the physiology of space flight and terrestrial disease processes, and the response of astronaut crews themselves to long-duration space deployment is therefore of central interest. In the next 15 years the International Space Station (ISS) will serve as a permanently manned dedicated life and physical sciences platform for the further investigation of these phenomena. The European Space Agency's Columbus module will hold the bulk of the ISS life science capability and, in combination with NASA's Human Research Facility (HRF) will accommodate the rack mounted experimental apparatus. The programme of experimentation will include efforts in fundamental biology, human physiology, behavioural science and space biomedical research. In the four decades since Yuri Gagarin first orbited the Earth, space life science has emerged as a field of study in its own right. The ISS takes us into the next era of human space exploration, and it is hoped that its programme of research will yield new insights, novel therapeutic interventions, and improved biotechnology for terrestrial application.

Fong, Kevin

2001-11-01

111

Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences program: to ensure the health, safety, and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental knowledge of biological processes. Space-based research has already shown that people and plants respond the same way to the microgravity environment: they lose structure. However, the mechanisms by which they respond are different, and researchers do not yet know much about these mechanisms. Life science research accommodations on Freedom will include facilities for experiments designed to address this and other questions, in fields such as gravitational biology, space physiology, and biomedical monitoring and countermeasures research.

Phillips, Robert W.

112

Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the infrastructure needed to catalyze this biotechnology revolution that could eventually lead to production of medical and pharmaceutical products in space. The biotechnology program discussed herein is evidence of this collaborative effort, with industry involvement from Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc., government participation through the NASA Commercial Space program, and academic guidance from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Blending the strengths and resources of each collaborator creates a strong partnership, that offers enormous research and commercial opportunities.

Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Hardin, Juanita R.; Lewis, Marian L.

1998-01-01

113

Future international cooperation on space stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of the next thirty years, extensive international cooperation in space may become the norm rather than the exception. The benefits from the mutual application and exchange of assets and knowledge may enable the development of projects that no nation could afford alone. Cooperation on technical projects may also yield political benefits such as alliance building, although potentially at a cost of making the program hostage to the vagaries of international politics. Successful past cooperative projects include the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, Spacelab and Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. The ongoing Space Station Freedom program is offering the first sustained long term opportunity for international cooperation in space. In addition to enabling potential advances in science and technology development, the station may serve as the stepping stone for future international efforts in areas such as planetary exploration. Any significant future increase in international cooperation would likely need to include both the United States and the Soviet Union. Such cooperation could offer many unique possibilities, including interactions between the Freedom and Mir. Indeed the success of future manned exploration missions may well depend on how well space-faring nations learn to cooperate with each other. International involvement in technical programs always creates an additional element of complexity regarding the technical requirements and resource management of a project. However, the experience of international cooperation to date tells us that there can be significant gains, both tangible and symbolic, from international participation.

Bartoe, John-David

114

Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavylift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a Shuttle Orbiter using the launch vehicle of the Shuttle Orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are pre-integrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

Wade, Donald C.; Delafuente, Horatio; Berka, Reginald B.; Rickman, Steven L.; Castro, Edgar O.; Nagy, Kornel; Wesselski, Clarence J.; Pelischek, Timothy E.; Schleisling, John A.

1993-12-01

115

International space station microgravity environment design & verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad class of scientific experiments has evolved which utilize extreme low acceleration environments. The International Space Station will provide such a ``microgravity'' environment, in conjunction with an unparalleled combination of quiescent period duration, payload volume and power, and manned or telescience interaction. The International Space Station is the world's first manned space vehicle with microgravity requirements. These place limits on the acceleration levels within the pressurized laboratories and affect everything from flight altitude and attitude to the mechanical and acoustic energies emitted by an air circulation fan. To achieve such performance within the program's resource constraints, a microgravity control approach has been adopted which balances both source and receiver disturbance mitigation. The Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) provides acceleration attenuation at the payload rack level, and dominant sources have been reduced either by isolation or design modifications. Analytical assessments indicate that the vehicle is capable of meeting the challenging microgravity requirements, although some current marginal non-compliances do exist. Assessment refinements will continue through the verification phase with greater reliance on test and on-orbit measured data as part of a long term effort to clearly define and understand the constitution of the acceleration environment. This process will assure that the design and operation of the International Space Station will support significant microgravity science research.

Del Basso, Steve

1999-01-01

116

Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

1985-03-01

117

Artificial magnetic field for the space station (Protecting space stations in future space missions)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem Explanation Strong solar storms and cosmic rays make great disturbances for equip-ment outside the magnetosphere. Also these disturbances are so harmful for biological process of living cells. If one decides to stay more outside the Earth, one's healthy is in a great danger. To investigate space station situation against strong solar storms, 5 recent strong solar storms have been selected. Dst of these storms are more than -300 nT. Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i.e. these fields always are anti-aligned because artificial field could change direction by itself basic on the situation of Sun. Relationship between artificial field and solar storm has two types: 1) Artifi-cial field loads up to solar storm's magnetic field and makes magnetic reconnection 2) artificial field repulses energetic solar particles. These below equations show situation of artificial field against magnetic reconnection with magnetic field of solar storm and repulsing particles. Basic on the volume of repulsed particles the strength of field could be: Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i

Ahmadi Tara, Miss

118

ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Carrying Station Science  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Camille Alleyene, International Space Station Assistant Program Scientist about the science flying to the station and returning to Earth aboard the SpaceX Dragon commercial cargo craft. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Gerald T Wright

2012-05-16

119

[Comment on “Space station?”] Not now  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the shuttle development started, its acceptance was greatly supported by the promise of a $100/kg transport fare. From 1985, this has risen to $ll,000/kg (and never dropped since), which gives an interesting clue to the reliability of cost estimates for the Space Station. It is very likely that the Challenger disaster will cause another price jump due to increase safety requirements and may lift the price per transported kilogram beyond perhaps $20,000/kg.

Keppler, Erhard

120

International Space Station Research Plan, Assembly Sequence Rev., F.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theses viewgraphs discuss the International Space Station's Research Plan. The goals for the International Space Station Utilization are to provide a state-of-the-art research facility on which to study gravity's effects on physical, chemical, and biologi...

2000-01-01

121

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-091] NASA International Space Station...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-5140...open to the public up to the...

2013-08-13

122

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2012-01-19

123

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2012-07-12

124

75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2010-08-23

125

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2012-11-01

126

Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

J. K. Stedman

1990-01-01

127

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit.

Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-01-01

128

Cultural factors and the International Space Station.  

PubMed

The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the select population of space program personnel. The evidence for the existence of mission-relevant cultural differences is reviewed and includes cultural values, emotional expressivity, personal space norms, and personality characteristics. The review is focused primarily on Russia and the United States, but also includes other ISS partner countries. Cultural differences among space program personnel may have a wide range of effects. Moreover, culture-related strains may increase the probability of distress and impairment. Such factors could affect the individual and interpersonal functioning of both crewmembers and mission control personnel, whose performance is also critical for mission safety and success. Examples from the anecdotal and empirical literature are given to illustrate these points. The use of existing assessment strategies runs the risk of overlooking important early warning signs of behavioral health difficulties. By paying more attention to cultural differences and how they might be manifested, we are more likely to detect problems early while they are still mild and resolvable. PMID:15943206

Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

2005-06-01

129

Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a rich history of bilateral and multilateral cooperation among space faring nations. Three key organizations were established, they include the agency or senior level Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), and the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). All three are staffed by senior medical personnel within each of the partner organizations of the ISS and each has specific roles and responsibilities. These three entities strive to protect the human element of spaceflight through highly effective interaction in a multilingual, multicultural program. This paper reviews the creation of this tripartite approach to the development of medical policy for ISS.

Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Williams, Richard S.; Comtois, Jean-Marc; Damann, Volker; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Pool, Sam L.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Knowingkov, Oleg L.; Doarn, Charles R.

2009-09-01

130

Experimental cosmochemistry in the Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of two workshops was to identify and discuss experiments in cosmochemistry that cannot be conducted under the conditions available in terrestrial laboratories, but may be carried out successfully in the proposed Space Station. The scientific discussions focused on two general areas of research: chemical and physical processes in the earliest history of the general areas of research, and general principles of magmatic process applicable both to planetary formation and evolution, as well as present-day magmatic activity in and on terrestrial planets.

Duba, Al

1987-11-01

131

Next generation SAR demonstration on space station  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the next generation synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that enables future low cost space-borne radar missions. In order to realize these missions, we propose to use an inflatable, membrane, microstrip antenna that is particularly suitable for low frequency science radar missions. In order to mitigate risks associated with this revolutionary technology, the space station demonstration will be very useful to test the long-term survivability of the proposed antenna. This experiment will demonstrate several critical technology challenges associated with space-inflatable technologies. Among these include space-rigidization of inflatable structures, controlled inflation deployment, flatness and uniform separation of thin-film membranes and RF performance of membrane microstrip antennas. This mission will also verify the in-space performance of lightweight, high performance advanced SAR electronics. Characteristics of this SAR instrument include a capability for high resolution polarimetric imaging. The mission will acquire high quality scientific data using this advanced SAR to demonstrate the utility of these advanced technologies. We will present an inflatable L-band SAR concept for commercial and science applications and a P-band design concept to validate the Biomass SAR mission concept. The ionospheric effects on P-band SAR images will also be examined using the acquired data.

Edelstein, Wendy; Kim, Yunjin; Freeman, Anthony; Jordan, Rolando [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

1999-01-22

132

Differential Space-Time modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time coding and modulation exploit the presence of multiple transmit antennas to improve the performance on multipath radio channels. Thus far, most work on space-time coding has assumed that perfect channel estimates are available at the receiver. In certain situations, however, it may be difficult or costly to estimate the channel accurately, in which case it is natural to consider

Brian L. Hughes

2000-01-01

133

Role of the Space Station in Private Development of Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is well underway in the assembly process and progressing toward completion. In February 2001, the United States laboratory "Destiny" was successfully deployed and the course of space utilization, for laboratory-based research and development (R&D) purposes, entered a new era - continuous on-orbit operations. By completion, the ISS complex will include pressurized laboratory elements from Europe, Japan, Russia and the U.S., as well as external platforms which can serve as observatories and technology development test beds serviced by a Canadian robotic manipulator. The international vision for a continuously operating, full service R&D complex in the unique environment of low-Earth orbit is becoming increasingly focused. This R&D complex will offer great opportunities for economic return as the basic research program proceeds on a global scale and the competitive advantages of the microgravity and ultravacuum environments are elucidated through empirical studies. In parallel, the ISS offers a new vantage point, both as a source for viewing of Earth and the Cosmos and as the subject of view for a global population that has grown during the dawning of the space age. In this regard, the ISS is both a working laboratory and a powerful symbol for human achievement in science and technology. Each of these aspects bears consideration as we seek to develop the beneficial attributes of space and pursue innovative approaches to expanding this space complex through private investment. Ultimately, the success of the ISS will be measured by the outcome at the end of its design lifetime. Will this incredible complex be de-orbited in a fiery finale, as have previous space platforms? Will another, perhaps still larger, space station be built through global government funding? Will the ISS ownership be transferred to a global, non-government organization for refurbishment and continuation of the mission on a privately financed basis? Steps taken by the ISS partnership today will effect the later outcome. This paper reviews the range of activities underway in the U.S., as well those being pursued on a multilateral basis across the partnership. It will report on the status of NASA planning for establishment of a non-governmental organization (NGO) to manage the U.S. share of ISS user resources and accommodations. This initiative is unprecedented for a human-rated space craft of ISS magnitude and represents an extraordinarily complex undertaking due to the multi-mission, multi-partner nature of the program. Nonetheless, major advances are scheduled for 2002, as a new NASA Administrator takes the helm and declares the study phase is over. On the global front, the ISS Partners have formed a Multilateral Commercialization Group (MCG) charged to develop Recommended Guidelines for ISS Commercial Activities. Areas such as advertising, merchandising, entertainment, and sponsorship are actively under consideration with plans to advance to the long-awaited decision phase. In conjunction with this project, the challenging issue of how to create, protect, and potentially market the ISS brand to the benefit of the Partners, as well as the scientific, technological and commercial users of the station, is approaching resolution. In the area of space product development, the NASA Commercial Space Centers are entering the era of the space station with new operating principles and practices that promise a focused and sustainable research and development program. This portfolio of seventeen cooperative agreements spans applications in biotechnology, agriculture, remote sensing, and advanced materials. The rate-limiting step has long been access to space and we now stand ready to seize the opportunities afforded by a continuously operating, full-service laboratory in orbit. Each of these initiatives will have a marked effect on evolution of the space station program from a commercial development perspective and each offers the potential to open up economic development of low-Earth orbit in the first h

Uhran, M. L.

2002-01-01

134

SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

135

Stereo cameras on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional media is a unique and efficient means to virtually visit/observe objects that cannot be easily reached otherwise, like the International Space Station. The advent of auto-stereoscopic displays and stereo projection system is making the stereo media available to larger audiences than the traditional scientists and design engineers communities. It is foreseen that a major demand for 3D content shall come from the entertainment area. Taking advantage of the 6 months long permanence on the International Space Station of a colleague European Astronaut, Thomas Reiter, the Erasmus Centre uploaded to the ISS a newly developed, fully digital stereo camera, the Erasmus Recording Binocular. Testing the camera and its human interfaces in weightlessness, as well as accurately mapping the interior of the ISS are the main objectives of the experiment that has just been completed at the time of writing. The intent of this paper is to share with the readers the design challenges tackled in the development and operation of the ERB camera and highlight some of the future plans the Erasmus Centre team has in the pipeline.

Sabbatini, Massimo; Visentin, Gianfranco; Collon, Max; Ranebo, Hans; Sunderland, David; Fortezza, Raimondo

2007-02-01

136

47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. 25.137 Section 25.137...stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. (a) Earth station applicants...to operate with a non-U.S. licensed space station to serve the United...

2012-10-01

137

47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. 25.137 Section 25.137...stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. (a) Earth station applicants...to operate with a non-U.S. licensed space station to serve the United...

2011-10-01

138

ISS Update: Becoming an International Space Station Program Scientist  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Tara Ruttley, Associate International Space Station Program Scientist, about her educational path and her career activities at NASA. She also discusses her experience as a NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) crew member. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Mark Garcia

2012-02-23

139

The new Jettison Policy for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During more than seven years of operations by the International Space Station, approximately three dozen pieces of debris were released and subsequently cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. The individual mass of these objects ranged from less than 1 to 70 kg. Although some of these debris were separated from the International Space Station accidentally, some were intentionally cast-off, especially the larger items. In addition, small operational satellites are candidates for launch from the International Space Station, such as the TNS-0 satellite deployed from International Space Station in March 2005. Recently an official International Space Station Jettison Policy was developed to ensure that decisions to deliberately release objects in the future were based upon a complete evaluation of the benefits and risks to the International Space Station, other resident space objects, and people on the Earth. The policy identifies four categories of items which might be considered for release: (1) items that pose a safety issue for return on-board a visiting vehicle, (2) items that negatively impact International Space Station utilization, return, or on-orbit stowage manifests, (3) items that permit a reduction in the duration of an extravehicular activity, and (4) items that are designed for jettison. Some of the principal issues to be addressed during this evaluation process are the potential for the object to recontact the International Space Station within the first two days after jettison, the potential of the object to break up prior to reentry, the ability of the U.S. Space Surveillance Network to track the object, and the risk to people on Earth from components which might survive reentry. This paper summarizes the history of objects released from International Space Station, examines the specifics of the International Space Station Jettison Policy, and addresses the overall impact of International Space Station debris on the space environment.

Johnson, Nicholas L.

2006-01-01

140

Utilization of Space Station Freedom for technology research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Station Freedom presents a unique opportunity for technology developers to conduct research in the space environment. Research can be conducted in the pressurized volume of the Space Station's laboratories or attached to the Space Station truss in the vacuum of space. Technology developers, represented by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST), will have 12 percent of the available Space Station resources (volume, power, data, crew, etc.) to use for their research. Most technologies can benefit from research on Space Station Freedom and all these technologies are represented in the OAST proposed traffic model. This traffic model consists of experiments that have been proposed by technology developers but not necessarily selected for flight. Experiments to be flown in space will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (A.O.) process. The A.O. is expected to be released in August, 1992. Experiments will generally fall into one of the 3 following categories: (1) Individual technology experiments; (2) Instrumented Space Station; and (3) Guest investigator program. The individual technology experiments are those that do not instrument the Space Station nor directly relate to the development of technologies for evolution of Space Station or development of advanced space platforms. The Instrumented Space Station category is similar to the Orbiter Experiments Program and allows the technology developer to instrument subsystems on the Station or develop instrumentation packages that measure products or processes of the Space Station for the advancement of space platform technologies. The guest investigator program allows the user to request data from Space Station or other experiments for independent research. When developing an experiment, a developer should consider all the resources and infrastructure that Space Station Freedom can provide and take advantage of these to the maximum extent possible. Things like environment, accommodations, carriers, and integration should all be taken into account. In developing experiments at Langley Research Center, an iterative approach is proving useful. This approach uses Space Station utilization and subsystem experts to advise and critique experiment designs to take advantage of everything the Space Station has to offer. Also, solid object modeling and animation computer tools are used to fully visualize the experiment and its processes. This process is very useful for attached payloads and allows problems to be detected early in the experiment design phase.

Avery, Don E.

141

Nickel-hydrogen batteries from Intelsat 5 to space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heritage of the Ni-H2 technology that makes the space station application feasible is discussed. It also describes a design for a potential space station Ni-H2 battery system. Specific design values presented here were developed by Ford Aerospace as part of the Rocketdyne team effort on the Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design of the Space Station Power System in

G. Vanommering; A. Z. Applewhite

1986-01-01

142

14 CFR 1214.403 - Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Station Crew. 1214.403 Section 1214.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.403 Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew....

2013-01-01

143

Demonstration of superconducting sub-millimeter-wave limb emission sounder (SMILES) for observing trace gases in the middle atmosphere using the exposed facility of the Japanese experimental module (JEM) of the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sub-millimeter wavelength region is advantageous for high-precision observations of trace species in the stratosphere. A Superconducting Sub-Millimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) is scheduled to demonstrate the measurements of extremely faint sub-millimeter-wave emissions of the atmospheric trace gases on the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station in 2003. The applications of superconductivity and mechanical 4K-refrigerator in space will be demonstrated in the experiment. JEM/SMILES obtains the diurnal and seasonal variability in the global three-dimensional distributions of the stratospheric trace gases for quantitative understanding of the stratospheric ozone depletion and its effect on the climate change with respect to the relationships among chemical reaction processes and their relationships with atmospheric dynamics. JEM/SMILES utilizes the 640GHz band to measure the vertical profiles of trace gases involved in the stratospheric ozone depletion such as chlorine monoxide (CLO), bromine monoxide (BrO), etc., along with atmospheric temperature. JEM/SMILES employs Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixers to improve measurement precision and spatial resolution, thereby enabling us to quantitatively understand the interactive processes between chemistry and dynamics.

Masuko, Harunobu; Manabe, Takeshi; Seta, Masumichi; Kasai, Yasuko; Ochiai, Satoshi; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Inatani, Junji; Ikeda, Naomi; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Iida, Yukiei; Fujii, Yasunori

1999-01-01

144

Achieving operational efficiency with the international Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary development of flight operations for the Space Station Manned Base (SSMB) Freedom focuses on station efficiency during assembly, inflight verification, and continuous manned operations. Operations Engineering, the first stage of this evolution, will ensure operational safety and efficiency through a functional analysis that transforms operations requirements into system design drivers to minimize station housekeeping overhead and maximize user

Peter R. Kurzhals; Stephen G. Paddock

1988-01-01

145

Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no inte...

A. Butina

2001-01-01

146

New Jettison Policy for the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During more than seven years of operations by the International Space Station (ISS), approximately three dozen pieces of debris were released and subsequently cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The individual mass of these objects ran...

N. L. Johnson

2006-01-01

147

DTN Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the implementation and future uses of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space communication, using the International Space Station as the primary example. The presentation includes: (1) A brief introduction of ...

A. Jenkins K. Gifford K. Nichols L. Pitts M. Holbrook S. Kuzminsky

2010-01-01

148

International Space Station: A Unique Platform For Terrestrial Remote Sensing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station (ISS) became operational in November of 2000, and until recently remote sensing activities and operations have focused on handheld astronaut photography of the Earth. This effort builds from earlier NASA and Russian space p...

C. A. Evans W. L. Stefanov

2012-01-01

149

Multiple in-Line Docking Capability for Rotating Space Stations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The means for hard docking a number of space vehicles with a rotating space station includes an axially positioned dome on which are located two intermeshing docking turrets. Each turret carries multiple docking ports extending radially from the turret ax...

L. B. Weaver C. D. Pegden

1972-01-01

150

Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness, and radiation effect (silicon rad and rem dose).

Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

1990-10-01

151

International space station advanced propulsion technology R&D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) is a cost-effective technology testbed which can be used to support research and development (R.&D.) activities and demonstration tests for advanced space technology systems. These advanced systems are needed for Space Station Pre-Planned Program Improvements (P3I), near-Earth commercialization activities and human exploration missions. The ISS, advanced space technology R.&D. and testing capabilities include the capability

Alan C. Holt

1999-01-01

152

Adaptive control of Space Station during nominal operations with CMGs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive control approach is investigated for the Space Station. The main components of the adaptive controller are the parameter identification scheme, the control gain calculation, and the control law. The control law is the Space Station baseline control law. The control gain calculation is based on linear quadratic regulator theory with eigenvalue placement in a vertical strip. The parameter

R. H. Bishop; S. J. Paynter; J. W. Sunkel

1991-01-01

153

Adaptive control of Space Station during nominal operations with CMGs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive control approach is investigated for the Space Station Freedom. The main components of the adaptive controller are the parameter identification scheme, the control gain calculation, and the control law. The control law is the Space Station baseline control law. The control gain calculation is based on linear quadratic regulator theory with eigenvalue placement in a vertical strip. The

R. H. Bishop; S. J. Paynter; J. W. Sunkel

1991-01-01

154

Adaptive control of space station with control moment gyros  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive approach to space station attitude control is investigated. The main components of the controller are the parameter identification scheme, the control gain calculation, and the control law. The control law is a full-state feedback space station baseline control law. The control gain calculation is based on linear-quadratic regulator theory with eigenvalues placement in a vertical strip. The parameter

R. H. Bishop; S. J. Paynter; J. W. Sunkel

1992-01-01

155

Adaptive control of Space Station with control moment gyros  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive approach to Space Station attitude control is investigated. The main components of the controller are the parameter identification scheme, the control gain calculation, and the control law. The control law is a full-state feedback space station baseline control law. The control gain calculation is based on linear-quadratic regulator theory with eigenvalues placement in a vertical strip. The parameter

Robert H. Bishop; Scott J. Paynter; John W. Sunkel

1992-01-01

156

Space Station's biggest challenge - Servicing satellites in orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is given to NASA's use of the prospective Space Station for the servicing of satellites in orbit, beginning with simple refueling tasks and culminating with the repair of sophisticated components. The Space Station will eventually perform all types of servicing on a variety of free-flying, reusable, unmanned platforms, or 'free flyers', which after being carried into low earth orbit

J. H. Brahney

1985-01-01

157

Recent Research on Crew Wardroom Habitability for the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the crew Wardroom for the U.S./International Space Station, required to support a maximum eight-person Space Station crew for periods as long as 6 months is discussed. Research techniques involve the construction and evaluation of a simulate...

D. Nixon R. Fauquet T. Taylor

1988-01-01

158

MISSE PEACE Polymers: An International Space Station Environmental Exposure Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-one different polymers are being exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for one year as part of MISSE (Materials International Space Station Experiment). MISSE is a materials flight ...

A. M. Hammerstrom B. A. Banks C. Kaminski D. Wright E. E. Youngstrom E. S. Fine J. D. Gummow K. K. deGroh L. M. Marx

2001-01-01

159

Space Station Live: Astronaut Don Pettit on Earth Photography  

NASA Video Gallery

In observance of Earth Day, Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan talks with NASA astronaut Don Pettit, who along with his fellow Expedition 30/31 crew members captured more than a half a million photographs of Earth from aboard the International Space Station.

Gerald T Wright

2013-04-22

160

Control of flexible space station remote manipulator training system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the modelling, design, and analysis of the joint control system for the Space Station remote manipulator ground training system. The purpose of this robotic system is to emulate the Space Station Remote Manipulator System in form, function, and performance, so that astronauts can receive flight-like training in one-g environment. The main focus of the paper is joint

S. Ananthakrishnan; N. M. Wahbah

1993-01-01

161

Approach to Design Knowledge Capture for the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of NASA's space station has begun. During the design cycle, and after activation of the space station, the reoccurring need will exist to access not only designs, but also deeper knowledge about the designs, which is only hinted in the design d...

D. B. Wechsler K. R. Crouse

1986-01-01

162

Radiation measurement on the International Space Station.  

PubMed

The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380 km and inclination 51.6 degrees are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z > or = 2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during the last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and "Kosmos" spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2 x 10(3) keV/micrometers and the value of equivalent dose 360 microSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z > or = 2 was measured (3.85 x 10(3) particles/cm2). PMID:15856556

Akopova, A B; Manaseryan, M M; Melkonyan, A A; Tatikyan, S Sh; Potapov, Yu

2005-02-01

163

SAGE III on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) has recently been selected for a flight on the International Space Station (ISS) beginning in 2014. Since the instrument was constructed in the early 2000s, the instrument will require extensive testing and refurbishment prior to deliver to ISS. The project will also include the refurbishment of the ESA Hexapod which is a high-accuracy pointing system developed to support ISS external payloads particularly SAGE III. SAGE III refurbishment may also include the replacement of the neutral density filter that has been associated with some instrument response issues during the METEOR/3M mission. We are also exploring options for expanding the science targets to include additional gas species including IO, BrO, and other solar, lunar, and limb-scatter species. In this presentation, we will discuss our plans for SAGE III - ISS refurbishment including results from Sun-look testing, revisions to the science measurements, and discuss expected measurement accuracies in part by examining SAGE III - METEOR/3M measurement data quality. We will also discuss potential mission science goals enabled by the mid-inclination ISS orbit.

Pitts, M. C.; Thomason, L. W.; Zawodny, J.; Hill, C.

2012-04-01

164

Research progress and accomplishments on International Space Station.  

PubMed

The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. PMID:14649287

Roe, Lesa B; Uri, John J

165

Visible solar-ray supply system for space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar-ray supply system presented here will mainly provide the visible solar ray necessary for the various activities in the space station, such as cultivation experiments on plants, fishes, birds and animals, room lighting for modules, and crew sun-bathing. Even natural solar rays reaching earth surface contain harmful rays for human beings, animals, higher plants and algae: Ultraviolet rays of medium (UV-B) and long wavelength (UV-A), infrared and heat rays, are all harmful to life. On a space station, the most dangerous short-wavelength ultraviolet (UB-C), X-ray and gamma-ray are additionally included, besides those cited above in markedly higher intensity. The range of rays useful and harmless to life is the visible band of wavelengths. No conclusive studies have been conducted concerning the unexpected powerful effects on the growth of plants and algae that can be brought by pure visible solar rays, in comparison with the corresponding effects of other kinds of artificial light source.

Mori, Kei; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiko; Yamashita, Masamichi

166

Mars rover/sample return mission requirements affecting space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible interfaces between the Space Station and the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are defined. In order to constrain the scope of the report a series of seven design reference missions divided into three major types were assumed. These missions were defined to span the probable range of Space Station-MRSR interactions. The options were reduced, the MRSR sample handling requirements and baseline assumptions about the MRSR hardware and the key design features and requirements of the Space Station are summarized. Only the aspects of the design reference missions necessary to define the interfaces, hooks and scars, and other provisions on the Space Station are considered. An analysis of each of the three major design reference missions, is reported, presenting conceptual designs of key hardware to be mounted on the Space Station, a definition of weights, interfaces, and required hooks and scars.

1988-03-01

167

14 CFR 1214.403 - Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...This Code of Conduct for the International Space Station (ISS) crew...Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station (the IGA...Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station (the MOU's...the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) and...

2010-01-01

168

14 CFR 1214.403 - Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...This Code of Conduct for the International Space Station (ISS) crew...Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station (the IGA...Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station (the MOU's...the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) and...

2009-01-01

169

Expendable launch vehicles in Space Station Freedom logistics resupply operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected Space Station Freedom (SSF) annual logistics resupply requirements were predicted to exceed the 1988 baseline Shuttle resupply system capability. This paper examines the implications of employing a 'mixed fleet' of Shuttles and ELVs to provide postassembly, steady-state logistics resupply. The study concluded that ELVs supported by the OMV could provide the additional required resupply capability with one to three launches per annum. However, the study determined that such a capability would require significant programmatic commitments, including baseline SSF OMV accommodations, on-orbit OMV monoprop replenishment capability, and substantial economics investments. The study also found the need for a half-size pressurized logistics module for the increase in the efficiency of logistics manifesting on the Shuttle as well as ELVs.

Newman, J. Steven; Courtney, Roy L.; Brunt, Peter

170

The dynamic effects of internal robots on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the planned experiments of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) will require acceleration levels to be no greater than microgravity (10 exp -6 g) levels for long periods of time. Studies have demonstrated that without adequate control, routine operations may cause disturbances which are large enough to affect on-board experiments. One way to both minimize disturbances and make the SSF more autonomous is to utilize robots instead of astronauts for some operations. The present study addresses the feasibility of using robots for microgravity manipulation. Two methods for minimizing the dynamic disturbances resulting from the robot motions are evaluated. The first method is to use a robot with kinematic redundancy (redundant links). The second method involves the use of a vibration isolation device between the robot and the SSF laboratory module. The results from these methods are presented along with simulations of robots without disturbance control.

Miller, Jeffrey H.; Lawrence, Charles; Rohn, Douglas A.

171

Joint drive development for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parts of the design of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System's joint drive (the motor and drive electronics) have reached the proof of concept phase, while other parts (the joint drive module, joint housing, and joint electronic unit packaging) exist at present only as mockups of design concepts. The system requirements for the joint drive are outlined and the drive system architectures are described. Drive electromechanics are located within each joint and drive electronics are physically distributed over the length of the manipulator arm. The drives system has a modular design for ready maintainability in orbit. Equipment features are also described along with the considerations that led to their incorporation. These include the brushless motors, friction disc brakes, compound differential planetary gear train, and resolver based position and velocity sensing devices.

Ballantyne, W. J.

172

Microparticle capture on the International Space Station using aerogel and polyimide foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) have deployed three sets of two passive experiments on the exterior of the Russian Service Module on the International Space Station: the Micro-Particles Capturer and the Space Environment Exposure Device, known collectively as MPAC&SEED. The MPAC segment of each unit consists mainly of a front and back face, nominally ram- and wake-pointing,

Michael J. Neish; Kichiro Imagawa; Toshihiko Inoue; Junichiro Ishizawa; Yukihito Kitazawa; Yukiko Yamaura; Atsushi Murakami; Yushiyuki Ochi

2003-01-01

173

Accomplishments in bioastronautics research aboard International Space Station.  

PubMed

The tenth long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard International Space Station (ISS), continuing a permanent human presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, expedition crews have been operators and subjects for 18 Human Life Sciences investigations, to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the crewmembers and of the environment in which they live. Investigations have been conducted to study: the radiation environment in the station as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA); bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning; changes in neuromuscular reflexes; muscle forces and postflight mobility; causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance; risk of developing kidney stones; changes in pulmonary function caused by long-duration flight as well as EVA; crew and crew-ground interactions; changes in immune function, and evaluation of imaging techniques. The experiment mix has included some conducted in flight aboard ISS as well as several which collected data only pre- and postflight. The conduct of these investigations has been facilitated by the Human Research Facility (HRF). HRF Rack 1 became the first research rack on ISS when it was installed in the US laboratory module Destiny in March 2001. The rack provides a core set of experiment hardware to support investigations, as well as power, data and commanding capability, and stowage. The second HRF rack, to complement the first with additional hardware and stowage capability, will be launched once Shuttle flights resume. Future years will see additional capability to conduct human research on ISS as International Partner modules and facility racks are added to ISS. Crew availability, both as a subject count and time, will remain a major challenge to maximizing the science return from the bioastronautics research program. PMID:15835037

Uri, John J; Haven, Cynthia P

174

International Space Station Increment Operations Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Industrial Operator (IO) has defined End-to-End services to perform efficiently all required operations tasks for the Manned Space Program (MSP) as agreed during the Ministerial Council in Edinburgh in November 2001. Those services are the result of a detailed task analysis based on the operations processes as derived from the Space Station Program Implementation Plans (SPIP) and defined in the Operations Processes Documents (OPD). These services are related to ISS Increment Operations and ATV Mission Operations. Each of these End-to-End services is typically characterised by the following properties: It has a clearly defined starting point, where all requirements on the end-product are fixed and associated performance metrics of the customer are well defined. It has a clearly defined ending point, when the product or service is delivered to the customer and accepted by him, according to the performance metrics defined at the start point. The implementation of the process might be restricted by external boundary conditions and constraints mutually agreed with the customer. As far as those are respected the IO has the free choice to select methods and means of implementation. The ISS Increment Operations Service (IOS) activities required for the MSP Exploitation program cover the complete increment specific cycle starting with the support to strategic planning and ending with the post increment evaluation. These activities are divided into sub-services including the following tasks: - ISS Planning Support covering the support to strategic and tactical planning up to the generation - Development &Payload Integration Support - ISS Increment Preparation - ISS Increment Execution These processes are tight together by the Increment Integration Management, which provides the planning and scheduling of all activities as well as the technical management of the overall process . The paper describes the entire End-to-End ISS Increment Operations service and the implementation to support the Columbus Flight 1E related increment and subsequent ISS increments. Special attention is paid to the implications caused by long term operations on hardware, software and operations personnel.

Michaelis, Horst; Sielaff, Christian

2002-01-01

175

Social Media Accreditation Opens for Next SpaceX Launch to Resupply Space Station  

NASA Website

NASA is inviting social media users to apply for credentials to attend the March 1 launch for the next cargo resupply flight to the International Space Station by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX).

176

Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

1987-10-01

177

Dynamic characteristics of a space-station solar wing array  

SciTech Connect

Describes a solar-wing-array concept which meets space-station requirements for minimum fundamental frequency, component modularity, and growth potential. The basic wing-array design parameters are varied, and the resulting effects on the array vibration frequencies and mode shapes are assessed. The transient response of a free-free space station (incorporating a solar-wing-array point design) to a load applied at the space-station center is studied. The use of the transient response studies in identifying critically loaded structural members is briefly discussed.

Dorsey, J.T.; Bush, H.G.

1984-06-01

178

Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of

F. D. Schowengerdt

1999-01-01

179

Space Station Freedom: The Dream Becomes Reality. A Learning Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|NASA will launch Space Station Freedom piece by piece in the cargo bay of space shuttles. The process is scheduled to start in 1995 and be completed in 1999. This pamphlet presents factual information and accompanying hands-on science activities concerning the following aspects of the project: (1) the space shuttle's role in transport; (2) the…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

180

Performance of International Space Station electric power system during station assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) will be an Earth-orbiting laboratory in space. It will house experimental payloads, distribute resource utilities, and support human habitation for conducting research and science experiments in a microgravity environment. The ISS will be assembled on-orbit through 44 assembly and utilization flights using the launch vehicles of the United States, Russian Republic and the European Space

L. M. Hague; K. J. Metcalf; G. M. Shannon; R. C. Hill; Cheng-Yi Lu

1996-01-01

181

International Space Station Increment-2 Microgravity Environment Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data, collected aboard the International Space Station during the period of May to August 2001, the Increment-2 phase of the station. Two accelerometer systems were used to mea...

K. Jules K. Hrovat E. Kelly K. McPherson T. Reckart

2002-01-01

182

Design of a Resistojet for Space Station Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the mid 1990's, NASA will begin assembly of Space Station Freedom, a permanent outpost in a low-earth orbit. For the station to remain in that orbit, an altitude control system must be developed to resist the effects of atmospheric drag. One system bei...

J. Garza J. Reisman J. Tapia A. Wright

1993-01-01

183

The Altcriss project on board the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altcriss project aims to perform a long term survey of the radiation environment on board the International Space Station. Measurements are being performed with active and passive devices in different locations and orientations of the Russian segment of the station. The goal is to perform a detailed evaluation of the differences in particle fluence and nuclear composition due to

M. Casolino; F. Altamura; M. Minori; P. Picozza; C. Fuglesang; A. Galper; A. Popov; V. Benghin; V. M. Petrov; A. Nagamatsu; T. Berger; G. Reitz; M. Durante; M. Pugliese; V. Roca; L. Sihver; F. Cucinotta; E. Semones; M. Shavers; V. Guarnieri; C. Lobascio; D. Castagnolo; R. Fortezza

2007-01-01

184

ISS Progress 47 Re-docks to Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The ISS Progress 47 cargo vehicle docks once again to the International Space Station’s Pirs docking compartment Saturday, July 28, 2012, at 9:01 p.m. EDT after a successful test of its new automated rendezvous system.

John Kossum

2012-07-28

185

47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. 25.140 Section...COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a)...

2010-10-01

186

47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service... § 25.210 Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service. (a) All space stations in the Fixed-Satellite...

2011-10-01

187

47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service... § 25.210 Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service. (a) All space stations in the Fixed-Satellite...

2012-10-01

188

47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. 25.140 Section...COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a)...

2011-10-01

189

47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. 25.140 Section...COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a)...

2012-10-01

190

Shared-World Conceptual Model for Integrating Space Station Life Sciences Telescience Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mental models of the Space Station and its ancillary facilities will be employed by users of the Space Station as they draw upon past experiences, perform tasks, and collectively plan for future activities. The operational environment of the Space Station...

V. Johnson J. Bosley

1988-01-01

191

Mir Contamination Observations and Implications to the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of external contamination measurements were made on the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir external contamination observations summarized in this paper were essential in assessing the system level impact of Russian Segment induced contamination o...

C. Soares R. Mikatarian

2000-01-01

192

NASA Sets TV Briefing Today to Discuss Space Station Status  

NASA Website

NASA managers will discuss the status of the International Space Station, including the latest on an external cooling loop leak that developed Thursday, during a televised briefing today at 4 p.m. EDT.

193

Study of Robotics Systems Applications to the Space Station Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Applications of robotics systems to potential uses of the Space Station as an assembly facility, and secondarily as a servicing facility, are considered. A typical robotics system mission is described along with the pertinent application guidelines and Sp...

J. C. Fox

1983-01-01

194

Microgravity Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station (Panel).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the microgravity environment provided to the early science experiments by the International Space Station vehicle which is under construction. The microgravity environment will be compared with predicted levels for this stage of assemb...

R. DeLombard K. Hrovat E. Kelly K. McPherson W. M. Foster C. P. Schafer

2001-01-01

195

International Space Station Increment-3 Microgravity Environment Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of August to December 2001. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for th...

C. Grodsinksy E. Kelly K. Hrovat K. Jules K. McPherson T. Reckart

2002-01-01

196

NASA TV Provides Coverage of Space Station Spacewalk  

NASA Website

Two members of the Expedition 35 crew will venture outside the International Space Station on April 19 for a six-hour spacewalk to deploy and retrieve several science experiments and install a new navigational aid.

197

Estimating and Bidding for the Space Station Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government...

J. A. Brown

1993-01-01

198

Space Station Thermal Storage/Refrigeration System Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully...

W. G. Dean Z. S. Karu

1993-01-01

199

Space Station Water Processor Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the development testing conducted under this contract to the Space Station Water Processor (WP) Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS). The MLS units built and modified during this testing demonstrated acceptable air/water separ...

A. Lanzarone

1995-01-01

200

Space superiority”: Wernher von Braun's campaign for a nuclear-armed space station, 1946–1956  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the history of spaceflight has depicted the early 1950s Collier’s articles mostly as a forerunner to the peaceful and scientific exploration of space. Yet the centerpiece of Wernher von Braun's plan was a manned space station that would serve as reconnaissance platform and orbiting battle station for achieving “space superiority” over the USSR. One its roles could

Michael J. Neufeld

2006-01-01

201

The international space station: A pathway to the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 6 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

Kitmacher, Gary H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.; Bartoe, John-David F.; Mustachio, Nicholas

2005-07-01

202

Klystron Modulator for the XFEL RF station  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the European XFEL at DESY in Hamburg (Germany) a klystron modulator prototype is built, based on the proven so called ldquoBouncerrdquo principle. Although it is a well known technique, the bouncer modulator faces some difficulties on flattop stability and protection of the klystron. In this paper improvements for these problems are presented. Besides a chosen solution for constant input

Renso Wolf; Stefan Bruins; Werner Heyns; Martien Roijmans; Lou van Lieshout

2009-01-01

203

Space life sciences perspectives for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now generally acknowledged that the life science discipline will be the primary beneficiary of Space Station Freedom. The unique facility will permit advances in understanding the consequences of long duration exposure to weightlessness and evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures. It will also provide an unprecedented opportunity for basic gravitational biology, on plants and animals as well as human subjects. The major advantages of SSF are the long duration exposure and the availability of sufficient crew to serve as subjects and operators. In order to fully benefit from the SSF, life sciences will need both sufficient crew time and communication abilities. Unlike many physical science experiments, the life science investigations are largely exploratory, and frequently bring unexpected results and opportunities for study of newly discovered phenomena. They are typically crew-time intensive, and require a high degree of specialized training to be able to react in real time to various unexpected problems or potentially exciting findings. Because of the long duration tours and the large number of experiments, it will be more difficult than with Spacelab to maintain astronaut proficiency on all experiments. This places more of a burden on adequate communication and data links to the ground, and suggests the use of AI expert system technology to assist in astronaut management of the experiment. Typical life science experiments, including those flown on Spacelab Life Sciences 1, will be described from the point of view of the demands on the astronaut. A new expert system, 'PI in a Box,' will be introduced for SLS-2, and its applicability to other SSF experiments discussed. (This paper consists on an abstract and ten viewgraphs.)

Young, Laurence R.

204

TANPOPO: Microbe and micrometeoroid capture experiments on International Space Station.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude. Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets from 1936 to 1976. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments. It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. TANPOPO, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. The Tanpopo mission was accepted as a candidate experiments on Exposed Facility of ISS-JEM.

Yamagishi, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yano, Hajime; Yokobori, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

205

Selected OAST\\/OSSA space experiment activities in support of Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Experiments Division at NASA Lewis Research Center is developing technology and science space experiments for the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and the Office of Space Sciences and Applications (OSSA). Selected precursor experiments and technology development activities supporting the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are presented. The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) is an OAST-funded cryogenic fluid

Richard Delombard

1992-01-01

206

International Space Station: Significant Challenges May Limit Onboard Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2010, after about 25 years of work and the expenditure of billions of dollars, the International Space Station (ISS) will be completed. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the ISS crew will then be able to redirect it...

2009-01-01

207

The international space station X-ray crystallography facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the X-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) currently under development by UAB\\/CBSE with major support from three contractors. The XCF is to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) for analysis of macromolecular protein crystals grown on the ISS. A brief summary of protein crystal growth experience on the Space Shuttle Orbiter over nearly 15

W. B Crysel; L. J DeLucas; L. D Weise; C. D Smith; W. T McDonald

2001-01-01

208

Go Behind the Scenes of the International Space Station  

NASA Website

NASA will host an event for 30 social media followers on March 19, 2013 at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. Home of Mission Control, the NASA Social event will give guests an opportunity to learn more about the International Space Station, ...

209

Go Behind the Scenes of Space Station Science  

NASA Website

NASA will host a one-day event for 30 social media followers on May 22, 2013, at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, home of Mission Control. The NASA Social will give guests an opportunity to learn more about the International Space Station, the ...

210

Kansas Students to Speak Live With Space Station NASA Astronauts  

NASA Website

Expedition 36 crew members and NASA astronauts Chris Cassidy and Karen Nyberg, currently orbiting aboard the International Space Station, will speak with students gathered at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center at 9:40 a.m. CDT (10:40 a.m. EDT), ...

211

Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the Needs of Space Biology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be func...

K. Allen C. Wade

1992-01-01

212

Launch delays in the evaluation of Space Station supportability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) will be the sole provider of assembly items and support resources to Space Station Freedom. Using an operations simulation tool, the consequences of spares provisioning levels and launch schedule perturbations to onorbit systems' effectiveness are explored. The extent of post-Challenger launch delay experiences and how they are modeled are described. By using simulation modeling, the operational availability of space station hardware and distinctions in support requirements are investigated for the Mission Build flights, MB-1 through MB-7.

Dejulio, Edmund; Strickland, Christopher; McCormick, James

1991-11-01

213

Catalytic Processes for Space Station Waste Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Catalytic techniques for processing waste products onboard space vehicles were evaluated. The goal of the study was the conversion of waste to carbon, wash water, oxygen and nitrogen. However, the ultimate goal is conversion to plant nutrients and other m...

M. W. Schoonover R. A. Madsen

1986-01-01

214

48 CFR 1852.228-76 - Cross-waiver of liability for space station activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cross-Waiver of Liability for Space Station Activities (DEC 1994...Intergovernmental Agreement for the Space Station contains a broad cross-waiver...encourage participation in the exploration and use of outer space through the Space...

2009-10-01

215

48 CFR 1852.228-76 - Cross-waiver of liability for space station activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cross-Waiver of Liability for Space Station Activities (DEC 1994...Intergovernmental Agreement for the Space Station contains a broad cross-waiver...encourage participation in the exploration and use of outer space through the Space...

2010-10-01

216

Critical Function Models for Operation of the International Space Station  

SciTech Connect

Long duration and exploration class space missions will place new requirements on human performance when compared to current space shuttle missions. Specifically, assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will place significant new demands on the crew. For example, maintenance of systems that provide habitability will become an ongoing activity for the international flight crews. Tasks for maintaining space station habitability will need to be integrated with tasks associated with scientific research. In addition, tasks and resources will need to be prioritized and allocated dynamically in response to changing operational conditions and unplanned system breakdowns. This paper describes an ongoing program to develop a habitability index (HI) for space operations based on the critical function approach. This pilot project focuses on adaptation of the critical function approach to develop a habitability index specifically tailored for space operations. Further work will then be needed to expand and validate the habitability index for application in the ISS operational environment.

Nelson, William Roy; Bagian, T. M.

2000-11-01

217

Space station automation study: automation requirements derived from space manufacturing concepts. Volume II: final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study is to develop informed technical guidance to NASA in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions. Some topics discussed include mission selection, GaAs electroepitaxial crystal production, and the GaAs microelectronics chip facility.

Not Available

1984-11-27

218

Space Station Live: FLEX in Space for Safer Combustion  

NASA Video Gallery

Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) Principal Investigator Mark Hickman, from Glenn Research Center, discusses why scientists study flames in space. One reason is to create a safer environment to live in space and on Earth.

Mark Garcia

2013-05-30

219

Space Station Live: FLEX in Space for Safer Combustion  

NASA Video Gallery

Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) Principal Investigator Mark Hickman, from Glenn Research Center, discusses why scientists study flames in space. One reason is to create a safer environment to live in space and on Earth.

Mark Garcia

2013-06-11

220

The 100 kW space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar array power systems for the space construction base are discussed. Nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries are equally attractive relative to regenerative fuel cell systems at 5 years life. Further evaluation of energy storage system life (low orbit conditions) is required. Shuttle and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology appears adequate; large units (approximately four times shuttle) are most

G. McKhann

1977-01-01

221

ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

Brinckmann, E.

222

Space experiment BTN-NEUTRON on INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION - CURRENT STATUS and future stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space experiment BTN (Board Telescope of Neutrons) was suggested in 1997 for the Russian segment of International Space Station. The first stage of this experiment was started in February 2007 with instrumentation BTN-M1, which contain two separate units: 1) the electronics unit for commanding and data handling, which is installed inside the Station; 2) the detector unit, which is installed at the outer surface of Russian Service Module "Zvezda". The total mass of this instrument without cables is about 15 kg and total power consumption is about 18 Watts. Detector unit of BTN-M1 has the set of four neutron detectors: three proportional counters of epithermal neutrons with 3He covered by cadmium shields and polyethylene moderators with different thickness and stylbene scintillator for fast neutrons at the energy range 0.4 Mev - 10 Mev. There are three sources of neutrons in the near-Earth space. Permanent flux of neutrons is produced due to interaction of energetic particles of galactic and solar cosmic rays with the upper atmosphere of the Earth ("natural neutrons") and with the body of the spacecraft ("technogenic neutrons"). The third transient sources of neutrons are active regions of the Sun, which may sporadically emit energetic neutrons during strong flares. Some of these particles have sufficiently high energy to neutrons cover the distance to the Earth before decay Data from BTN-M1 after 2 years of space operations is sufficient for preliminary estimation of neutron component of radiation environment in the near-Earth space. BTN-M1 detector unit is equal to the Russian instrument HEND, which also operates now onboard NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter since May 2001. Simultaneous measurements of neutron radiation on orbits around Mars and Earth give the unique opportunity to compare neutron radiation environment around two planets. The technogenic component of neutron background may be estimated by analysis of data for different stages of flight. After evaluation of local background, the natural components of neutron radiation environment around two planets are deconvolved from the data of two instruments. Using the data from HEND/MO and BTN/ISS for 2007 - 2008 years time interval, the neutron contribution to the total radiation doze is estimated in conditions of solar minimum both for near-Earth and near-Mars space. In 2009 - 2010, when the rising phase of the next 24th solar cycle will be in progress, the data of measurements of HEND/MO and BTN/ISS will allow to model space environment for more complex conditions, when decreasing flux of galactic cosmic rays will be compensated by episodes of powerful solar particles events. Presently instrumentation BTN-M2 for the 2nd stage of space experiment BTN-Neutron is designed, which will allow to study the neutron fluxes in different places inside of Station. This data will allow to compare neutrons outside and inside Station at different conditions of orbital flight. Detector unit of BTN-M2 will be surrounded by different shielding materials, which are known as good neutron moderators and absorbers. Measurements with shielded and open detectors will provide the experimental data for designing future spacecraft for long space flights in the interplanetary space.

Tretyakov, V. I.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Laygushin, V. I.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Pronin, M. A.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Sanin, A. B.

2009-04-01

223

Guidelines for noise and vibration levels for the space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human habitability noise and vibration guidelines for the Space Station are presented. These were developed by a working group of experts established by the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Science and Education. Noise exposure limits are suggested that will permit adequate speech communication, sleep, and hearing safety. Vibration exposure limits are suggested which will provide adequate comfort and permit adequate task performance. These are provided for guidance only for setting criteria. The exact criteria will depend on Space Station design and duty cycles.

1987-06-01

224

Space station automation study: satellite servicing. Volume II. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted by TRW over the six month time frame from early June through November 1984. Three major tasks were completed: Servicing Requirements (Satellite and Space Station Elements) and the Role of Automation; Assessment of Automation Technology; and Conceptual Design of Servicing Facilities on the Space Station. It was found that many servicing functions could benefit from automation support; that certain research and development activities on automation technologies for servicing should start as soon as possible; and some advanced automation developments for orbital servicing could be effectively applied to US industrial ground based operations. 42 refs., 49 figs., 20 tabs.

Meissinger, H.F.

1984-12-20

225

NASA Now Minute: Materials Science: International Space Station Testing  

NASA Video Gallery

The Materials International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE, provides NASA with a means to study the effects of long-term exposure to space on various materials, computer components and electronic devices. The results of this research assist NASA scientists and engineers design future spacecraft. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: ›  http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-03-26

226

Development of an Emulation-Simulation Thermal Control Model for Space Station Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved capability for comparing various techniques for thermal management in the Space Station was developed. Current planning for the orbiting space station calls for a dual keel configuration. The thermal control system (TCS) for the space is compo...

J. G. Hartley G. T. Colwell

1987-01-01

227

Active alignment for interferometric techniques onboard the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different interferometric techniques are required to cover most of the scientific needs in the field of fluid dynamics science in microgravity research. The Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), currently under upgrade for the Columbus Orbital Facility of the International Space Station (ISS), shall provide Holographic Interferometry, Digital Holography, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Shearing Interferometry among other diagnostic tools. On

Volker Kebbel; Joachim Becker; Werner Jueptner

2004-01-01

228

Electrical power system stability assurance for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) adopted a direct-current (DC) electrical power system (EPS). Switching mode DC power converters are playing a major role in power conversion, conditioning, and control. The stability of a switching mode converter has long been studied due to its negative input impedance at low frequencies. Integrated EPS stability will be assured by computer modeling, simulation, and

T. C. Wang; J. B. Raley

1997-01-01

229

Microgravity combustion diagnostics: the path to the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Combustion Integrated Rack component of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), a multi-user, on-orbit International Space Station facility for the study of fluid physics and combustion science, is currently under development. The envelope of measurement requirements for the baselined combustion science experiments is presented, with a description of the basic diagnostic capabilities provided by the facility. An overview of

Paul S. Greenberg; Karen J. Weiland; Randall L. Vander Wal

1999-01-01

230

ISSLIVE. Bringing the Space Station to Every Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Just 200 miles above us, the International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting. Each day, the astronauts on board perform a variety of activities from exercise, science experiments, and maintenance. Yet, many on the ground don.t know about these daily activit...

A. Khan J. B. Ehlinger J. B. Price M. Severance M. D. Healy P. D. Harris R. Blue

2011-01-01

231

Science on the International Space Station - Gateway to the Universe  

NASA Website

On Wednesday Feb. 20, 150 of NASA's social media followers will have the unique opportunity to talk to three of the six crew members aboard the International Space Station, and speak with agency scientists and engineers about the ground-breaking ...

232

Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full

Richard H. Kohrs; Earle Huckins III

1992-01-01

233

One of the new Features of the Space Power Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited density of an energy flow (DFE) in the Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) systems of the Space Power Stations (SPS) creates a set of difficulties including the huge antenna sizes especially of the receiving antenna. It is not only to reach the Fresnel area. It is in order to transmit the enormous power needed for Earth feeding. These circumstances

S. S. Shaposhnikov

2002-01-01

234

Space Station thermal storage\\/refrigeration system research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading

W. G. Dean; Z. S. Karu

1993-01-01

235

System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed

Thomas W. Kerslake; Jeffrey S. Hojnicki; Robert D. Green; Jeffrey C. Follo

1993-01-01

236

Solar receiver experiment for the space station Freedom Brayton engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an experimental investigation conducted to develop fabrication procedures and acquire test data for a heat receiver assembly (HRA) in support of the design and development effort for the Brayton engine solar receiver for the NASA space station freedom solar dynamic option. The HRA configuration is a cylindrical receiver lined with tubes; each tube is surrounded by

Hal J. Strumpf; Murray G. Coombs

1990-01-01

237

Solar array electrical performance assessment for Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical power for Space Station Freedom will be generated by large photovoltaic arrays with a beginning of life power requirement of 30.8 kW per array. The solar arrays will operate in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) over a design life of fifteen years. This paper provides an analysis of the predicted solar array electrical performance over the design life and

Bryan K. Smith; Holly Brisco

1993-01-01

238

Express service to the international space station: Express pallet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPS). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide external\\/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science

Lowell Primm; Alan Bergmann

1999-01-01

239

Fault-Tolerance Verification of the Fluids and Combustion Facility of the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes our experience with fault-tolerance verification of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) of the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF will be a permanent installation for scientific microgravity experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module aboard the ISS. The ability to withstand faults is vital for all ISS installations. Currently, the FCF safety specification requires one-component fault-tolerance. In

Raquel S. Whittlesey-harris; Mikhail Nesterenko

2006-01-01

240

Experiments with phase change thermal energy storage canisters for Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar dynamic power module proposed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses the heat of fusion of a phase change material (PCM) to efficiently store thermal energy for use during eclipse periods. The PCM, a LiF-20CaF2 salt, is contained in annular, metal canisters located in a heat receiver at the focus of a solar concentrator. PCM canister ground-based experiments

Thomas W. Kerslake

1991-01-01

241

Space product development experiment module utilizing the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Furnace facilities for materials processing on the International Space Station (ISS) will include the Space Product Development Experiment Module (SPDEM) which includes a transparent Furnace module and an opaque Furnace Module. The SPDEM is scheduled currently for UF-3 aboard the Materials Science Research Rack(MSRR). Various commercial interests can be satisfied sequentially by scheduled employment of the SPDEM. The CMDS will be the facility manager through whom arrangements can be made for SPDEM access. The ISS should provide long growth periods which are needed to grow large single crystals in microgravity. A typical area of commercial interest is acousto-optic filters (AOTF) based on mercurous halide research which would continue on the ISS, research begun on the STS-77 mission. Another area of commercial interest planned for implementation on ISS is liquid metal sintering of composites to further improve techniques for making better quality materials.

Watson, Christine; Lundquist, Charles; Wessling, Francis; Smith, James; Naumann, Robert

1999-01-01

242

Medical applications of space light-emitting diode technology-space station and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space light-emitting diode (LED) technology has provided medicine with a new tool capable of delivering light deep into tissues of the body, at wavelengths which are biologically optimal for cancer treatment and wound healing. This LED technology has already flown on Space Shuttle missions, and shows promise for wound healing applications of benefit to Space Station astronauts.

Whelan, Harry T.; Houle, John M.; Donohoe, Deborah L.; Bajic, Dawn M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Reichert, Kenneth W.; Weyenberg, George T.; Larson, David L.; Meyer, Glenn A.; Caviness, James A.

1999-01-01

243

Medical Applications of Space Light-Emitting Diode Technology--Space Station and Beyond  

SciTech Connect

Space light-emitting diode (LED) technology has provided medicine with a new tool capable of delivering light deep into tissues of the body, at wavelengths which are biologically optimal for cancer treatment and wound healing. This LED technology has already flown on Space Shuttle missions, and shows promise for wound healing applications of benefit to Space Station astronauts.

Whelan, H.T.; Houle, J.M.; Donohoe, D.L.; Bajic, D.M.; Schmidt, M.H.; Reichert, K.W.; Weyenberg, G.T.; Larson, D.L.; Meyer, G.A.; Caviness, J.A.

1999-06-01

244

Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigatio...

L. P. Jordan R. A. Spivey S. F. Spearing

2012-01-01

245

The MAXI mission on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is the first astrophysical payload which will be mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility of International Space Station in 2004. It is designed for monitoring all-sky in the x-ray band by scanning with slat collimators and slit apertures. Its angular resolution and scanning period are approximately 1 arc degree and 90 minutes, respectively. MAXI employs two types of X-ray camera. One is Gas slit Camera (GSC), the detectors of which are 1D position sensitive proportional counters. Its position resolution is approximately 1.0 mm along carbon anode wires. GSC covers the 2.0 - 30 keV energy band. We have found an interesting feature in the energy response: monochromatic X-rays are detected with a peculiar hard tail in the spectra. The physical mechanism causing the hard tail is still unclear. The other camera is Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). We employ a pair of SSCs, each of which consists of sixteen CCD chips. Each CCD has 1024 X 1024 pixels, and each pixel is 24 X 24 micrometers. The CCDs are to be operated at -60 degree using Peltier coolers. SSC covers an energy range of 0.5 - 10.0 keV. The test counters and test chips are evaluated in NASDA, Riken, and Osaka-University. The continuous Ethernet down link will enable us to alert the astronomers in all over the world to the appearance of X-ray transients, novae, bursts, flares etc. In this paper we will report on the current status of the MAXI mission.

Tomida, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Ueno, Shiro; Torii, Ken'ichi; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Yuan, Wei M.; Komatsu, Shigenori; Shirasaki, Yuji; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sakurai, Ikuya; Negoro, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Tanaka, Isao

2000-07-01

246

Application of advanced flywheel technology for energy storage on space station  

SciTech Connect

In space power applications where solar inputs are the primary thermal source for the power system, energy storage is necessary to provide a continuous power supply during the eclipse portion of the orbit. Because of their potentially high storage density, flywheels have been given consideration for use as the storage system on the proposed orbiting space station. During the past several years graphite fiber technology has advanced, and this has led to significant gains in flywheel storage density. The tensile strength of current fibers is a factor of two to three higher than previous materials. Use of these improved fibers in experimental flywheel rims has resulted in ultimate storage densities of 878 kJ/kg being achieved. With these high-strength graphite fibers, operational storage densities for flywheel storage modules applicable to the space station storage need could reach 200 kJ/kg. This module would also be volumetrically efficient occupying only about 1 m/sup 3/. Because the size and mass of the flywheel storage module are controlled by the storage density, improvements in fiber strength can have a significant impact on these values. With improvements in fiber strength can have a significant impact on these values. With improvements in fiber strength that are anticipated within the next five years, operational storage densities on the order of 325 kJ/kg may be possible for the flywheel module.

Olszewski, M.

1987-04-01

247

Projective Module Description of Embedded Noncommutative Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algebraic formulation is given for the embedded noncommutative spaces over the Moyal algebra developed in a geometric framework in [8]. We explicitly construct the projective modules corresponding to the tangent bundles of the embedded noncommutative spaces, and recover from this algebraic formulation the metric, Levi-Civita connection and related curvatures, which were introduced geometrically in [8]. Transformation rules for connections

R. B. Zhang; Xiao Zhang

2010-01-01

248

EXPOSE, an astrobiological exposure facility on the international space station - from proposal to flight.  

PubMed

Following an European Space Agency announcement of opportunity in 1996 for "Externally mounted payloads for 1st utilization phase" on the International Space Station (ISS), scientists working in the fields of astrobiology proposed experiments aiming at longterm exposure of a variety of chemical compounds and extremely resistant microorganisms to the hostile space environment. The ESA exposure facility EXPOSE was built and an operations' concept was prepared. The EXPOSE experiments were developed through an intensive pre-flight experiment verification test program. 12 years later, two sets of astrobiological experiments in two EXPOSE facilities have been successfully launched to the ISS for external exposure for up to 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E, now installed at the balcony of the European Columbus module, was launched in February 2008, while EXPOSE-R took off to the ISS in November 2008 and was installed on the external URM-D platform of the Russian Zvezda module in March 2009. PMID:19629743

Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Schott, Jobst-Ulrich; Panitz, Corinna; L'Afflitto, Andrea; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Willnecker, Reiner; Baglioni, Pietro; Hatton, Jason; Dettmann, Jan; Demets, René; Reitz, Günther

2009-12-01

249

Protein crystal growth on the Russian segment of the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on protein crystallization on the Russian segment of the International Space Station were started in 2005. These experiments were performed in the Modul’-1 protein crystallization apparatus specially designed for crystal growth by the free-interface-diffusion method. This paper describes experiments on the crystallization of lysozyme, carboxypeptidase B, and recombinant human insulin on Earth and in microgravity using the Modul’-1 protein crystallization apparatus during the ISS-11-ISS-14 space flights. Crystals of all proteins grown in microgravity have larger sizes than those grown on Earth. Space-grown crystals of lysozyme and insulin characterized by X-ray diffraction were shown to diffract to higher resolution than the Earth-grown crystals. The three-dimensional structures of Zn-insulin crystals grown both on Earth and in microgravity were established. The conformation of the Zn-insulin hexamer in the crystalline state is described.

Smirnova, E. A.; Kislitsyn, Yu. A.; Sosfenov, N. I.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Popov, A. N.; Ba?dus', A. N.; Timofeev, V. I.; Kuranova, I. P.

2009-09-01

250

Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

1993-03-01

251

Space station automation and robotics study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator-system-interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The study looked at progressively more detailed Space Station functions, starting from general stationkeeping functions, down to proximity operations, and finally to the extra vehicular (EV) robot functions. The EV robot envisioned would be a free-flyer while in transit from one location to another in close proximity to the orbiting Space Station. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with EV robot operations. The implementation of the OSI implies the use of natural languages, voice recognition and synthesis, speech understanding, expert diagnostic and advisory knowledge systems, and machine learning.

Not Available

1984-11-01

252

Modal analysis and dynamical response of a flexible Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this work is the dynamics of a flexible Space Station modeled by a main rigid body connected to several flexible appendages. The aim of this investigation is the modal analysis of the coupled system and the response in frequency domain to external forces and torques. A concrete model of Space Station is more particularly investigated: the system consists of a main rigid body, two large flexible solar panels, and one flexible antenna. For each flexible appendage, some particular vibrations modes (cantilever) are obtained by an exact continuum method. Then, the modal analysis of the coupled system is performed by assuming that the deformations of each flexible appendages are given by a superposition of these cantilever modes.

Pascal, M.; Sylla, M.

253

Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

254

Hurricane Irene Viewed on Thursday by Space Station Cameras  

NASA Video Gallery

Cameras mounted on the International Space Station captured new views of Hurricane Irene as it churned across the Bahamas at 3:47 p.m. EDT on August 25, 2011. Irene, which is a massive and powerful category 3 hurricane, is moving north-northwest toward a likely brush with the outer banks of North Carolina Saturday before tracking up the mid-Atlantic states and a possible path over the metropolitan New York area and New England late this weekend.

Jason Townsend

2011-08-26

255

The role of the space station in earth science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to be a valuable platform for earth science research. By virtue of its being in a mid-inclination orbit (51.5°), ISS provides the opportunity for nadir viewing of nearly 3\\/4 of the Earth's surface, and allows viewing to high latitudes if limb-emission or occultation viewing techniques are used. ISS also provides the opportunity

Jack A. Kaye; Jack A

1999-01-01

256

The role of the space station in earth science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to be a valuable platform for earth science research. By virtue of its being in a mid-inclination orbit (51.5°), ISS provides the opportunity for nadir viewing of nearly 3\\/4 of the Earth’s surface, and allows viewing to high latitudes if limb-emission or occultation viewing techniques are used. ISS also provides the opportunity

Jack A. Kaye

1999-01-01

257

Space Station Sees Hurricane Irene on Aug. 26  

NASA Video Gallery

Cameras mounted on the International Space Station captured new views of Hurricane Irene at 4:27 p.m. EDT on August 26, 2011 as the storm bore down on the east coast of the United States. The video showed the massive system moving north at 14 miles an hour packing winds of 100 miles an hour some 300 miles south-southwest of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

Jim Wilson

2011-08-26

258

Space Station Captures New Views of Hurricane Earl  

NASA Video Gallery

Cameras mounted on the International Space Station captured new views of Hurricane Earl late in the afternoon of Sept. 2 from an altitude of 218 statute miles as the storm churned due east of South Carolina heading north on a track that would skirt the eastern seaboard of the United States. Earl was packing winds of about 115 miles an hour at the time the video was acquired.

Jim Wilson

2010-09-02

259

Vibration test plan for a space station heat pipe subassembly  

SciTech Connect

This test plan describes the Sundstrand portion of task two of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contract 9-x6H-8102L-1. Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a potassium liquid metal heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. The test objective is to expose the heat pipe subassembly to the random vibration environment which simulates the space shuttle launch condition. The results of the test will then be used to modify as required future designs of the heat pipe.

Parekh, M.B. [Sundstrand Energy Systems, Rockford, IL (United States)

1987-09-29

260

Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

Lacovara, R. C.

1986-07-01

261

The role of smart medical systems in the Space Station.  

PubMed

NASA is developing a Health Maintenance Facility to provide medical equipment and supplies requisite for the Space Station to be launched in the late 1990s. An essential component of this medical facility is a computerized Medical Decision Support System which will expedite medical officers' efforts to maintain the crew's health. The computerized system includes four major functions: 1. A data collection and storage system with a self-contained medical expert scheme for performing treatment protocols. The expert system has 'data driven' and 'time driven' capabilities to facilitate automatic decision-making functions. 2. An integrated medical record and medical 'reference' information management component. 3. An inventory management system for medical supplies and pharmaceuticals. 4. Video, audio, and data communications between the medical officer in the Space Station and ground-based medical personnel. This paper discusses the design of such computerized data collection, communications and expert medical systems as will be developed for use in a Space Station Health Maintenance Facility. PMID:2794745

Gardner, R M; Ostler, D V; Nelson, B D; Logan, J S

1989-04-01

262

Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of SSF. Beginning with a stabilization and transport phase, HMF will expand to provide the most advanced state of the art therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. This presentation details the capabilities of such a phased HMF. As Freedom takes form over the next decade there will be ever-increasing engineering and scientific developmental activities. The HMF will evolve with this process until it eventually reaches a mature, complete stand-alone health care facility that provides a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As man's experience in space continues to grow so will the ability to provide advanced health care for Earth-orbital and exploratory missions as well.

Doarn, C. R.; Lloyd, C. W.

1992-05-01

263

Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as

A. Charania

2002-01-01

264

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under U.S. President Bush's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews fro...

J. A. Robinson D. A. Thomas

2006-01-01

265

A new pattern for international space collaboration. II - Space station and lunar base development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new capability-oriented pattern of international partnership in space collaboration is proposed. The benefits provided by the two major astronautical projects, a space station and a lunar base, are discussed. It is concluded that in these two projects the use of a more suitable pattern of international collaboration would seem to reduce the total acquisition costs significantly and spread those

Mark Hempsell

1993-01-01

266

Interference effects on Space Station Freedom and Space Shuttle orbiter Ku-band downlinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle orbiter (SSO) Ku-band single access return (KSAR) link and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) KSAR link via the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) use the same carrier frequency. The interference between spacecraft is minimized by opposite antenna polarizations and by TDRSS antenna beam pointing, but if the SSF and SSO are in close proximity, it

Hyuck M. Kwon; Yin-Chung Loh; Kwei Tu

1993-01-01

267

76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Charter of the International Space Station Advisory...a renewal of the International Space Station Advisory...Committee is in the public interest in connection...Miller, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202)...

2011-10-17

268

47 CFR 25.215 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. 25.215 Section 25.215...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards...space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. In addition to §...

2012-10-01

269

EXPRESS Rack Overview and Support for Microgravity Research on the International Space Station (ISS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station or EXPRESS Rack System has provided accommodations and facilitated operations for microgravity-based research payloads for over 6 years on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack ...

J. J. Pelfrey L. P. Jordan

2008-01-01

270

Heavy-ion anisotropy measured by ALTEA in the International Space Station.  

PubMed

The uneven shielding of the International Space Station from the vessel hull, racks and experiments produces a modulation of the internal radiation environment. A detailed knowledge of this environment, and therefore of the Station's shielding effectiveness, is mandatory for an accurate assessment of radiation risk. We present here the first 3D measurements of the Station's radiation environment, discriminating particle trajectories and LET, made possible using the detection capability of the ALTEA-space detector. We provide evidence for a strong (factor ? 3) anisotropy in the inner integral LET for high-LET particles (LET > 50 keV/µm) showing a minimum along the longitudinal station axis (most shielded) and a maximum normal to it. Integrating over all measured LETs, the anisotropy is strongly reduced, showing that unstopped light ions plus the fragments produced by heavier ions approximately maintain flux/LET isotropy. This suggests that, while changing the quality of radiation, the extra shielding along the station main axis is not producing a benefit in terms of total LET. These features should be taken into account (1) when measuring radiation with detectors that cannot distinguish the direction of the impinging radiation or that are unidirectional, (2) when planning radiation biology experiments on the ISS, and (3) when simulating the space radiation environment for experiments on the ground. A novel analysis technique that fully exploits the ability to retrieve the angular distribution of the radiation is also presented as well as the angular particle flux and LET characteristic of three geomagnetic zones measured during 2009 by the ALTEA-space detector. This technique is applied to the ALTEA-space detector, but a wider applicability to other detectors is suggested. PMID:21561339

Di Fino, L; Casolino, M; De Santis, C; Larosa, M; La Tessa, C; Narici, L; Picozza, P; Zaconte, V

2011-05-11

271

Overview of environmental test plans for Space Station Freedom work package 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and distribution of electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is critical to the station's success. Work Package 4 (WP-04) has the responsibility for the design, development, test, and delivery of the Electric Power System (EPS) for the SSF. During launch, assembly, and operation, the EPS will be subjected to various environments. A test and verification approach has been developed to assure that the EPS will function in these environments. An overview of that test program is presented with emphasis on environmental testing of hardware. Two key areas of the test program are highlighted in the overview. One area is the verification of the Solar Power Module (SPM) and associated cargo element hardware. This area includes detailing the plans for development and qualification testing of the SPM hardware. One series of tests, including modal and acoustic, has been completed on a development cargo element. Another area highlighted is the acceptance testing of high-power Orbital Replacement Units (ORU). The environmental test equipment plans are presented and reviewed in light of an aggressive production rate, which delivers ORU's to the WP-04 and other Space Station Work Packages. Through implementing the test program as outlined, the EPS hardware will be certified for flight and operation on the Space Station Freedom.

Peterson, Tom J.

1992-11-01

272

Overview of environmental test plans for Space Station Freedom Work Package 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and distribution of electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is critical to the station's success. Work Package 4 (WP-04) has the responsibility for the design, development, test, and delivery of the Electric Power System (EPS) for the SSF. During launch, assembly, and operation, the EPS will be subjected to various environments. A test and verification approach has been developed to assure that the EPS will function in these environments. An overview of that test program is presented with emphasis on environmental testing of hardware. Two key areas of the test program are highlighted in the overview. One area is the verification of the Solar Power Module (SPM) and associated cargo element hardware. This area includes detailing the plans for development and qualification testing of the SPM hardware. One series of tests, including modal and acoustic, has been completed on a development cargo element. Another area highlighted is the acceptance testing of high-power Orbital Replacement Units (ORU). The environmental test equipment plans are presented and reviewed in light of an aggressive production rate, which delivers ORU's to the WP-04 and other Space Station Work Packages. Through implementing the test program as outlined, the EPS hardware will be certified for flight and operation on the Space Station Freedom.

Peterson, Tom J.

273

Star visibility and tracking from the Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of the present study is to provide algorithms for and examples of how to simulate star visibility and tracking by a Telescope attached to the main truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The sky visibility of a Telescope is limited by accommodation constraints on the truss, by obstructions caused by Station's structural elements along with other payloads, by Sun and Moon's light and by ram atomic Oxygen. It is also limited by Station's orbit and attitude. The above limiting agents have been modeled vis-a-vis NASA nominal specifications and knowledge of the ambient environment. These models have been used to write algorithms and to produce examples of visibility and tracking at single star level. The above analysis has been used to describe in detail how to simulate star visibility and tracking of an observing program all over the sky by a plausible wide field Telescope operated only during successive 80 days coast periods in the declination's range -71° to 71°. Simulation is mandatory in advance of real observations. The analysis rests on the feasibility study, funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), of a Telescope designed for accommodation on ISS. The present visibility and tracking study enables observations planning and it is introductory to any engineering algorithm devoted to mechanically drive pointing and tracking of celestial targets from the Space Station. Since question might arise whether ISS-based Astronomy is nowadays scientifically worthwhile, a brief summary of the science rationale in Ultraviolet, useful to Astrophysics and Cosmology, is offered to the curious Astrophysicist who can decide on his own. From an operational point of view it is concluded that an observing programme can be carried out provided photon re-centering techniques are applied to the raw data, in order to free them from the effects of ISS vibrations.

Bernacca, P. L.; Facchinetti, C.; Fantino, E.

2010-12-01

274

A Plasma Rocket Demonstration on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One feature of this concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode that maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode that maximizes thrust. For this reason the system is called the Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-plasma Rocket or VASIMR. This ability to vary specific impulse and thrust will allow for optimum low thrust interplanetary trajectories and results in shorter trip times than is possible with fixed specific impulse systems while preserving adequate payload margins. demonstrations are envisioned. A ground-based experiment of a low-power VASIMR prototype rocket is currently underway at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. The next step is a proposal to build and fly a 25-kilowatt VASIMR rocket as an external payload on the International Space Station. This experiment will provide an opportunity to demonstrate the performance of the rocket in space and measure the induced environment. The experiment will also utilize the space station for its intended purpose as a laboratory with vacuum conditions that cannot be matched by any laboratory on Earth. propulsion on the space station. An electric propulsion system like VASIMR, if provided with sufficient electrical power, could provide continuous drag force compensation for the space station. Drag compensation would eliminate the need for reboosting the station, an operation that will consume about 60 metric tons of propellant in a ten-year period. In contrast, an electric propulsion system would require very little propellant. In fact, a system like VASIMR can use waste hydrogen from the station's life support system as its propellant. This waste hydrogen is otherwise dumped overboard. Continuous drag compensation would also improve the microgravity conditions on the station. So electric propulsion can reduce propellant delivery requirements and thereby increase available payload capacity and at the same time improve the conditions for scientific research. and the space environment. This is a beneficial effect that prevents a charge buildup on the station. The station already operates two dedicated non-propulsive plasma contactor devices for this purpose. A VASIMR rocket would function as an additional plasma contactor. would be delivered to orbit in the Space Shuttle payload bay. It would be mounted on a standard payload attachment structure. After removal from the payload bay by the shuttle robotic arm, it would be handed to the space station robotic arm which would place it at an external payload attach site on the station truss. A mating device for power and data connections exists at the payload site. The experiment would receive one to three kilowatts of power from the station. About 600 watts would be used for cryogenic cooling and control devices. Additional power would be stored in a set of batteries. The VASIMR experiment would be operated for short periods when the batteries can provide power to the amplifiers that feed radio-frequency power to the thruster assembly. The thruster assembly is composed of an inner tube in which the neutral propellant is injected and ionized and a larger tube, which supports the radio frequency antennas, which ionize the gas and heat the plasma. Electromagnet coils that provide the magnetic field to constrain the flow of the plasma and form the magnetic exit nozzle surround these tubes. to this supply are planned for the experiment. The experiment will carry two dedicated propellant tanks which each have the capacity to store all the propellant needed for an experimental program lasting several months. With two propellant tanks, the opportunity exists to perform experiments with more than one type of propellant. Hydrogen is the primary choice for propellant but deuterium and helium are also of interest and might also be included. All the propellant is stored and used in gaseous form at ambient temperature. rocket. There is a supercondu

Petro, A.

2002-01-01

275

47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on all antennas employed by space stations both within the primary...coordination with other Commission space station licensees and outside...completed. (l) All operators of space stations shall, on June 30...Bureau and the Commission's Columbia Operations Center in...

2010-10-01

276

47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on all antennas employed by space stations both within the primary...coordination with other Commission space station licensees and outside...completed. (l) All operators of space stations shall, on June 30...Bureau and the Commission's Columbia Operations Center in...

2009-10-01

277

Slow Crack Growth and Fracture Toughness of Sapphire for the International Space Station Fluids and Combustion Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. 'Destiny' laboratory module resides within the International Space Station and contains six science facilities or racks. One of these facilities is the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), which will be used to study combustion and fluids proces...

J. A. Salem

2006-01-01

278

Development of a Simulation Code for a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System in a Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual design of a space station power system based on a Brayton cycle and solar powered has been developed. A key part of such a system is the thermal energy storage module, which is of crucial importance during periods of darkness. We have develop...

A. D. Solomon M. D. Morris J. Martin M. Olszewski

1986-01-01

279

Microparticle capture on the International Space Station using aerogel and polyimide foam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) have deployed three sets of two passive experiments on the exterior of the Russian Service Module on the International Space Station: the Micro-Particles Capturer and the Space Environment Exposure Device, known collectively as MPAC&SEED. The MPAC segment of each unit consists mainly of a front and back face, nominally ram- and wake-pointing, each of which contains aerogel and polyimide foam tiles for capturing micrometeoroids and small space debris particles. In addition, the ram face contains a 6061-T6 aluminium witness plate. We provide a description of the MPAC, summarise the inspection and analysis performed to date, discuss the results so far achieved, and lay out our plans for the remainder of the work.

Neish, Michael J.; Imagawa, Kichiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Kitazawa, Yukihito; Yamaura, Yukiko; Murakami, Atsushi; Ochi, Yushiyuki

2003-09-01

280

Current Status and Perspectives of the Space Stations Program: Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe became formally Partner of the International Space Station Programme together with Japan and ISS In-Orbit Configuration - April 2002 Canada in 1988 through the signature of the Intergovernmental Agreement following an invitation by US President Reagan to join Programme. In 1993 Russia joined the partnership and the International Partners adopted the current ISS configuration. The International Space Station is today reality with more than 16 assembly flights completed and more than 1/3 of the ISS infrastructure already assembled in orbit. The first European elements operate in-orbit and some early utilisation projects have been successfully completed. The transition from the ISS development to utilisation phase has started. More than 250 future European ISS utilisation projects are today (June 2002) in preparation and an utilisation plan of the European Columbus laboratory, which will be connected to ISS in October 2004, has been established for its first 3 years in orbit. ISS. Achievements of these past Astronauts missions andColumbus Integration at ASTRIUM plans for future missions are summarised. The implementation of the cooperative International Space Station programme is based on the principle of `no exchange of funds between the Partners'. Following this principle ESA has concluded barter agreements with the Partner Agencies to obtain ISS services from the International Partners, in particular the launch of Columbus by the American Space Shuttle, in return for development of elements for the International Partners including infrastructure elements and laboratory support equipment. The paper summarises the current implementation status of existing barter and cooperation agreements and provides an outlook on future cooperation opportunities. With the development of ISS nearing its completion and the demand for its utilisation increasing, Europe is preparing for the future evolution of ISS. The paper presents Europe's vision for future ISS utilisation scenarios and resulting requirements for improved and new ISS services and infrastructure elements.

Feustel-Büechl, J.

2002-01-01

281

Multiphase space vector pulse width modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pole-phase modulation adjusts the pole-phase ratio of an induction machine and requires a multileg, multiphase inverter. This paper analyzes an n-leg, n-phase inverter, and presents techniques for n-phase space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). In particular, nine-phase SVPWM is developed and implemented on a nine winding induction machine. The nine-phase SVPWM is compared to nine phase sine-triangle PWM in terms

John W. Kelly; Elias G. Strangas; John M. Miller

2003-01-01

282

Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

Schowengerdt, F. D.

1999-01-01

283

Large Area Dust Collection - On the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Area Dust Collection (LADC), greater than 10 m^2 of instrumented silica aerogel mounted externally on the International Space Station, will capture and return large dust particles intercepted in Earth orbit. The uniqueness of LADC is that it carries a self-contained acoustic impact recording and locationing system to offer the opportunity to determine the particles' trajectories nondestructively and, for the first time, an opportunity to ascertain the particles' parent sources. Another uniqueness of LADC is that the flight cost for space deployment, integration and Earth return will be provided by the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program (STP). LAD-C flight will also provide statistical significant samples of ~thirty 100 microns large extraterrestrial particles and the retrieval of samples themselves for detailed Earth based laboratory analysis to determine the chemical and physical nature of the particles.

Tsou, P.; Giovane, F.; Liou, J.-C.; Corsaro, R.

2007-01-01

284

Hyperbaric environmental control assembly for the Space Station Freedom airlock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperbaric environmental control assembly (HECA) monitors and controls temperature, humidity and CO2 levels in the Space Station Freedom airlock when the airlock is used for extravehicular activity (EVA) prebreathing campouts and as a hyperbaric treatment facility. Prebreathing is required prior to extravehicular activity due to the differential between the station nominal pressure and the EVA suit pressure. Hyperbaric treatment is required in the event of decompression sickness. The HECA consists of an atmosphere recirculation circuit which provides air circulation and temperature control, and a separate CO2 and humidity control circuit. CO2 and latent water production rates have been calculated from established metabolic profiles for both campout and hyperbaric protocols. An analytical model has been used to predict carbon dioxide and humidity levels as functions of initial crewlock conditions and the specified loads. This model has demonstrated the suitability and robustness of the dual-bed molecular sieve system for the HECA.

Rubly, Robert P.; Schimenti, Dan

285

Lessons Learned in Maintenance of the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) began development in 1984. On-orbit assembly and operations began in 1998, and ISS is now a 330,000-pound operational orbiting laboratory. The ISS Program still has several years of assembly ahead, with fifteen years of operations to follow. However, the experience to date has proven valuable in identifying lessons in developing a logistics support infrastructure, and maintaining a permanently orbiting facility. Understanding what has been successful in ISS, as well as not so successful, will help new space exploration programs. ISS lessons will help new programs effectively embed supportability in design and management, and control life cycle cost through effective programmatic requirements and prudent early design investments. These lessons can be grouped into three major areas. The first is the programmatic lessons in establishing and managing an acquisition logistics office. The second area is design strategies. The third area is lessons in operational maintenance. Human space exploration and colonization of space is dependent on the ability to sustain a long duration space-based vehicle that is funded, designed, built and operated by a consortium of international partners. The lessons that are emerging from the ISS program are of value to the next generation of space vehicle development managers.

Robbins, William W.

2003-01-01

286

Microbial antibiotic production aboard the International Space Station.  

PubMed

Previous studies examining metabolic characteristics of bacterial cultures have mostly suggested that reduced gravity is advantageous for microbial growth. As a consequence, the question of whether space flight would similarly enhance secondary metabolite production was raised. Results from three prior space shuttle experiments indicated that antibiotic production was stimulated in space for two different microbial systems, albeit under suboptimal growth conditions. The goal of this latest experiment was to determine whether the enhanced productivity would also occur with better growth conditions and over longer durations of weightlessness. Microbial antibiotic production was examined onboard the International Space Station during the 72-day 8A increment. Findings of increased productivity of actinomycin D by Streptomyces plicatus in space corroborated with previous findings for the early sample points (days 8 and 12); however, the flight production levels were lower than the matched ground control samples for the remainder of the mission. The overall goal of this research program is to elucidate the specific mechanisms responsible for the initial stimulation of productivity in space and translate this knowledge into methods for improving efficiency of commercial production facilities on Earth. PMID:16091928

Benoit, M R; Li, W; Stodieck, L S; Lam, K S; Winther, C L; Roane, T M; Klaus, D M

2005-08-10

287

Structural technology challenges for evolutionary growth of Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proposed evolutionary growth scenario for Space Station Freedom was defined recently by a NASA task force created to study requirements for a Human Exploration Initiative. The study was an initial response to President Bush's July 20, 1989 proposal to begin a long range program of human exploration of space including a permanently manned lunar base and a manned mission to Mars. This growth scenario evolves Freedom into a critical transportation node to support lunar and Mars missions. The growth scenario begins with the Assembly Complete configuration and adds structure, power, and facilities to support a Lunar Transfer Vehicle (LTV) verification flight. Evolutionary growth continues to support expendable, then reusable LTV operations, and finally, LTV and Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) operations. The significant structural growth and additional operations creating new loading conditions will present new technological and structural design challenges in addition to the considerable technology requirements of the baseline Space Station Freedom program. Several structural design and technology issues of the baseline program are reviewed and related technology development required by the growth scenario is identified.

Doiron, Harold H.

288

Relative nuclei abundance inside the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sileye3/Alteino experiment was first operational on-board the International Space Station, ISS, 27 April 2002. From 2006 through 2009 it was activated for long duration measurements of relative particle abundance as part of the ESA ALTCRISS project. Measuring the relative abundance of different nuclei species inside the ISS gives important clues as to how the known cosmic ray spectrum outside the space station changes when traversing the hull, i.e. giving indications as to how the hadronic interactions in the hull gives rise to changes in the expected radiation environment for the astronauts, which is of great interest for risk assessments for future long duration deep space missions. In our work the relative abundance for nuclei species with energies above ? 60 MeV/n and 5 ? Z ? 26 are presented for different places and detector orientations inside the ISS, also with and without shielding of the detector. What can be seen when comparing with the relative abundance of nuclei in the cosmic rays, is a significant difference in abundance for odd Z nuclei, whereas even numbered are in better agreement. Odd Z nuclei are much more abundant inside the ISS. This is an update from our previous report with increased statistics and with relative abundance on more nuclei.

Larsson, Oscar

2012-07-01

289

Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

Gross, S.

1984-02-01

290

SRM&QA interface requirements for mating Space Station Freedom elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elements of the Space Station Freedom (modules, systems, structures, etc.) are being developed independently by Freedom's international partners and will be mated for the first time on-orbit. To assure that these elements fit together properly, the safety, reliability, maintainability, and quality assurance (SRM&QA) disciplines must maintain oversight of critical Station processes during design, manufacturing, and assembly. For example, one technique is to carefully analyzed specifications and engineering drawings to assess key dimensions; a critical activity is examination for excessive tolerance buildup. Since Station assembly will occur on-orbit (about 500 kilometers above Earth), accessible only by Space Shuttle, the elements of this complex spacecraft must mate successfully the first time. Interface analysis techniques will be applied at the engineering drawing level to evaluate the adequacy of structural dimensions. Since preflight testing also will be used in some cases to assure proper surface fit, the assurance community will assist in devising test techniques that will simulate the effect of the microgravity environment on the structural dimensions and shapes. Preflight testing in turn will rely on comprehensive risk analyses conducted by SRM&QA professionals to effectively control hazards to the Station and its crew during surface mating sequences.

Rodney, George A.

291

Simulations of Space Station data links and ground processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program aimed at the study of the possibilities of using parallel processing configurations for the real-time processing of Space Station data is reviewed. The potential configurations are evaluated using a program based on discrete-event simulation models. The major near-term goals of the program include: simulation of specific configurations to verify the methodology of using the simulation packages; model development for the ground-based data processing components; model development for commercially available parallel architectures; and modeling of various data transport configurations to simulate the operation of parallel processing configurations.

Horan, Stephen

292

Microgravity combustion diagnostics: the path to the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Combustion Integrated Rack component of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), a multi-user, on-orbit International Space Station facility for the study of fluid physics and combustion science, is currently under development. The envelope of measurement requirements for the baselined combustion science experiments is presented, with a description of the basic diagnostic capabilities provided by the facility. An overview of instrumentation development supporting the FCF and conducted under the microgravity combustion research programme at the NASA Glenn Research Center is provided. The resulting advanced diagnostics capabilities serve as potential upgrades to this experimental facility.

Greenberg, Paul S.; Weiland, Karen J.; Vander Wal, Randall L.

1999-10-01

293

Space Station Freedom ground systems program - A survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key facilities identified to support Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) integrated operations and their SSFP roles are described in detail. The ground infrastructure, which must be able to support both assembly and long-term operations, will consist of ground facilities, support systems, and the associated planning and management procedures. During 1992 the SSFP is conducting a major program review of the ground infrastructure including the definition of all facility and support system functional capabilities, interfaces, and data-flow requirements. Operations functionality and interface verification tests are being identified, and operations readiness dates are being set.

Accola, A.; Paules, G.; Faulkner, J.; Giampalmo, G.; Kozawa, H.

1992-08-01

294

Space Station Cameras Capture Views of Hurricane Irene From Orbit  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, an Expedition 28 crew member captured views of intensifying Hurricane Irene from an altitude of 225 miles at 3:33 p.m. EDT on Aug. 22, 2011, as the tropical system passed to the north of Hispaniola. The National Hurricane Center is forecasting a track that would take Irene near to or east of the Florida peninsula as a major hurricane on Friday with a possible landfall along the southeastern United States on Saturday. As of 11 a.m. EDT on Monday, Irene was packing winds of 80 miles an hour, but growing stronger, moving west-northwest at 13 miles an hour.

Mark Garcia

2011-08-22

295

Observation of atmospheric composition by Superconducting SubMillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) onbord International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Superconducting SubMillimeter-wave Limb Emission The Superconducting SubMillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) is the first application of superconductor--insulator--superconductor (SIS) heterodyne detector technology to the investigation of the Earth atmosphere from space. SMILES was designed to be onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS), and is scheduled to be launched on 11 September 2009 by the

Y. Kasai; B. Philippe; J. Mendrok; S. Ochiai; J. Urban; T. Manabe; K. Kikuchi; T. Nishibori; T. Sano; J. Moller; D. P. Murtagh

2009-01-01

296

Modulation of the space charge in MILO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have researched modulation of the space charge in MILO and obtained that the first order component of the harmonic current will enhance with the increasing of the voltage on the diode and reduce with the increasing of the operating frequency and the length of the slow-wave structure.

Ding, Wu

2000-07-01

297

Enhanced science capability on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is inevitable that the International Space Station (ISS) will play a significant role in the conduct of science in space. However, in order to provide this service to a wide and broad community and to perform it cost effectively, alternative concepts must be considered to complement NASA"s Institutional capability. Currently science payload forward and return data services must compete for higher priority ISS infrastructure support requirements. Furthermore, initial astronaut crews will be limited to a single shift. Much of their time and activities will be required to meet their physical needs (exercise, recreation, etc.), station maintenance, and station operations, leaving precious little time to actively conduct science payload operations. ISS construction plans include the provisioning of several truss mounted, space-hardened pallets, both zenith and nadir facing. The ISS pallets will provide a platform to conduct both earth and space sciences. Additionally, the same pallets can be used for life and material sciences, as astronauts could place and retrieve sealed canisters for long-term micro-gravity exposure. Thus the pallets provide great potential for enhancing ISS science return. This significant addition to ISS payload capacity has the potential to exacerbate priorities and service contention factors within the exiting institution. In order to have it all, i.e., more science and less contention, the pallets must be data smart and operate autonomously so that NASA institutional services are not additionally taxed. Specifically, the "Enhanced Science Capability on the International Space Station" concept involves placing data handling and spread spectrum X-band communications capabilities directly on ISS pallets. Spread spectrum techniques are considered as a means of discriminating between different pallets as well as to eliminate RFI. The data and RF systems, similar to that of "free flyers", include a fully functional command and data handling system, providing, in part, science solid state recorders and instrument command management sub-systems. This, together with just one direct-to-ground based X-Band station co-located with a science payload operations center provides for a direct data path to ground, bypassing NASA institutions. The science center exists to receive user service requests, perform required constraint checks necessary for safe instrument operations, and to disseminate user science data. Payload commands can be up-linked directly or, if required, relayed through the existing NASA institution. The concept is modular for the downlink Earth terminals; in that multiple downlink X-band ground stations can be utilized throughout the world. This has applications for Earth science data direct to regional centers similar to those services provided by the EOS Terra spacecraft. However, for the purposes of this concept, just one downlink site was selected in order to define the worst-case data acquisition scenario necessary to ascertain concept feasibility. The paper demonstrates that the concept is feasible and can lead to a design that significantly reduces operational dependency on the NASA institutions and astronauts while significantly increasing ISS science operational efficiency and access.

Felice, Ronald R.; Kienlen, Mike

2002-12-01

298

Microbe space exposure experiment at International Space Station (ISS) proposed in "Tanpopo" mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes have been collected from high altitude using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets since 1936. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci (probably Deinococci) have been isolated in these experiments. These spores and Deinococci are known by their extremely high resistance against UV, gamma ray, and other radiation. We have also collected microorganisms at high altitude by using an aircraft and balloons. We collected two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, one from top of troposphere (D. aerius) and the other from bottom of stratosphere (D. aetherius). These two species showed high resistance comparable with D. radiodurans R1 to the UV and radiation such as gamma ray. If microbes could be found present even at the higher altitude of low earth orbit (400km), the fact would endorse the possible interplanetary migration of terrestrial life. Indeed, to explain how organisms on the Earth were originated at the quite early stage of the history of Earth, panspermia hypothesis was proposed. Recent findings of the Martian meteorite suggested possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and interplanetary migration of life as well. We proposed the "Tanpopo" mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of six subthemes in Tanpopo are on the possible interplanetary migration of microbes — capture experiment of microbes at the ISS orbit and space exposure experiment of microbes. In this paper, we focus on the space exposure experiment of microbes. In our proposal, microbes will be exposed to the space environment with/without model-clay materials that might protect microbes from vacuum UV and cosmic rays. Spore of Bacillus sp., and vegetative cells of D. radiodurans and our novel deinococcal species isolated from high altitude are candidates for the exposure experiment. In preliminary experiments, clay-materials tend to increase survivability of microorganisms under irradiation of heavy ion beam and other radiation. In this paper, we discuss current status of exposure experiment of microorganisms defined for the Tanpopo mission.

Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Akihiko

299

Applicability of the flow-net program to solution of Space Station fluid dynamics problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station design encompasses a variety of fluid systems that require extensive flow and combined flow-thermal analyses. The types of problems encountered range from two-phase cryogenic to high-pressure gaseous systems. Design of such systems requires the most advanced analytical tools. Because Space Station applications are a new area for existing two-phase flow programs, typically developed for nuclear safety applications, a careful evaluation of their capabilities to treat generic Space Station flows is appropriate. The results from an assessment of one particular program, FLOW-NET, developed by Flow Science, In., are presented. Three typical problems are analyzed: (1) fill of a hyperbaric module with gaseous nitrogen from a high-pressure supply system, (2) response of a liquid ammonia line to a rapid pressure decrease, and (3) performance of a basic two-phase, thermal control network. The three problems were solved successfully. Comparison of the results with those obtained by analytical methods supports the FLOW-NET calculations.

Navickas, J.; Rivard, W. C.

300

A Design Pattern Language for Space Stations and Long Term Residence Human Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present the beginnings of an architectural design pattern language for use in studying and designing space-based human habitats. At present, the space habitat pattern language consists of 60 patterns, arranged into 4 hierarchical categories, derived from the history of space-station designs ranging from Salyut 1 to Skylab, Mir, and the International Space Station.

James D. Lowe

2006-01-01

301

Determination of Space Station on-orbit nondestructive evaluation requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has recently initiated a reassessment of requirements for the performance of in-space nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) while on- orbit. given the on-orbit operating environment, there is a powerful motivation for avoiding inspection requirements. For example the ISSA maintenance philosophy includes the use of orbital replacement units (ORUs); hardware that is designed to fail without impact on mission assurance or safety. Identification of on-orbit inspection requirements involves review of a complex set of disciplines and considerations such as fracture control, contamination, safety, mission assurance, electrical power, and cost. This paper presents background discussion concerning on-orbit NDE and a technical approach for separating baseline requirements from opportunities.

Salkowski, Charles

1995-07-01

302

Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

Brcic, Jelena

2010-11-01

303

Earth Observations Capabilities of the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is presently being assembled through the joint efforts of the United States, Russia, Canada, Japan, the European Space Agency and Brazil, and will be an orbiting, multi-use facility expected to remain on-orbit into the next decade. The orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees allows the ISS to overfly approximately 75% of the Earth's land area and approximately 95% of the Earth's population. Due to the westward precession of orbit tracks, the ISS will overfly the same location approximately every three days, with the identical lighting conditions being repeated every three months. The ISS has two basic capabilities for Earth observations: a fused silica window in the Destiny laboratory, and sites on the external truss and partner modules that accommodate external payloads. The Destiny laboratory has a window port built into its nadir facing side. The window consists of 3 panes of Corning 7940 fused silica which are approximately 56 cm in diameter, providing an approximately 51 cm clear aperture. In 1996, the ISS Program agreed to upgrade the glass in the Destiny window to a set of stringent optical performance requirements. The window has a wavefront error of 1/15 wavelength peak-to-valley over a 15.2 cm aperture relative to a reference wavelength of 632.8 nm, which will allow up to a 30 cm telescope to be flown. The flight article window was radiometrically calibrated in May of 2000, indicating that the window had better than 95% transmittance in the visible region, with a steep drop-off in the ultraviolet and a gradual drop-off in the infrared from the visible through the near and short wave infrared spectra. Utilization of the optical performance of the Destiny window requires the use of the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF). The WORF is essentially an Express rack with a 0.8 m^3 payload volume centered on the Destiny window. The payload volume provides mounting surfaces for window payload hardware, including a stiff lower payload shelf designed to minimize transmission of ISS vibrations into the payload. The interior of the WORF will be sealed by means of an aisle-side hatch. The interior of the payload volume will be painted flat black, to allow investigations of faint upper atmosphere phenomenon such as aurora. WORF will provide power, data and cooling water for up to three payloads simultaneously. Power will be 28 Volts DC. WORF will also provide an average downlink data on the order of 2 Mpbs. Investigators will be able to operate their payloads autonomously from their institution, with data going through the Huntsville Operations Support Center at Marshall Space Flight Center. It is generally expected that WORF payloads will operate autonomously, although crewmembers can operate payloads from the Destiny laboratory aisle using an externally mounted laptop. The WORF design accommodates crew observations as well. The WORF includes a variety of crew stabilization devices, as well as brackets to allow vibration-free operation of still cameras and video recorders. The four external payload accommodations that will be discussed are the USOS Truss Segment 3 (S3), the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPS) when mounted on S3, the Columbus Exposed Payload Facility (CEPF), and the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). The S3 has four sites available for payloads. Two of these sites are on the nadir side of the truss and provide terrestrial viewing. The current NASA long-term plans are to mount an EXPRESS Pallet on each of the sites The ExPS is a facility that can be attached at the NASA primary external locations on the S3 Truss to support up to six smaller payloads. The ExPS consists of the EXPRESS Pallet, the EXPRESS Pallet Controller and the EXPRESS Pallet Adapters. User developed payloads are attached and interfaced to the EXPRESS Pallet Adapter and through this EXPRESS Pallet Adapter, the EXPRESS Pallet System provides the payloads with an attachment location, power, and data. The CEPF consists of two mounted structures attached to the starboard end-cone of the Col

Eppler, Dean B.; Scott, Karen P.

304

A new pattern for international space collaboration. II - Space station and lunar base development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new capability-oriented pattern of international partnership in space collaboration is proposed. The benefits provided by the two major astronautical projects, a space station and a lunar base, are discussed. It is concluded that in these two projects the use of a more suitable pattern of international collaboration would seem to reduce the total acquisition costs significantly and spread those cost more evenly.

Hempsell, Mark

305

Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options, volume 3, book 3: Cost and programmatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost and programmatic considerations which integrate mission requirements and architectural options into a cohesive system for exploitation of space opportunities within affordable limits are discussed. The mission requirements, baseline architecture, a top level baseline schedule, and acquisition costs are summarized. The work breakdown structure (WBS) used to structure the program, and the WBS dictionary are included. The costing approach used, including the operation of the primary costing tool, the SPACE cost model are described. The rationale for the choice of cost estimating relationships is given and costs at the module level are shown. Detailed costs at the subsystem level are shown. The baseline schedule and annual funding profiles are provided. Alternate schedules are developed to provide different funding profiles. Alternate funding sources are discussed and foreign and contractor participation is outlined. The results of the benefit analysis are given and the accrued benefits deriving from an implemented space station program are outlined.

1983-04-01

306

Solar dynamic power system development for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a solar dynamic electric power generation system as part of the Space Station Freedom Program is documented. The solar dynamic power system includes a solar concentrator, which collects sunlight; a receiver, which accepts and stores the concentrated solar energy and transfers this energy to a gas; a Brayton turbine, alternator, and compressor unit, which generates electric power; and a radiator, which rejects waste heat. Solar dynamic systems have greater efficiency and lower maintenance costs than photovoltaic systems and are being considered for future growth of Space Station Freedom. Solar dynamic development managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1986 to Feb. 1991 is covered. It summarizes technology and hardware development, describes 'lessons learned', and, through an extensive bibliography, serves as a source list of documents that provide details of the design and analytic results achieved. It was prepared by the staff of the Solar Dynamic Power System Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The report includes results from the prime contractor as well as from in-house efforts, university grants, and other contracts. Also included are the writers' opinions on the best way to proceed technically and programmatically with solar dynamic efforts in the future, on the basis of their experiences in this program.

1993-07-01

307

A tunable crystal diffraction telescope for the International Space Station  

SciTech Connect

Even though technically innovative, a tunable crystal diffraction telescope for use in nuclear astrophysics has become feasible today. The focusing gamma-ray telescope the authors intended to propose for the space station consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens, focusing gamma-rays onto a small array of Germanium detectors perched on an extendible boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 inches, an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 {sigma} sensitivity of a few times 10{sup {minus}7} photons{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} (10{sup 6} sec observation) for any individual narrow line at energies between 200--1,300 keV. This experience would greatly profit from the continuous presence of man on the station. Besides of the infrastructure for maintenance and servicing of the various innovative techniques used for the first time in space, the available extra-vehicular robotics will facilitate deployment of the required boom structure.

Ballmoos, P. von; Kohnle, A.; Olive, J.F.; Vedrenne, G. [Centre d-Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

1997-02-01

308

Dynamics and control of the Space Station based tethered payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model is proposed here for studying the dynamics of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) that consists of a plate-type Space Station from which a tether supported subsatellite is deployed or retrieved. The rigid body dynamics of the tether, subsatellite and Space Station are analyzed accounting for the mass of the tether as well as a three-dimensional offset of its point of attachment. Controllability of the linearized equations is established numerically and a comparative study of three different control strategies conducted. The strategies employ thrusters, tension in the tether line or motion of the offset of the attachment to achieve control of the system subjected to a relatively large initial disturbance. Results suggest that, in the stationkeeping mode, the tension control strategy damps a given disturbance in the shortest time, however, at an expense of the energy. On the other hand, the offset control proves to be the most efficient in terms of energy consumption, but now the response to disturbance persists over a long duration.

Lakshmanan, P. K.; Modi, V. J.; Misra, A. K.

309

Habitability research priorities for the International Space Station and beyond.  

PubMed

Advanced technology and the desire to explore space have resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on the ability of humans to adapt and function in microgravity environments. In addition, studies conducted in analogous environments, such as winter-over expeditions in Antarctica, have complemented the scientific understanding of human performance in LDSF. These findings indicate long duration missions may take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically, with potential impacts on performance. Significant factors in any manned LDSF are habitability, workload and performance. They are interrelated and influence one another, and therefore necessitate an integrated research approach. An integral part of this approach will be identifying and developing tools not only for assessment of habitability, workload, and performance, but also for prediction of these factors as well. In addition, these tools will be used to identify and provide countermeasures to minimize decrements and maximize mission success. The purpose of this paper is to identify research goals and methods for the International Space Station (ISS) in order to identify critical factors and level of impact on habitability, workload, and performance, and to develop and validate countermeasures. Overall, this approach will provide the groundwork for creating an optimal environment in which to live and work onboard ISS as well as preparing for longer planetary missions. PMID:10993323

Whitmore, M; Adolf, J A; Woolford, B J

2000-09-01

310

NASA Targets March 1 Launch for Next SpaceX Station Resupply Mission; Media Accreditation Open  

NASA Website

NASA and its international partners are targeting Friday, March 1, as the launch date for the next cargo resupply flight to the International Space Station by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), designated CRS-2.

311

The International Space Station as a Launch Platform for CubeSats to Study Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere (ITM) region (80 to 250 km) is the boundary between the sensible atmosphere of the Earth and space. This region receives energy and momentum contributions from the sun in the form of solar ultra-violet light and electromagnetic energy coupled via the earth's magnetosphere. The ITM region also receives energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere via waves that break and terminate turbulently in this beach-like region. The various processes, acting both as system drivers and feedback elements in the ITM region, are still poorly understood and the weather of the ITM region cannot be predicted. It is also the area where satellite drag ensures a quick end to satellite lifetimes and it has thus become known as the "inaccessible region." As the terrestrial populations wrestle with the question of "change" (global, climate, etc), our need to continue making long-term measurements is crucial, but is hampered by cost and launch opportunities for even smaller dedicated satellites. The ITM region itself has been identified as a region where almost un-measurable atmospheric changes have very measurable consequences. The International Space Station (ISS), orbiting just above this "inaccessible region", is an ideal platform from which CubeSats can be launched to study the region below. It could become a permanent launch platform for regular or responsive deployment of the small satellite fleet. For example, a group of satellites could be launched in response to a storm or an important lower atmospheric event that has been identified as occurring. Such satellites would last approximately one year before re-entering the upper atmosphere. It is an ideal location from which to routinely launch probes into the inaccessible region below to maintain a long term climate observational capability. The advantage of the ISS is that deployments of these small satellites is not contingent on finding a suitable ground based launch opportunity, whose scheduling could never be triggered by a storm type scenario. The relatively high the ISS orbit inclination also provides complete mid-latitude and equatorial coverage; during storms, the regions of interest are exactly these. We propose that 100 to 200 CubeSats could be stationed on the ISS as an Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module. Many of these spacecraft would be identical copies for space weather purposes but several different types of CubeSats could be accommodated. Small constellations would be deployed from the ISS over time by ground command. The CubeSat dispenser would eject spacecraft in the down and aft direction consistent with the ISS jettison policy to insure safety for the ISS. The dispenser would also provide the ability to communicate and recharge the hosted CubeSats through the ISS systems to maintain the CubeSats over an extended stay at the ISS. This ability would require modifications to the existing CubeSat standard. Within this paper we describe the conceptual design of such a CubeSat deplorer system for the ISS and the systems level study conducted at Utah State University - Space Dynamics Laboratory for the National Science Foundation on these concepts.

Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.; Sojka, J. J.

2011-12-01

312

Psychosocial Research on the International Space Station: Special Privacy Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject protections above and beyond standard scientific human subject protocols. Many of these protections have relevance for psychosocial research on the International Space Station. In our previous study of psychosocial issues involving crewmembers on the Mir space station, special precautions were taken during each phase of the missions. These were implemented in order to gain the trust necessary to ameliorate the perceived risks of divulging potentially sensitive psychological information and to encourage candid responses. Pre-flight, a standard confidentiality agreement was provided along with a special layman's summary indicating that only group-level data would be presented, and subjects chose their own ID codes known only to themselves. In-flight, special procedures and technologies (such as encryption) were employed to protect the data during the collection. Post-flight, an analytic strategy was chosen to further mask subject identifiers, and draft manuscripts were reviewed by the astronaut office prior to publication. All of the eligible five astronauts and eight cosmonauts who flew joint US/Russian missions on the Mir were successfully recruited to participate, and their data completion rate was 76%. Descriptive analyses of the data indicated that there was sufficient variability in all of the measures to indicate that thoughtful, discriminating responses were being provided (e.g., the full range of response options was used in 63 of the 65 items of the Profile of Mood States measure, and both true and false response options were used in all 126 items of the Group Environment and the Work Environment measures). This presentation will discuss and expand on the lessons learned during the Mir study and relate them to future long-duration space missions.

Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Ritsher, J.; Grund, E.; Weiss, D.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.

313

Regenerative water supply for an interplanetary space station: The experience gained on the space stations “Salut”, “Mir”, ISS and development prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station ISS the station's water balance data, parameters and characteristics of the systems for water recovery have been obtained. Using the data design analysis an integrated water supply system for an interplanetary space station has been performed. A packaged physical/chemical system for water supply is composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. The take off mass of the packaged water supply system (including expendables, redundancy hardware, equivalent mass of power consumption and of thermal control) is appropriate for Mars missions. The international space station is indispensable for verifying innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for missions to Mars.

Bobe, Leonid; Samsonov, Nikoly; Gavrilov, Lev; Novikov, Vladimir; Tomashpolskiy, Mihail; Andreychuk, Peter; Protasov, Nikoly; Synjak, Yury; Skuratov, Vladimir

2007-06-01

314

X-ray crystallography facility for the international space station  

SciTech Connect

Directed by NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) recently completed a Design Feasibility Study for the X-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) for the International Space Station (ISS). The XCF is a facility for growing macromolecular protein crystals; harvesting, selecting, and mounting sample crystals, and snap-freezing the samples, if necessary; performing x-ray diffraction; and downlinking the diffraction data to the ground. Knowledge of the structure of protein molecules is essential for the development of pharmaceuticals by structure-based drug design techniques. Currently, x-ray diffraction of high quality protein crystals is the only method of determining the structure of these macromolecules. High quality protein crystals have been grown in microgravity onboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter for more than 10 years, but these crystals always have been returned to Earth for x-ray diffraction. The XCF will allow crystal growth, harvesting, mounting, and x-ray diffraction onboard the ISS, maximizing diffraction data quality and timeliness. This paper presents the XCF design concept, describing key feasibility issues for the ISS application and advanced technologies and operational features which resolve those issues. The conclusion is that the XCF design is feasible and can be operational onboard the ISS by early in 2002.

McdDonald, William T.; Lewis, Johanna L.; Smith, Craig D.; DeLucas, Lawrence J. [Center for Macromolecular Crystallography, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 125 Mortimer Jordan Hall, 1825 University Avenue Birmingham, Alabama 35294-2010 (United States)

1997-01-10

315

The AMS-02 TRD for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpha Magnetic spectrometer (AMS-02) is an experiment which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure primary cosmic ray spectra in space. A key element is a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to distinguish an e+ or p- signal reducing the p+ or e- background by a rejection factor 10-3 - 10-2 in an energy range from 10-300 GeV. This will be used in conjunction with an electromagnetic calorimeter to provide overall p+ rejection of 10-6 at 90% e+ efficiency. The detector consists of 20 layers of 6 mm diameter straw tubes alternating with 20 mm layers of polyethylene/p olypropylene fleece radiator. The tubes are filled with a 80%:20% mixture of Xe : CO2 at 1.0 bar absolute from a recirculating gas system designed to operate >3 years in space. The layers are mounted to 0.1 mm precision in a stable carbon fiber composite/aluminum honeycomb o ctagonal mechanical support. The upper and lower four layers of tubes run in the x direction and the central layers run in the perpendicular y direction, to provide tracking in the bending and non-b ending directions of the 0.8 T superconducting magnet as well as particle identification. The construction of the detector will be presented.

Burger, J.; Gentile, S.; AMS-02 TRD Group

2003-07-01

316

Laser measurements to space debris from Graz SLR station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test laser ranging possibilities to space debris objects, the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) Station Graz installed a frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulse laser with a 1 kHz repetition rate, a pulse width of 10 ns, and a pulse energy of 25 mJ at 532 nm (on loan from German Aerospace Center Stuttgart - DLR). We developed and built low-noise single-photon detection units to enable laser ranging to targets with inaccurate orbit predictions, and adapted our standard SLR software to include a few hundred space debris targets. With this configuration, we successfully tracked - within 13 early-evening sessions of each about 1.5 h - 85 passes of 43 different space debris targets, in distances between 600 km and up to more than 2500 km, with radar cross sections from >15 m2 down to <0.3 m2, and measured their distances with an average precision of about 0.7 m RMS.

Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz; Friederich, Fabian; Buske, Ivo; Völker, Uwe; Riede, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

317

Microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) with its first two elements already launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a tremendous opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from their own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Glenn Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS. The FCF will accommodate multiple users and allow a wide range of experiments to be conducted so that best use is made of available resources. This paper provides an overview of the plan for utilizing the International Space Station to conduct fluids and transport experiments that are vital to NASA's mission. The current plan includes 15 microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments representing a broad cross-section of the fluid physics and transport phenomena including multiphase flow and phase change: physics of colloids; flow of granular materials; mechanics of foams; stability; and interfacial phenomena. A brief description of each planned experiment and its significance is provided. .

Singh, Bhim S.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

2000-01-01

318

Advanced interface heat exchangers for the Space Station main thermal bus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future evolution and growth of the Space Station will place increasing demands on the thermal management system by the addition of new payloads and from increased activity in the habitat modules. To meet this need, Creare is developing advanced evaporators, condensors, and single-phase heat exchangers for operation in microgravity. The objective is to achieve a several-fold increase in the heat flux capability of these components, while operating at the same temperature difference as specified for the present interface heat exchangers. Two prototype interface heat exchangers are presently being developed: one to interface the main thermal bus to a payload two-phase ammonia bus, and the other, to interface with the crew module single-phase water loop. The results achieved to date in the development of these heat exchangers are reviewed.

Valenzuela, Javier A.

319

Evaluation of space station ATCS evolution growth paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper determines the feasibility of potential Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) growth paths by assessing thermal, integration, and implementation impacts. Thermal Radiation Analysis System/Infrared Radiation Transfer (TRASYS/IRTRAN) models were used to evaluate the effects of increased radiator temperature, increased radiator area, and radiator wing addition on Space Station Freedom (SSF) elements, including energy reflected back to the ATCS. Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Fluid Integrator (SINDA/FLUINT) models were used to determine the heat rejection capability of an ATCS loop with an integrated heat pump that operates with Electric Power System (EPS) peak power. The effects of upgrading the ATCS by advanced technology Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) implementation during maintenance replacements was also evaluated. The study results presented lead to conclusions on which paths are best suited for different growth scenarios.

Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

320

The International Space Station on-orbit tester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) program has identified specific Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs) as candidates for on-orbit intermediate level maintenance. Performing intermediate level maintenance on-orbit will allow sparing at the Shop Replaceable Unit (SRU) level rather than the ORU level. This will minimize cost and volume to transport replaceable units to and from orbit, minimize stowage on-orbit, and maximize on-orbit spare availability that will in turn minimize system downtime. To accomplish on-orbit intermediate level maintenance, additional requirements for fault isolation and confidence testing must be implemented. Test equipment used on-ground to perform fault isolation and acceptance testing is large and heavy. Consideration for weight and volume is an important factor for any test equipment that is to be transported, used and stowed on-orbit. This paper summarizes a phased approach to testing electronic hardware on-orbit with minimal additional weight and volume for the test equipment. .

Pierotti, Elizabeth; Atodaria, Jitu

2001-02-01

321

[Prognostic model of the space station contamination stage].  

PubMed

Forty two non-metallic materials, 8 human metabolites and a process liquid (ethylene glycol) were selected for development of a prognostic model of space station contamination by harmful trace admixtures (HTAs). Removal technologies made allowance for absorption by atmospheric condensate (AC) and filter adsorption. Calculations took in 18 HTAs representative of 8 classes of compounds. Simulation modeling allowed to determine HTA migration rates and percent ratio (1), calculate concentrations of contaminants in the atmosphere and atmospheric condensate (2), and to assess filter efficiency by comparison of loads on the filter and a refrigeration/drying set (3). Comparison of empirical and measured data permitted conclusions about adequacy of the model and its potentiality for predicting ramifications of nominal and contingency situations. PMID:9606517

Zlotovol'ski?, V M; Smolenskaia, G S

1998-01-01

322

Dusty Plasma Physics Facility for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dusty Plasma Physics Facility is a proposed instrument for the International Space Station. The proposal, which is prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is now under consideration by NASA. The proposed facility is expected to support multiple scientific users selected by NASA Research Announcement. It will have a modular design, with a scientific locker, or insert, that can be exchanged without removing the entire facility. The first insert will be designed for fundamental physics experiments. Possible future inserts could be designed for other scientific purposes, such as experimental simulations of astrophysical or geophysical conditions or engineering studies. The design of the facility will allow remote operation from ground-based laboratories, using telescience.

Goree, John; Hahn, Inseob

2012-10-01

323

Growing Super-Dwarf wheat in Space Station Mir.  

PubMed

Super-Dwarf wheat plants were grown in the Russian/Bulgarian growth chamber called Svet (means light in Russian), in Space Station Mir, from August 12 to November 9, 1995 (90 days) and from August 5 to December 6, 1996 (123 days); a second 1996 crop grew from December 6, 1996 to January 14, 1997 (39 days). Environmental monitoring instrumentation was built at Utah State University and added to Svet for the experiments. That instrumentation functioned well in 1995, but four of six lamp sets (two lamps in each set) failed, as did the controller and a fan. Plants stayed alive but were mostly vegetative (contrary to ground controls under equivalent photon flux). New, higher intensity lamps and other equipment functioned well during 1996, and plants grew surprisingly well, producing about 280 heads and considerable biomass, but the heads were all sterile. A strong case can be made that the sterility was caused by high ethylene in the cabin atmosphere. PMID:11542291

Salisbury, F B

1997-01-01

324

Food processing on a space station: feasibility and opportunities.  

PubMed

An alternative strategy for processing plants into food on a space or other isolated station including an Advanced Life Support (ALS) system is proposed. Regular gravity (1 G) or hypogravity (< 1 G) has been considered. A key feature of this strategy is to include not only kitchen-scale preparation and processing but small-scale advanced food processing such as thermoplastic extrusion, homogenization, centrifugation, fermentation, etc. These processes are flexible and multifunctional and could significantly increase the variety, palatability, nutritional value, and shelf stability of foods, and the number of menu items based on ALS crops. The processes would minimize the time to process the food items and provide psychological support for the crew. The periodic processing of various crop harvests into shelf-stable foods for long-term storage can be performed. Unit operations as illustrated by various processing flow sheets on the manufacturing of individual products will be discussed in association with the equipment. PMID:11541542

Zasypkin, D V; Lee, T C

1999-01-01

325

MISSE7: Building a Permanent Environmental Testbed for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Materials on the International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) provide low-cost material exposure experiments on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The original concept for a suitcase-like box bolted to the ISS to passively expose materials to space has grown to include increasingly complex in situ characterization. As the ISS completes construction, the facilities available to MISSE experiments

Phillip P. Jenkins; Robert J. Walters; Michael J. Krasowski; John J. Chapman; Perry G. Ballard; John A. Vasquez; Denis R. Mahony; Susie N. Lacava; William R. Braun; Robert Skalitzky; Norman F. Prokop; Joseph M. Flatico; Lawrence C. Greer; Karen B. Gibson; William H. Kinard; H. Gary Pippin

2009-01-01

326

The international space station: An opportunity for industry-sponsored global education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international space education. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world's researchers and connected the world's governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world's children and connect the

Cathleen E. Shields

1999-01-01

327

Spacelab, Spacehab, and Space Station Freedom payload interface projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contributions were made to several projects. Howard Nguyen was assisted in developing the Space Station RPS (Rack Power Supply). The RPS is a computer controlled power supply that helps test equipment used for experiments before the equipment is installed on Space Station Freedom. Ron Bennett of General Electric Government Services was assisted in the design and analysis of the Standard Interface Rack Controller hardware and software. An analysis was made of the GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus), looking for any potential problems while transmitting data across the bus, such as the interaction of the bus controller with a data talker and its listeners. An analysis was made of GPIB bus communications in general, including any negative impact the bus may have on transmitting data back to Earth. A study was made of transmitting digital data back to Earth over a video channel. A report was written about the study and a revised version of the report will be submitted for publication. Work was started on the design of a PC/AT compatible circuit board that will combine digital data with a video signal. Another PC/AT compatible circuit board is being designed to recover the digital data from the video signal. A proposal was submitted to support the continued development of the interface boards after the author returns to Memphis State University in the fall. A study was also made of storing circuit board design software and data on the hard disk server of a LAN (Local Area Network) that connects several IBM style PCs. A report was written that makes several recommendations. A preliminary design review was started of the AIVS (Automatic Interface Verification System). The summer was over before any significant contribution could be made to this project.

Smith, Dean Lance

1992-12-01

328

Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1994 the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), was selected by NASA's Administrator as a joint collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The AMS program was chartered to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments which were evolving from the Office of Space Science. The first such experiment to come forward was ACCESS in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to place a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the ISS, and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's sub-orbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer-review. This process is still on-going and the Accommodation Study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today. Further detail on the history, scope, and background of the study is provided in Appendix A.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

1999-01-01

329

Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early in the development of ISS, an international organization called ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) was formed to coordinate the construction and operation of amateur radio (ham radio) equipment on ISS. ARISS represents a melding of the volunteer teams that have pioneered the development and use of amateur radio equipment on human spaceflight vehicles. The Shuttle/Space Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) team enabled Owen Garriott to become the first astronaut ham to use amateur radio from space in 1983. Since then, amateur radio teams in the U.S. (SAREX), Germany, (SAFEX), and Russia (Mirex) have led the development and operation of amateur radio equipment on board NASA's Space Shuttle, Russia's Mir space station, and the International Space Station. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the Amateur Radio public, 3) scheduled contacts with the astronauts' friends and families and 4) ISS-based communications experimentation. To date, over 65 schools have been selected from around the world for scheduled contacts with the orbiting ISS crew. Ten or more students at each school ask the astronauts questions, and the nature of these contacts embodies the primary goal of the ARISS program, -- to excite student's interest in science, technology and amateur radio. The ARISS team has developed various hardware elements for the ISS amateur radio station. These hardware elements have flown to ISS on three Shuttle flights and one Progress flight. The initial educational outreach system supports voice and packet (computer-to-computer radio link) capabilities. In addition, two Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) have been completed to install two antenna systems. These antenna systems were designed to be shared between the amateur radio equipment and a Russian EVA television system. These new antenna systems will ultimately enable a key facet of the amateur radio station to move into the Service Module living quarters, providing a more comfortable station set up for the ISS crew. In the future, ARISS hopes to fly a Slow Scan Television system on board the ISS as well as developing new systems for external mounting on the ISS. This paper will discuss the development, qualification, installation and operation of the ARISS amateur radio system. It will also discuss some of the challenges that the ARISS- international team of volunteers overcame to bring its first phase of equipment on ISS to fruition.

Bauer, F. H.; McFadin, L.; Steiner, M.; Conley, C. L.

2002-01-01

330

Structural design feasibility study of Space Station long spacer truss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural design and configuration feasibility of the long spacer truss assembly that will be used as part of the Space Station Freedom is the focus of this study. The structural analysis discussed herein is derived from the transient loading events presented in the Space Transportation System Interface Control Document (STS ICD). The transient loading events are liftoff, landing, and emergency landing loads. Quasi-static loading events were neglected in this study since the magnitude of the quasi-static acceleration factors is lower than that of the transient acceleration factors. Structural analysis of the proposed configuration of the long spacer truss with four longerons indicated that negative safety margins are possible. As a result, configuration changes were proposed. The primary configuration change suggested was to increase the number of truss longerons to six. The six-longeron truss appears to be a more promising structure than the four-longeron truss because it offers a positive margin of safety and more volume in its second bay (BAY2). This additional volume can be used for resupply of some of the orbital replacement units (such as a battery box). Note that the design effort on the long spacer truss has not fully begun and that calculations and reports of the negative safety margins are, to date, based on concept only.

Armand, Sasan C.; Funk, Gregory P.; Dohogne, Caroline A.

1994-02-01

331

Space Station gas-grain simulation facility: application to exobiology.  

PubMed

The Space Station provides an environment in which the forces required to suspend particles during an experiment can be reduced by as much as six orders of magnitude. This reduction in levitation force enables us to perform many new experiments in a variety of disciplines. We have grouped these experiments into two categories: 1) those involving an individual particle or the interaction between a few particles and 2) those involving clouds in particles. We consider only particle experiments at this stage because cloud experiments suffer from electrostatic interactions and levitation-forced coalescence therefore requiring considerably more space, mass and crew interaction. The displacement of a particle resulting from g-jitter for ballistic, Knudsen and Stokes flow regimes is considered in detail and the radiation, acoustic, electrostatic and electromagnetic levitation mechanisms to control this motion are reviewed. We have selected the simulation of organic haze production ion Titan as an example experiment for detailed study. The objective of this experiment is to simulate the photolysis of methane and the subsequent formation of the organic haze particles in the upper atmosphere of Titan. PMID:11537821

McKay, C P; Stoker, C R; Morris, J; Conley, G; Schwartz, D

1986-01-01

332

International Polar Year From the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since early March 2007, astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been observing and photographing high latitude features in support of researchers conducting science associated with the International Polar Year (IPY). Seeing Earth through the eyes of an astronaut is exciting to students, and the IPY images provide easily interpretable data that are valuable for visualizing polar phenomena. To make the astronaut IPY observations available to a global audience - including scientists, classrooms and the general public - we post high quality photographs of polar features like icebergs, aurora, polar mesospheric clouds and volcanoes to an IPY website maintained by the NASA Johnson Crew Earth Observations Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center. All the imagery is cataloged and searchable in the database at the same website. The website allows users to define search parameters, create subsets of imagery data, and download the imagery and associated data free of charge. Roughly 1000 images of high latitude features have been acquired since the beginning of the 2007-2009 IPY, including the break-up of iceberg A22A in the south Atlantic Ocean, the occurrence of polar mesospheric clouds across northern Eurasia, and the eruption of Shiveluch volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. These images contribute to the nearly 40,000 images of high latitude regions that have been photographed from spacecraft since the Apollo and Skylab Programs of the 1960s-1970s.

Evans, C. A.; Pettit, D. R.; Runco, S. K.; Wilkinson, J.; Stefanov, W. L.; Trenchard, M.; Willis, K.

2007-12-01

333

Estimate of Space Radiation-Induced Cancer Risks for International Space Station Orbits  

SciTech Connect

Excess cancer risks from exposures to space radiation are estimated for various orbits of the International Space Station (ISS). Organ exposures are computed with the transport codes, BRYNTRN and HZETRN, and the computerized anatomical male and computerized anatomical female models. Cancer risk coefficients in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report No. 98 are used to generate lifetime excess cancer incidence and cancer mortality after a one-month mission to ISS. The generated data are tabulated to serve as a quick reference for assessment of radiation risk to astronauts on ISS missions.

Wu, H.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Yang, C.

1996-03-01

334

Sandwich module testing for space solar power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power satellites have been envisioned as a means to provide electricity for terrestrial use. The approach entails collection of solar energy in space and its wireless transmission to the earth. This potentially gives the benefit of provision of baseload power while avoiding the losses due to the day/night cycle and tropospheric effects that are associated with terrestrial solar power. Proponents have contended that the implementation of such systems could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake their development. Among recent implementations commonly proposed for SSP, the Modular Symmetrical Concentrator and other modular concepts have received considerable attention. Each employs an array of modules for performing conversion of concentrated sunlight into microwaves or laser beams for transmission to earth. The research described herein details efforts in the development and testing of photovoltaic arrays, power electronics, microwave conversion electronics, and antennas for 2.45 GHz microwave-based “ sandwich” module prototypes. Prototypes were designed, fabricated, and subjected to the challenging conditions inherent in the space environment, including the solar concentration levels in which an array of modules might be required to operate.

Jaffe, Paul

335

The new jettison policy for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During more than seven years of operations by the International Space Station ISS approximately three dozen pieces of debris were released and subsequently cataloged by the U S Space Surveillance Network SSN The individual mass of these objects ranged from less than 1 kg to 70 kg Although some of these debris were separated from the ISS accidentally some were intentionally cast-off especially the larger items In addition small operational satellites are candidates for launch from the ISS such as the TNS-0 satellite deployed from ISS in March 2005 Recently an official ISS Jettison Policy was developed to ensure that decisions to deliberately release objects in the future were based upon a complete evaluation of the benefits and risks to the ISS other resident space objects and people on the Earth The policy identifies four categories of items which might be considered for release 1 items that pose a safety issue for return on-board a visiting vehicle 2 items that negatively impact ISS utilization return or on-orbit stowage manifests 3 items that represent an EVA timeline savings and 4 items that are designed for jettison Some of the principal issues to be addressed during this evaluation process are the potential for the object to recontact the ISS within the first two days after jettison the potential of the object to breakup prior to reentry the ability of the SSN to track the object and the risk to people on Earth from components which might survive reentry This paper summarizes the history of objects released from ISS examines

Johnson, N.

336

Social modulation of peripersonal space boundaries.  

PubMed

The space around the body, i.e., peripersonal space (PPS), is conceived as a multisensory-motor interface between body and environment. PPS is represented by frontoparietal neurons integrating tactile, visual, and auditory stimuli occurring near the body. PPS is plastic, because it extends by using a tool to reach far objects. Although interactions with others occur within PPS, little is known about how social environment modulates it. Here, we show that presence and interaction with others shape PPS representation. Participants performed a tactile detection task on their face while concurrent task-irrelevant sounds approached toward or receded from their face. Because a sound affects touch when occurring within PPS, we calculated the critical distance where sounds speeded up tactile reaction time as a proxy of PPS boundaries. Experiment 1 shows that PPS boundaries shrink when subjects face another individual, as compared to a mannequin, placed in far space. Experiment 2 and 3 show that, after playing an economic game with another person, PPS boundaries between self and other merge, but only if the other behaved cooperatively. These results reveal that PPS representation is sensitive to social modulation, showing a link between low-level sensorimotor processing and high-level social cognition. PMID:23394831

Teneggi, Chiara; Canzoneri, Elisa; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Serino, Andrea

2013-02-08

337

High-resolution robot tracking and direction finding for space station environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years the problem of location finding and tracking of extravehicular robots in space station environment, and the related problem of estimating the parameters of signals in noise, have attracted considerable interest. Conventional direction finding, tracking, and locating techniques such as maximum likelihood (ML) and multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) are proving inadequate to support the full and effective utilization of robotics in a space station environment. The scope of this work is to provide a new and more efficient signal processing technique for a space station robotic tracking system which overcomes existing technical limitations such as radio transmission multipath, station reflections, the number of robots, space station environment, stringent resolution requirements, and space station architecture. In general, this work contains block level design and study of a communication system for a space station involving spread spectrum and digital processing of signal techniques that achieves as space station robotic tracking implementation. This report contains an extensive analysis of the system performance from the following points of view: utilization of a chirp signal, which, in conjunction with a polling procedure, allows for individual robot identification, location and tracking; estimate the number of antennae; determine the location of the antennae on the space station; generate a detailed block diagram design; and perform an overall system analysis that considers the effects of signal multipath.

Shahrabi, Kamal

1993-03-01

338

Development of a simulation code for a latent heat thermal energy storage system in a space station  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design of a space station power system based on a Brayton cycle and solar powered has been developed. A key part of such a system is the thermal energy storage module, which is of crucial importance during periods of darkness. We have developed a simulation code for one possible storage configuration. In this report, we describe the considerations entering into the code development, and some results obtained thus far.

Solomon, A.D.; Morris, M.D.; Martin, J.; Olszewski, M.

1986-04-01

339

Post-flight test results of seed laser module subjected to space exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

Prasad, Narasimha S.

2013-09-01

340

Teacher's Companion to the Space Station: A Multi-Disciplinary Resource.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Space Station promises to be an adventure in enterprise and ingenuity. This collection of activities, geared for students from kindergarten through high school, promises to help them become aware of the potential of space. Within their l...

L. P. Hagan L. Elsen

1988-01-01

341

Integration Assessment of Visiting Vehicle Induced Electrical Charging of the International Space Station Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station (ISS) undergoes electrical charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to positively biased, exposed conductors on solar arrays that collect electrical charges from the space plasma. Exposed solar array conductors predominately c...

J. T. Galofaro L. Kramer T. W. Kerslake

2010-01-01

342

Power Components for the Space Station 20-Khz Power Distribution System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1984, NASA Lewis Research Center was developing high power, high frequency space power components as part of The Space Station Advanced Development program. The purpose of The Advanced Development program was to accelerate existing component program...

D. D. Renz

1988-01-01

343

FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Statio...

T. F. OMalley K. J. Weiland

2002-01-01

344

Structural Dynamic Interaction with Solar Tracking Control for Evolutionary Space Station Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sun tracking control system design of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and the interaction of the control system with the flexible structure of Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolutionary concepts are addressed. The significant components of the space...

T. W. Lim P. A. Cooper J. K. Ayers

1992-01-01

345

Behavioral Biology of Mammalian Reproduction and Development for a Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space Station research includes two kinds of adaption to space: somatic (the adjustments made by an organism, within its lifetime, in response to local conditions), and transgenerational adaption (continuous exposure across sequential life cycles of genet...

J. R. Alberts

1983-01-01

346

Fluid physics and transport phenomena studies aboard the international space station: Planned experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Space Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there are a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with an unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

Singh, Bhim S.

1999-01-01

347

Lessons learned using COTS electronics for the International Space Station radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mantra of Faster, Better, Cheaper has to a large degree been interpreted as using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components and/or circuit boards. One of the first space applications to actually use COTS in space along with radiation performance requirements was the EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack program, for the International Space Station (ISS). In order to meet the performance, cost and schedule targets, military grade Versa Module Eurocard (VME) was selected as the baseline design for the main computer, the Rack Interface Controller (RIC). VME was chosen as the computer backplane because of the large variety of military grade boards available, which were designed to meet the military environmental specifications (thermal, shock, vibration, etc.). These boards also have a paper pedigree in regards to components. Since these boards exceeded most ISS environmental requirements, it was reasoned using COTS mil-grade VME boards, as opposed to designing custom boards could save significant time and money. It was recognized up front the radiation environment of ISS, while benign compared to many space flight applications, would be the main challenge to using COTS. Thus in addition to selecting vendors on how well their boards met the usual performance and environmental specifications, the board's parts lists were reviewed on how well they would perform in the ISS radiation environment. However, issues with verifying that the available radiation test data was applicable to the actual part used, vendor part design changes and the fact most parts did not have valid test data soon complicated board and part selection in regards to radiation. .

Blumer, John H.

2001-02-01

348

The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer: the design and evolution of a dexterous space robot.  

PubMed

The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced telerobotic system to assist in and reduce crew extravehicular activity (EVA) for Space Station) Freedom (SSF). The FTS will provide a telerobotic capability to the Freedom Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be employed for assembly, maintenance, and inspection applications throughout the lifetime of the space station. Appropriately configured elements of the FTS will also be employed for robotic manipulation in remote satellite servicing applications and possibly the Lunar/Mars Program. In mid-1989, the FTS entered the flight system design and implementation phase (Phase C/D) of development with the signing of the FTS prime contract with Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado. The basic FTS design is now established and can be reported on in some detail. This paper will describe the FTS flight system design and the rationale for the specific design approaches and component selections. The current state of space technology and the nature of the FTS task dictate that the FTS be designed with sophisticated teleoperation capabilities for its initial primary operating mode. However, there are technologies, such as advanced computer vision and autonomous planning techniques currently in research and advanced development phases which would greatly enhance the FTS capabilities to perform autonomously in less structured work environments. Therefore, a specific requirement on the initial FTS design is that it has the capability to evolve as new technology becomes available. This paper will describe the FTS design approach for evolution to more autonomous capabilities. Some specific task applications of the FTS and partial automation approaches of these tasks will also be discussed in this paper. PMID:11540062

McCain, H G; Andary, J F; Hewitt, D R; Haley, D C

1991-01-01

349

The atmosphere-space interactions monitor (ASIM) for the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) is an instrument suite to be mounted on an external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorms processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts and energetic space particle precipitation effects in the mesosphere and thermosphere. The scientific objectives include (1) investigations into sprites, jets, elves and relativistic electron beams injected into the magnetosphere above thunderstorms, (2) studies of gravity waves in the thermosphere above severe thunderstorms, (3) lightning-induced precipitation of radiation belt electrons, (4) auroral electron energetics, and (5) ozone and NOx concentrations in the upper atmosphere. The instruments are 4 TV frame-rate, narrow-band, optical cameras and 4 photometers viewing towards the limb, and an X-ray sensor, 2 cameras and 2 photometers viewing towards the nadir. ASIM is currently in Phase A.

Neubert, T.; Kuvvetli, I.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Østgaard, N.; Reglero, V.; Arnold, N.

350

Congress, constituency, and jobs: the Superconducting Super Collider, the Space Station, and National Science Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the very different decisions that occurred with regards to the International Space Station and the Superconducting Super Collider, two major science and engineering projects which marched across the 1980s only to stumble badly in the early 1990s. The Space Station survived its encounter with congressional politics while the physics project was abruptly cancelled. The argument suggested is

R Handberg

2001-01-01

351

Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) - the First Educational Outreach Program on ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 40 missions over five years will be required to assemble the International Space Station in orbit. The astronauts and cosmonauts will work hard on these missions, but they plan to take some time off for educational activities with schools. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station represents the first Educational Outreach program that is flying on ISS. NASA's

C. L. Conley; F. H. Bauer; D. Brown; R. White

2002-01-01

352

International Space Station: 6-8 Hands-on Science and Math Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These lesson plans, designed for grades 6-8, have been developed to provide a guide to hands-on experience in science and math. They focus on an International Space Station and are designed for use with students working in groups. The three lesson plans highlighting the importance of the scientific method are: (1) International Space Station

Armstrong, Pat

353

PLEXISS: a coronograph for imaging the lunar atmosphere from the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLEXISS (Planetary Exospheres from the International Space Station) is a proposed small instrument dedicated to the coronagraphic imaging in the Na yellow doublet (5890 and 5896 A) and in the K red doublet (7665 and 7699) A of the transient lunar atmosphere from the International Space Station (ISS). The scientific return of PLEXISS can give important information for the understanding

Cesare Barbieri; Sonia Fornasier; Stefano Verani; Roberto Ragazzoni; Marco Barilli; Riccardo Paolinetti; Andrea Romoli; Alberto Della Torre; Michael J. Mendillo; Jeffrey L. Baumgardner

2002-01-01

354

A surgical support system for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgical techniques in microgravity are being developed for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom (SSF). This will be a presentation of the proposed surgical capabilities and ongoing hardware and procedural investigations. Methods: Procedures and prototype hardware, which include a medical restraint system, a surgical overhead isolation canopy, a suction device, and a regional laminar flow device were evaluated. This was accomplished by realistic sterile surgical simulations involving both mannequins and animals during KC-135 parabolic flight and in a high fidelity ground based HMF mockup. Results: Animal surgery in the environment of microgravity allowed the observation of unique arterial and venous bleeding characteristics for the first time. The ability to control bleeding and to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination was also demonstrated. Conclusions: The procedures and prototype hardware tested provided valuable information and should be investigated and developed further. The use of standard surgical techniques are possible in microgravity if the principles of personnel and supply restraint and operative field containment are adhered to.

Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.

1992-05-01

355

Neural network for positioning Space Station solar arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a shuttle approaches the Space Station Freedom for a rendezvous, the shuttle's reaction control jet firings pose a risk of excessive plume impingement loads on Freedom solar arrays. The current solution to this problem, in which the arrays are locked in a feathered position prior to the approach, may be neither accurate nor robust, and is also expensive. An alternative solution is proposed here: the active control of Freedom's beta gimbals during the approach, positioning the arrays dynamically in such a way that they remain feathered relative to the shuttle jet most likely to cause an impingement load. An artificial neural network is proposed as a means of determining the gimbal angles that would drive plume angle of attack to zero. Such a network would be both accurate and robust, and could be less expensive to implement than the current solution. A network was trained via backpropagation, and results, which compare favorably to the current solution as well as to some other alternatives, are presented. Other training options are currently being evaluated.

Graham, Ronald E.; Lin, Paul P.

1994-06-01

356

ac/dc converter topologies for the Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new class of ac/dc converter topologies (Type-1 converters) is described, suitable for use in an advanced single-phase sine-wave voltage, high-frequency power distribution system, of the type that was proposed for a 20 kHz Space Station primary electrical power distribution system. The converter comprises a transformer, a resonant network, a current controller, a diode rectifier, and an output filter. The input ac voltage source is converted into a sinusoidal current source using the resonant network. The output of this current source is rectified by the diode rectifier and is controlled by the current controller. The controlled rectified current is then filtered by the output filter to obtain a constant voltage across the load. Three distinct converter topologies, Type-1A, type-1B, and Type-1C, are described and their performance characteristics presented. All three types have close-to-unity rated power factor (greater than 0.98), low total harmonic distortion in input current (less than 5 percent), and high conversion efficiency (greater than 96 percent).

Jain, Praveen K.; Tanju, Mehmet Celal; Bottrill, John

1993-04-01

357

MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) for JEM on the Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) is designed to achieve an all sky X-ray monitoring. It will be placed on the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station. In the present design. MAXI is a slit scanning camera system which consists of two kinds of X-ray detectors; one with one-dimensional position sensitive proportional counters and the other with an X-ray CCD array employed for one-dimensional imaging. Construction of the EF of JEM is scheduled for 2001 and the MAXI will be installed in an early phase of JEM payloads. MAXI has been designed to detect one milli-Crab X-ray sources in a-few-day observations. The whole sky will be covered completely in every orbit of the Space Station. MAXI will be capable of monitoring variability of galactic and extragalactic sources on timescales of days with a sensitivity improvement of a factor of 5 over previous mission. In this paper we will report on the basic design and simulation results.

Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Kotani, T.; Mihara, T.; Rubin, B.; Shimizu, H.; Yoshida, A.; Tsunemi, H.; Hayashida, K.; Kitamoto, S.; Yoshita, K.

1997-05-01

358

Experiments with phase change thermal energy storage canisters for Space Station Freedom  

SciTech Connect

The solar dynamic power module proposed for the growth Space Station Freedom uses the heat of fusion of a phase change material (PCM) to efficiently store thermal energy for use during eclipse periods. The PCM, a LiF-20CaF2 salt, is contained in annular, metal canisters located in a heat receiver at the focus of a solar concentrator. PCM canister ground-based experiments and analytical heat transfer studies are discussed including the hardware test procedures and test results. After more than 900 simulated Space Station Freedom orbital cycles, no canister cracks or leaks were observed and all data were successfully collected. The effect of 1-g test orientation on canister wall temperatures was generally small while void position was strongly dependent on test orientation and canister cooling. In one test orientation, alternating wall temperature data were measured and results support an earlier theory of oscillating vortex flow in the PCM melt. Analytical canister wall temperatures compared very favorably with experimental temperature data. This illustrates that ground-based canister thermal performance can be predicted well by analyses that employ straight-forward, engineering models of void behavior and liquiod PCM free convection. Because of the accuracy of analytical models and the relative insensitivity of 1-g performance to test orientation, canister performance in micro-g should be predictable with a high degree of confidence by removing gravity effects from the analytical modeling.

Kerslake, T.W.

1991-01-01

359

Cerebral vascular reactivity on return from the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Returning from spaceflight, astronauts experience a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance and syncope. Longer duration space flight may result in greater adaptations to microgravity which could increase the post-flight incidence of syncope. CCISS (Cardiovascular and Cerebovascular Control on return from the International Space Station) is an ongoing project designed to help determine adaptations that occur during spaceflight which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance. One component of this project involves looking at cerebral vascular responses before and after long duration spaceflight. As a known vasodilator, carbon dioxide (CO2) has been frequently used to assess changes in cerebral vascular reactivity. In this experiment, end tidal PCO2 was manipulated through changes in respired air. Two breaths of a 10% CO2 gas mixture were administered at 1-min intervals resulting in an increase in end tidal PCO2 . Throughout the testing, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was determined using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. The cerebral resistance index (RI) was calculated from the Doppler wave form using the equation; RI=(CBFVsystolic-CBFVdiastolic)/CBFVsystolic. Changes in this index have been shown to reflect changes in cerebral vascular resistance. Peak responses to the CO2 stimulus were determined and compared to baseline measures taken at the beginning of the testing. Cerebral blood flow velocity increased and RI decreased with the two breaths of CO2. Preliminary data show a 36.0% increase in CBFV and a 9.0% decrease in RI pre-flight. Post flight, the response to CO2 appears to change showing a potentially blunted decrease in resistance (6.8%) and a smaller increase in CBFV (22.8%). Long term spaceflight may result in cerebrovascular changes which could decrease the vasodilatory capacity of cerebral resistance vessels. Further investigations in the CCISS project will reveal the interactive role of CO2 and arterial blood pressure on maintenance of brain blood flow that is critical for crew health and safety on return from long-duration missions to ISS or future flights to the moon and Mars. Supported by Canadian Space Agency.

Zuj, Kathryn; Greaves, Danielle; Shoemaker, Kevin; Blaber, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L.

360

Reliability of Optical Fiber Modulators for Space Flight Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical fiber modulators are of great interest to space flight projects for communications and LIDAR applications. Due to the harsh environments and long duration for most missions, space flight applications have a unique set of demands for photonics parts. This study focuses on the reliability of commercially available optical fiber modulators for space flight environments. General failures modes covered by

Melanie Ott; Juan Vela; Carl Magee; Harry Shaw

361

Microgravity research results and experiences from the NASA/MIR space station program.  

PubMed

The Microgravity Research Program (MRP) participated aggressively in Phase 1 of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges of long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about long-duration on-orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this type of cross increment research experience; the payloads which were flown; and summaries of significant microgravity science findings. PMID:14503490

Schlagheck, R A; Trach, B L

2003-12-01

362

Mold species in dust from the International Space Station identified and quantified by mold-specific quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from HEPA filters in the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The dust was returned on the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mixed, sieved and the DNA was extracted. Using a DNA-based method called mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR), 39 molds were measured in the dust. Potential opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger and potential moderate toxin producers Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium brevicompactum were noteworthy. No cells of the potential opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium solani or Candida albicans were detected. PMID:18602989

Vesper, Stephen J; Wong, Wing; Kuo, C Mike; Pierson, Duane L

2008-06-18

363

Active alignment for interferometric techniques onboard the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different interferometric techniques are required to cover most of the scientific needs in the field of fluid dynamics science in microgravity research. The Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), currently under upgrade for the Columbus Orbital Facility of the International Space Station (ISS), shall provide Holographic Interferometry, Digital Holography, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Shearing Interferometry among other diagnostic tools. On earth, these highly sensitive interferometers are operated in a thermal and mechanical controlled environment. In opposition to the situation on ground the multi-user facility of the FSL has severe constraints for what concerns volume, mass, modularity, operational needs and its environment. This results in a three-dimensional modular drawer structure for the design of the optical-mechanical set-up, where performance limitations must be expected compared to systems on ground. In a rather uncontrolled thermal environment onboard the ISS this leads to misalignment due to thermo-mechanical changes of the Aluminum structure during experiment runs which finally result in interferogram distortions and therefore to significant measurement errors. In this paper we report about a misalignment detection- and active compensation concept developed on the basis of a thermo-mechanical and optical analysis of the set-up. The detection system is based on a simplified Hartmann-Sensor. It is able to separate wave front tilt and curvature errors due to misalignments of the interferometers itself from the effects caused by the experiment. The closed-loop compensation system uses optical components of the set-up driven by piezoelectric actuators. Due to its active approach this concept allows for the real time accessibility of the experimental effects in the framework of "Telescience." Extensive functional tests as well as representative thermal tests show the suitability of the proposed technique to compensate interferogram distortions due to thermal-mechanical deformations. Thus, it is able to ensure interferometric measurements with sub-wavelength accuracy onboard the ISS.

Kebbel, Volker; Becker, Joachim; Jueptner, Werner

2004-08-01

364

Life sciences flight hardware development for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the construction phase of the International Space Station (ISS), early flight opportunities have been identified (including designated Utilization Flights, UF) on which early science experiments may be performed. The focus of NASA's and other agencies' biological studies on the early flight opportunities is cell and molecular biology; with UF-1 scheduled to fly in fall 2001, followed by flights 8A and UF-3. Specific hardware is being developed to verify design concepts, e.g., the Avian Development Facility for incubation of small eggs and the Biomass Production System for plant cultivation. Other hardware concepts will utilize those early research opportunities onboard the ISS, e.g., an Incubator for sample cultivation, the European Modular Cultivation System for research with small plant systems, an Insect Habitat for support of insect species. Following the first Utilization Flights, additional equipment will be transported to the ISS to expand research opportunities and capabilities, e.g., a Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat for rodents, an Aquatic Facility to support small fish and aquatic specimens, a Plant Research Unit for plant cultivation, and a specialized Egg Incubator for developmental biology studies. Host systems (Figure 1A, B), e.g., a 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor ( g-levels from 0.01- g to 2- g) for direct comparisons between ?g and selectable g levels, the Life Sciences Glovebox for contained manipulations, and Habitat Holding Racks (Figure 1B) will provide electrical power, communication links, and cooling to the habitats. Habitats will provide food, water, light, air and waste management as well as humidity and temperature control for a variety of research organisms. Operators on Earth and the crew on the ISS will be able to send commands to the laboratory equipment to monitor and control the environmental and experimental parameters inside specific habitats. Common laboratory equipment such as microscopes, cryo freezers, radiation dosimeters, and mass measurement devices are also currently in design stages by NASA and the ISS international partners.

Kern, V. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bowman, R. N.; Donovan, F. M.; Elland, C.; Fahlen, T. F.; Girten, B.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Lagel, K.; Meeker, G. B.; Santos, O.

365

Microgravity heat pump for space station thermal management.  

PubMed

A highly efficient recuperative vapor compression heat pump was developed and tested for its ability to operate independent of orientation with respect to gravity while maximizing temperature lift. The objective of such a heat pump is to increase the temperature of, and thus reduce the size of, the radiative heat rejection panels on spacecrafts such as the International Space Station. Heat pump operation under microgravity was approximated by gravitational-independent experiments. Test evaluations include functionality, efficiency, and temperature lift. Commercially available components were used to minimize costs of new hardware development. Testing was completed on two heat pump design iterations--LBU-I and LBU--II, for a variety of operating conditions under the variation of several system parameters, including: orientation, evaporator water inlet temperature (EWIT), condenser water inlet temperature (CWIT), and compressor speed. The LBU-I system employed an ac motor, belt-driven scroll compressor, and tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The LBU-II system used a direct-drive AC motor compressor assembly and plate heat exchangers. The LBU-II system in general outperformed the LBU-I system on all accounts. Results are presented for all systems, showing particular attention to those states that perform with a COP of 4.5 +/- 10% and can maintain a temperature lift of 55 degrees F (30.6 degrees C) +/- 10%. A calculation of potential radiator area reduction shows that points with maximum temperature lift give the greatest potential for reduction, and that area reduction is a function of heat pump efficiency and a stronger function of temperature lift. PMID:14632004

Domitrovic, R E; Chen, F C; Mei, V C; Spezia, A L

2003-01-01

366

Potential commercial use of the International Space Station by the biotechnology/pharmaceutical/biomedical sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is the linch-pin of NASA's future space plans. It emphasizes scientific research by providing a world-class scientific laboratory in which to perform long-term basic science experiments in the space environment of microgravity, radiation, vacuum, vantage-point, etc. It will serve as a test-bed for determining human system response to long-term space flight and for developing the life support equipment necessary for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The ISS will also provide facilities (up to 30% of the U.S. module) for testing material, agricultural, cellular, human, aquatic, and plant/animal systems to reveal phenomena heretofore shrouded by the veil of 1-g. These insights will improve life on Earth and will provide a commercial basis for new products and services. In fact, some products, e.g., rare metal-alloys, semiconductor chips, or protein crystals that cannot now be produced on Earth may be found to be sufficiently valuable to be manufactured on-orbit. Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments have been regularly flown on 10-16 day Space Shuttle flights and on three-month Mir flights for basic science knowledge and for life support system and commercial product development. Since 1985, NASA has created several Commercial Space Centers (CSCs) for the express purpose of bringing university, government and industrial researchers together to utilize space flight and space technology to develop new industrial products and processes. BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado at Boulder and Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, is such a NASA sponsored CSC that has worked with over 65 companies and institutions in the Biotech Sector in the past 11 years and has successfully discovered and transferred new product and process information to its industry partners. While tests in the space environment have been limited to about two weeks on Shuttle or a few months on Mir, tests on ISS can be performed over many months, or even years. More importantly, a test can be regularly scheduled so that the effects of microgravity and other space environment parameters can be thoroughly researched and quantified. This paper attempts to envision the potential benefits of this soon-to-be-available orbital laboratory and the broad commercial utilization of ISS that will likely occur.

Morgenthaler, George W.; Stodieck, Louis

1999-01-01

367

The international space station: An opportunity for industry-sponsored global education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international space education. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world’s researchers and connected the world’s governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world’s children and connect the

Cathleen E. Shields

1999-01-01

368

Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.

1992-09-01

369

Advanced planar array development for space station. Final report, 1 June 1985-1 June 1987  

SciTech Connect

The results of the Advanced Planar Array Development for the Space Station contract are presented. The original objectives of the contract were: (1) to develop a process for manufacturing superstrate assemblies, (2) to demonstrate superstrate technology through fabrication and test, (3) to develop and analyze a preliminary solar array wing design, and (4) to fabricate a wing segment based on wing design. The primary tasks completed were designing test modules, fabricating, and testing them. LMSC performed three tasks which included thermal cycle testing for 2000 thermal cycles, thermal balance testing at the Boeing Environmental Test Lab in Kent, Washington, and acceptance testing a 15 ft x 50 in panel segment for 100 thermal cycles. The surperstrate modules performed well during both thermal cycle testing and thermal balance testing. The successful completion of these tests demonstrate the technical feasibility of a solar array power system utilizing superstrate technology. This final report describes the major elements of this contract including the manufacturing process used to fabricate modules, the tests performed, and the results and conclusions of the tests.

Not Available

1987-06-01

370

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of ISS. We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015 2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA's Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-06-01

371

Ensuring of long operation life of the orbiting station EVA space suit.  

PubMed

Russia has gained a lot of experience in operating the space suits (SS) during the extravehicular activities (EVA) by the crews of SALYUT-6, SALYUT-7 and MIR orbiting stations. A total of 21 Orlan-type space suits of various models were operated onboard the orbiting stations (OS) during almost 20 years period. Some of these space suits served up to 3 years in orbit. The paper reviews special features of long SS operation (without return to the Earth) onboard an orbiting station as well as the problems associated with SS repeated use by several crews. An analysis of measures to support solving of the problems of SS long stay and reliable operation onboard the orbiting station is made: selection of a corresponding SS type and separate elements design; selection of the materials; routine and preventive maintenance; development tests. The advantages of the space suit of a semi-rigid type for solving the above problems are shown. The paper includes a short analysis of space suits' operation onboard the Russian orbiting station MIR, and some restuts of inspection of the Orlan-DMA space suit returned to the Earth from orbit by STS-79 alter long operation in orbit. Recommendations on further improvement of the space suits for EVA operations in the International Space Station (ISS) are given. PMID:11541147

Abramov, I P; Glazov, G M; Svertshek, V I; Stoklitsky AYu

372

Assessment and Control of International Space Station Spacecraft Charging Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical interactions between the F2 region ionospheric plasma and the 160V photovoltaic (PV) electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS) can produce floating potentials (FP) on ISS conducting structure of greater magnitude than are usually observed on spacecraft in low-Earth orbit. Flight through the geomagnetic field also causes magnetic induction charging of ISS conducting structure. Charging processes resulting from interaction of ISS with auroral electrons may also contribute to charging, albeit rarely. The magnitude and frequency of occurrence of possibly hazardous charging events depends on the ISS assembly stage (six more 160V PV arrays will be added to ISS), ISS flight configuration, ISS position (latitude and longitude), and the natural variability in the ionospheric flight environment. At present, ISS is equipped with two plasma contactors designed to control ISS FP to within 40 volts of the ambient F2 plasma. The negative-polarity grounding scheme utilized in the ISS 160V power system leads, naturally, to negative values of ISS FP. A negative ISS structural FP leads to application of electrostatic fields across the dielectrics that separate conducting structure from the ambient F2 plasma, thereby enabling dielectric breakdown and arcing. Degradation of some thermal control coatings and noise in electrical systems can result. Continued review and evaluation of the putative charging hazards, as required by the ISS Program Office, revealed that ISS charging could produce a risk of electric shock to the ISS crew during extra vehicular activity. ISS charging risks are being evaluated in ongoing ISS charging measurements and analysis campaigns. The results of ISS charging measurements are combined with a recently developed detailed model of the ISS charging process and an extensive analysis of historical ionospheric variability data, to assess ISS charging risks using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods. The PRA analysis (estimated frequency of occurrence and severity of the charging hazards) are then used to select the hazard control strategy that provides the best overall safety and mission success environment for ISS and the ISS crew. This paper presents: 1) a summary of ISS spacecraft charging analysis, measurements, observations made to date, 2) plans for future ISS spacecraft charging measurement campaigns, and 3) a detailed discussion of the PRA strategy used to assess ISS spacecraft charging risks and select charging hazard control strategies.

Koontz, S.; Edeen, M.; Spetch, W.; Dalton, P.; Keeping, T.; Minow, J.

2003-12-01

373

Report of the Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Station Program will be the most ambitious space project the nation has ever undertaken; will require tens of billions of dollars; and will entwine for many years the space program with those of international partners. It must have enduring stab...

1987-01-01

374

76 FR 56362 - Removal of Approved Non-U.S.-Licensed Space Stations From the Section 214 Exclusion List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Removal of Approved Non-U.S.-Licensed Space Stations From the Section 214 Exclusion...Exclusion List those non-U.S.-licensed space stations that have been allowed to enter...Exclusion List those non-U.S.-licensed space stations that have been allowed to...

2011-09-13

375

Imaging observation of the Earth's upper atmosphere at mid- and low-latitudes by IMAP mission on the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere, and Plasmasphere mapping (ISS-IMAP) mission is planned to be installed on the Exposure Facility of Japan Experiment Modules of ISS in 2011 to make imaging observations of the airglow in the mesosphere and the ionosphere, and resonant scattering in the plasmasphere. Two sets of imagers are designed as scientific instruments of ISS-IMAP.

Akinori Saito

2008-01-01

376

Microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned aboard the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) with its first two elements already launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a tremendous opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from their own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Glenn Research

Bhim S. Singh; J. Iwan D. Alexander

2000-01-01

377

Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to

F. H. Bauer; L. McFadin; M. Steiner; C. L. Conley

2002-01-01

378

Active Thermal Control System for the International Space Station Utilizing Condensation over Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity for environmental control on and heat removal from the International Space Station (ISS) makes the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) integral in the effective operation and maintenance of the ISS. Equipment like electronic circuitry together with the human occupants produces a substantial amount of heat that is removed by the ATCS and then radiated from the station into

Gyasi Koneazny-Cobb

379

Preliminary Analysis and Design Optimization of the Short Spacer Truss of Space Station Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis, dynamic simulation, and design optimization of the short spacer truss of the Space Station Freedom are presented in this report. The short spacer truss will be positioned between the integrated equipment assembly (IEA) and another truss, cal...

A. S. Gendy S. N. Patnaik D. A. Hopkins L. Berke

1993-01-01

380

Impact of Space Station Appendage Vibrations on the Pointing Performance of Gimballed Payloads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the interface problems between the Space Station Structure (vibrations) and the Payload Pointing Control System was undertaken. A major goal of the study was to identify any bounding factors that might limit the achievement of required pointing...

R. O. Hughes

1987-01-01

381

76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Services for the International Space Station (ISS...will be open to the public up to the seating...Miller, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...will be open to the public up to the...

2011-08-19

382

76 FR 65752 - International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-104)] International Space Station (ISS) National...Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection with...Management Division, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-0550,...

2011-10-24

383

Numerical Study of Ammonia Leak and Dispersion in the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Release of ammonia into the International Space Station (ISS) cabin atmosphere can occur if the water/ammonia barrier breach of the active thermal control system (ATCS) interface heat exchanger (IFHX) happens. After IFHX breach liquid ammonia is introduce...

C. H. Son

2012-01-01

384

Life Science Research Objectives and Representative Experiments for the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were as...

C. C. Johnson R. D. Arno R. Mains

1989-01-01

385

Findings of the Joint Workshop on Evaluation of Impacts of Space Station Freedom Ground Configurations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the workshop, experts from the plasma interactions community evaluated the impacts of environmental interactions on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) under each of the proposed grounding schemes. The grounding scheme chosen for the SSF power system was f...

D. C. Ferguson D. B. Snyder R. Carruth

1991-01-01

386

NASA Human Research Program (HRP). International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the various flight investigations performed on the International Space Station as part of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The evaluations include: 1) Stability; 2) Periodic Fitness Evaluation with Oxygen Uptake...

C. F. Sams

2009-01-01

387

Slewing dynamics and control of the Space Station based mobile servicing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relatively general Lagrangian formulation for studying the nonlinear dynamics and control of spacecraft with interconnected flexible members in a tree-type topology is developed. Versatility of the formulation is illustrated through a dynamical study of the Space Station based two-link Mobile Servicing System (MSS). The performance of the MSS undergoing inplane and out-of-plane slewing maneuvers is compared. Results indicate that, in absence of control, the maneuvers induce undesirable librational motion of the Space Station as well as vibration of the links. Nonlinear control, based on the Feedback Linearization Technique (FLT), appears promising. Quasi-Closed Loop Control (QCLC), a variation of the FLT, is applied to control the libration of the Space Station. Once the attitude of the Space Station is controlled, the performance of the MSS improves significantly. For a 5-minute maneuver of the MSS, the maximum control torque required is only 34.5 Nm.

Modi, V. J.; Ng, A. C.; Karray, F.

1992-08-01

388

Keeping the Dream Alive: Managing the Space Station Program, 1982 to 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The management is described and analyzed of the formative years of the NASA Space Station Program (1982 to 1986), beginning with the successful initiative for program approval by Administrator James M. Beggs through to the decision to bring program manage...

T. J. Lewin V. K. Narayanan

1990-01-01

389

Video Requirements for Materials Processing Experiments in the Space Station US Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Full utilization of the potential of the materials research on the Space Station can be achieved only if adequate means are available for interactive experimentation between the science facilities and ground-based investigators. Extensive video interfaces...

C. R. Baugher

1989-01-01

390

Natural Environmental Criteria for the Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design, Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The natural environment design criteria requirements for use in the Space Station and its elements (SSPE) definition and preliminary design were studied. The atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic environments, meteoroids, radiation, physical constants are...

W. W. Vaughan

1984-01-01

391

Natural Environment Design Criteria for the Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The natural environment design criteria for the Space Station Program (SSP) definition and preliminary design are presented. Information on the atmospheric, dynamic and thermodynamic environments, meteoroids, radiation, magnetic fields, physical constants...

W. W. Vaughan C. E. Green

1985-01-01

392

Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated wi...

C. K. Reed J. A. Dever M. M. Hasegawa S. K. Rutledge

1998-01-01

393

Quantifying and Improving International Space Station Survivability Following Orbital Debris Penetration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increase of the orbital debris environment in low-earth orbit has prompted NASA to develop analytical tools for quantifying and lowering the likelihood of crew loss following orbital debris penetration of the International Space Station (ISS). NASA us...

J. Williamsen H. Evans B. Bohl S. Evans

2001-01-01

394

Considerations for Medical Transport from the Space Station via an Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In developing a permanently crewed space station, the importance of medical care has been continually reaffirmed; and the health maintenance facility (HMF) is an integral component. It has diagnostic, therapeutic, monitoring, and information management ca...

D. Gerstner D. Stizza G. C. Hamilton P. Stepaniak R. Garrison

2001-01-01

395

Space Station Needs, Attributes and Architectural Options Study. Briefing Material: Final Review and Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advantages and disadvantages were assessed for configuration options for a modular 14' diameter space station, a modular aft cargo carrier and a shuttle derived vehicle. Early, intermediate, and mature configurations were defined as well as power requirem...

1983-01-01

396

Space station Ku-band antenna performance degradation due to solar panel scattering interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space station Ku-band reflector antenna performance degradation due to solar panel scattering interference is analyzed. To characterize the scattering properties of the space station solar array panels, a series of radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at Ku-band frequencies. The blockage effects of structures to a reflector antenna are traditionally modeled using “null-field hypothesis”. The reflection and

Shian U. Hwu; Larry A. Johnson; James D. Elmore; Ba P. Lu; Jon S. Fournet; Robert J. Panneton; John C. Ngo; G. Dickey Arndt; Brian A. Bourgeois

1994-01-01

397

Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such\\u000a as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical\\u000a equipment and materials of the space station. The development of fast and easy to use molecular detection and quantification\\u000a methods

Sandra P. van Tongeren; Janneke Krooneman; Gerwin C. Raangs; Gjalt W. Welling; Hermie J. M. Harmsen

2007-01-01

398

The stable orbit of the small satellite flying around the space station and the orbit maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable orbit of a small satellite flying around the space station and the orbit maintenance are studied based on the Hill equation and a sliding-mode control (SMC) approach. First, the problem of the stable orbit of the small satellite flying around the space station is transformed into the sliding-mode control problem. Then, sliding-mode controllers are proposed to guarantee the

Jianbo Hu; Hongye Su; Weimin Wu; Jian Chu

2000-01-01

399

An innovative modulating retro-reflector for free-space optical communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulating retro-reflectors (MRR) are beneficial for asymmetric free-space optics communication links. An MRR includes an optical retro-reflector and an electro-optic shutter. The main advantage of an MRR configuration is that it shifts most of the power, weight, and pointing requirements onto one end of the link. In this study an innovative device comprising of nanoparticle-embedded ferroelectric thin film is used as an MRR. The new modulator is mounted in front of a passive retro-reflector. In our study we calculated the link budget for lunar exploration scenario. The scenario includes a base station that communicates with several robots or astronauts. In our simulations, the base station illuminates a robot with a continuous-wave beam, i.e. an interrogating beam. The un-modulated beam strikes the MRR, which is located on the robot, and is passively reflected back to the base station carrying the data that has been modulated onto it by the MRR. In this scenario a robot and a base-station are 4km apart, with a clear line of sight. In addition, the innovative MRR is capable of achieving 12dB contrast ratio. Under these assumptions and using the nanoparticle-embedded ferroelectric MRR we calculated the required transmission power for a given bit-rate and BER.

Rosenkrantz, Etai; Arnon, Shlomi

2013-09-01

400

New color images of transient luminous events from dedicated observations on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the "Cosmic Shore" program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Cupola module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of <2 h of video. Sprites tend to appear in a single frame simultaneously with maximum lightning brightness. Unique images (a) from nadir of a sprite horizontally displaced form the lightning light and (b) from the oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly enhance the value of observation time.

Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Mezuman, Keren; Elhalel, Gal; Pariente, Meidad; Glickman-Pariente, Maya; Ziv, Baruch; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

2013-09-01

401

Space Station Power Generation in Support of the Beta Gimbal Anomaly Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex spacecraft ever assembled and operated in orbit. The first U.S. photovoltaic (PV) module, containing two solar arrays, was launched, installed, and activated in early December 2000. After the first week of continuously rotating the U.S. solar arrays, engineering personnel in the ISS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) observed higher than expected electrical currents on the drive motor in one of the Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGA), the mechanism used to maneuver a U.S. solar array. The magnitude of the motor currents continued to increase over time on both BGA's, creating concerns about the ability of the gimbals to continue pointing the solar arrays towards the sun, a function critical for continued assembly of the ISS. A number of engineering disciplines convened in May 2001 to address this on-orbit hardware anomaly. This paper reviews the ISS electrical power system (EPS) analyses performed to develop viable operational workarounds that would minimize BGA use while maintaining sufficient solar array power to continue assembly of the ISS. Additionally, EPS analyses performed in support of on-orbit BGA troubleshooting exercises is reviewed. EPS capability analyses were performed using SPACE, a computer code developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the ISS program office.

Delleur, Ann M.; Propp, Timothy W.

2003-01-01

402

[The problem of developing a lettuce greenhouse for the International space station and future interplanetary missions].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the effects of gravity on growing plants, we conducted ground-based long-term experiments with dwarf wheat (cultivar "Apogee USU") and Chinese cabbage (cultivar "Khibinskaja"). The test crop had been grown in overhead position with HPS lamp below the root module so that gravity and light gradients were in opposite direction. Plants of the control crop grew in normal position under the same lamp. Both crops were grown on porous metallic membranes with stable--1 kPa water potential on the surface. Results from these studies allowed us to examine the significant differences in growth and development of the plants as well as the root systems in relation to the gravity force. Nevertheless, the experiments in greenhouse Svet aboard the Mir space station proved that it is possible to compensate the effects of weightlessness on higher plants by manipulating gradients of environmental parameters (i.e. photon flux, water potential in the root zone, etc.). Even in ground studies Svet productivity averaged no more than 14 gm of fresh salad biomass per a day. This does not provide a sufficient supplement nutrients to the ISS crew. A cylindrical design of a space plant growth facility (SPGF) allows for maximal productivity under very tight energy and volume limitations onboard the ISS and a number of operational advantages. PMID:12572116

Berkovich, Iu A; Krivobok, N M; Siniak, Iu E; Smolianshchina, S O; Grigor'ev, Iu I; Romanov, S Iu; Guzenberg, A S

2002-01-01

403

Potential commercial use of the International Space Station by the biotechnology\\/pharmaceutical\\/biomedical sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) is the linch-pin of NASA's future space plans. It emphasizes scientific research by providing a world-class scientific laboratory in which to perform long-term basic science experiments in the space environment of microgravity, radiation, vacuum, vantage-point, etc. It will serve as a test-bed for determining human system response to long-term space flight and for developing the

George W. Morgenthaler; Louis Stodieck

1999-01-01

404

Development of Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (JEM\\/SMILS) Aboard the International Space Station for Monitoring Stratospheric Ozone Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communications Research Laboratory and National Space Development Agency of Japan are collaborating to develop a submillimeter-wave limb-emission sounder (SMILES) to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station. The JEM\\/SMILES is a submillimeter-wave limb-sounding radiometer operating in the 640-GHz band for observing stratospheric minor constituents such as O3, ClO, HCl, HO2, BrO, etc., which play

Takeshi Manabe; Masumichi Seta; Junji Inatani; Ryouta Satoh

405

Microbial antibiotic production aboard the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies examining metabolic characteristics of bacterial cultures have mostly suggested that reduced gravity is advantageous\\u000a for microbial growth. As a consequence, the question of whether space flight would similarly enhance secondary metabolite\\u000a production was raised. Results from three prior space shuttle experiments indicated that antibiotic production was stimulated\\u000a in space for two different microbial systems, albeit under suboptimal growth

M. R. Benoit; W. Li; L. S. Stodieck; K. S. Lam; C. L. Winther; T. M. Roane; D. M. Klaus

2006-01-01

406

The Almaz Space Station Complex - A History 1964-1992 - Part 2 1976-1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union explored the possibility of using humans in space for military purposes. The only such project that was brought to fruition was a Soviet military space station program known as “Almaz.” Between 1973 and 1976, the Soviets launched three Almaz stations, which were publicly known as Salyut-2, Salyut-3, and Salyut-5. Several crews visited the stations with varying degrees of success. A major element of the Almaz program was the large Transport-Supply Ship (TKS), a vehicle that was never used with Almaz, but eventually served as the basis for the core of the International Space Station. This article is an attempt to use recently published information from Russia to present a history of the Almaz program.

Siddiqi, A. A.

407

The Almaz Space Station Complex - A History, 1964-1992 Part 1 1964-1976  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union explored the possibility of using humans in space for military purposes. The only such project that was brought to fruition was a Soviet military space station program known as “Almaz.” Between 1973 and 1976, the Soviets launched three Almaz stations, which were publicly known as Salyut-2, Salyut-3, and Salyut-5. Several crews visited the stations with varying degrees of success. A major element of the Almaz program was the large Transport-Supply Ship (TKS), a vehicle that was never used with Almaz, but eventually served as the basis for the core of the International Space Station. This article is an attempt to use recently published information from Russia to present a history of the Almaz program.

Siddiqi, A. A.

408

A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research using the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. The Enterprise has recently completed an assessment of the science prioritization from which the future materials science ISS type payloads will be implemented. Science accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight and ground investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS lab facilities to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on radiation shielding, nanomaterials, propulsion materials, and biomaterials type research. The Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for the flight research environment. A summary will explain the concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program.

Schlagheck, R.

2002-01-01

409

Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 3: Manned Space Station relevance to commercial telecommunications satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A document containing a forecast of satellite traffic and revelant technology trends to the year 2000 was prepared which includes those space station capabilities and characteristics that should be provided to make the station useful to commercial satellite owners. The document was circulated to key representative organizations within the commercial telecommunications satellite and related communities of interest, including spacecraft manufacturers, commercial satellite owners, communications carriers, networks and risk insurers. The prospectus document is presented as well as the transmittal letter and the mailing list of the people and companies that were asked to review it. Key commercial telecommunications comments are summarized the actual response letters from the industry are included.

1983-04-01

410

Space stations for the United States: An idea whose time has come—and gone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the first space station in American culture was described in an 1869 work of fiction in the Atlantic Monthly, in the twentieth century the idea proliferated through all cultures as the sine qua non enabling technology for space exploration. In the latter part of the 1960s many in the leadership of NASA realized that the kind of resources that had been made available for the sprint to the Moon that was Project Apollo would not be repeated. They turned to advocating the development of major projects that would create for the United States a permanent infrastructure in space, and eventually the capability to leave Earth permanently. This involved as its centerpieces the development of an orbital workshop leading to a space station, and a reusable vehicle to transport people and cargo to and from Earth orbit with a modicum of efficiency. This found realization through the building of the International Space Station (ISS) at the end of the century. But even as ISS became a reality, on February 1, 2003, its role was made tenuous by the loss of the Columbia space shuttle and the grounding of the fleet. On January 14, 2004, moreover, President George W. Bush announced a reorientation of NASA's programs to emphasize a return to the Moon and a human expedition to Mars. In that context, he advocated the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010 and the ending of U.S. involvement in ISS before 2020. Suddenly, the space station had become irrelevant to American efforts in space. The history of space stations and their development over time, and what it portends for the future of space policy, is the subject of this essay.

Launius, Roger D.

2008-05-01

411

Astronaut Luca S. Parmitano Talks About International Space Station Combustion Study FLEX-ICE-GA  

NASA Video Gallery

Excerpt from NASA TV broadcast of crew interview with Expedition 36 / 37 Flight Engineer Luca S. Parmitano, European Space Agency (ESA) conducted in a studio at JSC. In this portion of the broadcast, Parmitano talks about the Flame Extinguishment Experiment Italian Combustion Experiment for Green Air (FLEX-ICE-GA) investigation, which he will conduct aboard the International Space Station.

Kristine Rainey

2013-06-10

412

Cosmic-Ray Studies with an Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS Detector) on the International Space Station  

SciTech Connect

A brief description of the physics research program implemented with an alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS detector) by a large-scale international collaboration on board the International Space Station is presented. The features of the experimental facility under construction are given, along with some results obtained during the test flight of the prototype spectrometer on board a space shuttle.

Plyaskin, V.V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Bol'shaya Cheremushkinskaya ul. 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation)

2005-01-01

413

Geostationary station keeping control of a space elevator during initial cable deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a basic concept to derive an orbital control strategy to achieve the full deployment and the geostationary station keeping of a space elevator during its initial cable deployment. The space elevator model is composed of a main spacecraft, a sinker mass and a massive cable connecting them. The cable elasticity, flexibility and taper of the cross-sectional area

Noboru Takeichi

414

First results from the PROTEIN experiment on board the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 15 2009 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched, carrying the Process Unit of the Protein Crystallization Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) to the International Space Station. It contained the PROTEIN experiment, aiming at the in-situ observation of nucleation and crystal growth behaviour of proteins. After installation in the European Drawer Rack (EDR) and connection to the PCDF Electronics Unit, experiment runs

Klaas Decanniere; Lothar Potthast; Vladimir Pletser; Dominique Maes; Fermin Otalora; Jose A. Gavira; Luis David Pati; Peter Lautenschlager; Robert Bosch

2010-01-01

415

Space stations for the United States: An idea whose time has come—and gone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the first space station in American culture was described in an 1869 work of fiction in the Atlantic Monthly, in the twentieth century the idea proliferated through all cultures as the sine qua non enabling technology for space exploration. In the latter part of the 1960s many in the leadership of NASA realized that the kind of resources that

Roger D. Launius

2008-01-01

416

International Space Station Research for the Next Decade: International Coordination and Research Accomplishments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 2011, the International Space Station reached an important milestone in the completion of assembly and the shift to the focus on a full and continuous utilization mission in space. The ISS partnership itself has also met a milestone in the coordina...

G. Karabadzhak J. Sabbagh J. A. Robinson M. Zell P. Johnson-Green T. Nakamura T. L. Thumm

2011-01-01

417

NASA uses Eclipse RCP Applications for Experiments on the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eclipse is going to space for the first time in 2013. The International Space Station (ISS) is used as a site for experiments any software developed as part of these experiments has to comply with extensive and strict user interface guidelines. NASA Ames ...

T. Cohen

2013-01-01

418

Assessment and Management of the Risks of Debris Hits During Space Station EVAs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The risk of EVAs is critical to the decision of whether or not to automate a large part of the construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the choice of the technologies of the space suit and the life support system will determine ...

E. Pate-Cornell M. Sachon

1997-01-01

419

Space Station long term lubrication analysis. Phase 1 preliminary tribological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in the size, complexity, and life requirements of satellites and space vehicles have put increasing demands on the lubrication requirements for trouble-free service. Since the development costs of large systems are high, long lives with minimum maintenance are dictated. The Space Station represents the latest level of size and complexity in satellite development; it will be nearly 100 meters

K. F. Dufrane; J. W. Kannel; J. A. Lowry; E. E. Montgomery

1990-01-01

420

Flight Simulator: Use of SpaceGraph Display in an Instructor/Operator Station. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes SpaceGraph, a new computer-driven display technology capable of showing space-filling images, i.e., true three dimensional displays, and discusses the advantages of this technology over flat displays for use with the instructor/operator station (IOS) of a flight simulator. Ideas resulting from 17 brainstorming sessions with…

Sher, Lawrence D.

421

DosiMir: Radiation measurements inside the Soviet Space Station Mir, first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dosemeter packets containing Thermoluminescence Dosemeters (TLD's) and track etch foils were used to measure the absorbed dose and the average Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of the radiation within the Space Station Mir. One packet was exposed over a period of about 5 months and the other one during the Austria-Soviet manned space program in Oct. 1991. Various types of

N. Vana; W. Schoener; M. Fugger; J. A. Akatov

1992-01-01

422

A model and practical solution for freezing phase change material aboard the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A need exists to send and return temperature-critical science payloads from the International Space Station to the earth. A Low Temperature low Energy Carrier (LoTEC) has been designed to meet this need. It is a passive device that gains its cooling power by using phase change material. This phase change material can be stored in containers on the International Space

James Blackwood

2004-01-01

423

Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 4: Power Systems/Propulsion/Robotics  

SciTech Connect

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution on 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 4 consists of the technology discipline sections for Power, Propulsion, and Robotics. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers from this report.

Not Available

1990-01-01

424

Modeling and Control of Flexible Space Stations (Slew Maneuvers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large orbiting space structures are expected to experience mechanical vibrations arising from several disturbing forces such as those induced by shuttle takeoff or docking and crew movements. The problem is considered of modeling and control of large spac...

N. U. Ahmed S. S. Lim

1989-01-01

425

Spacelab-1: An early space station for science and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific capabilities of the Spacelab manned pallet are reviewed, together with the implications of an expansion of the research effectiveness with a free-flying platform. The premier Spacelab flight will carry out earth observations with a metric camera and SAR, atmospheric studies will be performed with imaging spectrometers, and space plasma physics will be examined by injecting particle beams or VLF waves into the near-Shuttle environment. Radiance and spectrum data will be gathered of the sun and UV and X ray information will be recorded from the stars. Experimentation will also be carried out for on-board crystal growth, metallurgy, and glassy material production, as well as the response of biological systems to zero-g conditions and hard space radiation. The telemetry, time, crewmember participation, and on-board controls required for Spacelab operations are outlined. Missions for a space platform for studying the atmosphere/space interface are described.

Knott, K.; Feuerbacher, B.; Chappell, C. R.

1982-07-01

426

Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity on the International Space Station for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Space Suit System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet, the supply of extremely high quality water required for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit cooling on the International Space Station (ISS) will become a significant operational hardware ...

B. W. Taylor T. R. Hill

2012-01-01

427

14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CROSS-WAIVER...related to the International Space Station. (a) The objective...encouraging participation in the exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the...

2010-01-01

428

14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1266.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS ANDSPACE...related to the International Space Station. (a) The objective...encouraging participation in the exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the...

2009-01-01

429

Exercise in space: human skeletal muscle after 6 months aboard the International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The aim of this investigation was to document the exercise program used by crewmembers (n = 9; 45 ñ 2 yr) while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 mo and examine its effectiveness for preserving calf muscle characteristics. Before and after spaceflight, we assessed calf muscle volume (MRI), static and dynamic calf muscle performance, and muscle fiber types (gastrocnemius and soleus). While on the ISS, crewmembers had access to a running treadmill, cycle ergometer, and resistance exercise device. The exercise regimen varied among the crewmembers with aerobic exercise performed 5 h/wk at a moderate intensity and resistance exercise performed 3ÃÂ6 days/wk incorporating multiple lower leg exercises. Calf muscle volume decreased (P < 0.05) 13 ñ 2% with greater (P < 0.05) atrophy of the soleus (ÃÂ15 ñ 2%) compared with the gastrocnemius (ÃÂ10 ñ 2%). Peak power was 32% lower (P < 0.05) after spaceflight. Force-velocity characteristics were reduced (P < 0.05) ÃÂ20 to ÃÂ29% across the velocity spectrum. There was a 12ÃÂ17% shift in myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype of the gastrocnemius and soleus with a decrease (P < 0.05) in MHC I fibers and a redistribution among the faster phenotypes. These data show a reduction in calf muscle mass and performance along with a slow-to-fast fiber type transition in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which are all qualities associated with unloading in humans. Future long-duration space missions should modify the current ISS exercise prescription and/or hardware to better preserve human skeletal muscle mass and function, thereby reducing the risk imposed to crewmembers.

Scott Trappe (Ball State University); David Costill (Ball State University); Philip Gallagher (Ball State University Human Performance Laboratory); Andrew Creer (Ball State University Human Performance Laboratory); Jim R Peters (Marquette University Biological Sciences); Harlan Evans (Wyle Laboratories)

2009-01-12

430

Interference effects on Space Station Freedom and space shuttle orbiter Ku-band downlinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space shuttle orbiter (SSO) and Ku-band single access return (KSAR) link and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) KSAR link via the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) use the same carrier frequency. The interference between spacecraft is minimized by opposite antenna polarizations and by TDRSS antenna beam pointing, but if the SSF and SSO are in close proximity, it is expected that mutual interference will be significant. Recently, Tsang and Su (1988, 1989) simulated the mutual interference effects, using a practical nonlinear bandlimited channel. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a simplified (i.e., linear band-limited channel) analytical approach will yield adequate accuracy for the expected range of operating conditions. Relative degradation in bit energy-to-thermal noise power spectral density ratio to achieve a 10 exp -5 coded bit-error-probability is determined to be 4 dB for the Ku-band SSO-to-TDRS I-channel return link with a 4.5 dB effective signal-to-interference total power ratio (S/I) when the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link interferes, whereas Su's simulation yields approximately 5 dB degradation. For the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link, both analysis and simulation results yield a relative signal degradation of 0.4 dB at the effective S/I = 21.6 dB. In conclusion, interference on the Ku-band SSO-to-TDRS I-channel return link is significant, but on the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link it is negligible.

Kwon, Hyuck M.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Tu, Kwei

1993-01-01

431

The response of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to spaceflight in the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival and behavior of Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34 were tested in space. In three spaceflight experiments, during three separate visits to the ‘International Space\\u000a Station’ (ISS), strain CH34 was grown for 10–12 days at ambient temperature on mineral agar medium. Space- and earth-grown\\u000a cells were compared post-flight by flow cytometry and using 2D-gel protein analysis. Pre-, in- and post-flight incubation

Natalie Leys; Sarah Baatout; Caroline Rosier; Annik Dams; Catherine s’Heeren; Ruddy Wattiez; Max Mergeay

2009-01-01

432

A chondrule-like object captured by space-exposed aerogel on the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, and oxygen-isotope compositions of a micrometeoroid captured on the international space station. This micrometeoroid has the texture of a porphyritic olivine chondrule. Because hydrated phases were not identified in the micrometeoroid and because Ni-rich sulfide in it does not show exsolution of pentlandite on the TEM scale, the micrometeoroid probably escaped low temperature events such as aqueous alteration on its parent body. However, the mean value and standard deviation of Cr 2O 3 wt.% in olivine in the micrometeoroid suggest that the micrometeoroid experienced weak thermal metamorphism. Oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene and olivine in the micrometeoroid are similar to those of chondrule-like objects in comet 81P/Wild2 and coarse-grained crystalline micrometeorites as well as those in chondrules in major types of carbonaceous chondrites. These data suggest that the micrometeoroid is a fragment of a chondrule-like object that was derived from a primitive parent body that experienced thermal metamorphism.

Noguchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ushikubo, T.; Kita, N. T.; Valley, J. W.; Yamanaka, R.; Kimoto, Y.; Kitazawa, Y.

2011-09-01

433

Space Station Freedom. An Activity Book for Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use by teachers in the classroom or by parents at home. The descriptions, classroom activities and illustrations are designed for elementary-level school children. On each right-hand page is a simple line drawing that illustrates the narrative and the…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

434

NASA - NASA eClips™: Home Improvement - Space Station Style  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

435

Space Station Freedom. An Activity Book for Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet was prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use by teachers in the classroom or by parents at home. The descriptions, classroom activities and illustrations are designed for elementary-level school children. On each right-hand page is a simple line drawing that illustrates the narrative and the…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

436

Air Revitalization System Study for Japanese Space Station,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oxygen necessary for breathing during a long-duration manned space mission can be generated without supply from the earth by a system including processes such as CO2 removal and concentration, CO2 methanation, methane cracking and water generation, wa...

K. Otsuji O. Hanabusa T. Sawada T. Etch M. Minemoto

1988-01-01

437

Long Term Integrity for Space Station Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the High Temperature Design Codes ASME N47, British R5, and the French RCC-MR Rules. It is concluded that all these codes provide a good basis of design for space application. The new British R5 is the most complete since it deals with...

F. A. Leckie D. L. Marriott

1991-01-01

438

Space Station Live: First Findings from the AMS  

NASA Video Gallery

PAO Officer Kyle Herring interviews Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Project Manager Trent Martin about the first findings from the AMS. A small team from Johnson Space Center collaborates with AMS experiment operators at control centers at CERN in Geneva, in Taiwan and in Huntsville, Ala.

Mark Garcia

2013-04-04

439

Space Vectors Modulation for Nine-Switch Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, nine-switch inverter and nine-switch-z-source inverter have been proposed as dual output inverters. In this paper, the space vector modulation (SVM) of nine-switch inverter and nine-switch-z-source inverter is proposed. The proposed method increases the sum of modulation indices up to 15% in contrast with the conventional, scheme in which the sum of modulation indices is equal or less than one.

Seyed Mohammad Dehghan Dehnavi; Mustafa Mohamadian; Ali Yazdian; Farhad Ashrafzadeh

2010-01-01

440

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVIs): Earth-observing telescopes on International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVIs) were launched on 21st July 2012 as payloads to the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station. The EUVIs are parts of the IMAP (Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere, and Plasmasphere mapping) mission to observe the Earth's upper atmosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and plasmasphere. The other part of IMAP is a visible and near-infrared spectral imager (VISI). In this mission, we install two independent and identical telescopes. One telescope detects the terrestrial EUV emission from O+ (at the wavelength of 83.4 nm), and the other one detects He+ (30.4 nm). At the altitude of approximately 400 km, the two telescopes direct towards the Earth's limb to look at the ionosphere and plasmasphere from the inside-out. The maximum spatial resolution is 0.1° and time resolution is 1 minute. The optical instruments consist of multilayer coated mirrors which are optimized for 30.4 nm, metallic thin filters and 5-stage microchannel plates to pick up photon events efficiently. In our presentation, we report the mission overview, the instruments and the result of ground calibrations.

Uji, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi

2012-11-01

441

Two-dimensional model of a Space Station Freedom thermal energy storage canister  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Dynamic Power Module being developed for Space Station Freedom uses a eutectic mixture of LiF-CaF[sub 2] phase-change salt contained in toroidal canisters for thermal energy storage. This paper presents results from heat transfer analyses of the phase-change salt containment canister. A two-dimensional, axisymmetric finite difference computer program which models the canister walls, salt, void, and heat engine working fluid coolant was developed. Analyses included effects of conduction in canister walls and solid salt, conduction and free convection in liquid salt, conduction and radiation across salt vapor-filled void regions, and forced convection in the heat engine working fluid. Void shape and location were prescribed based on engineering judgment. The salt phase-change process was modeled using the enthalpy method. Discussion of results focuses on the role of free convection in the liquid salt on canister heat transfer performance. This role is shown to be important for interpreting the relationship between ground-based canister performance (in 1-g) and expected on-orbit performance (in micro-g). Attention is also focused on the influence of void heat transfer on canister wall temperature distributions. The large thermal resistance of void regions is shown to accentuate canister hot spots and temperature gradients.

Kerslake, T.W. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center); Ibrahim, M.B. (Cleveland State Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-05-01

442

Experiments with phase-change thermal-energy-storage canisters for Space Station Freedom  

SciTech Connect

The solar dynamic power module proposed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses the heat of fusion of a phase change material (PCM) to efficiently store thermal energy for use during eclipse periods. The PCM, a LiF-20CaF2 salt, is contained in annular, metal canisters located in a heat receiver at the focus of a solar concentrator. PCM canister ground-based experiments and analytical heat transfer studies are discussed. The hardware, test procedures, and test results from these experiments are discussed. After more than 900 simulated SSF orbital cycles, no canister cracks or leaks were observed and all data were successfully collected. The effect of 1-g test orientation on canister wall temperatures was generally small while void position was strongly dependent on test orientation and canister cooling. In one test orientation, alternating wall temperature data were measured that supports an earlier theory of oscillating vortex flow in the PCM melt. Analytical canister wall temperatures compared very favorably with experimental temperature data. This illustrates that ground-based canister thermal performance can be predicted well by analyses that employ straight-forward, engineering models of void behavior and liquid PCM free convection. Because of the accuracy of analytical models and the relative insensitivity of 1-g performance to test orientation, canister performance in micro-g should be predictable with a high degree of confidence by removing gravity effects from the analytical modeling.

Kerslake, T.W.

1991-01-01

443

CALET Mission for the Observation of Cosmic Rays on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) mission to make observations of high energy cosmic rays, electrons, gamma-rays, and nuclei, on the International Space Station (ISS). CALET mission has been approved as one of candidates for the next mission utilizing the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The detector of CALET consists of an imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). Main objective of cosmic-ray observation with CALET is to determine precise energy spectrum of electrons up to 20 TeV. As the super nova remnants (SNR) are taken to be sources of electrons, some structure caused by nearby electron sources is expected to appear in the energy spectrum over 1 TeV. Gamma-rays from 20 MeV to a few TeV can be also observed by CALET. Because a thick TASC of CALET gives high energy resolution, annihilation line of SUSY particle, which is a candidate of the dark matter, can be detected. Observation of nuclei is also possible up to 1000 TeV owing to the thick TASC. We have been going on conceptual design of CALET to clear a next judgment in one or two years to proceed to practical development for launching in 2013.

Tamura, Tadahisa; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Okudaira, Osamu; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Hareyama, Makoto; Miyajima, Hiromitsu; Miyaji, Takashi; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Ueno, Shiro; Saito, Yoshitaka; Takayanagi, Masahiro; Tomita, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Jun; Fuke, Hideyuki; Yamagami, Takamasa; Okuno, Shoji; Tateyama, Nobuto; Hibino, Kinya; Shiomi, Atsushi; Takita, Masato; Yuda, Toshinori; Shimizu, Yuki; Kakimoto, Fumio; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Terasawa, Toshio; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Katayose, Yusaku; Shibata, Makio; Yoshida, Kenji; Ichimura, Masaichi; Kuramata, Shuichi; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Komori, Yoshiko; Mizutani, Kohei; Munakata, Kazuki; Streitmatter, Robert E.; Mitchell, John W.; Barbier, Louis M.; Moissev, Alexander A.; Krizmanic, John F.; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, Joachim B.; Wefel, John P.; Binns, Walter R.; Israel, Martin H.; Krawzczynski, H. S.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Marrocchesi, Pier S.; Maestro, Paolo; Bagliesi, Maria G.; Millucci, Vincenzo; Meucci, Mario; Bigongiari, Gabriele; Zei, Riccardo; Kim, Meyoung; Adriani, Oscar; Papini, Paolo; Bonechi, Lorenzo; Elena, Vannuccini; Morsani, Fabio; Ligabue, Franco; Chang, Jin; Gan, Weiqun; Yang, Ji; Ma, Yuqian; Wang, Huanyu; Chen, Guoming

444

Living Together in Space: The Design and Operation of the Life Support Systems on the International Space Station, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station (ISS) incorporates elements designed and developed by an international consortium led by the United States (U.S.), and by Russia. For this cooperative effort to succeed, it is crucial that the designs and methods of design ...

P. O. Wieland

1998-01-01

445

Station Tour: Russian Segment  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1998, and Zvezda, the central command post. She also takes a look at the Poisk and Rassvet modules where Soyuz spacecraft are docked.

Gerald T Wright

2012-11-20

446

Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System concepts were characterized in order to define cost versus benefits for autonomous functional control and for controls and displays for OMV, OTV, and spacecraft servicing and operation. The attitude control topic focused on characterizing the Space Station attitude control problem through simulation of control system responses to structural disturbances. The first two topics, mentioned above, focused on specific technology items that require advancement in order to support an early 1990s initial launch of a Space Station, while the attitude control study was an exploration of the capability of conventional controller techniques.

1985-02-01

447

Natural environment design criteria for the Space Station definition and preliminary design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural environment design criteria for the Space Station Program (SSP) definition and preliminary design are presented. Information on the atmospheric, dynamic and thermodynamic environments, meteoroids, radiation, magnetic fields, physical constants, etc. is provided with the intension of enabling all groups involved in the definition and preliminary design studies to proceed with a common and consistent set of natural environment criteria requirements. The space station program elements (SSPE) shall be designed with no operational sensitivity to natural environment conditions during assembly, checkout, stowage, launch, and orbital operations to the maximum degree practical.

Vaughan, W. W.; Green, C. E.

1985-03-01

448

Venting through multiple-layer insulation on Space Station Freedom. II - Ascent rate pressure chamber testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test was conducted to determine the venting characteristics of the multiple-layer insulation (MLI) to be installed on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). A full MLI blanket with inter-blanket joints was installed onto a model of a section of the SSF pressure wall, support structure, and debris shield. Data were taken from this test and were used to predict the venting of the actual Space Station pressure-wall/MLI/debris-shield assemply during launch and possible re-entry. It was found that the pressure differences across the debris shields and MLI blankets were well within the specified limits in all cases.

Sharp, Jeffrey B.; Buitekant, Alan; Fay, John F.; Holladay, Jon B.

1993-01-01

449

Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission commanders scored higher than crew on the coping style of Accepting Responsibility. These results improve our understanding of the similarities and differences between mission commanders and crew, and suggest areas of importance for the selection and training of future commanders.

Brcic, Jelena

450

EML - an electromagnetic levitator for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a long and successful evolution of electromagnetic levitators for microgravity applications, including facilities for parabolic flights, sounding rocket missions and Spacelab missions, the Electromagnetic Levitator EML provides unique experiment opportunities onboard ISS. With the application of the electromagnetic levitation principle under microgravity conditions the undercooled regime of electrically conductive materials becomes accessible for an extended time which allows the performance of unique studies of nucleation phenomena or phase formation as well as the measurement of a range of thermophysical properties both above the melting temperature and in the undercooled regime. The EML payload is presently being developed by Astrium Space Transportation under contracts to ESA and DLR. The design of the payload allows flexible experiment scenarios individually targeted towards specific experimental needs and samples including live video control of the running experiments and automatic or interactive process control.

Seidel, A.; Soellner, W.; Stenzel, C.

2011-12-01

451

The Growing Legacy of Spinoffs from the International Space Station and Prospects for Future Benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multinational effort involving NASA employees and contractors across the United States and space agencies in 15 countries, the International Space Station (ISS) is humanity's home in space and has captured the world's imagination since its first component launched into orbit in 1998. While the ISS provides invaluable information about living in space--essential for future long-duration missions and colonies on the Moon and Mars--everything from the station's construction to biological experiments conducted onboard have led to spinoffs that are improving life on Earth. As the ISS nears completion, this paper highlights ISS-influenced technologies that are advancing fitness and medicine, purifying air and water, enhancing safety, and improving daily life in many other ways. This paper also examines several other promising future benefits derived from the ISS.

Comstock, D.; Lockney, D.

452

Differential unitary space-time modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for differential modulation with multiple antennas across a continuously fading channel, where neither the transmitter nor the receiver knows the fading coefficients. The framework can be seen as a natural extension of standard differential phase-shift keying commonly used in single-antenna unknown-channel systems. We show how our differential framework links the unknown-channel system with a known-channel system,

Bertrand M. Hochwald; Wim Sweldens

2000-01-01

453

Water and electrolyte studies during long-term missions onboard the space stations SALYUT and MIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution summarizes the results of investigations of water-electrolyte metabolism and its hormonal regulation conducted in cosmonauts who performed long-term space flights (from 18 to 366 days) aboard the space stations Salyut and Mir and compares them with the results obtained during various NASA flights. The role of the kidneys in ion metabolism regulation was assessed by various water-salt load

A. I. Grigoriev; B. V. Morukov; D. V. Vorobiev

1994-01-01

454

Space Station propulsion - Advanced development testing of the water electrolysis concept at MSFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful demonstration at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that the water electrolysis concept is sufficiently mature to warrant adopting it as the baseline propulsion design for Space Station Freedom is described. In particular, the test results demonstrated that oxygen\\/hydrogen thruster, using gaseous propellants, can deliver more than two million lbf-seconds of total impulse at mixture ratios of 3:1 to

L. W. Jones; D. R. Bagdigian

1989-01-01

455

A study of cosmic ray secondaries induced by the Mir space station using AMS01  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a high energy particle physics experiment that will study cosmic rays in the ?100MeV to 1TeV range and will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for at least 3 years. A first version of AMS-02, AMS-01, flew aboard the space shuttle Discovery from June 2 to June 12, 1998, and collected 108

M. Aguilar; J. Alcaraz; J. Allaby; B. Alpat; G. Ambrosi; H. Anderhub; L. Ao; A. Arefiev; P. Azzarello; E. Babucci; L. Baldini; M. Basile; D. Barancourt; F. Barao; G. Barbier; G. Barreira; R. Battiston; R. Becker; U. Becker; L. Bellagamba; P. Béné; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; A. Biland; S. Bizzaglia; S. Blasko; G. Boella; M. Boschini; M. Bourquin; L. Brocco; G. Bruni; M. Buénerd; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; C. Camps; P. Cannarsa; M. Capell; G. Carosi; D. Casadei; J. Casaus; G. Castellini; C. Cecchi; Y. H. Chang; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; Z. G. Chen; N. A. Chernoplekov; T. H. Chiueh; K. Cho; M. J. Choi; Y. Y. Choi; Y. L. Chuang; F. Cindolo; V. Commichau; A. Contin; E. Cortina-Gil; M. Cristinziani; J. P. da Cunha; T. S. Dai; C. Delgado; B. Demirköz; J. D. Deus; N. Dinu; L. Djambazov; I. D’Antone; Z. R. Dong; P. Emonet; J. Engelberg; F. J. Eppling; T. Eronen; G. Esposito; P. Extermann; J. Favier; E. Fiandrini; P. H. Fisher; G. Fluegge; N. Fouque; Yu. Galaktionov; M. Gervasi; P. Giusti; D. Grandi; O. Grimm; W. Q. Gu; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; R. Henning; V. Hermel; H. Hofer; M. A. Huang; W. Hungerford; M. Ionica; R. Ionica; M. Jongmanns; K. Karlamaa; W. Karpinski; G. Kenney; J. Kenny; D. H. Kim; G. N. Kim; K. S. Kim; M. Y. Kim; A. Klimentov; R. Kossakowski; V. Koutsenko; M. Kraeber; G. Laborie; T. Laitinen; G. Lamanna; E. Lanciotti; G. Laurenti; A. Lebedev; C. Lechanoine-Leluc; M. W. Lee; S. C. Lee; G. Levi; P. Levtchenko; C. L. Liu; H. T. Liu; I. Lopes; G. Lu; Y. S. Lu; K. Lübelsmeyer; D. Luckey; W. Lustermann; C. Maña; A. Margotti; F. Mayet; R. R. McNeil; B. Meillon; M. Menichelli; A. Mihul; B. Monreal; A. Mourao; A. Mujunen; F. Palmonari; A. Papi; H. B. Park; W. H. Park; M. Pauluzzi; F. Pauss; E. Perrin; A. Pesci; A. Pevsner; M. Pimenta; V. Plyaskin; V. Pojidaev; M. Pohl; V. Postolache; N. Produit; P. G. Rancoita; D. Rapin; F. Raupach; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Ribordy; J. P. Richeux; E. Riihonen; J. Ritakari; S. Ro; U. Roeser; C. Rossin; R. Sagdeev; D. Santos; G. Sartorelli; C. Sbarra; S. Schael; A. Schultz von Dratzig; G. Schwering; G. Scolieri; E. S. Seo; J. W. Shin; E. Shoumilov; V. Shoutko; R. Siedling; D. Son; T. Song; M. Steuer; G. S. Sun; H. Suter; X. W. Tang; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; M. Tornikoski; J. Torsti; J. Trümper; J. Ulbricht; S. Urpo; E. Valtonen; J. Vandenhirtz; F. Velcea; E. Velikhov; B. Verlaat; I. Vetlitsky; F. Vezzu; J. P. Vialle; G. Viertel; D. Vité; H. Von Gunten; S. Waldmeier Wicki; W. Wallraff; B. C. Wang; J. Z. Wang; Y. H. Wang; K. Wiik; C. Williams; S. X. Wu; P. C. Xia; J. L. Yan; L. G. Yan; C. G. Yang; J. Yang; M. Yang; S. W. Ye; P. Yeh; Z. Z. Xu; H. Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; W. Z. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi; B. Zimmermann; P. Zuccon

2005-01-01

456

Chiral modulations in curved space I: formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to present a formalism that allows to handle four-fermion effective theories at finite temperature and density in curved space. The formalism is based on the use of the effective action and zeta function regularization and supports the inclusion of inhomogeneous and anisotropic phases. One of the key points of the method is the use of a non-perturbative ansatz for the heat-kernel that returns the effective action in partially resummed form, providing a way to go beyond the approximations based on the Ginzburg-Landau expansion for the partition function. The effective action for the case of ultra-static Riemannian spacetimes with compact spatial section is discussed in general and a series representation, valid when the chemical potential satisfies a certain constraint, is derived. To see the formalism at work, we consider the case of static Einstein spaces at zero chemical potential. Although in this case we expect inhomogeneous phases to occur only as meta-stable states, the problem is complex enough and allows to illustrate how to implement numerical studies of inhomogeneous phases in curved space. Finally, we extend the formalism to include arbitrary chemical potentials and obtain the analytical continuation of the effective action in curved space.

Flachi, Antonino; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-02-01

457

Microwave energy transmission test toward the SPS using the Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outline of a project METT (Microwave Energy Transmission Test) using the Space Station is described. The objectives of the METT are to develop and test the technology of microwave energy transmission for the future Solar Power Satellite (SPS), and to estimate the environmental effects of the high power microwaves on the ionosphere and the atmosphere. Energy generated with solar cells is transmitted from a transmitting antenna on the bus platform near the Space Station to a rectenna on the sub-satellite or the ground station in order to test the total efficiency and the functions of the development system of the energy transmission. Plasma similar to that in the D and E layers in the ionosphere is produced in a large balloon opened on the sub-satellite in order to investigate possible interactions between the SPS microwave and the ionospheric plasma and to determine the maximum power density of the microwave beam which passes through the ionosphere.

Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

458

Microwave energy transmission test toward the SPS using the Space Station  

SciTech Connect

An outline of a project METT (Microwave Energy Transmission Test) using the Space Station is described. The objectives of the METT are to develop and test the technology of microwave energy transmission for the future Solar Power Satellite (SPS), and to estimate the environmental effects of the high power microwaves on the ionosphere and the atmosphere. Energy generated with solar cells is transmitted from a transmitting antenna on the bus platform near the Space Station to a rectenna on the sub-satellite or the ground station in order to test the total efficiency and the functions of the development system of the energy transmission. Plasma similar to that in the D and E layers in the ionosphere is produced in a large balloon opened on the sub-satellite in order to investigate possible interactions between the SPS microwave and the ionospheric plasma and to determine the maximum power density of the microwave beam which passes through the ionosphere. 9 references.

Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

1985-01-01

459

Space Station Freedom airlock - The integration of IVA and EVA capabilities in an orbital element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet mission goals, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) airlock must maximize crew efficiency while supporting a range of extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) operations. EVA will be a frequently planned occurrence on SSF. In order to maximize the usefulness of the limited EVA resource, overhead times must be minimized. This paper discusses how the SSF airlock outfitting design responds to both IVA and EVA requirements. An overview of the SSF airlock and the missions it must accomplish are also provided. The focus of this paper is on how the outfitting and man systems designs provide solutions to multiple requirements, explicitly stated as well as derived requirements. The Space Station airlock is evaluated as an integrated system in the functional assessments of the EVA task, and this paper explains how station common hardware and systems are adapted to the unique airlock environment.

Moore, Thomas O., Jr.; Matthews, Anthony P.

1992-07-01

460

Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline