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Sample records for space station module

  1. Telescoping space station modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A design concept is described wherein telescoping space station modules would be utilized to nearly double the useful volume onboard a station. Methods for utilizing the concept to obtain enchanced protection from space debris and radiation are described. The amenability of the concept to variation in station configuration, assembly, and disassembly is discussed. A modification of the concept which could provide flexibility in the manner in which the Shuttle Orbiter is docked with the station and enhance collision avoidance during such maneuvers is described.

  2. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  3. Space Station Photovoltaic power modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Silicon cell Photovoltaic (PV) power modules are key components of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) scheduled to begin deployment in 1994. Four PV power modules, providing 75 KWe of user ac power, form the cornerstone of the EPS; which is comprised of Photovoltaic (PV) power modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) power modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system. The PV modules are located on rotating outboard sections of the Space Station (SS) structure and each module incorporates its own nickel-hydrogen energy storage batteries, its own thermal control system, and some autonomous control features. The PV modules are a cost-effective and technologically mature approach for providing reliable SS electrical power and are a solid base for EPS growth, which is expected to reach 300 KWe by the end of the Space Station's 30-year design lifetime.

  4. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  5. Pressurized modules for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Grant, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Crew workstations, storage, and facilities in the SSF Habitation module along with station housekeeping and supporting subsystems (power, thermal, and life support) are considered. The U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules are based on a common structural design. The pressurized logistics modules (PLMs) have maximum commonality with the other pressurized modules including common ring frames and waffle grid skin; multilayer insulation and debris shield; and one common endcone.

  6. Photovoltaic power modules for NASA's manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The capability and the safety of manned spacecraft are largely dependent upon reliable electric power systems. Two similar space power systems able to survive the low Earth orbit environment, are being considered for NASA's Manned Space Station (SS), scheduled to begin operation in the mid 1990's. The Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is composed of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) Power Modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. One EPS configuration will deliver 37.5 kW of PV based, utility grade, ac power to SS users. A second 75 kWe PV based EPS option is also being considered for SS deployment. The two EPS options utilize common modules and differ only in the total number of PV Power Modules used. Each PV Power Module supplies 18.75 kWe of ac power and incorporates its own energy storage and thermal control. The general requirements and the current preliminary design configuration of the Space Station PV Power Modules are examined.

  7. Photovoltaic power modules for NASA's manned Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The capability and the safety of manned spacecraft are largely dependent upon reliable electric power systems. Two similar space power systems able to survive the low earth orbit environment, are being considered for NASA's Manned Space Station (SS), scheduled to begin operation in the mid 1990's. The Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is composed of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) Power Modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. One EPS configuration will deliver 37.5 kW of PV based, utility grade, ac power to SS users. A second 75 kWe PV based EPS option is also being considered for SS deployment. The two EPS options utilize common modules and differ only in the total number of PV Power Modules used. Each PV Power Module supplies 18.75 kWe of ac power and incorporates its own energy storage and thermal control. The general requirements and the current preliminary design configuration of the Space Station PV Power Modules are examined.

  8. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 6: Space Station Freedom/spacelab modules compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The differences in rack requirements for Spacelab, the Shuttle Orbiter, and the United States (U.S.) laboratory module, European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module, and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of Space Station Freedom are identified. The feasibility of designing standardized mechanical, structural, electrical, data, video, thermal, and fluid interfaces to allow space flight hardware designed for use in the U.S. laboratory module to be used in other locations is assessed.

  9. Polymer crystal growth facility concept for Space Station laboratory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, Tripty; Moore, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    Interest in materials processing in space began to evolve in the late 1950's through low gravity simulation and some experiments on Apollo flights. Encouraged by the early results and considerations of the likely behavior of liquids and solidification process in low-gravity gave the recognition that this environment might be useful for a variety of unique processes. This generated a number of experimental ideas and gave rise to the design and development of facilities that will perform the experiments in space vehicles. These include the evolution of apparatus leading to the development of facilities for processing of materials on Skylab and now for the Space Transportation System (STS). The U.S. module on Space Station (SS) is going to expand this unique laboratory environment with practically no constraint on materials processing activity. This will need technology advancement for the hardware that will be required in this era. This presentation discusses the current concept for the experimental facility which will be housed in the U.S. Laboratory module on the Space Station and will allow the growth of single crystals of polymeric and organic materials using the state-of-the-art growth techniques.

  10. Utilization of common pressurized modules on the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Marston J.; Heck, Michael L.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    During the preliminary design review of Space Station Freedom elements and subsystems, it was shown that reductions of cost, weight, and on-orbit integration and verification would be necessary in order to meet program constraints, particularly nominal Orbiter payload launch capability. At that time, the Baseline station consisted of four resource nodes and two 44 ft modules. In this study, the viability of a common module which maintains crew and payload accommodation is assessed. The size, transportation, and orientation of modules and the accommodation of system racks and user experiments are considered and compared to baseline. Based on available weight estimates, a module pattern consisting of six 28 ft. common elements with three radial and two end ports is shown to be nearly optimal. Advantageous characteristics include a reduction in assembly flights, dual egress from all elements, logical functional allocation, no adverse impacts to international partners, favorable airlock, cupola, ACRV (Assured Crew Return Vehicle), and logistics module accommodation, and desirable flight attitude and control characteristics.

  11. Space station automation of common module power management and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W.; Jones, E.; Ashworth, B.; Riedesel, J.; Myers, C.; Freeman, K.; Steele, D.; Palmer, R.; Walsh, R.; Gohring, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to automate a breadboard level Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system which possesses many functional characteristics of a specified Space Station power system. The automation system was built upon 20 kHz ac source with redundancy of the power buses. There are two power distribution control units which furnish power to six load centers which in turn enable load circuits based upon a system generated schedule. The progress in building this specified autonomous system is described. Automation of Space Station Module PMAD was accomplished by segmenting the complete task in the following four independent tasks: (1) develop a detailed approach for PMAD automation; (2) define the software and hardware elements of automation; (3) develop the automation system for the PMAD breadboard; and (4) select an appropriate host processing environment.

  12. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  13. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

    1994-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

  14. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura S.

    1992-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. This paper presents the description and development status of the PVM thermal control system.

  15. Space station common module network topology and hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  16. Space Station module Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    This project consists of several tasks which are unified toward experimentally demonstrating the operation of a highly autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) habitation/laboratory modules. This goal will be extended to a demonstration of autonomous, cooperative power system operation for the whole SSF power system through a joint effort with NASA's Lewis Research Center, using their Autonomous Power System. Short term goals for the space station module power management and distribution include having an operational breadboard reflecting current plans for SSF, improving performance of the system communications, and improving the organization and mutability of the artificial intelligence (AI) systems. In the middle term, intermediate levels of autonomy will be added, user interfaces will be modified, and enhanced modeling capabilities will be integrated in the system. Long term goals involve conversion of all software into Ada, vigorous verification and validation efforts and, finally, seeing an impact of this research on the operation of SSF. Conversion of the system to a DC Star configuration is now in progress, and should be completed by the end of October, 1989. This configuration reflects the latest SSF module architecture. Hardware is now being procured which will improve system communications significantly. The Knowledge-Based Management System (KBMS) is initially developed and the rules from FRAMES have been implemented in the KBMS. Rules in the other two AI systems are also being grouped modularly, making them more tractable, and easier to eventually move into the KBMS. Adding an intermediate level of autonomy will require development of a planning utility, which will also be built using the KBMS. These changes will require having the user interface for the whole system available from one interface. An Enhanced Model will be developed, which will allow exercise of the system through the interface without requiring all of the power hardware to be operational. The functionality of the AI systems will continue to be advanced, including incipient failure detection. Ada conversion will begin with the lowest level processor (LLP) code. Then selected pieces of the higher level functionality will be recorded in Ada and, where possible, moved to the LLP level. Validation and verification will be done on the Ada code, and will complete sometimes after completion of the Ada conversion.

  17. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  18. Node 2 and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named 'Kibo' (Hope). Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  19. Space Station overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanctis, Carmine E.; Priest, C. C.; Wood, W. V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Space Station, including program guidelines, international involvement, current baseline configuration, and utilization for science and application missions. Space Station configuration and capabilities, plus methods of utilizing the Space Station for scientific and engineering investigations, are described. The Space Station is being designed as a multipurpose facility to support a number of functions, such as a laboratory in space, a transportation node, an assembly facility, a staging base, etc. The description includes the baseline configuration, location of the pressurized modules, servicing and assembly facilities, and the work package structure for Space Station management. The Space Station will accommodate a wide variety of user requirements in laboratory modules and as attached payloads. To show the utility of the Space Station, a variety of science and application missions currently being studied for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed.

  20. The Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cost constraints to a large degree control the functionality and form of the IOC of the Space Station. Planning of Station missions must be delayed to retain flexibility, a goal also served by modular development of the Station and by multi-use laboratory modules. Early emphasis on servicing other spacecraft is recommended, as is using available Shuttle flight time for R&D on Space Station technologies and operations.

  1. Crew considerations in the design for Space Station Freedom modules on-orbit maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Jack W.; Williams, Katherine A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents an approach to the maintenance process currently planned for the Space Station Freedom modules. In particular, it describes the planned crew interfaces with maintenance items, and the anticipated implications for the crew in performing the interior and exterior maintenance of modules developed by U.S., ESA, and NASDA. Special consideration is given to the maintenance requirements, allocations, and approach; the maintenance design; the Maintenance Workstation; the robotic mechanisms; and the developemnt of maintenance techniques.

  2. Reuse International Space Station (ISS) Modules as Lunar Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie; Owens, James E.; Floyd, Brian A.; Strong, Janet; Sanford, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    NASA currently projects ending the ISS mission in approximately 2016, due primarily to the expense of re-boost and re-supply. Lunar outposts are expected to be in place in the same timeframe. In support of these mission goals, a scheme to reuse ISS modules on the moon has been identified. These modules could function as pressurized volumes for human habitation in a lunar vacuum as they have done in low-earth orbit. The ISS hull is structurally capable of withstanding a lunar landing because there is no atmospheric turbulence or friction. A compelling reason to send ISS modules to the moon is their large mass; a large portion of the ISS would survive re-entry if allowed to de-orbit to Earth. ISS debris could pose a serious risk to people or structures on Earth unless a controlled re-entry is performed. If a propulsive unit is devised to be attached to the ISS and control re-entry, a propulsion system could be used to propel the modules to the moon and land them there. ISS modules on the lunar surface would not require re-boost. Radiation protection can be attained by burying the module in lunar regolith. Power and a heat removal system would be required for the lunar modules which would need little support structure other than the lunar surface. With planetary mass surrounding the module, heat flux may be controlled by conductance. The remaining requirement is the re-supply of life-support expendables. There are raw materials on the moon to supplement these vital resources. The lunar maria is known to contain approximately 40% oxygen by mass in inorganic mineral compounds. Chemical conversion of moon rocks to release gaseous oxygen is known science. Recycling and cleaning of air and water are currently planned to be accomplished with ISS Environmental Control & Life Support Systems (ECLSS). By developing a Propulsion and Landing Module (PLM) to dock to the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), several identical PLMs could be produced to rescue and transfer the ISS modules to the lunar surface, one by one. The propulsion does not need to be as swift as Apollo, nor would the modules need to be manned during transportation to the moon. The trajectory from low-Earth to lunar orbit would avoid or quickly pass through the Van Allen belts to minimize radiation exposure to electronics onboard. A landing technology similar to Apollo's could be utilized to land an ISS module on the moon. Since the mission will be unmanned, system redundancy could be minimized to keep the cost down. If the mission failed and a module crashed landed on the moon, the risk of debris landing on Earth would be avoided and the raw materials could be used in future lunar missions.

  3. Automation in the Space Station module power management and distribution Breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan; Lollar, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) Breadboard, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, models the power distribution within a Space Station Freedom Habitation or Laboratory module. Originally designed for 20 kHz ac power, the system is now being converted to high voltage dc power with power levels on a par with those expected for a space station module. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level process consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear, capable of quickly safing the system. The next level consists of local load center processors called Lowest Level Processors (LLP's). These LLP's execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. The level above the LLP's contains a Communication and Algorithmic Controller (CAC) which coordinates communications with the highest level. Finally, at this highest level, three cooperating Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems manage load prioritization, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. The system provides an excellent venue for developing and examining advanced automation techniques. The current system and the plans for its future are examined.

  4. Review of the environmental effects of the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is provided of the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO), the interaction of this environment with the Photovoltaic (PV) Power system of the Space Station Freedom is reviewed, and the environmental programs are described that are designed to investigate the interactions of the LEO environment with the photovoltaic power system. Such programs will support and impact the design of the subsystems of the PV module in order to survive the design lifetime in the LEO natural and induced environment.

  5. Review of the environmental effects on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is provided of the environment in the low earth orbit (LEO), the interaction of this environment with the photovoltaic (PV) power system of the Space Station Freedom is reviewed, and the environmental programs are described that are designed to investigate the interaction of the LEO environment with the photovoltaic power system. Such programs will support and impact the design of the subsystems of the PV module in order to survive the design lifetime in the LEO natural and induced environment.

  6. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  7. Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space station (20) includes a plurality of modules (24) and berthing hubs (22), joined by interconnections (26) which are sideways connectable. The modules (24) and hubs (22) are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections (26) include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports (50) and a clamp latch (52) formed from a plurality of sections (54, 56 and 58) hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports (50). A hermetic seal (63) is formed between the ports (50). A utilities connection channel (68) extends between the ports (50). The channel (68) has a shell (70) with utilities connectors (74) movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules (24) and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

  8. Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The geometric form of a space station is presented that includes a description of a plurality of modules and berthing hubs, joined by interconnections which are sideways connectable. The modules and hubs are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports and a clamp latch formed from a plurality of sections hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports. A hermetic seal is formed between the ports. A utilities connection channel extends between the ports. The channel has a shell with utilities connectors movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

  9. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (editor); Eichold, Alice (editor); Heers, Susan (editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  10. International Space Station Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  11. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  12. Space Station viewing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances E.; Lewis, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Concern based on historical precedent led to early investment of resources to identify Space Station viewing requirements in order that they could be transferred to module window designs, cupolas, indirect viewing methods (e.g., closed circuit television), and implemented in cost models tracking overall station configuration weight and cost. Previous space history and earth based analogs were used to identify needs and requirements relevant to long term missions.

  13. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  14. Reasoning about fault diagnosis for the space station common module thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachtsevanos, G.; Hexmoor, H.; Purves, B.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed common module thermal control system for the Space Station is designed to integrate thermal distribution and thermal control functions in order to transport heat and provide environmental temperature control through the common module. When the thermal system is operating in an off-normal state, due to component faults, an intelligent controller is called upon to diagnose the fault type, identify the fault location and determine the appropriate control action required to isolate the faulty component. A methodology is introduced for fault diagnosis based upon a combination of signal redundancy techniques and fuzzy logic. An expert system utilizes parity space representation and analytic redundancy to derive fault symptoms, the aggregate of which is assessed by a multivalued rule based system. A subscale laboratory model of the thermal control system designed is used as the testbed for the study.

  15. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  16. Space station common module power system network topology and hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate power system newtork topologies for the space station common module are defined and developed and the necessary hardware for test and evaluation is provided. Martin Marietta's approach to performing the proposed program is presented. Performance of the tasks described will assure systematic development and evaluation of program results, and will provide the necessary management tools, visibility, and control techniques for performance assessment. The plan is submitted in accordance with the data requirements given and includes a comprehensive task logic flow diagram, time phased manpower requirements, a program milestone schedule, and detailed descriptions of each program task.

  17. Augmentation of the space station module power management and distribution breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan; Hall, David K.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1991-01-01

    The space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard models power distribution and management, including scheduling, load prioritization, and a fault detection, identification, and recovery (FDIR) system within a Space Station Freedom habitation or laboratory module. This 120 VDC system is capable of distributing up to 30 kW of power among more than 25 loads. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear that is capable of quickly safing the system. At the next level are local load center processors, (LLP's) which execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. Above the LLP's are three cooperating artificial intelligence (AI) systems which manage load prioritizations, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. Recent upgrades to hardware and modifications to software at both the LLP and AI system levels promise a drastic increase in speed, a significant increase in functionality and reliability, and potential for further examination of advanced automation techniques. The background, SSM/PMAD, interface to the Lewis Research Center test bed, the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system, and future plans are discussed.

  18. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  19. The solar-terrestrial observatory as a major module of a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The solar-terrestrial environment is a dynamic, tightly coupled system in which variable solar energy is transmitted through electromagnetic radiation and the solar wind to the earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere. The constantly changing solar input and the continuous redistribution of energy near the earth combine to determine the characteristics of our global environment. An understanding and subsequent management of this environment will require a coordinated set of observations of solar processes and the accompanying magnetospheric and atmospheric responses. A major element in this observational plan should be a Solar-Terrestrial Observatory module of a manned Space Station in which instruments and experimental techniques developed during short-duration Spacelab flights will be applied to extended missions in both low-altitude and geosynchronous orbits.

  20. Space station automation of common module power management and distribution, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B.; Riedesel, J.; Myers, C.; Jakstas, L.; Smith, D.

    1990-01-01

    The new Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) testbed automation system is described. The subjects discussed include testbed 120 volt dc star bus configuration and operation, SSM/PMAD automation system architecture, fault recovery and management expert system (FRAMES) rules english representation, the SSM/PMAD user interface, and the SSM/PMAD future direction. Several appendices are presented and include the following: SSM/PMAD interface user manual version 1.0, SSM/PMAD lowest level processor (LLP) reference, SSM/PMAD technical reference version 1.0, SSM/PMAD LLP visual control logic representation's (VCLR's), SSM/PMAD LLP/FRAMES interface control document (ICD) , and SSM/PMAD LLP switchgear interface controller (SIC) ICD.

  1. International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Lab Module Simulator Build-Up and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul; Miller, Lee; Ibarra, Tom

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Sustaining Engineering program for the International Space Station (ISS), a ground simulator of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) in the Lab Module was designed and built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). To support prediction and troubleshooting, this facility is operationally and functionally similar to the flight system and flight-like components were used when available. Flight software algorithms, implemented using the LabVIEW(Registered Trademark) programming language, were used for monitoring performance and controlling operation. Validation testing of the low temperature loop was completed prior to activation of the Lab module in 2001. Assembly of the moderate temperature loop was completed in 2002 and validated in 2003. The facility has been used to address flight issues with the ITCS, successfully demonstrating the ability to add silver biocide and to adjust the pH of the coolant. Upon validation of the entire facility, it will be capable not only of checking procedures, but also of evaluating payload timelining, operational modifications, physical modifications, and other aspects affecting the thermal control system.

  2. Life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana under microgravity condition in the International Space Station Kibo module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Yano, Sachiko; Shimazu, Toru; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Kasahara, Haruo; Yashiro, Umi; Suto, Takamichi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kasahara, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    Gravity is an important environmental factors for growth and development of plants throughout their life cycle. We have designed an experiment, which is called Space Seed, to examine the effects of microgravity on the seed to seed life cycle of plants. We have carried out this experiment using a newly developed apparatus, which is called the Plant Experiment Unit (PEU) and installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard International Space Station (ISS). The CBEF is equipped with a turntable generating artificial gravity to perform 1-G control experiment as well as micro-G experiment on board. Arabidopsis thaliana seeds sown on dry rockwool in PEUs were transported from Kennedy Space Center to the ISS Kibo module by Space Shuttle Discovery in STS-128 mission. This experiment was started on Sep. 10, 2009 and terminated on Nov. 11, 2009. Arabidopsis seeds successfully germinated, and the plants passed through both vegetative and reproductive processes, such as formation of rosette leaves, bolting of inflorescence stems, flowering, formation of siliques and seeds. Vegetative and reproductive growth were compared among micro-G plants, 1-G control, and the ground control.

  3. Space station contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

  4. Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, William (compiler); Britt, Daniel (compiler); Elges, Michael (compiler); Myers, Chris (compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed system and describes recent enhancements to that system. Four tasks made up the original contract: (1) common module power management and distribution system automation plan definition; (2) definition of hardware and software elements of automation; (3) design, implementation and delivery of the hardware and software making up the SSM/PMAD system; and (4) definition and development of the host breadboard computer environment. Additions and/or enhancements to the SSM/PMAD test bed that have occurred since July 1990 are reported. These include: (1) rehosting the MAESTRO scheduler; (2) reorganization of the automation software internals; (3) a more robust communications package; (4) the activity editor to the MAESTRO scheduler; (5) rehosting the LPLMS to execute under KNOMAD; implementation of intermediate levels of autonomy; (6) completion of the KNOMAD knowledge management facility; (7) significant improvement of the user interface; (8) soft and incipient fault handling design; (9) intermediate levels of autonomy, and (10) switch maintenance.

  5. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  6. Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

  7. Battery Reinitialization of the Photovoltaic Module of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Gyan; Cohen, Fred; Dalton, Penni

    2002-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to electrical power and an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) that houses electrical hardware and batteries for electric power regulation and storage. Each PV module contains two independent power channels for fault tolerance. Each power channel contains three batteries in parallel to meet its performance requirements and for fault tolerance. Each battery consists of 76 Ni-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) cells in series. These 76 cells are contained in two orbital replaceable units (ORU) that are connected in series. On-orbit data are monitored and trended to ensure that all hardware is operating normally. Review of on-orbit data showed that while five batteries are operating very well, one is showing signs of mismatched ORUs. The cell pressure in the two ORUs differs by an amount that exceeds the recommended range. The reason for this abnormal behavior may be that the two ORUs have different use history. An assessment was performed and it was determined that capacity of this battery would be limited by the lower pressure ORU. Steps are being taken to reduce this pressure differential before battery capacity drops to the point of affecting its ability to meet performance requirements. As a first step, a battery reinitialization procedure was developed to reduce this pressure differential. The procedure was successfully carried out on-orbit and the pressure differential was reduced to the recommended range. This paper describes the battery performance and the consequences of mismatched ORUs that make a battery. The paper also describes the reinitialization procedure, how it was performed on orbit, and battery performance after the reinitialization. On-orbit data monitoring and trending is an ongoing activity and it will continue as ISS assembly progresses.

  8. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  9. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  10. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  11. Space Station Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program are outlined. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on draft and mass requirements are described with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

  12. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  13. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Harold T.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  14. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  15. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    1992-01-01

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station Freedom in FY 92 was appropriated. For FY 93, NASA is seeking $2.25 billion for the program; the planned budget for FY 94 is $2.5 billion. Further alterations to the hardware configuration for Freedom would be a serious setback; NASA intends 'to stick with the current baseline' and continue planning for utilization.

  16. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  17. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  18. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  19. Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

  20. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  1. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  2. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  3. Space station functional relationships analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

    1988-01-01

    A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

  4. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  5. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  6. Space Station galley design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  7. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  8. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (editor); Torr, Marsha R. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  9. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  10. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, A. M.; Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the initial operational capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion system (SSPS) to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. These objectives were met by analytical studies and by furnishing a propulsion test bed to the Marshall Space Flight Center for testing.

  11. Light Microscopy Module: On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids Integrated Rack on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a remotely controllable, automated, on-orbit facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of physical science and biological science experiments within the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) on the International Space Station. Initially four fluid physics experiments in the FIR will use the LMM the Constrained Vapor Bubble, the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2, Physics of Colloids in Space-2, and Low Volume Fraction Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly. The first experiment will investigate heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments will investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties.

  12. Protecting Astronaut Health at First Entry into Vehicles Visiting the international Space Station: Insights from Whole-Module Offgas Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    NASA has accumulated considerable experience in offgas testing of whole modules prior to their docking with the International Space Station (ISS). Since 1998, the Space Toxicology Office has performed offgas testing of the Lab module, both MPLM modules, US Airlock, Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, ATV1, HTV1, and three commercial vehicles. The goal of these tests is twofold: first, to protect the crew from adverse health effects of accumulated volatile pollutants when they first enter the module on orbit, and secondly, to determine the additional pollutant load that the ISS air revitalization systems must handle. In order to predict the amount of accumulated pollutants, the module is sealed for at least 1/5th the worst-case time interval that could occur between the last clean air purge and final hatch closure on the ground and the crew's first entry on orbit. This time can range from a few days to a few months. Typically, triplicate samples are taken at pre-planned times throughout the test. Samples are then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the rate of accumulation of pollutants is then extrapolated over time. The analytical values are indexed against 7-day spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) to provide a prediction of the total toxicity value (T-value) at the time of first entry. This T-value and the toxicological effects of specific pollutants that contribute most to the overall toxicity are then used to guide first entry operations. Finally, results are compared to first entry samples collected on orbit to determine the predictive ability of the ground-based offgas test.

  13. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  14. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  15. Space station proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his State of the Union address on January 25, President Ronald Reagan announced that he was directing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “develop a permanently manned space station, and to do it within a decade.”Included in the NASA budget proposal sent to Congress the following week was $150 million for the station. This is the first request of many; expected costs will total roughly $8 billion by the early 1990's.

  16. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  17. A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sours, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  18. Development and verification of hardware for life science experiments in the Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Asashima, Makoto; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Aizawa-Yano, Sachiko; Higashibata, Akira; Ando, Noboru; Nagase, Mutsumu; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Shimazu, Toru; Fukui, Keiji; Fujimoto, Nobuyoshi

    2004-03-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a cell biology experiment facility (CBEF) and a clean bench (CB) as a common hardware in which life science experiments in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM known as "Kibo") of the International Space Station (ISS) can be performed. The CBEF, a CO2 incubator with a turntable that provides variable gravity levels, is the basic hardware required to carry out the biological experiments using microorganisms, cells, tissues, small animals, plants, etc. The CB provides a closed aseptic operation area for life science and biotechnology experiments in Kibo. A phase contrast and fluorescence microscope is installed inside CB. The biological experiment units (BEU) are designed to run individual experiments using the CBEF and the CB. A plant experiment unit (PEU) and two cell experiment units (CEU type1 and type2) for the BEU have been developed. PMID:16145816

  19. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as construction goes on. The habitability resources available to the crew are the crew sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to deal with ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of International Partner Laboratories. Also, Node 2 and 3 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The Node 3 module will provide additional Environmental Control and Life Support Capability. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is the effects of long duration space flight on humans, a result of this research they will determine what are the habitability requirements for long duration space flight.

  20. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. N.; Goodrich, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 (+ or -) 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 (+ or -) 0.7, -0.4 (+ or -) 0.3, and 76 (+ or -) 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on (Delta)p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc.

  1. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  2. The NORSTAR Program: Space shuttle to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortunato, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of G-325, the first high school student-run space flight project, is updated. An overview is presented of a new international program, which involves students from space station countries who will be utilizing Get Away Special technology to cooperatively develop a prototype experiment for controlling a space station research module environment.

  3. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wade, C. E.; Givens, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

  4. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  5. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  6. Space Station Energy Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A general schematic for a space station power system is described. The major items of interest in the power system are the solar array, transfer devices, energy storage, and conversion equipment. Each item will have losses associated with it and must be utilized in any sizing study, and can be used as a checklist for itemizing the various system components.

  7. Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Griffin, DeVon W.

    2001-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of fluids and biology experiments within NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. Within the Fluids and Combustion Facility, four fluids physics experiments will utilize an instrument built around a light microscope. These experiments are the Constrained Vapor Bubble experiment (Peter C. Wayner of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2 (Paul M. Chaikin of Princeton University), the Physics of Colloids in Space-2 experiment (David A. Weitz of Harvard University), and the Low Volume Fraction Colloidal Assembly experiment (Arjun G. Yodh of the University of Pennsylvania). The first experiment investigates heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties. Key diagnostic capabilities for meeting the science requirements of the four experiments include video microscopy to observe sample features including basic structures and dynamics, interferometry to measure vapor bubble thin film thickness, laser tweezers for colloidal particle manipulation and patterning, confocal microscopy to provide enhanced three-dimensional visualization of colloidal structures, and spectrophotometry to measure colloidal crystal photonic properties.

  8. Space Station Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (editor); Mays, C. R. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

  9. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  10. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  11. Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  12. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  13. Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

  14. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  15. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  16. A one-meter aperture wide-field camera for the Japanese exposure module on space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennypacker, Carl; Ebisuzaki, Toshi; Handa, Toshihiro; Nugent, Peter; Fruchter, Andrew; Pain, Reynald; Aldering, Greg; Hammer, Francois; Groom, Don; Takahashi, Yoshi; Hadaway, James; Goobar, Ariel; Nomoto, Ken; Isaac, Maria; Goldhaber, Gerson; Perlmutter, Saul; MacKenty, John; Branch, David; Tsiopa, Olga; Gnedin, Yuri; Jochum, Josef

    1999-01-01

    We propose to construct and deploy a one-meter, wide field camera for cosmological, science education and other studies and site it on the International Space Station's Japanese Exposure Module (JEM). The SHOUT Telescope (for S_pace H_ands-O_n U_niverse T_elescope) is an inexpensive powerful instrument that will yield some of the most significant measurements in astrophysics. The detector would consist of a 15,000×15,000 pixel2 imaging CCD made of high-resistivity silicon, with quantum efficiency of approximately 50% at one micron. In addition, a single channel spectrograph is included for spectroscopy on any interesting photometric discoveries. Advances in graphite carbon mirrors and telescope construction enable an instrument weight of about 100-200 kg. Such a low-weight instrument could be placed on a mass-limited shuttle launch. This system would have a performance for finding point objects in a random field ~100x of that of the Advanced Camera system on HST at a wavelength of one micron. It would fill an under-exploited niche of the electromagnetic and time-variability spectrum and enable a broad range of synoptic measurements at high redshifts. In addition, cosmological effects measured in supernovae, quasars, galaxies, are large at z~1 to 2, ideally suited for I band studies-a region of great sensitivity for this instrument. The scientific program would include the discovery and follow-up of approximately 1000 Type 1a supernovae, discovery and studies of quasar lenses, a determination of this distribution and nature of micro-lensing sources, a deep field covering many square degrees in several colors to 27th magnitude and 0.2 arc-second resolution. A unique feature of this mission is that a strong collaboration between scientists, teachers, and students will be embedded in the operations of this system. Students will be able to collaborate on all of the science undertaken.

  17. Space Station Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  18. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  19. Growth evolution of the Space Station ECLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Sosnay, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the planned evolution and growth of the Space Station ECLSS. It discusses the planning on-going at the early design stages to enable growth from a man-tended configuration of the Space Station (wherein the Space Station would be manned only when visited by the Orbiter) to a fully operational configuration (called Initial Operational Capability - IOC) which includes a permanently manned, fully operational Space Station. The paper then also discusses how the IOC Space Station ECLSS can evolve to account for increase in crew sizes, increase in the number of attached modules, increase in the capability to handle more payload/customer support, and potential evolution of the ECLSS technologies.

  20. Space station contamination considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Ehlers, H.; Jacobs, S.

    1986-01-01

    The external induced environment generated by space station activity, or more specifically by gases, particles, and light background is discussed. These contaminant species must be controlled if sensitive systems, such as solar energy collectors or science experiments exposed to the external environment are to function properly. The requirements generally set limits on the level of gas species, matter deposited on surfaces and light background levels over various spectral regions. They also address environment monitoring and contamination controls during manufacturing. Limits on effluent release and system leakages are in turn derived from these requirements.

  1. Space Station multiple access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Nanci A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

  2. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  3. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  4. NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

  5. Exobiology experiments for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Griffiths, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    The benefits the Space Station could provide to the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life throughout the universe are described. Space Station experiments relevant to the cosmic evolution of biogenic elements and compounds, prebiotic chemical evolution, early evolution of life, and the evolution of advanced life forms are examined. The application of astronomical and astrometric observations to be obtained from the Space Station to the origin of life research is discussed.

  6. International Space Station: becoming a reality.

    PubMed

    David, L

    1999-07-01

    An overview of the development of the International Space Station (ISS) is presented starting with a brief history of space station concepts from the 1960's to the decision to build the present ISS. Other topics discussed include partnerships with Japan, Canada, ESA countries, and Russia; design changes to the ISS modules, the use of the ISS for scientific purposes and the application of space research to medicine on Earth; building ISS modules on Earth, international funding for Russian components, and the political aspects of including Russia in critical building plans. Sidebar articles examine commercialization of the ISS, multinational efforts in the design and building of the ISS, emergency transport to Earth, the use of robotics in ISS assembly, application of lessons learned from the Skylab project to the ISS, initial ISS assembly in May 1999, planned ISS science facilities, and an overview of space stations in science fiction. PMID:11542652

  7. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 3: Appendixes. Book 2: Supporting data. [spacecraft modules and environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the module concepts are reviewed, and a number of functional elements are listed. Other areas examined include some of the following; (1) mission operations; (2) environmental control and life support subsystems concepts; (3) thermal heat rejection; (4) space radiation effect analysis; and (5) satellite power system test requirements.

  8. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  9. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  10. Space Station Based Microacceleration Experiment Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Katy; Economopoulos, Tony; Evenson, Erik; Gonzalez, Raul; Henson, Steve; Parada, Enrique; Robinson, Rick; Scott, Mike; Spotz, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Normal Space Station Freedom activities, such as docking, astronauts' movement, equipment vibrations, and space station reboosts, exert forces on the structure, resulting in static or transient accelerations greater than many microgravity experiments can tolerate. A solution to this problem is to isolate experiments on a separate platform free from such disturbances. The Space Station Based Microacceleration Experiment Platform, a proposed solution to the Space Station microgravity experiment problem is described. It is modular in design and can be telerobotically assembled and operated. The Microacceleration Experiment Platform (MEP) consists of a minimum configuration platform to which power, propulsion, propellant, and experiment modules are added. The platform's layout is designed to take maximum advantage of the microgravity field structure in orbit.

  11. Students Visit Space Station Lab Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Students from Albuquerque, MN, tour through the mockup of the U.S. Destiny laboratory module that will be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Behind them are the racks for the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by Glenn Research Center. The mockup was on display at the Space Tehnology International Forum in Albuquerque, MN. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  12. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

  13. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  14. International Space Station: Expedition 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of the International Space Station (ISS) presents an inside look at the groundwork and assembly of the ISS. Footage includes both animation and live shots of a Space Shuttle liftoff. Phil West, Engineer; Dr. Catherine Clark, Chief Scientist ISS; and Joe Edwards, Astronaut, narrate the video. The first topic of discussion is People and Communications. Good communication is a key component in our ISS endeavor. Dr. Catherine Clark uses two soup cans attached by a string to demonstrate communication. Bill Nye the Science Guy talks briefly about science aboard the ISS. Charlie Spencer, Manager of Space Station Simulators, talks about communication aboard the ISS. The second topic of discussion is Engineering. Bonnie Dunbar, Astronaut at Johnson Space Flight Center, gives a tour of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). She takes us inside Node 2 and the U.S. Lab Destiny. She also shows where protein crystal growth experiments are performed. Audio terminal units are used for communication in the JEM. A demonstration of solar arrays and how they are tested is shown. Alan Bell, Project Manager MRMDF (Mobile Remote Manipulator Development Facility), describes the robot arm that is used on the ISS and how it maneuvers the Space Station. The third topic of discussion is Science and Technology. Dr. Catherine Clark, using a balloon attached to a weight, drops the apparatus to the ground to demonstrate Microgravity. The bursting of the balloon is observed. Sherri Dunnette, Imaging Technologist, describes the various cameras that are used in space. The types of still cameras used are: 1) 35 mm, 2) medium format cameras, 3) large format cameras, 4) video cameras, and 5) the DV camera. Kumar Krishen, Chief Technologist ISS, explains inframetrics, infrared vision cameras and how they perform. The Short Arm Centrifuge is shown by Dr. Millard Reske, Senior Life Scientist, to subject astronauts to forces greater than 1-g. Reske is interested in the physiological effects of the eyes and the muscular system after their exposure to forces greater than 1-g.

  15. International Space Station Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at the SMOT can be taken to the Mission Management Team meeting, which occurs biweekly from MCC-Houston. This meeting includes the other International Partners and all flight support and console position representatives via teleconference. ISS Crew Surgeons have handled many medical conditions on orbit; including skin rashes, dental abscesses, lacerations, and STT segment EKG changes. Fortunately to date, there have not been any forced medical evacuations from the ISS. This speaks well for the implementation of the primary, secondary and even tertiary prevention strategies invoked by the Integrated Medical Group, as there were several medical evacuations during the previous Russian space stations.

  16. Space Station-Baseline Configuration With Callouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  17. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  18. Space Station robotics planning tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Bridget Mintz

    1992-01-01

    The concepts are described for the set of advanced Space Station Freedom (SSF) robotics planning tools for use in the Space Station Control Center (SSCC). It is also shown how planning for SSF robotics operations is an international process, and baseline concepts are indicated for that process. Current SRMS methods provide the backdrop for this SSF theater of multiple robots, long operating time-space, advanced tools, and international cooperation.

  19. Space station interior noise analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-02-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  20. Space station interior noise analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-01-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  1. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  2. Inter-Module Ventilation Changes to the International Space Station Vehicle to Support Integration of the International Docking Adapter and Commercial Crew Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is continuing to evolve in the post-Space Shuttle era. The ISS vehicle configuration that is in operation was designed for docking of a Space Shuttle vehicle, and designs currently under development for commercial crew vehicles require different interfaces. The ECLSS Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem (THC) Inter-Module Ventilation (IMV) must be modified in order to support two docking interfaces at the forward end of ISS, to provide the required air exchange. Development of a new higher-speed IMV fan and extensive ducting modifications are underway to support the new Commercial Crew Vehicle interfaces. This paper will review the new ECLSS IMV development requirements, component design and hardware status, subsystem analysis and testing performed to date, and implementation plan to support Commercial Crew Vehicle docking.

  3. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  4. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  5. Space Station logistics system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    This task investigates logistics requirements and logistics system concepts for the evolutionary Space Station. Requirements for the basic station, crew, user equipment, and free-flying platforms, as requirements for manned exploration initiative elements and crews while at the Space Station. Data is provided which assesses the ability of the Space Freedom logistics carriers to accommodate the logistics loads per year. Also, advanced carrier concepts are defined and assessed against the logistics requirements. The implications on Earth-to-orbit vehicles of accommodating the logistics requirements, using various types of carriers, are assessed on a year by year basis.

  6. Social factors in space station interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranz, Galen; Eichold, Alice; Hottes, Klaus; Jones, Kevin; Weinstein, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Using the example of the chair, which is often written into space station planning but which serves no non-cultural function in zero gravity, difficulties in overcoming cultural assumptions are discussed. An experimental approach is called for which would allow designers to separate cultural assumptions from logistic, social and psychological necessities. Simulations, systematic doubt and monitored brainstorming are recommended as part of basic research so that the designer will approach the problems of space module design with a complete program.

  7. Concepts for the evolution of the Space Station Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Roger B.; Miller, Ladonna J.; Primeaux, Gary R.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of innovative but pragmatic waste management, interior and exterior orbital module construction, Space Shuttle docking, orbital repair operation, and EVA techniques applicable to the NASA Space Station program over the course of its evolution. Accounts are given of the Space Shuttle's middeck extender module, an on-orbit module assembly technique employing 'Pringles' stack-transportable conformal panels, a flexible Shuttle/Space Station docking tunnel, an 'expandable dome' for transfer of objects into the Space Station, and a Space Station dual-hatch system. For EVA operations, pressurized bubbles with articulating manipulator arms and EVA hard suits incorporating maneuvering, life support and propulsion capabilities, as well as an EVA gas propulsion system, are proposed. A Space Station ultrasound cleaning system is also discussed.

  8. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  9. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  10. Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

  11. Vulnerability of Space Station Freedom Modules: A Study of the Effects of Module Perforation on Crew and Equipment. Volume 2; Analytical Modeling of Internal Debris Cloud Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Davenport, Quint

    1995-01-01

    In this part of the report, a first-principles based model is developed to predict the overpressure and temperature effects of a perforating orbital debris particle impact within a pressurized habitable module. While the effects of a perforating debris particles on crew and equipment can be severe, only a limited number of empirical studies focusing on space vehicles have been performed to date. Traditionally, crew loss or incapacitation due to a perforating impact has primarily been of interest to military organizations and as such have focused on military vehicles and systems. The module wall considered in this study is initially assumed to be a standard Whippletype dual-wall system in which the outer wall protects the module and its inhabitants by disrupting impacting particles. The model is developed in a way such that it sequentially characterizes the phenomena comprising the impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the inner wall, the creation and motion of the debris cloud that enters the module interior, and the effects of the debris cloud within the module on module pressure and temperature levels. This is accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory.

  12. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  13. Space Station Power System issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of attractive options are available for the Space Station Power System. These include a photovoltaic system or solar dynamic system for power generation, batteries or fuel cells for energy storage and ac or dc for power management and distribution. These options are being explored during the present preliminary design and definition phase of the Space Station Program. Final selections are presently targeted for January 1986.

  14. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

  15. OSSA Space Station waste inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

  16. Solar dynamic modules for Space Station Freedom: The relationship between fine-pointing control and thermal loading of the aperture plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic simulations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) configured with solar dynamic (SD) power modules were performed. The structure was subjected to Space Shuttle docking disturbances, while being controlled with a 'natural' vibration and tracking control approach. Three control cases were investigated for the purpose of investigating the relationship between actuator effort, SD pointing, and thermal loading on the receiver aperture plate. Transient, one-dimensional heat transfer analyses were performed to conservatively predict temperatures of the multi-layered receiver aperture plate assembly and thermal stresses in its shield layer. Results indicate that the proposed aperture plate is tolerant of concentrated flux impingement during short-lived structural disturbances. Pointing requirements may be loosened and the requirement control torques lessened from that previously specified. Downsizing and simplifying the joint drive system should result in a considerable savings mass.

  17. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence stems, flowers, and fruits in the Plant Experiment Unit. In addition, the senescence of rosette leaves was found to be delayed in microgravity.

  18. Space Station ECLSS Integration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) contract with NASA MSFC covered the time frame from 9 May 1985 to 31 Dec. 1992. The contract roughly covered the period of Space Station Freedom (SSF) development from early Phase B through Phase C/D Critical Design Review (CDR). During this time, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-Huntsville (formerly McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company) performed an analytical support role to MSFC for the development of analytical math models and engineering trade studies related to the design of the ECLSS for the SSF.

  19. Space station support of manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    The assembly of a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft in low Earth orbit can be best accomplished with the support of the space station. Station payload requirements for microgravity environments of .001 g and pointing stability requirements of less than 1 arc second could mean that the spacecraft may have to be assembled at a station-keeping position about 100 meters or more away from the station. In addition to the assembly of large modules and connective structures, the manned Mars mission assembly tasks may include the connection of power, fluid, and data lines and the handling and activation of components for chemical or nuclear power and propulsion systems. These assembly tasks will require the use of advanced automation and robotics in addition to Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew support. Advanced development programs for the space station, including on-orbit demonstrations, could also be used to support manned Mars mission technology objectives. Follow-on studies should be conducted to identify space station activities which could be enhanced or expanded in scope (without significant cost and schedule impact) to help resolve key technical and scientific questions relating to manned Mars missions.

  20. Space Station Payload Adaptation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Kenneth R.; Adams, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    The development and design of a system of containers for the efficient integration of Space Station payloads is described called the Space Station Payload Adaptation System (SSPAS). The SSPAS was developed to address the incorporation of multiple payloads, the use of a small payload carrier, large numbers of samples, and on-orbit servicing. SSPAS subsystems such as the Spacelab rack are modular and designed for integration into the 'Quick Is Beautiful' (QIB) facility. The QIB is designed to provide access to space for small- and medium-sized microgravity research projects and proof-of-concept investigations. The power-distribution and heat-rejection potential of the QIB are described, and an improved experiment-apparatus container is proposed. The SSPAS rack-mounting and container concepts are concluded to make up an efficent system that can effectively exploit the R&D potential of the Space Station.

  1. Independent Review of U.S. and Russian Probabilistic Risk Assessments for the International Space Station Mini Research Module #2 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Mini-Research Module-2 (MRM-2), a Russian module on the International Space Station, does not meet its requirements for micrometeoroid and orbital debris probability of no penetration (PNP). To document this condition, the primary Russian Federal Space Agency ISS contractor, S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation-Energia (RSC-E), submitted an ISS non-compliance report (NCR) which was presented at the 5R Stage Operations Readiness Review (SORR) in October 2009. In the NCR, RSC-E argued for waiving the PNP requirement based on several factors, one of which was the risk of catastrophic failure was acceptably low at 1 in 11,100. However, NASA independently performed an assessment of the catastrophic risk resulting in a value of 1 in 1380 and believed that the risk at that level was unacceptable. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to evaluate the two competing catastrophic risk values and determine which was more accurate. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  2. Measurement of Linear Energy Transfer Spectra of High-LET Space Radiation Inside the International Space Station Modules (2013-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inozemtsev, K. O.; Kushin, V. V.; Maklyaev, E. F.; Shurshakov, V. A.

    The field of space radiation in low-Earth orbit is extremely complicated due to many reasons. It is formed mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particles and trapped particles in the south Atlantic anomaly region. In addition radiation field is affected by shielding and scattering of incident primary particles by surrounding material. The contribution of short - range particles produced in the nuclear interactions in the shielding and contents of the spacecraft to the total radiation field is comparable to the primary component at high values of dE/dx. Preliminary linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of high-LET space radiation were measured in different compartments of the Russian segment of International Space Station (ISS) by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) CR-39 TASTRACK. Measurements were carried out during ISS-37/38/39 expeditions in MATROSHKA-R space experiment. The comparison of experimental spectra with simulated one was made in order of data verification.

  3. Space station full-scale docking/berthing mechanisms development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Gene C.; Price, Harold A.; Buchanan, David B.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most critical operational functions for the space station is the orbital docking between the station and the STS orbiter. The program to design, fabricate, and test docking/berthing mechanisms for the space station is described. The design reflects space station overall requirements and consists of two mating docking mechanism halves. One half is designed for use on the shuttle orbiter and incorporates capture and energy attenuation systems using computer controlled electromechanical actuators and/or attenuators. The mating half incorporates a flexible feature to allow two degrees of freedom at the module-to-module interface of the space station pressurized habitat volumes. The design concepts developed for the prototype units may be used for the first space station flight hardware.

  4. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The manned space station is the next major NASA program. It presents many challenges to the power system designers. The power system in turn is a major driver on the overall configuration. In this paper, the major requirements and guidelines that affect the station configuration and the power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts, both fanciful and feasible, are described and linked to the present concept. The recently completed Phase B trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of the present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given for completeness.

  5. International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

  6. Doppler lidar on the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christian; Brand, B.; Jochim, E. F.

    1995-12-01

    A study was finished in 1994 to identify a payload package for the originally planned Russian MIR-2 station. Part of this study now can be used for an ALADIN type of instrument. Installation on a Russian module of the International Space Station Alpha gives no problems with solar panels. The 8-step version of the Daimler Benz group can be realized. Footprint structure is analyzed for a pre-operational use of the data. Additional information on the backscatter mode of an ALADIN is given.

  7. $425 million for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The Space Station will funded at only about half of the $767 million requested in the 1988 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and overall the agency will receive $8,856 billion for the current fiscal year (FY) in the deficit-reduction package passed by Congress in late December. Despite an earlier complaint that reductions in the space station budget would kill the program and an apparent lack of support from the White House, NASA's official reaction was full of good cheer.NASA will be able to use the $425 million in two installments, $200 million now and $225 million in June. In October, NASA administrator James Fletcher stated in a letter to Senator Jake Garn (R-Utah) that if the space station received no more than $440 million, he would “recommend termination” of the program. But after the budget was approved, NASA said that the $425 million “reflected the strong commitment of the President and the Congress to proceed with the development of a space station.” A recent request to President Reagan from congressional proponents of the station for a letter of support for the multibillion dollar project was declined.

  8. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study. Space station program fluid management systems databook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Lydon, M.

    1988-01-01

    Commonality and integration of propulsion and fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements are being evaluated. The Space Station elements consist of the core station, which includes habitation and laboratory modules, nodes, airlocks, and trusswork; and associated vehicles, platforms, experiments, and payloads. The program is being performed as two discrete tasks. Task 1 investigated the components of the Space Station architecture to determine the feasibility and practicality of commonality and integration among the various propulsion elements. This task was completed. Task 2 is examining integration and commonality among fluid systems which were identified by the Phase B Space Station contractors as being part of the initial operating capability (IOC) and growth Space Station architectures. Requirements and descriptions for reference fluid systems were compiled from Space Station documentation and other sources. The fluid systems being examined are: an experiment gas supply system, an oxygen/hydrogen supply system, an integrated water system, the integrated nitrogen system, and the integrated waste fluids system. Definitions and descriptions of alternate systems were developed, along with analyses and discussions of their benefits and detriments. This databook includes fluid systems descriptions, requirements, schematic diagrams, component lists, and discussions of the fluid systems. In addition, cost comparison are used in some cases to determine the optimum system for a specific task.

  9. Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available to the International Space Station scientific community, introduces plans for extending microgravity analysis results to the newly arrived scientific laboratories, and provides summary information for known microgravity environment disturbers.

  10. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Skylab's success proved that scientific experimentation in a low gravity environment was essential to scientific progress. A more permanent structure was needed to provide this space laboratory. President Ronald Reagan, on January 25, 1984, during his State of the Union address, claimed that the United States should exploit the new frontier of space, and directed NASA to build a permanent marned space station within a decade. The idea was that the space station would not only be used as a laboratory for the advancement of science and medicine, but would also provide a staging area for building a lunar base and manned expeditions to Mars and elsewhere in the solar system. President Reagan invited the international community to join with the United States in this endeavour. NASA and several countries moved forward with this concept. By December 1985, the first phase of the space station was well underway with the design concept for the crew compartments and laboratories. Pictured are two NASA astronauts, at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), practicing construction techniques they later used to construct the space station after it was deployed.

  11. Space station design - Innovation and compromise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.; Cohen, A.; Craig, M.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA manned space station will consist of three main elements: habitable modules, solar collectors, and their interconnecting hardware. The most arduous of the requirements to be met by this configuration is the simultaneous integration of terrestrial, solar, and celestial viewing instruments, since omnidirectional simultaneous viewing is made difficult by the station's large solar energy collection devices. The space station also imposes unique design conditions on individual subsystems, such as the power distribution and energy storage hardware. In particular, the thermal control subsystem must be designed to meet a variety of mission, payload, and housekeeping tasks that demand a large heat rejection capacity. Novel environmental control and life support subsystem technology will be indispensable.

  12. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (editor); Mason, J. A. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  13. Science Research Facilities - Versatility for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannovario, J. A.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Massey, K.; Solly, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Science Lab Module (SLM) and its interfaces are designed to minimize complexity and maximize user accommodations. The facilities provided encompass life sciences research, the control of external payloads, the servicing of customer equipment, and general scientific investigations. The SLM will have the unprecedented ability to diagnose, service, and replace equipment while in orbit. In addition, the SLM will have significant operational advantages over previous spacecraft in terms of available volume, power, and crew interaction possibilities.

  14. Space station architectural elements model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. C.; Spencer, J. S.; Rocha, C. J.; Kahn, E.; Cliffton, E.; Carr, C.

    1987-01-01

    The worksphere, a user controlled computer workstation enclosure, was expanded in scope to an engineering workstation suitable for use on the Space Station as a crewmember desk in orbit. The concept was also explored as a module control station capable of enclosing enough equipment to control the station from each module. The concept has commercial potential for the Space Station and surface workstation applications. The central triangular beam interior configuration was expanded and refined to seven different beam configurations. These included triangular on center, triangular off center, square, hexagonal small, hexagonal medium, hexagonal large and the H beam. Each was explored with some considerations as to the utilities and a suggested evaluation factor methodology was presented. Scale models of each concept were made. The models were helpful in researching the seven beam configurations and determining the negative residual (unused) volume of each configuration. A flexible hardware evaluation factor concept is proposed which could be helpful in evaluating interior space volumes from a human factors point of view. A magnetic version with all the graphics is available from the author or the technical monitor.

  15. Space Station Freedom media handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This handbook explains in lay terms, the work that is going on at the NASA Centers and contractors' plants in designing and developing the Space Station Freedom. It discusses the roles, responsibilities, and tasks required to build the Space Station Freedom's elements, systems, and components. New, required ground facilities are described, organized by NASA Center in order to provide a local angle for the media. Included are information on the historical perspective, international aspects, the utilization of the Space Station Freedom, a look at future possibilities, a description of the program, its management, program phases and milestones, and considerable information on the role of various NASA Centers, contractors and international partners. A list of abbreviations, a four-page glossary, and a list of NASA contacts are contained in the appendices.

  16. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    'Langley's Otto Trout suggested as early as 1963 that zero-gravity activities could be simulated by immersing astronauts in a large tank of water. Years later, Marshall Space Flight Center turned Trout's abortive idea into a major component of NASA's astronaut training program.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 303.

  17. Space Station trash removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  18. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  19. Space station molecular sieve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  20. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that this evolution can be accomplished while conducting critical on-orbit operations with minimal hardware changes.

  1. Shuttle-launch triangular space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C. (inventor); Berka, R. B. (inventor); Kavanaugh, C. (inventor); Nagy, K. (inventor); Parish, R. C. (inventor); Schliesing, J. A. (inventor); Smith, P. D. (inventor); Stebbins, F. J. (inventor); Wesselski, C. J. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A triangular space station deployable in orbit is described. The framework is comprized of three trusses, formed of a pair of generally planar faces consistine of foldable struts. The struts expand and lock into rigid structural engagement forming a repetition of equilater triangles and nonfolding diagonal struts interconnecting the two faces. The struts are joined together by node fittings. The framework can be packaged into a size and configuration transportable by a space shuttle. When deployed, the framework provides a large work/construction area and ample planar surface area for solar panels and thermal radiators. A plurity of modules are secured to the framework and then joined by tunnels to make an interconnected modular display. Thruster units for the space station orientation and altitude maintenance are provided.

  2. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  3. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  4. Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (editor); Williams, R. J. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

  5. Space station rotary joint mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskill, Glen W.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism which will be used on the space station to position the solar arrays and radiator panels for Sun pointing and Sun avoidance is described. The unique design features will be demonstrated on advanced development models of two of the joints being fabricated under contract to NASA-MSFC.

  6. Space Station Freedom media handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Work underway at NASA to design and develop Space Station Freedom is described in this handbook. The roles, responsibilities, and tasks at NASA are discussed in order to provide information for the media. Ground facilities are described with a look towards future possibilities and requirements. Historical perspectives, international cooperation, and the responsibilities of specific NASA centers are also examined.

  7. Automating Space Station operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  8. Space station freedom solar array design development

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, C.; Bilger, K.; Baraona, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  9. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  10. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  11. The International Space Station in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

  12. The Space Station active thermal control technical challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, W. E.

    1989-01-01

    The overall conceptual design premise of the two major subsystems that make up the Space Station active thermal control system is discussed. Specifically, the thermal loop required to gather and collect the waste heat from the various systems, modules, and payloads of the Space Station and the large radiators necessary to dissipate the waste heat to space are described. The basic design concepts to be incorporated in the Space Station are described, and the ground and flight tests conducted to date to prove the feasibility of the design approaches are summarized. Future Space Shuttle flight tests planned to further verify the designs are outlined.

  13. Space station architectural elements model study. Space station human factors research review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Khan, Eyoub; Spencer, John; Rocha, Carlos; Cliffton, Ethan Wilson

    1987-01-01

    Presentation visuals and an extended abstract represent a study to explore and analyze the interaction of major utilities distribution, generic workstation, and spatial composition of the SPACEHAB space station module. Issues addressed include packing densities vs. circulation, efficiency of packing vs. standardization, flexibility vs. diversity, and composition of interior volume as space for living vs. residual negative volume. The result of the study is expected to be a series of observations and preliminary evaluation criteria which focus on the productive living environment for a module in orbit.

  14. Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

  15. Space Station utilization for technology purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Romero, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the Space Station in in-space technology research and development is discussed. The categorizing of research and technology experiments, which is required in order to provide the proper facilities for the experiments, is described. The use of the Space Station, itself, as an experiment is studied; instrumented large space structure experiments, environmental interactions, human-machine interface, and evolutionary technology validation can be conducted by the Space Station. The necessary conditions for the Space Station to function as a research and technology facility are analyzed. The Space Station design and planning considerations, in order to meet research and technology objectives and support requirements, are investigated.

  16. Space station protective coating development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Hill, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    A generic list of Space Station surfaces and candidate material types is provided. Environmental exposures and performance requirements for the different Space Station surfaces are listed. Coating materials and the processing required to produce a viable system, and appropriate environmental simulation test facilities are being developed. Mass loss data from the original version of the atomic oxygen test chamber and the improved facility; additional environmental exposures performed on candidate materials; and materials properties measurements on candidate coatings to determine the effects of the exposures are discussed. Methodologies of production, and coating materials, used to produce the large scale demonstration articles are described. The electronic data base developed for the contract is also described. The test chamber to be used for exposure of materials to atomic oxygen was built.

  17. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  18. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  19. Technology assessment of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, V. T.

    1971-01-01

    The social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which can be expected from a system of space stations operating over relatively long periods of time in Earth orbit, are examined. The survey is an exercise in technology assessment. It is futuristic in nature. It anticipates technological applications which are still in the planning stage, and many of the conclusions are highly speculative and for this reason controversial.

  20. Space Station surface deposition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance sensors are recommended to verify and monitor surface deposition on the early transverse boom as well as the later dual-keel Space Station configurations. Performance and placement of these sensors are discussed and compared to imposed maximum mass deposition rate requirements at the science instrument and critical power locations. Additional measurements are suggested to gain further knowledge on properties of the deposited material.

  1. Space station operations task force summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

  2. Space Station Freedom crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobko, K. J.; Gibson, E. G.; Maroney, S. A.; Muccio, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the Space Station Freedom Program presents an array of new and enhanced challenges which need to be addressed en route to developing an effective and affordable infrastructure for crew training. Such an infrastructure is essential for the safety and success of the program. The three major challenges that affect crew training are the long lifetime of the program (thirty years), the interdependence of successive increments, and the participation of the three International Partners (Canada, European Space Agency, and Japan) and a myriad of experimenters. This paper addresses these major challenges as they drive the development of a crew training capability and the actual conduct of crew training.

  3. Working aboard the Mir space station.

    PubMed

    Reiter, T

    1996-11-01

    For more than ten years, the Mir station has been the World's only permanently manned laboratory in low earth orbit. With an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees, its ground track covers more than 85% of the Earth's surface, where approximately 95% of the population lives. For the transfer of up to three crew members per trip to and from Mir, the 6.9 t Soyuz spacecraft is used. In general, the station's crew is changed every six months, with an overlap during the exchange of between one and two weeks. A Progress spacecraft (an unmanned derivative of the Soyuz vehicle) visits the station every three months to resupply it, with up to 2.1 t of payload, and to reboost it to maintain its nominal orbital altitude. The station's core module, injected into orbit in February 1986, contains the central control post for most onboard systems, the computer for attitude control, and the telemetry and communications system. It also contains the station's largest work space, which is 7.0 m long and varies in width between 1.5 and 2.5 m. PMID:11541437

  4. AMS-02 on the International Space Station

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    0/66 AMS-02 on the International Space Station Francesca Spada Dip. di Fisica ­ Roma 3-6-2010 #12;F-02 9/66 AMS-02 on the International Space Station #12;F.R.Spada -- AMS-02 10/66 The International Space Station The ISS is a USA/Russia/ESA/Japan/Canada collaboration Mainteinance at least until 2020

  5. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the frame of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station (ISS) is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European Columbus module the experiment “Dose Distribution Inside the ISS” (DOSIS), under the project and science lead of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The DOSIS experiment consists of a combination of “Passive Detector Packages” (PDP) distributed at eleven locations inside Columbus for the measurement of the spatial variation of the radiation field and two active Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTELs) with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) in a dedicated nomex pouch mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) for the measurement of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. The DOSIS experiment suite measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 2009 to June 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the follow up DOSIS 3D experiment. The hardware for DOSIS 3D was launched with Soyuz 30S to the ISS on May 15th 2012. The PDPs are replaced with each even number Soyuz flight starting with Soyuz 30S. Data from the active detectors is transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated once a month for this action. The presentation will give an overview of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D experiment and focus on the results from the passive radiation detectors from the DOSIS 3D experiment (2012 - 2014) in comparison to the data of the DOSIS experiment (2009 - 2011). The Polish contribution was supported by the National Science Centre (No DEC-2012/06/M/ST9/00423). The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are financially supported by BMWi under Grants 50WB0826, 50WB1026 and 50WB1232.

  6. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Denham, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analysis and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will indicate changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations, and is an update to the status presented in 20031. Many new modules, and sleep stations have been added to the ISS since that time. In addition, noise mitigation efforts have reduced noise levels in some areas. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS have improved.

  7. Space Station Facility government estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 18 ways the low bidders get low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

  8. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (editor); Mishra, S. K. (editor); Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  9. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

  10. A customer-friendly Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  11. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  12. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  13. Space Station Freedom: A foothold on the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the Space Station Freedom is given. Its modules are discussed and illustrated along with its microgravity research facilities. These facilities include the advanced protein crystal growth facility, the containerless processing facility, a furnace facility, a combustion facility, and a fluid physics/dynamics facility. The topic of living in space is also addressed.

  14. Space Portable Spectroreflectometer (SPSR) Investigation on Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. Ralph, Jr.; Wilkes, Donald R.; Zwiener, James M.; Naumov, Stanislav; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of thermal control surface properties results from the synergistic effects of the space environment's interaction with materials. This includes the natural space environment and the contamination environment produced by the spacecraft itself. Past flight experiments have utilized small witness samples which were recovered for post flight analysis on the ground. However, reintroduction into an oxygen atmosphere can, in itself, cause a change in the properties of the material being studied. Space based measurements using video cameras were not quantifiable. Very limited experiments have previously measured material properties in-situ on a spacecraft but only using small prepared witness samples with minimal exposure to space. The only way to really determine the properties of actual spacecraft surfaces after an extended exposure to the space environment is to measure them directly, in space. The SPSR provides this capability to measure the most important thermal property which can change in the space environment, the solar absorptivity. The Mir space station provides an excellent opportunity for such experiments due to the long exposure that some of the modules have experienced. Measurements from different modules would have provided an opportunity to determine the effect of various exposure time in orbit and under different contamination environments. Due to other pressing issues only one site was measured using the SPSR.

  15. Fault-Tolerance Verification of the Fluids and Combustion Facility of the International Space Station

    E-print Network

    Nesterenko, Mikhail

    .S. Laboratory Module onboard the International Space Stations (ISS). The ability to withstand faults is vital of an experimental facility to be deployed at the International Space Station. Model checkers are designed to find), which is to become a permanent installation on board the International Space Station (ISS

  16. Catastrophic Failure Modes Assessment of the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. E. P.; Goodwin, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses to quantify the hazardous effects of meteoroid/debris penetration of Space Station Alpha manned module protective structures. These analyses concentrate on determining (a) the critical crack length associated with six manned module pressure wall designs that, if exceeded, would lead to unstopped crack propagation and rupture of manned modules, and (b) the likelihood of crew or station loss following penetration of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine tanks aboard the proposed Russian FGB ('Tug') propulsion module and critical elements aboard the control moment gyro module (SPP-1). Results from these quantified safety analyses are useful in improving specific design areas, thereby reducing the overall likelihood of crew or station loss following orbital debris penetration.

  17. Space hands-on universe telescope and orbiting wide-angle light-collector telescope to be built on the Japanese experiment module exposure facility of the international space station

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Pennypacker, C.

    1999-01-01

    A concept study to build great observatories on, and deploy from, the ISS is presented. Use of the ISS infra-structure including robotic arms and astronauts{close_quote} EVA would permit a construction of very large optical telescopes. We envisage that the second phase of the ISS after its initial construction can landmark a new era for both ISS and Space Sciences. Ultimately, this study would plan a 10-or 20-meter class space telescope. For its first step, we envisioned an immediate extension of the Exposed Facility of ISS for building a {open_quotes}Work-bench{close_quotes} for this purpose. Initial activities can begin with two modest-sized telescopes soon after the ISS construction. These early missions being studied are space Hands-On Universe Telescope (SHOUT) and Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collector (OWL). SHOUT is a 1-m telescope for science education. It will be built and adjusted on the exposure module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station by using a robotic arm and the EVA of astronauts. We also seek the possibility to release it from ISS after its perfection on orbit, so that it is free from the vibrations and gas contaminations on and around the ISS. SHOUT is an engineering prototype of 10-m Space Telescope (Space SUBARU Telescope). It would be scaled from the Space-SUBARU telescope so that the testing with the SHOUT would warrant the required specifications for the 10-meter Space-SUBARU construction on the ISS. The goal of the test with the SHOUT is to warrant a spatial resolution of 0.01 arc-seconds using the active/adaptive optics. It will test the following three major engineering challenges: (1) active/adaptive optics in space; (2) building of large structures by astronauts; and (3) release of a spacecraft from ISS to a free-flying orbit. The present feasibility study for the next generation great observatories that are to be built on the JEM Exposure Facility (EF) has been already funded by the Japan Space Forum, under the auspices of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. Included in this study are SHOUT, Space SUBARU telescope as well as OWL, Large Area gamma-ray Telescope (LAGT), and Space Submilimeter and Infrared Telescope (S-SIT). {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  19. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  20. Concrete: Potential material for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

  1. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  2. Exobiology experiment concepts for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, Lynn D.; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that stimulate the primitive earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

  3. Concurrent development of fault management hardware and software in the SSM/PMAD. [Space Station Module/Power Management And Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Kenneth A.; Walsh, Rick; Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station issues in fault management are discussed. The system background is described with attention given to design guidelines and power hardware. A contractually developed fault management system, FRAMES, is integrated with the energy management functions, the control switchgear, and the scheduling and operations management functions. The constraints that shaped the FRAMES system and its implementation are considered.

  4. Technologies for space station autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents an informal survey of experts in the field of spacecraft automation, with recommendations for which technologies should be given the greatest development attention for implementation on the initial 1990's NASA Space Station. The recommendations implemented an autonomy philosophy that was developed by the Concept Development Group's Autonomy Working Group during 1983. They were based on assessments of the technologies' likely maturity by 1987, and of their impact on recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and productivity. The three technology areas recommended for programmatic emphasis were: (1) artificial intelligence expert (knowledge based) systems and processors; (2) fault tolerant computing; and (3) high order (procedure oriented) computer languages. This report also describes other elements required for Station autonomy, including technologies for later implementation, system evolvability, and management attitudes and goals. The cost impact of various technologies is treated qualitatively, and some cases in which both the recurring and nonrecurring costs might be reduced while the crew productivity is increased, are also considered. Strong programmatic emphasis on life cycle cost and productivity is recommended.

  5. Space Station tethered waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, Charles C.

    1988-01-01

    The Shuttle Transportation System (STS) launches more payload to the Space Station than can be returned creating an accumulation of waste. Several methods of deorbiting the waste are compared including an OMV, solid rocket motors, and a tether system. The use of tethers is shown to offer the unique potential of having a net savings in STS launch requirement. Tether technology is being developed which can satisfy the deorbit requirements but additional effort is required in waste processing, packaging, and container design. The first step in developing this capability is already underway in the Small Expendable Deployer System program. A developmental flight test of a tether initiated recovery system is seen as the second step in the evolution of this capability.

  6. Space station trace contaminant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcutt, T.

    1985-01-01

    Different systems for the control of space station trace contaminants are outlined. The issues discussed include: spacecabin contaminant sources, technology base, contaminant control system elements and configuration, approach to contaminant control, contaminant load model definition, spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations, charcoal bed sizing and performance characteristics, catalytic oxidizer sizing and performance characteristics, special sorbent bed sizing, animal and plant research payload problems, and emergency upset contaminant removal. It is concluded that the trace contaminant control technology base is firm, the necessary hardware tools are available, and the previous design philosophy is still applicable. Some concerns are the need as opposed to danger of the catalytic oxidizer, contaminants with very low allowable concentrations, and the impact of relaxing materials requirements.

  7. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  8. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  9. Historical annotated bibliography: Space Station documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Jessie E. (compiler); Mckinley, Sarah L. (compiler); Gates, Thomas G. (compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Information is presented regarding documentation which has been produced in the Space Station program. This information will enable the researcher to locate readily documents pertinent to a particular study. It is designed to give the historian the necessary data from which to compile the written histories and to preserve records of historically significant aspects of Marshall's involvement in Space Shuttle and Space Station.

  10. Space Station end effector strategy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  11. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference was held on 3-6 Aug. 1992 in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prospective space station researchers and the people in NASA and industry with whom they would be working to exchange information and discuss plans and opportunities for space station research. Topics covered include: research capabilities; research plans and opportunities; life sciences research; technology research; and microgravity research and biotechnology.

  12. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

  13. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Matthew Fisk; Mclallin, Kerry; Zernic, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased Space Station user requirements and advancing technologies. The Space Station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial Space Station systems such as guidance, navigation, and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage, which must be planned-in, in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  14. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Matthew F.; Mclallin, Kerry L.; Zernic, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased space station user requirements and advancing technologies. The space station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial space station systems such as guidance navigation and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage which must be planned-in in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  15. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  16. Space Station engineering and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Historical background, costs, organizational assignments, technology development, user requirements, mission evolution, systems analyses and design, systems engineering and integration, contracting, and policies of the space station are discussed.

  17. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97...designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that space station, subject to the...

  18. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97...designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that space station, subject to the...

  19. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97...designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that space station, subject to the...

  20. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97...designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that space station, subject to the...

  1. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97...designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that space station, subject to the...

  2. Variable artificial gravity facility for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The project selected by the U.S. Naval Academy and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the 1986-87 NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was a variable artificial gravity facility, an adjunct to the Space Station. Recently, Goddard Space Flight Center had proposed that a formal study be conducted by NASA to investigate the question of whether an artificial gravity capability should be added to the Space Station. Therefore, not only does this project fit the goals of the Design Program, but it was a timely and interesting project. The variable artificial gravity was generated by a spinning module, and became an adjunct to the Space Station. It was planned that as much of the Space Station technology as possible be incorporated into the design. The components of the system were inserted into orbit. The specific design parameters were essentially open. The primary design objectives were: (1) The highest gravity level sufficient to prevent bone calcium loss in astronauts. (2) The cost of the Space Station should not be increased by more than 20 percent. (3) The number of launches to orbit the Space Station should not be increased by more than 30 percent. A secondary design objective was to investigate whether this design was suitable for a long duration space flight, such as a mission to Mars, or if the design is easily and inexpensively modified for such a mission.

  3. Space station propulsion-ECLSS interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Scott M.

    1986-01-01

    The benefits of the utilization of effluents of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system are examined. Various ECLSS-propulsion system interaction options are evaluated and compared on the basis of weight, volume, and power requirements. Annual propulsive impulse to maintain station altitude during a complete solar cycle of eleven years and the effect on station resupply are considered.

  4. Space station utilization and commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, John

    1986-01-01

    Several potential ways of utilizing the space station, including utilization of learning experiences (such as operations), utilization of specific elements of hardware which can be largely common between the SS and Mars programs, and utilization of the on-orbit SS for transportation node functions were identified and discussed. The probability of using the SS in all of these areas seems very good. Three different ways are discussed of utilizing the then existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SS for operational support during assembly and checkout of the Mars Space Vehicle (SV): attaching the SV to the SS; allowing the SV to co-orbit near the SS; and a hybrid of the first 2 ways. Discussion of each of these approaches is provided, and the conclusion is reached that either the co-orbiting or hybrid approach might be preferable. Artists' conception of the modes are provided, and sketches of an assembly system concept (truss structure and subsystems derivable from the SS) which could be used for co-orbiting on-orbit assembly support are provided.

  5. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  6. Regeneration of water at space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Sinyak, Yu. E.; Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Protasov, N. N.; Andreychuk, P. O.

    2011-05-01

    The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station.

  7. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame spread of liquids, drop combustion, and quenching of panicle-air flames. Unfortunately, the same features that make microgravity attractive for fundamental combustion experiments, introduce new fire and explosion hazards that have no counterpart on earth. For example, microgravity can cause broader flammability limits, novel regimes of flame spread, enhanced effects of flame radiation, slower fire detector response, and enhanced combustion upon injecting fire extinguishing agents, among others. On the other hand, spacecraft provide an opportunity to use 'fire-safe' atmospheres due to their controlled environment. Investigation of these problems is just beginning, with specific fire safety experiments supplementing the space based fundamental experiments listed earlier; thus, much remains to be done to develop an adequate technology base for fire and explosion safety considerations for spacecraft.

  8. Visiting the International Space Station - my mission diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, U.

    2001-08-01

    Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle "Endeavour", with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed "Raffaello" logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US "Destiny" module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main task during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station.

  9. Space station wardroom habitability and equipment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Miller, Christopher; Fauquet, Regis

    1989-01-01

    Experimental designs in life-size mock-up form for the wardroom facility for the Space Station Habitability Module are explored and developed. In Phase 1, three preliminary concepts for the wardroom configuration are fabricated and evaluated. In Phase 2, the results of Phase 1 are combined with a specific range of program design requirements to provide the design criteria for the fabrication of an innovative medium-fidelity mock-up of a wardrobe configuration. The study also focuses on the design and preliminary prototyping of selected equipment items including crew exercise compartments, a meal/meeting table and a portable workstation. Design criteria and requirements are discussed and documented. Preliminary and final mock-ups and equipment prototypes are described and illustrated.

  10. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  11. Tether implications on Space Station gravity level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a tether on the Space Station is discussed. The effefcts of the tether on the microgravity environment on the Space station are described. A tethered variable gravity laboratory for investigating low gravity processes using gravity magnitude and time as variables is considered.

  12. Space Station: Leadership for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Franklin D.; Finn, Terence T.

    1987-01-01

    No longer limited to occasional spectaculars, space has become an essential, almost commonplace dimension of national life. Among other things, space is an arena of competition with our allies and adversaries, a place of business, a field of research, and an avenue of cooperation with our allies. The space station will play a critical role in each of these endeavors. Perhaps the most significant feature of the space station, essential to its utility for science, commerce, and technology, is the permanent nature of its crew. The space station will build upon the tradition of employing new capabilities to explore further and question deeper, and by providing a permanent presence, the station should significantly increase the opportunities for conducting research in space. Economic productivity is, in part, a function of technical innovation. A major thrust of the station design effort is devoted to enhancing performance through advanced technology. The space station represents the commitment of the United States to a future in space. Perhaps most importantly, as recovery from the loss of Challenger and its crew continues, the space station symbolizes the national determination to remain undeterred by tragedy and to continue exploring the frontiers of space.

  13. Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Kurtz, R.J.; Barga, R.S.; Hutton, P.H.; Lemon, D.K.

    1991-08-01

    Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the space station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full-scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Materials Science Standard Rack on Interntional Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Line drawing depicts the location of one of three racks that will make up the Materials Science Research Facility in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Other positions will be occupied by a variety of racks supporting research in combustion, fluids, biotechnology, and human physiology, and racks to support lab and station opertions. The Materials Science Research Facility is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  15. Electrical power system design for the US space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, Donald L.; Bernatowicz, Daniel T.

    1986-01-01

    The multipurpose, manned, permanent space station will be our next step toward utilization of space. A multikilowatt electrical power system will be critical to its success. The power systems for the space station manned core and platforms that have been selected in definition studies are described. The system selected for the platforms uses silicon arrays and Ni-H2 batteries. The power system for the manned core is a hybrid employing arrays and batteries identical to those on the platform along with solar dynamic modules using either Brayton or organic Rankine engines. The power system requirements, candidate technologies, and configurations that were considered, and the basis for selection, are discussed.

  16. Knowledge-based machine vision systems for space station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision techniques which have the potential for use on the space station and related applications are assessed. A knowledge-based vision system (expert vision system) and the development of a demonstration system for it are described. This system implements some of the capabilities that would be necessary in a machine vision system for the robot arm of the laboratory module in the space station. A Perceptics 9200e image processor, on a host VAXstation, was used to develop the demonstration system. In order to use realistic test images, photographs of actual space shuttle simulator panels were used. The system's capabilities of scene identification and scene matching are discussed.

  17. Selected materials issues associated with Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Visentine, J.; Santos-Mason, B.

    1987-01-01

    Compatibility of Space Station hardware with the space environment is one of the major materials development issues. The projected long life of the Space Station elements (about 30 years for structural components and 20 years for power systems), the large number of day/night thermal cycles that have to be withstood during the life of the Station, and the effects of atomic oxygen and UV irradiation on exposed surfaces demand new considerations in selection of materials. Reaction efficiencies of materials for Space Station applications derived from LEO experiments are presented together with surface recession predictions for various Space Station components. Developments in the areas of protective coatings and of laboratory facilities for evaluating the effects of atomic oxygen are discussed.

  18. von Braun 1952 Space Station Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  19. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, alarm audibility, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analyses and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will reveal changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations and is an update to the status presented in 2011. Since this last status report, many payloads (science experiment hardware) have been added and a significant number of quiet ventilation fans have replaced noisier fans in the Russian Segment. Also, noise mitigation efforts are planned to reduce the noise levels of the T2 treadmill and levels in Node 3, in general. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS continue to improve.

  20. The role of tethers on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of research and development that addressed the usefulness of tether applications in space, particularly for space station are described. A well organized and structured effort of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry and academia have defined the engineering and technological requirements of space tethers and their broad range of economic and operational benefits. The work directed by seven NASA Field Centers is consolidated and structured to cover the general and specific roles of tethers in space as they apply to NASA's planned space station. This is followed by a description of tether systems and operations. A summary of NASA's plans for tether applications in space for years to come is given.

  1. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  2. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  3. Proposal for a remotely manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minsky, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    The United States is in trouble in space. The costs of the proposed Space Station Freedom have grown beyond reach, and the present design is obsolete. The trouble has come from imagining that there are only two alternatives: manned vs. unmanned. Both choices have led us into designs that do not appear to be practical. On one side, the United States simply does not possess the robotic technology needed to operate or assemble a sophisticated unmanned space station. On the other side, the manned designs that are now under way seem far too costly and dangerous, with all of its thousands of extravehicular activity (EVA) hours. More would be accomplished at far less cost by proceeding in a different way. The design of a space station made of modular, Erector Set-like parts is proposed which is to be assembled using earth-based remotely-controlled binary-tree telerobots. Earth-based workers could be trained to build the station in space using simulators. A small preassembled spacecraft would be launched with a few telerobots, and then, telerobots could be ferried into orbit along with stocks of additional parts. Trained terrestrial workers would remotely assemble a larger station, and materials for additional power and life support systems could be launched. Finally, human scientists and explorers could be sent to the space station. Other aspects of such a space station program are discussed.

  4. The Space Station: In the beginning...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Hans

    1993-12-01

    The history of interest in and development of the space station concept is given. It is pointed out that the decision to base manned lunar missions on the 'lunar orbit rendezvous method', as opposed to Earth orbit staging, slowed development of space station proposals in the 1960s. Planned use of Skylab as a space station with Space Shuttle resupply failed when skylab returned to Earth in 1979 before the first Space Shuttle could be launched. The reluctance of Johnson Space Center officials to involve astronauts in the kind of lengthy extra-vehicular activity (EVA) required for space station construction was, and continues to be, a major sticking point. After a symposium in 1983 aired the EVA isues extensively, a proposal was presented for a baseline configuration space station program, and it was accepted on December 1, 1983. A series of reconsiderations of the baseline configuration led to the space station Freedom concept, which would cost significatly more than original estimates. This led to deterioration in interest in the program, leading to near death of the program by 1992. A major reconsideration study mandated by the Clinton Administration has resulted in abandonment of the Freedom concept and a return to a reduced-scope version of the project. Congress approved the program by a narrow margin on June 21, 1993.

  5. Space station structures and dynamics test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.; Townsend, John S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses unique challenges for development and implementation of new technology. The technology arises from the special requirement that the station be built and constructed to function in a weightless environment, where static loads are minimal and secondary to system dynamics and control problems. One specific challenge confronting NASA is the development of a dynamics test program for: (1) defining space station design requirements, and (2) identifying the characterizing phenomena affecting the station's design and development. A general definition of the space station dynamic test program, as proposed by MSFC, forms the subject of this report. The test proposal is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station. The test program will help to define the key issues and/or problems inherent to large space structure analysis, design, and testing. Development of a parametric data base and verification of the math models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The philosophy is to integrate dynamics into the design phase through extensive ground testing and analytical ground simulations of generic systems, prototype elements, and subassemblies. On-orbit testing of the station will also be used to define its capability.

  6. Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speth, Randall C.

    1998-01-01

    In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

  7. NASA's robotic servicing role for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L.; Goss, R.; Spencer, R.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to evaluations of the relative impacts on and benefits to the Space Station Program of various levels of robotics devices for space servicing operations. The leading robotic candidate concept for the IOC Space Station, the Smart Front End, uses a small, stiff and highly dexterous work effector controlled by a human-in-the-loop from a remote control station. This configuration offers both a quality multifunctional performance capability at the work site as well as technology transparency through the ground teleoperation control mode.

  8. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  9. Space Station Freedom Integrated Research and Development Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.; Ahlf, P. R.; Saucillo, Rudy J.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed to be an Earth-orbiting, multidiscipline research and development (R&D) facility capable of evolution to accomodate a variety of potential uses. One evolution scenario is growth to an enhanced R&D facility. In support of the Space Station Freedom Program Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the NASA Langley Research Center Space Station Office is analyzing growth requirements and evaluating configurations for this R&D utilization. This paper presents a summary of FY1989 study results including time-phased growth plans, R&D growth issues and configurations, and recommendations for the program baseline design which will facilitate evolutionary R&D growth. This study consisted of three major areas of concentration: mission requirements analysis; Space Station Freedom systems growth analysis; and growth accomodations and trades. Mission requirements analysis was performed to develop a realistic mission model of post-Phase 1 R&D missions. A systems-level analysis was performed to project incremental growth requirements of Space Station Freedom needed to support these R&D missions. Identification of growth requirements and specific growth elements led to the need for special accomodations analyses and trades. These studies included identification of hooks and scars on the baseline design, determination of an optimal module growth pattern, analysis of the dual keel length, and determination of an optimal locaton for the customer servicing facility. Results of this study show that Space Station Freedom must be capable of evolving to a dual keel, eight pressurized module configuration (two growth habs and two growth labs); providing 275 kW power (for experimenters and station housekeeping); accomodating a crew of 24; and supporting other growth structures and special facilities to meet projected R&D mission requirements.

  10. 47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations. 25.210 Section 25.210 Telecommunication...Standards § 25.210 Technical requirements for space stations. (a) All space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service used...

  11. 47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations. 25.210 Section 25.210 Telecommunication...Standards § 25.210 Technical requirements for space stations. (a) All space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service used...

  12. OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, Philip J.

    1992-01-01

    Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

  13. Vibrations and structureborne noise in space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Lyrintzis, C. S.; Bofilios, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical models were developed to predict vibrations and structureborne noise generation of cylindrical and rectangular acoustic enclosures. These models are then used to determine structural vibration levels and interior noise to random point input forces. The guidelines developed could provide preliminary information on acoustical and vibrational environments in space station habitability modules under orbital operations. The structural models include single wall monocoque shell, double wall shell, stiffened orthotropic shell, descretely stiffened flat panels, and a coupled system composed of a cantilever beam structure and a stiffened sidewall. Aluminum and fiber reinforced composite materials are considered for single and double wall shells. The end caps of the cylindrical enclosures are modeled either as single or double wall circular plates. Sound generation in the interior space is calculated by coupling the structural vibrations to the acoustic field in the enclosure. Modal methods and transfer matrix techniques are used to obtain structural vibrations. Parametric studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of interior noise environment to changes in input, geometric and structural conditions.

  14. NASA, Rockets, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    General overview of NASA, Launch Services Program, and the Slosh experiment aboard the International Space Station. This presentation is designed to be presented in front of university level students in hopes of inspiring them to go into STEM careers.

  15. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

  16. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

  17. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

  18. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

  19. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

  20. Alternative strategies for space station financing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walklet, D. C.; Heenan, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    The attributes of the proposed space station program are oriented toward research activities and technologies which generate long term benefits for mankind. Unless such technologies are deemed of national interest and thus are government funded, they must stand on their own in the market place. Therefore, the objectives of a United States space station should be based on commercial criteria; otherwise, such a project attracts no long term funding. There is encouraging evidence that some potential space station activities should generate revenues from shuttle related projects within the decade. Materials processing concepts as well as remote sensing indicate substantial potential. Futhermore, the economics and thus the commercial feasibility of such projects will be improved by the operating efficiencies available with an ongoing space station program.

  1. Space Station data management system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

    1987-01-01

    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  2. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The mission requirements, economic benefits, and time table of deployment of the space station are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) mission requirements overwhelmingly support the need for a space station; (2) a single space station is the way to begin; (3) the space station must evolve its capability; (4) the orbit transfer vehicle aspect of the space station will provide significant economic benefit; and (5) an early, affordable, effective way to start the space station program is needed.

  3. Space Station Freedom natural environment design models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program has established a series of natural environment models and databases for utilization in design and operations planning activities. The suite of models and databases that have either been selected from among internationally recognized standards or developed specifically for spacecraft design applications are presented. The models have been integrated with an orbit propagator and employed to compute environmental conditions for planned operations altitudes of Space Station Freedom.

  4. Space station assembly/servicing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The aim is to place a permanently manned space station on-orbit around the Earth, which is international in scope. The program is nearing the close of the system definition and preliminary design phase. The first shuttle launch for space station assembly on-orbit is estimated for January 1993. Topics perceived to be important to on-orbit assembly and servicing are discussed. This presentation is represented by charts.

  5. Overview of the Space Station communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Willett, Daniel; Paul, Sunil

    1990-01-01

    Within the Space Station Freedom program, the communications and data-processing capabilities that will be used to handle the operational and scientific information needs will be provided by a Space Station information and communications system. This system will be composed of a variety of elements, networks, and subnetworks. The networks and how they are interconnected are described. The discussion covers communications system elements and services, elements of the onboard systems, wide-area transport network elements, and command and control elements.

  6. Live from Space Station Learning Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Live From Space Station (LFSS) project under the Learning Technologies Project FY 2001 of the MSFC Education Programs Department. AZ Technology, Inc. (AZTek) has developed and implemented science education software tools to support tasks under the LTP program. Initial audience consisted of 26 TreK in the Classroom schools and thousands of museum visitors to the International Space Station: The Earth Tour exhibit sponsored by Discovery Place museum.

  7. Space station evolution: Planning for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Alphonso V.; Askins, Barbara S.

    1987-01-01

    The need for permanently manned presence in space has been recognized by the United States and its international partners for many years. The development of this capability was delayed due to the concurrent recognition that reusable earth-to-orbit transportation was also needed and should be developed first. While the decision to go ahead with a permanently manned Space Station was on hold, requirements for the use of the Station were accumulating as ground-based research and the data from unmanned spacecraft sparked the imagination of both scientists and entrepreneurs. Thus, by the time of the Space Station implementation decision in the early 1980's, a variety of disciplines, with a variety of requirements, needed to be accommodated on one Space Station. Additional future requirements could be forecast for advanced missions that were still in the early planning stages. The logical response was the development of a multi-purpose Space Station with the ability to evolve on-orbit to new capabilities as required by user needs and national or international decisions, i.e., to build an evolutionary Space Station. Planning for evolution is conducted in parallel with the design and development of the baseline Space Station. Evolution planning is a strategic management process to facilitate change and protect future decisions. The objective is not to forecast the future, but to understand the future options and the implications of these on today's decisions. The major actions required now are: (1) the incorporation of evolution provisions (hooks and scars) in the baseline Space Station; and (2) the initiation of an evolution advanced development program.

  8. The induced environment around Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha R.; Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The potential impact of the International Space Station on its immediate environment is discussed, summarizing the results of recent investigations by NASA working groups. Consideration is given to the neutral-gas environment, induced photon emission, particulate contamination, the ionized environment, the Induced-environment Monitoring Package proposed for inclusion in the Space Station equipment, and recommendations for further research. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  9. Design knowledge capture for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.; Wechsler, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits of design knowledge availability are identifiable and pervasive. The implementation of design knowledge capture and storage using current technology increases the probability for success, while providing for a degree of access compatibility with future applications. The space station design definition should be expanded to include design knowledge. Design knowledge should be captured. A critical timing relationship exists between the space station development program, and the implementation of this project.

  10. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International...

  14. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International...

  15. Impact of restructuring on Space Station Freedom assembly sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Steven Y.; Wanagas, John D.; Wright, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program and the process used to develop an assembly sequence are overviewed, with special attention given to the outcome of the recent restructuring activity and the positive impact it had on the Space Station design and the assembly sequence. The many technically complex and challenging aspects of the assembly sequence planning are examined, including the launch vehicle integration, the spacecraft systems capability development, and the availability of resources. It is shown that the restructuring reduced the size and the complexity of the Space Station, while the increase of ground integration through the use of preintegrated truss and shortened modules offers a reduced program risk and reduced demands on the STS.

  16. Space station thermal control surfaces. Volume 1: Interim report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. space program goals for long-duration manned missions place particular demands on thermal-control systems. The objective of this program is to develop plans which are based on the present thermal-control technology, and which will keep pace with the other space program elements. The program tasks are as follows: (1) requirements analysis, with the objectives to define the thermal-control-surface requirements for both space station and 25 kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal-control-surface technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements; (2) technology assessment, with the objectives to perform a literature/industry survey on thermal-control surfaces, to compare current technology with the requirements developed in the first task, and to determine what technology advancements are required for both the space station and the 25 kW power module; and (3) program planning that defines new initiative and/or program augmentation for development and testing areas required to provide the proper environment control for the space station and the 25 kW power module.

  17. Gravitational biology on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  18. Operational medicine in Space Station era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, S.; Buchanan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Medical considerations for long duration manned space missions are examined. The requirements and hardware for medical operations on the Space Station are diagrammatically presented. The physiological and psychological changes that have been observed during space flights are discussed. Crew health maintenance and medical care in the Space Station environment require earth-based and in flight continuity. It is also necessary to identify the appropriate zero-G therapeutic methods for treating a patient. Techniques for transferring patients in orbit and to earth are studied. Considerations are given to control and life support systems and data management for medical operations.

  19. Space Station Freedom capabilities for users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Snyder, Robert S.; Willenberg, Harvey J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Station Freedom's major objectives are to prepare for human space exploration by providing a long-duration, continuously habitable spacecraft in low earth orbit for physiology studies and for development of systems to support human presence in space and to enable laboratory and observational research in space. As a result of restructuring and the preliminary design review, designs of Space Station Freedom architecture and systems have progressed to the point where the accommodations for users can be well described. These capabilities are enumerated, covering such important resources as power and cooling, rack volume and external accommodations, crew time, data and command rates, and acceleration environment. Related items such as total energy, data management systems, and interfaces, station attitude, payload transportation, and on board and ground facilities are considered.

  20. The issue is leadership. [Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Four NASA Phase B centers (NASA-Johnson, NASA-Marshall, NASA-Goddard, and NASA-Lewis) are responsible for construction, assembly, servicing, habitat, and other particular tasks and functions of the Space Station. The project has been joined by the aerospace programs of Canada, Japan, and the European Space Agency, ensuring technological and financial support, and cooperative use by the participants. Some of the future uses of the Space Station include biomedical research and applications; experiments in solar-terrestrial physics and astronomy; building, maintenance, and launching of space instruments and planetary missions; manufacturing and processing of materials that call for the conditions of microgravity and weightlessness; supporting communication operations; and improving earth and atmospheric observations. The political significance of the Space Station as a symbol of leadership and of friendly cooperation is noted.

  1. Strategic planning for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Carolyn S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

  2. International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multiband optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument. This analysis supported the preliminary studies to determine feasibility of utilizing the International Space Station as an observing platform for a SHORE type of instrument. Rigorous analyses will be performed if a SHORE flight program is initiated. The analysis begins with the discussion of the coordinate systems involved and then conversion from the target coordinate system to the instrument coordinate system. Next the geometry of remote observations from the Space Station is investigated including the effects of the instrument location in Space Station and the effects of the line of sight to the target. The disturbance and error environment on Space Station is discussed covering factors contributing to drift and jitter, accuracy of pointing data and target and instrument accuracies.

  3. Optical fibers in the adverse space environment - The Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, Roger A.; Barnes, Charles E.; Scott, David M.; Biswas, Dipak R.

    1990-01-01

    On the NASA Space Station, the requirement for high speed data transfer between the exterior experimental bays and the interior research facilities has generated the need for fiberoptics. The adverse vacuum effects in space, temperature extremes, and natural space radiation place extreme conditions on optical fiber interconnects. This report addresses the adverse space environmental effects of temperature and radiation on optical fibers.

  4. Infrared monitoring of the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Jennings, Donald E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement and monitoring of infrared emission in the environment of the Space Station has a twofold importance - for the study of the phenomena itself and as an aid in planning and interpreting Station based infrared experiments. Spectral measurements of the infrared component of the spacecraft glow will, along with measurements in other spectral regions, provide data necessary to fully understand and model the physical and chemical processes producing these emissions. The monitoring of the intensity of these emissions will provide background limits for Space Station based infrared experiments and permit the determination of optimum instrument placement and pointing direction. Continuous monitoring of temporal changes in the background radiation (glow) will also permit better interpretation of Station-based infrared earth sensing and astronomical observations. The primary processes producing infrared emissions in the Space Station environment are: (1) Gas phase excitations of Station generated molecules ( e.g., CO2, H2O, organics...) by collisions with the ambient flux of mainly O and N2. Molecular excitations and generation of new species by collisions of ambient molecules with Station surfaces. They provide a list of resulting species, transition energies, excitation cross sections and relevant time constants. The modeled spectrum of the excited species occurs primarily at wavelengths shorter than 8 micrometer. Emissions at longer wavelengths may become important during rocket firing or in the presence of dust.

  5. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  6. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  7. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  8. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  9. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  10. Microgravity Environment on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A primary feature of the International Space Station will be its microgravity environment--an environment in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. Various types of data are gathered when science experiments are conducted. The acceleration levels experienced during experiment operation should be factored into the analysis of the results of most microgravity experiments. To this end, the Space Acceleration Measurement System records the acceleration levels to support microgravity researchers for nearly three years of International Space Station operations. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project assists the experiments principal investigators with their analysis of the acceleration (microgravity) environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project provides cataloged data, periodic analysis summary reports, specialized reports for experiment teams, and real-time data in a variety of user-defined formats. Characterization of the various microgravity carriers (e.g., Shuttle and International Space Station) is also accomplished for the experiment teams. Presented in this paper will be a short description of how microgravity disturbances may affect some experiment classes, a snapshot of the microgravity environment, and a view into how well the space station is expected to meet the user requirements.

  11. International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

  12. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  14. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  15. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  16. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  17. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000- pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  19. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000-pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  20. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 upon its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  1. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  2. Space station 'Skylab' - The harvest begins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1974-01-01

    Initial difficulties connected with the damage suffered by the space station during the launching operation and approaches for overcoming these difficulties are discussed along with the results obtained by the astronauts in their investigations. Attention is given to biomedical results, new solar discoveries, observations of the earth, materials research, and the new products obtained as a result of space processing.

  3. Space Station Engineering and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The evolving space station program will be examined through a series of more specific studies: maintainability; research and technology in space; solar thermodynamics research and technology; program performance; onboard command and control; and research and technology road maps. The purpose is to provide comments on approaches to long-term, reliable operation at low cost in terms of funds and crew time.

  4. EXPRESS Rack Technology for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Ted B.; Adams, J. Brian; Fisher, Edward M., Jr.; Prickett, Guy B.; Smith, Timothy G.

    1999-01-01

    The EXPRESS rack provides accommodations for standard Mid-deck Locker and ISIS drawer payloads on the International Space Station. A design overview of the basic EXPRESS rack and two derivatives, the Human Research Facility and the Habitat Holding Rack, is given in Part I. In Part II, the design of the Solid State Power Control Module (SSPCM) is reviewed. The SSPCM is a programmable and remotely controllable power switching and voltage conversion unit which distributes and protects up to 3kW of 12OVDC and 28VDC power to payloads and rack subsystem components. Part III details the development and testing of a new data storage device, the BRP EXPRESS Memory Unit (BEMU). The BEMU is a conduction-cooled device which operates on 28VDC and is based on Boeing-modified 9GB commercial disk-drive technology. In Part IV results of a preliminary design effort for a rack Passive Damping System (PDS) are reported. The PDS is intended to isolate ISPR-based experiment racks from on-orbit vibration. System performance predictions based on component developmental testing indicate that such a system can provide effective isolation at frequencies of 1 Hz and above.

  5. Space Station Information System integrated communications concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, J.; Bigham, J.; Whitelaw, V.; Marker, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrated communications within the Space Station Information System (SSIS). The SSIS is generally defined as the integrated set of space and ground information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The requirements used to develop the model are presented, and the various elements of the model described.

  6. Space Station RT and E Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, P. K.; Anderson, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Descriptive information on a set of 241 mission concepts was reviewed to establish preliminary Space Station outfitting needs for technology development missions. The missions studied covered the full range of in-space technology development activities envisioned for early Space Station operations and included both pressurized volume and attached payload requirements. Equipment needs were compared with outfitting plans for the life sciences and microgravity user communities, and a number of potential outfitting additions were identified. Outfitting implementation was addressed by selecting a strawman mission complement for each of seven technical themes, by organizing the missions into flight scenarios, and by assessing the associated outfitting buildup for planning impacts.

  7. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

  8. Vision requirements for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Problems which will be encountered by computer vision systems in Space Station operations are discussed, along with solutions be examined at Johnson Space Station. Lighting cannot be controlled in space, nor can the random presence of reflective surfaces. Task-oriented capabilities are to include docking to moving objects, identification of unexpected objects during autonomous flights to different orbits, and diagnoses of damage and repair requirements for autonomous Space Station inspection robots. The approaches being examined to provide these and other capabilities are television IR sensors, advanced pattern recognition programs feeding on data from laser probes, laser radar for robot eyesight and arrays of SMART sensors for automated location and tracking of target objects. Attention is also being given to liquid crystal light valves for optical processing of images for comparisons with on-board electronic libraries of images.

  9. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Donald C. (inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (inventor); Schliesing, John A. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  10. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Donald C. (inventor); Delafuente, Horatio (inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (inventor); Schleisling, John A. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavylift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a Shuttle Orbiter using the launch vehicle of the Shuttle Orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are pre-integrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  11. Rendezvous missions: From ISS to lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazin, Rafail

    2014-08-01

    There was a lot of experience gained in the rendezvous of different vehicles in the LEO during the years of human space exploration. In the framework of the Apollo program when the astronauts landed on the surface of the Moon, the docking of the Lunar Module launched from the Moon's surface to the Apollo Command Module was successfully implemented in the near-Moon orbit. Presently many space agencies are considering a return to the Moon. It is necessary to solve the new task of docking the vehicle launched from the Earth to the long-term near-Moon orbital station taking into account specific constraints. Based on the ISS experience the author proposes a number of ballistic rendezvous strategies that provide for docking to the near-Moon orbital station with minimum propellant consumption. The trade-off analysis of the given rendezvous strategies is presented.

  12. The development of the International Space Station centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tamotsu

    2004-11-01

    Gravitational biology research facility "Centrifuge" is currently under development for the International Space Station. Research in the Complex Organism Biology, indispensable to the progress in Health Science, is only possible in the Centrifuge aboard the station. So, on-orbit 1 G controls for various specimens including small mammals, fish, and higher plants will be rigorously done in the Centrifuge. This facility is also capable of providing "reduced gravity" likely on the Moon or on Mars. Thus, it will play a key role in creating knowledge of space fundamental biology. As part of the offset of NASA's Shuttle launch services for the Japanese Experiment Module, JAXA is developing the Centrifuge Rotor (CR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). Critical Design Review (CDR) of LSG was conducted on July 2004, while the system CDRs of the CAM and CR are scheduled for December 2004 and August 2005, respectively. Their launch schedules are under review. PMID:15858334

  13. Practical Applications of a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The potential uses of a special station for civil and commercial applications is examined. Five panels of experts representing user-oriented communities, and a sixth panel which dealth with system design considerations, based their studies on the assumption that the station would be a large platform, capable of housing a wide array of diverse instruments, and could be either manned or unmanned. The Earth's Resources Panel dealt with applications of remote sensing for resource assessment. The Earth's Environment Panel dealt with the Earth's atmosphere and its impact on society. The Ocean Operations Panel looked at both science and applications. The Satellite Communications Panel assessed the potential role of a space station in the evolution of commercial telecommunication services up to the year 2000. The Materials Science and Engineering panel focused on the utility of a space station environment for materials processing.

  14. Space Station Science Supported by Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Smith, Tommy R.

    2003-01-01

    The science program at Marshall Space Flight Center will be reviewed in the context of the overall NASA science program. An overview will be given on how Marshall science supports the International Space Station research program. The Microgravity research capabilities at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall civil service and contractor scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in New Initiative Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. The specific scientific instruments that have been developed for Materials Science and Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station will be discussed.

  15. Space Station and the life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.; Leonard, J. I.; Cramer, D. B.; Bishop, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Previous fundamental research in space life sciences is examined, and consideration is devoted to studies relevant to Space Station activities. Microgravity causes weight loss, hemoconcentration, and orthostatic intolerance when astronauts returns to earth. Losses in bone density, bone calcium, and muscle nitrogen have also been observed, together with cardiovascular deconditioning, fluid-electrolyte metabolism alteration, and space sickness. Experiments have been performed with plants, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, tissue cultures, invertebrate species, and with nonhuman vertebrates, showing little effect on simple cell functions. The Spacelab first flight will feature seven life science experiments and the second flight, two. Further studies will be performed on later flights. Continued life science studies to optimize human performance in space are necessary for the efficient operation of a Space Station and the assembly of large space structures, particularly in interaction with automated machinery.

  16. Concept of adaptability in space modules.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M

    1990-10-01

    The space program is aiming towards the permanent use of space; to build and establish an orbital space station, a Moon base and depart to Mars and beyond. We must look after the total independency from the Earth's natural resources and work in the design of a modular space base in which each module is capable of duplicating one natural process, and that all these modules in combination take us to conceive a space base capable of sustaining life. Every area of human knowledge must be involved. This modular concept will let us see other space goals as extensions of the primary project. The basic technology has to be defined, then relatively minor adjustments will let us reach new objectives such as a first approach for a lunar base and for a Mars manned mission. This concept aims towards an open technology in which standards and recommendations will be created to assemble huge space bases and spaceships from specific modules that perform certain functions, that in combination will let us reach the status of permanent use and exploration of space. PMID:11540550

  17. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  18. Space Station thermal control during on-orbit assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.; Carlson, Albert W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Space Station program requirements for the Thermal Control System (TCS), and outlines the capabilities of the TCS for each assembly configuration. The TCS architecture for the completed assembly configuration is described, consisting of an active TCS (ATCS) and a passive TCS (PTCS). The four ATCS subsystems are described, including the two-phase ammonia central ATCS, photovoltaic power module, attached payload accommodation equipment and the single-phase water internal ATCS.

  19. Space station preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a 3 month preliminary design and analysis effort is presented. The configuration that emerged consists of a very stiff deployable truss structure with an overall triangular cross section having universal modules attached at the apexes. Sufficient analysis was performed to show feasibility of the configuration. An evaluation of the structure shows that desirable attributes of the configuration are: (1) the solar cells, radiators, and antennas will be mounted to stiff structure to minimize control problems during orbit maintenance and correction, docking, and attitude control; (2) large flat areas are available for mounting and servicing of equipment; (3) Large mass items can be mounted near the center of gravity of the system to minimize gravity gradient torques; (4) the trusses are lightweight structures and can be transported into orbit in one Shuttle flight; (5) the trusses are expandable and will require a minimum of EVA; and (6) the modules are anticipated to be structurally identical except for internal equipment to minimize cost.

  20. Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

    1989-01-01

    The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

  1. The Space Station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The University of Central Florida's design of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station is addressed. Four integratable subsystems capable of handling an estimated Orbiter shortfall of nearly 40,000 lbs of refuse produced annually are discussed. The subsystems investigated were: (1) collection and transfer; (2) recycle and reuse; (3) advanced disposal; and (4) propulsion assist in disposal. Emphasis is placed on the recycling or reuse of those materials ultimately providing a source of Space Station refuse. Special consideration is given to various disposal methods capable of completely removing refuse from close proximity of the Space Station. There is evidence that pyrolysis is the optimal solution for disposal of refuse through employment of a Rocket Jettison Vehicle. Additionally, design considerations and specifications of the Refuse Management System are discussed. Optimal and alternate design solutions for each of the four subsystems are summarized. Finally, the system configuration is described and reviewed.

  2. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  3. Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bents, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  4. Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

  5. Progress Resupply Craft Docks to Space Station - Duration: 2 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 39th ISS Progress resupply vehicle automatically docked to the aft port of the Zvezda service module of the International Space Station at 7:58 a.m. EDT on September 12 using the Kurs automated...

  6. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  7. Space Station thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal control system (TCS) for the space station assembly complete configuration includes a two-phase central thermal bus with a supplemental body mounted radiator system. Evolution of the space station from a heat rejection capacity of 75 kW to 300 kW will require scars to expand the thermal fluid distribution network, equipment replacement to enable greater thermal transport capacity, and enlargement of the heat rejection subsystem for increased heat rejection. The TCS requirements for assembly completion and growth are presented along with a review of the basic structure of the active and passive thermal control systems which include provisions for growth.

  8. Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

  9. Assembling a Space Station in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.; Lounge, J. Michael; Walker, David M.

    1990-01-01

    The factors affecting the degree of difficulty of assembling a Space Station in orbit and ways of arriving at the optimum construction solution are briefly reviewed and applied to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The assembly of the SSF navigation and control systems and the relevant tools and methods are examined along with the characteristics of early assembly flights. The most significant challenges facing the construction of the SSF are discussed, and new technologies which will be incorporated into the SSF are briefly considered.

  10. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  11. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  12. The Canadian Space Agency's Space Station Remote Manipulator System arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers guide a segment of the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) past the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The segment joins two others for a campaign of prelaunch processing activities. CSA's first contribution to the International Space Station (ISS), the SSRMS is the primary means of transferring payloads between the orbiter payload bay and the ISS for assembly. The 56-foot-long robotic arm includes two 12- foot booms joined by a hinge. Seven joints on the arm allow highly flexible and precise movement. Latching End Effectors are mounted on each end of the arm for grappling. Video cameras mounted on the booms and end effectors will give astronauts maximum visibility for operations and maintenance tasks on the ISS. The SSRMS is scheduled to be launched aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-100, currently planned for July 2000.

  13. Health maintenance on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Medical support for extended manned missions aboard such spacecraft as the NASA Space Shuttle must encompass prevention, diagnosis, and therapy capabilities in the preflight and postflight as well as actual mission phases. An evaluation is presently made of the technological and management challenges that must be met in order to furnish an adequate inflight health care delivery system that possesses adequate inflight health care, real-time environmental monitoring, physiological countermeasures, and medical rescue/recovery facilities for ill or injured crew members.

  14. Productivity in an evolutionary space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Carlisle, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Space station productivity is treated from a systems point of view, considering the functions and attributes of space station development, formation, and operation that affect productivity. An optimum planning method is needed to assure that the station will have mission flexibility, technology advancement, maintainability, and evolutionary capability. Advanced technology will be designed into the housekeeping and utility functions of the station. Greater risk taking may be allowed into designs if the potential benefits of the advanced system support the risk, and if the system can be buffered from causing a failure cascade throughout the station. A common data base is needed to store and track all designs, developments, and changes in the station subsystems. Systems that can be automated and free the human inhabitants for more productive work are favored, as are modular components that are highly fault-free. Human control must also be possible, especially during check-out and verification, and also for teaching the automated systems new or modified tasks.

  15. Berthing simulator for space station and orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerasamy, Sam

    1991-01-01

    The development of a real-time man-in-the-loop berthing simulator is in progress at NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) to conduct a parametric study and to measure forces during contact conditions of the actual docking mechanisms for the Space Station Freedom and the orbiter. In berthing, the docking ports of the Space Station and the orbiter are brought together using the orbiter robotic arm to control the relative motion of the vehicles. The berthing simulator consists of a dynamics docking test system (DDTS), computer system, simulator software, and workstations. In the DDTS, the Space Station, and the orbiter docking mechanisms are mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) table and a fixed platform above the table. Six load cells are used on the fixed platform to measure forces during contact conditions of the docking mechanisms. Two Encore Concept 32/9780 computers are used to simulate the orbiter robotic arm and to operate the berthing simulator. A systematic procedure for a real-time dynamic initialization is being developed to synchronize the Space Station docking port trajectory with the 6 DOF table movement. The berthing test can be conducted manually or automatically and can be extended for any two orbiting vehicles using a simulated robotic arm. The real-time operation of the berthing simulator is briefly described.

  16. Radiological assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Hardy, Alva C.; Robbins, Donald E.; Atwell, William

    1993-01-01

    Circumstances have made it necessary to reassess the risks to Space Station Freedom crewmembers that arise from exposure to the space radiation environment. An option is being considered to place it in an orbit similar to that of the Russian Mir space station. This means it would be in a 51.6 deg inclination orbit instead of the previously planned 28.5 deg inclination orbit. A broad range of altitudes is still being considered, although the baseline is a 407 km orbit. In addition, recent data from the Japanese A-bomb survivors has made it necessary for NASA to have the exposure limits reviewed. Preliminary findings of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements indicate that the limits must be significantly reduced. Finally, the Space Station will be a laboratory where effects of long-term zero gravity on human physiology will be studied in detail. It is possible that a few crewmembers will be assigned to as many as three 1-year missions. Thus, their accumulated exposure will exceed 1,000 days. Results of this radiation risk assessment for Space Station Freedom crewmembers finds that females less than 35 years old will be confined to mission assignments where the altitude is less than about 400 km. Slight restrictions may also need to be made for male crewmembers less than 35 years old.

  17. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  18. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the international space station (ISS) in the frame of DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project - results from the active instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR has been launched on July 15 (th) 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18 (th) . It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (Dosimetry Telescopes = DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a Nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The active components of the DOSIS experiment were operational from July 18 (th) 2009 to June 16 (th) 2011. After refurbishment the hardware has been reactivated on May 15 (th) 2012 as active part of the DOSIS 3D experiment and provides continuous data since this activation. The presentation will focus on the latest results from the two DOSTEL instruments as absorbed dose, dose equivalent and the related LET spectra gathered within the DOSIS (2009 - 2011) and DOSIS 3D (2012 - 2014) experiment. The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are financially supported by BMWi under Grants 50WB0826, 50WB1026 and 50WB1232

  19. International Space Station Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, Blythe A.

    2008-01-01

    The goals and objectives of the ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) are to: 1) Maximize the utilization the ISS and other spaceflight platforms to assess the effects of longduration spaceflight on human systems; 2) Devise and verify strategies to ensure optimal crew performance; 3) Enable development and validation of a suite of integrated physical (e.g., exercise), pharmacologic and/or nutritional countermeasures against deleterious effects of space flight that may impact mission success or crew health. The ISSMP provides planning, integration, and implementation services for Human Research Program research tasks and evaluation activities requiring access to space or related flight resources on the ISS, Shuttle, Soyuz, Progress, or other spaceflight vehicles and platforms. This includes pre- and postflight activities; 2) ISSMP services include operations and sustaining engineering for HRP flight hardware; experiment integration and operation, including individual research tasks and on-orbit validation of next generation on-orbit equipment; medical operations; procedures development and validation; and crew training tools and processes, as well as operation and sustaining engineering for the Telescience Support Center; and 3) The ISSMP integrates the HRP approved flight activity complement and interfaces with external implementing organizations, such as the ISS Payloads Office and International Partners, to accomplish the HRP's objectives. This effort is led by JSC with Baseline Data Collection support from KSC.

  20. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsberry, B. S.; Lippert, B. O.; Mckee, S. D.; Lewis, J. L., Jr.; Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of planning for Space Station Freedom at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the placement of the viewing windows and cameras for optimum crewmember use. Researchers and analysts are evaluating the placement options using a three-dimensional graphics program called PLAID. This program, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), is being used to determine the extent to which the viewing requirements for assembly and operations are being met. A variety of window placement options in specific modules are assessed for accessibility. In addition, window and camera placements are analyzed to insure that viewing areas are not obstructed by the truss assemblies, externally-mounted payloads, or any other station element. Other factors being examined include anthropometric design considerations, workstation interfaces, structural issues, and mechanical elements.

  1. STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  2. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  4. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  5. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  6. Microgravity particle research on the Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Squyres, S.W.; Mckay, C.P.; Schwartz, D.E.

    1987-12-01

    Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

  7. Microgravity Particle Research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W. (editor); Mckay, Christopher P. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

  8. Space Station: Key to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

  9. Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Susan J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment are presented. After a brief overview of the SSE, the implementation approach and the current and planned functionality are described. The implications and future potential of this common environment for software development and sustaining engineering are also discussed.

  10. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or...

  11. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or...

  12. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or...

  13. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or...

  14. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or...

  15. Microwave Cavity Clocks On Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. a.; Nissen, J. A.; Wang, S.; Stricker, D. A.; Avaloff, D.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the status of a microwave cavity clock experiment to perform improved tests of Local Position Invariance and Lorentz Invariance on the International Space Station in conjunction with atomic clocks. Significant improvements over present bounds are expected in both cases. The oscillators can also be used to enhance the performance of atomic clocks at short time scales for other experiments.

  16. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  17. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  18. 78 FR 66964 - International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (13-128)] International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

  19. Space Station Engineering and Technology Development: Proceedings of the Panel on In-Space Engineering Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In 1984 the ad hoc committee on Space Station Engineering and Technology Development of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) conducted a review of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space station program planning. The review addressed the initial operating configuration (IOC) of the station. The ASEB has reconstituted the ad hoc committee which then established panels to address each specific related subject. The participants of the panels come from the committee, industry, and universities. The proceedings of the Panel on In Space Engineering Research and Technology Development are presented in this report. Activities, and plans for identifying and developing R&T programs to be conducted by the space station and related in space support needs including module requirements are addressed. Consideration is given to use of the station for R&T for other government agencies, universities, and industry.

  20. The Space Station - Mankind's permanent presence in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, H.

    1984-01-01

    The present discussion is concerned with developments which led finally to the announcement of a new U.S. national commitment in January 1984. According to this announcement, plans are to be developed for the establishment of a permanently manned orbiting Space Station to be deployed within the decade. Early concepts regarding a space station go back to 1869, when a story was published in the 'Atlantic Monthly' about a large earth-orbiting sphere, built of brick, in which people lived and worked. Some decades later, the idea was taken up by Oberth in Germany and Tsiolkovsky in Russia. Their work had a decisive influence on Goddard in the U.S. and von Braun in Germany, who developed basic propulsion systems. Attention is given to rocket developments during and after the Second World War, the trip to the moon, the post-Apollo program, the Space Shuttle and the 1970's, planning for the Space Station, opposition to the Space Station, the Space Station debate, international and commercial interest, and the President's decision.

  1. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and telepresence/kinetic processes), (3) subsystem tests of advanced nuclear power, nuclear propulsion and communication systems (using boom extensions, remote station-keeping platforms and mobile EVA crew and robots), and (4) logistics support (crew and equipment) and command and control of deep space transport assembly, maintenance, and refueling (using a station-keeping platform).

  2. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the Space Station could be expensive for users; costing in many cases millions of dollars to get a payload from conception to retrieval. It is also recognized that some of the potential users cannot or will not invest a lot of money or effort into Space Station utilization, unless there is a perceived significant commercial potential. How best to fund Space Station payloads is under study. Space Station Freedom will provide the first opportunity for Canada to conduct experiments in a long-duration microgravity environment. CSA have been developing and funding potential users for some time, and considerable interest has been shown by the response to our SOI earlier this year. Space Station, along with NASA. &We hope to take full advantage of this opportunity.

  3. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the Space Station could be expensive for users; costing in many cases millions of dollars to get a payload from conception to retrieval. It is also recognized that some of the potential users cannot or will not invest a lot of money or effort into Space Station utilization, unless there is a perceived significant commercial potential. How best to fund Space Station payloads is under study. Space Station Freedom will provide the first opportunity for Canada to conduct experiments in a long-duration microgravity environment. CSA have been developing and funding potential users for some time, and considerable interest has been shown by the response to our SOI earlier this year. Canada can be one of the two earliest users for the Space Station, along with NASA. We hope to take full advantage of this opportunity.

  4. SOAR 89: Space Station. Space suit test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; West, Philip; Rouen, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The elements of the test program for the space suit to be used on Space Station Freedom are noted in viewgraph form. Information is given on evaluation objectives, zero gravity evaluation, mobility evaluation, extravehicular activity task evaluation, and shoulder joint evaluation.

  5. Space Station active thermal control technical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A description of recent and planned thermal control technology developments at the Johnson Space Center and the other NASA Centers in support of Space Stations is presented. The program is centered around satisfying the needs of the users. Preliminary results of proof-of-concept high capacity heat pipes and two-phase devices are included which indicate that large amounts of energy (100 kW) can be transported long distances (50 m) with very small temperature differences. The presentation summarizes preparations for an 'evolutionary test bed' for advanced development of thermal technology which will provide data on components and systems for incorporation into the Space Station designs in the late 1980s. The results of the recently flown Heat Pipe Experiment aboard STS-8 are presented.

  6. Space Station Freedom electrical performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.

  7. Photovoltaic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is described with special attention given to its electric power system. The photovoltaic arrays, the battery energy storage system, and the power management, and distribution system are also discussed. The current design of Freedom's power system and the system requirements, trade studies, and competing factors which lead to system selections are referenced. This will be the largest power system ever flown in space. This system represents the culmination of many developments that have improved system performance, reduced cost, and improved reliability. Key developments and their evolution into the current space station solar array design are briefly described. The features of the solar cell and the array including the development, design, test, and flight hardware production status are given.

  8. Photovoltaic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is described with special attention to its electric power system. The photovoltaic arrays, the battery energy storage system, and the power management and distribution system are also discussed. The current design of Freedom's power system and the system requirements, trade studies, and competing factors which lead to system selections are referenced. This will be the largest power system ever flown in space. This system represents the culmination of many developments that have improved system performance, reduced cost, and improved reliability. Key developments and their evolution into the current space station solar array design are briefly described. The features of the solar cell and the array including the development, design, test, and flight hardware production status are given.

  9. Design-Tradeoff Model For Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Borden, Chester S.; Deshpande, Govind K.; Fox, George; Duquette, William H.; Dilullo, Larry A.; Seeley, Larry; Shishko, Robert

    1990-01-01

    System Design Tradeoff Model (SDTM) computer program produces information which helps to enforce consistency of design objectives throughout system. Mathematical model of set of possible designs for Space Station Freedom. Program finds particular design enabling station to provide specified amounts of resources to users at lowest total (or life-cycle) cost. Compares alternative design concepts by changing set of possible designs, while holding specified services to users constant, and then comparing costs. Finally, both costs and services varied simultaneously when comparing different designs. Written in Turbo C 2.0.

  10. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Summary of technical reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics, and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. In order to accommodate the furnace modules with the resources required to operate, SSFF developed a design that meets the needs of the wide range of furnaces that are planned for the SSFF. The system design is divided into subsystems which provide the functions of interfacing to the SSF services, conditioning and control for furnace module use, providing the controlled services to the furnace modules, and interfacing to and acquiring data from the furnace modules. The subsystems, described in detail, are as follows: Power Conditioning and Distribution Subsystem; Data Management Subsystem; Software; Gas Distribution Subsystem; Thermal Control Subsystem; and Mechanical Structures Subsystem.

  11. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences program: to ensure the health, safety, and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental knowledge of biological processes. Space-based research has already shown that people and plants respond the same way to the microgravity environment: they lose structure. However, the mechanisms by which they respond are different, and researchers do not yet know much about these mechanisms. Life science research accommodations on Freedom will include facilities for experiments designed to address this and other questions, in fields such as gravitational biology, space physiology, and biomedical monitoring and countermeasures research.

  12. Space Station - Opportunity for international cooperation and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with his announcement regarding the development of a permanently manned Space Station, President Reagan invited the United States' friends and allies to join in the Space Station program. The President's invitation was preceded by more than two years of interaction between NASA and some of its potential partners in Space Station planning activities. Attention is given to international participation in Space Station planning, international cooperation on the Space Station, the guidelines for international cooperation, and the key challenges. Questions regarding quid pro quos are considered along with aspects of technology transfer, commercial use, problems of management, and the next steps concerning the Space Station program.

  13. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 5: Space Station safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. H.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Raasch, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station Safety Plan has been prepared as an adjunct to the subject contract final report, suggesting the tasks and implementation procedures to ensure that threats are addressed and resolution strategy options identified and incorporated into the space station program. The safety program's approach is to realize minimum risk exposure without levying undue design and operational constraints. Safety objectives and risk acceptances are discussed.

  14. Space station propulsion technology: Space station propulsion system test bed test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Testing of the hydrogen/oxygen Space Station Propulsion System will demonstrate the technology readiness for the IOC application. To facilitate early demonstration of this technology and to allow demonstration of maturing technology, this testing will be performed with the components installed on a test bed which simulated the Space Station Structure. The test plan contains a description of the test bed, test objective, instrumentation plan, and controls plan. Each of these is discussed in detail.

  15. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  16. Space Station Freedom. A Foothold on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    This booklet describes the planning of the space station program. Sections included are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "A New Era Begins" (discussing scientific experiments on the space station); (3) "Living in Space"; (4) "Dreams Fulfilled" (summarizing the history of the space station development, including the skylab and shuttle); (5) "Building a Way…

  17. Talking through procedures: An intelligent Space Station procedure assistant

    E-print Network

    Talking through procedures: An intelligent Space Station procedure assistant G. Aistl, J. Dowding aboard the Interna- tional Space Station. The system allows navigation one line at a time or in larger Space Station recently entered its second year as the first permanent human presence in space

  18. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each proposed GSO space station or NGSO satellite constellation on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule... blanket authority for an NGSO satellite constellation comprised of space stations that are not all... type of space station in the constellation. (b) Each application for a new or modified space...

  19. The AMS-02 TRD for the International Space Station

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    The AMS-02 TRD for the International Space Station Florian Hauler on behalf of the AMS-02 TRD Group Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is an experiment which will be mounted on the international space station on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure primary cosmic ray spectra in space for three years

  20. Space Station Freedom growth power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Ahlf, P. R.; Saucillo, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Options and scenarios for the evolution of Space Station Freedom beyond the current baseline have been established and analyzed at NASA Langley Research Center to identify growth requirements for the program's Preliminary Requirements Review (PRR). Time-phase requirements for electrical power and other critical resources were determined based upon the future needs of the science, technology and commercial users. In addition, impacts and resource growth were determined for the utilization of station as a transportation node in support of human exploration initiatives to the moon and/or Mars. The set of requirements chosen for the PRR were selected on the basis of their adequacy in accommodating each of the evolution options and scenarios within each option, thereby maximizing future flexibility. In the case of electrical power, growth to 275 kW (average) was determined to be adequate for evolutionary missions and station housekeeping growth, given projections of future earth-to-orbit transportation capabilities.

  1. Planning for Space Station Freedom laboratory payload integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willenberg, Harvey J.; Torre, Larry P.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed to support extensive missions involving microgravity research and applications. Requirements for on-orbit payload integration and the simultaneous payload integration of multiple mission increments will provide the stimulus to develop new streamlined integration procedures in order to take advantage of the increased capabilities offered by Freedom. The United States Laboratory and its user accommodations are described. The process of integrating users' experiments and equipment into the United States Laboratory and the Pressurized Logistics Modules is described. This process includes the strategic and tactical phases of Space Station utilization planning. The support that the Work Package 01 Utilization office will provide to the users and hardware developers, in the form of Experiment Integration Engineers, early accommodation assessments, and physical integration of experiment equipment, is described. Plans for integrated payload analytical integration are also described.

  2. Intelligent user interface concept for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, Edward; Donaldson, Cameron; Bailey, Elizabeth; Gilroy, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    The space station computing system must interface with a wide variety of users, from highly skilled operations personnel to payload specialists from all over the world. The interface must accommodate a wide variety of operations from the space platform, ground control centers and from remote sites. As a result, there is a need for a robust, highly configurable and portable user interface that can accommodate the various space station missions. The concept of an intelligent user interface executive, written in Ada, that would support a number of advanced human interaction techniques, such as windowing, icons, color graphics, animation, and natural language processing is presented. The user interface would provide intelligent interaction by understanding the various user roles, the operations and mission, the current state of the environment and the current working context of the users. In addition, the intelligent user interface executive must be supported by a set of tools that would allow the executive to be easily configured and to allow rapid prototyping of proposed user dialogs. This capability would allow human engineering specialists acting in the role of dialog authors to define and validate various user scenarios. The set of tools required to support development of this intelligent human interface capability is discussed and the prototyping and validation efforts required for development of the Space Station's user interface are outlined.

  3. A magnetospheric simulation at the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Freeman, John W.; Michel, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that a strong magnet (terrella) be flown at or near the Space Station to create an artificial magnetosphere in a laboratory setting. The relative flow of the ionosphere past the terrella will constitute a plasma wind that will interact with the magnetic field of the terrella to produce a localized magnetosphere. This object could then be extensively studied using diagnostic probes attached to the Space Station or with free flyers. The space and storage requirements would be minimal, since the experiment would be conducted outside the Space Station. The total equipment would consist of several terrella (with varying surface conductivities), approximately 3 small magnetometer/plasma diagnostic packages, and several gas canisters for upstream seeding. Power requirements would be approximately 60 watts. Several track mounted tethers, each approximately or 200 m long in length, with track parallel to the orbital motion and 100 m long, are also needed. Astronaut time needed would be minimal in the tethered configuration (approximately 4 man hours/week). A free flying configuration, while not needing the tether track, would require much more human interaction.

  4. KSC ground operations planning for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, J. R.; Revesz, W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, processing facilities are being built and activated to support the processing, checkout, and launch of Space Station elements. The generic capability of these facilities will be utilized to support resupply missions for payloads, life support services, and propellants for the 30-year life of the program. Special Ground Support Equipment (GSE) is being designed for Space Station hardware special handling requirements, and a Test, Checkout, and Monitoring System (TCMS) is under development to verify that the flight elements are ready for launch. The facilities and equipment used at KSC, along with the testing required to accomplish the mission, are described in detail to provide an understanding of the complexity of operations at the launch site. Assessments of hardware processing flows through KSC are being conducted to minimize the processing flow times for each hardware element. Baseline operations plans and the changes made to improve operations and reduce costs are described, recognizing that efficient ground operations are a major key to success of the Space Station.

  5. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  6. Mechanically Induced g-Jitter from Space Station Rotary Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The mission of the International Space Station is to provide a working laboratory in orbit for research in engineering, life sciences, and microgravity. Among the microgravity disciplines that are preparing to utilize this international resource are materials processing, combustion, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and fundamental physics. The Station promises to enable significant advances in each of these areas by making available a research facility in which gravitational and other accelerations, and their corresponding buoyancy and diffusion effects on various physical processes, are orders of magnitude lower than they are on Earth. In order to fulfill this promise, it is not enough for the Space Station to simply replicate a typical terrestrial scientific laboratory in orbit. Although an orbiting laboratory is free of most of the effects of gravitational acceleration by virtue of its free fall condition, it also produces structural vibration or jitter that can interfere with the processes under study. To ensure the quality of the acceleration environment and enable a successful mission, the Space Station Program has limited potential disturbances in two ways: first, by isolating the most sensitive payloads from the vehicle structure, and second, by quieting major disturbances at their sources. The first area, payload isolation, is implemented inside the pressurized modules at the rack level. Sub-rack level isolators have also been developed. This paper addresses the second area, disturbance source limits, for one of the major sources of mechanical noise on the Space Station: the Solar Alpha Rotary Joints. Due to the potential for large disturbances to the microgravity environment, an initial analytical prediction of rotary joint vibration output was made. Key components were identified and tested to validate the analytical predictions. Based on the component test results, the final vibration output of the joints was verified by a test on each fully assembled flight unit. This paper describes the Space Station microgravity requirements, the rotary joint hardware, and the disturbance producing aspects of joint operation. The test setup, instrumentation, test conditions, and results for the component level and system level measurements are described. An overall forcing function that describes the maximum torque imparted to the Station is created based on the test results, and these disturbances are shown to meet the applicable Space Station microgravity requirements.

  7. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grandfathered short-spaced stations. 73.213 Section 73.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.213 Grandfathered short-spaced stations. (a) Stations at locations authorized prior to...

  8. High-frequency ac power distribution in Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    A utility-type 20-kHz ac power distribution system for the Space Station, employing resonant power-conversion techniques, is presented. The system converts raw dc voltage from photovoltaic cells or three-phase LF ac voltage from a solar dynamic generator into a regulated 20-kHz ac voltage for distribution among various loads. The results of EASY5 computer simulations of the local and global performance show that the system has fast response and good transient behavior. The ac bus voltage is effectively regulated using the phase-control scheme, which is demonstrated with both line and load variations. The feasibility of paralleling the driver-module outputs is illustrated with the driver modules synchronized and sharing a common feedback loop. An HF sinusoidal ac voltage is generated in the three-phase ac input case, when the driver modules are phased 120 deg away from one another and their outputs are connected in series.

  9. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  10. Exobiology research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. L.; Stratton, D. M.; Scattergood, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) is a multidisciplinary experiment laboratory being developed by NASA at Ames Research Center for delivery to Space Station Freedom in 1998. This facility will employ the low-gravity environment of the Space Station to enable aerosol experiments of much longer duration than is possible in any ground-based laboratory. Studies of fractal aggregates that are impossible to sustain on Earth will also be enabled. Three research areas within exobiology that will benefit from the GGSF are described here. An analysis of the needs of this research and of other suggested experiments has produced a list of science requirements which the facility design must accommodate. A GGSF design concept developed in the first stage of flight hardware development to meet these requirements is also described.

  11. Space station human productivity study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary goal was to develop design and operations requirements for direct support of intra-vehicular activity (IVA) crew performance and productivity. It was recognized that much work had already been accomplished which provided sufficient data for the definition of the desired requirements. It was necessary, therefore, to assess the status of such data to extract definable requirements, and then to define the remaining study needs. The explicit objectives of the study were to: review existing data to identify potential problems of space station crew productivity and to define requirements for support of productivity insofar as they could be justified by current information; identify those areas that lack adequate data; and prepare plans for managing studies to develop the lacking data, so that results can be input to the space station program in a timely manner.

  12. Reference Guide to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great international, technological, and political achievement. It is the latest step in humankind's quest to explore and live in space. The research done on the ISS may advance our knowledge in various areas of science, enable us to improve life on this planet, and give us the experience and increased understanding that can eventually equip us to journey to other worlds. As a result of the Station s complexity, few understand its configuration, its design and component systems, or the complex operations required in its construction and operation. This book provides high-level insight into the ISS. The ISS is in orbit today, operating with a crew of three. Its assembly will continue through 2010. As the ISS grows, its capabilities will increase, thus requiring a larger crew. Currently, 16 countries are involved in this venture. This CD-ROM includes multimedia files and animations.

  13. Space station attached payload program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Brown, Bardle D.

    1989-01-01

    The USRA is providing management and technical support for the peer review of the Space Station Freedom Attached Payload proposals. USRA is arranging for consultants to evaluate proposals, arranging meeting facilities for the reviewers to meet in Huntsville, Alabama and management of the actual review meetings. Assistance in developing an Experiment Requirements Data Base and Engineering/Technical Assessment support for the MSFC Technical Evaluation Team is also being provided. The results of the project will be coordinated into a consistent set of reviews and reports by USRA. The strengths and weaknesses analysis provided by the peer panel reviewers will by used NASA personnel in the selection of experiments for implementation on the Space Station Freedom.

  14. Modelling early failures in Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, Sharon E.

    1993-01-01

    A major problem encountered in planning for Space Station Freedom is the amount of maintenance that will be required. To predict the failure rates of components and systems aboard Space Station Freedom, the logical approach is to use data obtained from previously flown spacecraft. In order to determine the mechanisms that are driving the failures, models can be proposed, and then checked to see if they adequately fit the observed failure data obtained from a large variety of satellites. For this particular study, failure data and truncation times were available for satellites launched between 1976 and 1984; no data past 1984 was available. The study was limited to electrical subsystems and assemblies, which were studied to determine if they followed a model resulting from a mixture of exponential distributions.

  15. International cooperation in the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The principles and policies governing participation in the International Space Station are examined from a NASA perspective. The history of the program is reviewed; the most important aspects of the partnership concept (functional allocation, shared access, and interface commonality) are considered in detail; and the ongoing outfitting studies are briefly characterized. Major issues remaining to be negotiated include (1) the overall management structure; (2) the division of responsibilities for system design, integration, operation, and utilization; and (3) the sharing of operating costs.

  16. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  17. Space Station Freedom - Design review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Robert; Courtney, Roy; Rau, Tim; Steinacher, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) design review process is described. The SSF program background is summarized, and the program review management plan and organization are described. The technical approach of the Integrated System Preliminary Design Review (ISPDR) is examined along with the Review Item Discrepancy Tracking System. ISPDR results are summarized and compared with its objectives. Lessons learned for the future support of the management life cycle are addressed.

  18. Solar Terrestrial Observatory Space Station Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    In response to a need to develop and document requirements of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory at an early time, a mini-workshop was organized and held on June 6, 1985. The participants at this workshop set as their goal the preliminary definition of the following areas: (1) instrument descriptions; (2) placement of instrumentation on the IOC Space Station; (3) servicing and repair assessment; and (4) operational scenarios. This report provides a synopsis of the results of that workshop.

  19. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  20. Space Station Control Moment Gyroscope Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurrisi, Charles; Seidel, Raymond; Dickerson, Scott; Didziulis, Stephen; Frantz, Peter; Ferguson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Four 4760 Nms (3510 ft-lbf-s) Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscopes (DGCMG) with unlimited gimbal freedom about each axis were adopted by the International Space Station (ISS) Program as the non-propulsive solution for continuous attitude control. These CMGs with a life expectancy of approximately 10 years contain a flywheel spinning at 691 rad/s (6600 rpm) and can produce an output torque of 258 Nm (190 ft-lbf)1. One CMG unexpectedly failed after approximately 1.3 years and one developed anomalous behavior after approximately six years. Both units were returned to earth for failure investigation. This paper describes the Space Station Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope design, on-orbit telemetry signatures and a summary of the results of both failure investigations. The lessons learned from these combined sources have lead to improvements in the design that will provide CMGs with greater reliability to assure the success of the Space Station. These lessons learned and design improvements are not only applicable to CMGs but can be applied to spacecraft mechanisms in general.

  1. Space station orbit design using dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kun-Peng; Luo, Ya-Zhong; Tang, Guo-Jin

    2013-08-01

    A space station orbit design mission is characterized by a long-duration and multi-step decision process. First, the long-duration design process is divided into multiple planning periods, each of which consists of five basic flight segments. Second, each planning period is modeled as a multi-step decision process, and the orbital altitude strategies of different flight segments have interaction effects on each other. Third, a dynamic programming method is used to optimize the total propellant consumption of a planning period while considering interaction effects. The step cost of each decision segment is the propellant for orbital-decay maintenance or lifting altitude, and is calculated by approximate analytical equations and combining a shooting iteration method. The proposed approach is demonstrated for a typical orbit design problem of a space station. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively optimize the design of altitude strategies, and can save considerable propellant consumption for the space station than previous public studies.

  2. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, William G (inventor); Owen, James W. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage shell and an outer shell receiving the inner shell and spaced about it. The novelty appears to lie in the integration of thermally efficient cryogenic storage techniques with phase change materials, including the multilayer metalized surface thin plastic film insulation and the vacuum between the shells. Additionally the fiberglass constructed shells having fiberglass honeycomb portions, and the lining of the space between the shells with foil combine to form a storage container which may keep food and biological samples at very low temperatures for very long periods of time utilizing a passive system.

  3. International Space Station Materials: Selected Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is of such complexity and scale that there have been numerous issues addressed regarding safety of materials: from design to manufacturing, test, launch, assembly on-orbit, and operations. A selection of lessons learned from the ISS materials perspective will be provided. Topics of discussion are: flammability evaluation of materials with connection to on-orbit operations; toxicity findings for foams; compatibility testing for materials in fluid systems; and contamination control in precision clean systems and critical space vehicle surfaces.

  4. Human Factors and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Novak, Jennifer; Rathjen, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Maida, James; Woolford, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

  5. Space assembly interruptability with applications to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The task of assembling large structures in space creates the possibility of construction interruptions. The unscheduled interruption of the assembly process may require abandoning the Station and returning to Earth. This interruption may be due to: crew illness/injury, Shuttle Orbiter mechanical failure, Orbiter or Station pressure loss, space debris damage, etc. If not handled properly these interruptions may jeopardize crew safety, Orbiter operations and the recoverability of the structure being assembled. The problem of space assembly interruptability was first addressed in January 1989 by astronaut Vance Brand (NASA-JSC) to Dr. George Morgenthaler at the University of Colorado - Boulder, at which time an Interruptability Team was organized at the University to study the problem of Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability. The approach which is being undertaken at the University of Colorado is to create a methodology capable of analyzing generic structures. This is being accomplished by developing a software tool, DYCA, to plan assembly sequences, and will be used in conjunction with INTERPRO, the INTERrupatbility PROgram, to analyze the Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability problem. Using an automated networking approach with some human interaction, the most favorable near-term safing plus options will be calculated in the event of an interruption. PERT network techniques are employed to analyze which of these near-term improvements provide the optimal long-term response, as far as impact on the time and cost of the overall project are concerned.

  6. Space Station Freedom gateway to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

  7. Space Station Freedom Gateway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

  8. The International Space Station: A National Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    After more than a decade of assembly missions and the end of the space shuttle program, the International Space Station (ISS) has reached assembly completion. With other visiting spacecraft now docking with the ISS on a regular basis, the orbiting outpost now serves as a National Laboratory to scientists back on Earth. The ISS has the ability to strengthen relationships between NASA, other Federal entities, higher educational institutions, and the private sector in the pursuit of national priorities for the advancement of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The ISS National Laboratory also opens new paths for the exploration and economic development of space. In this presentation we will explore the operation of the ISS and the realm of scientific research onboard that includes: (1) Human Research, (2) Biology & Biotechnology, (3) Physical & Material Sciences, (4) Technology, and (5) Earth & Space Science.

  9. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  10. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options: Study summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options that affect the future implementation and design of a space station system are examined. Requirements for candidate missions are used to define functional attributes of a space station. Station elements that perform these functions form the basic station architecture. Alternative ways to accomplish these functions are defined and configuration concepts are developed and evaluated. Configuration analyses are carried to the point that budgetary cost estimates of alternate approaches could be made. Emphasis is placed on differential costs for station support elements and benefits that accrue through use of the station.

  11. PKENefedov*: plasma crystal experiments on the International Space Station

    E-print Network

    Goree, John

    PKE­Nefedov*: plasma crystal experiments on the International Space Station Anatoli P Nefedov1 Expedition 1 Crew, International Space Station (ISS) 6 Deutsches Zentrum f¨ur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), D experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), was installed in February 2001 by the first permanent

  12. 47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.210 Technical requirements for space stations. (a) All space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service used for domestic service in the 3700-4200 MHz... polarization sense upon ground command. (b) All space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30...

  13. Space Station Freedom - A resource for aerospace education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals of the Space Station are reviewed, and particular attention is given to education projects such as the Davis Planetarium Student Space Station, the Starship McCullough, the Space Habitat, the working Space Station model in Austin, TX, the Challenger Center for Space Life Education, Space M+A+X, and the Space Science Student Involvement Program. Also examined are learning-theory aspects of aerospace education: child vs adult learners, educational objectives, teaching methods, and instructional materials.

  14. Astronaut 'Checks In' From Space Station - Duration: 67 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut and International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock became the first person to "check in" from space Friday using the mobile social networking application Foursquare. Wheelock's ...

  15. Automated power distribution system hardware. [for space station power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul M.; Martin, James A.; Thomason, Cindy

    1989-01-01

    An automated power distribution system testbed for the space station common modules has been developed. It incorporates automated control and monitoring of a utility-type power system. Automated power system switchgear, control and sensor hardware requirements, hardware design, test results, and potential applications are discussed. The system is designed so that the automated control and monitoring of the power system is compatible with both a 208-V, 20-kHz single-phase AC system and a high-voltage (120 to 150 V) DC system.

  16. Operational considerations for the Space Station Life Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Bosley, John J.; Vogelsong, Kristofer; Schnepp, Tery A.; Phillips, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Laboratory (USL) module on Space Station will house a biological research facility for multidisciplinary research using living plant and animal specimens. Environmentally closed chambers isolate the specimen habitats, but specimens must be removed from these chambers during research procedures as well as while the chambers are being cleaned. An enclosed, sealed Life Science Glovebox (LSG) is the only locale in the USL where specimens can be accessed by crew members. This paper discusses the key science, engineering and operational considerations and constraints involving the LSG, such as bioisolation, accessibility, and functional versatility.

  17. Radiation protection considerations in space station missions

    SciTech Connect

    Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit.

  18. Space station astronauts discuss life in space during AGU interview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Just one day after China's Shenzhou-9 capsule, carrying three Chinese astronauts, docked with the Tiangong-1 space lab on 18 June, Donald Pettit, a NASA astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS), said it is “a step in the right direction” that more people are in space. “Before they launched, there were six people in space,” he said, referring to those on ISS, “and there are 7 billion people on Earth.” The astronauts were “like one in a billion. Now there are nine people in space,” Pettit said during a 19 June interview that he and two other astronauts onboard ISS had with AGU. Pettit continued, “So the gradient of human beings going into space is moving in the right direction. We need to change these numbers so that more and more human beings can call space their home so we can expand off of planet Earth and move out into our solar system.”

  19. 47 CFR 25.172 - Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements. 25...Licenses Reporting Requirements for Space Station Operators § 25.172 Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements....

  20. A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    1991-01-01

    Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

  1. A space station Structures and Assembly Verification Experiment, SAVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Raney, J. P.; Deryder, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station structure has been baselined to be a 5 M (16.4 ft) erectable truss. This structure will provide the overall framework to attach laboratory modules and other systems, subsystems and utilities. The assembly of this structure represents a formidable EVA challenge. To validate this capability the Space Station Structures/Dynamics Technical Integration Panel (TIP) met to develop the necessary data for an integrated STS structures flight experiment. As a result of this meeting, the Langley Research Center initiated a joint Langley/Boeing Aerospace Company study which supported the structures/dynamics TIP in developing the preliminary definition and design of a 5 M erectable space station truss and the resources required for a proposed flight experiment. The purpose of the study was to: (1) devise methods of truss assembly by astronauts; (2) define a specific test matrix for dynamic characterization; (3) identify instrumentation and data system requirements; (4) determine the power, propulsion and control requirements for the truss on-orbit for 3 years; (5) study the packaging of the experiment in the orbiter cargo bay; (6) prepare a preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the experiment; and (7) provide a list of potential follow-on experiments using the structure as a free flyer. The results of this three month study are presented.

  2. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  3. Space Station Solar Array Joint Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Allmon, Curtis; Reznik, Carter; McFatter, Justin; Davis, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    In Oct 2007 the International Space Station (ISS) crew noticed a vibrating camera in the vicinity of Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). It had less than 5 months of run time when the anomaly was observed. This approximately 3.2 meter diameter bearing joint supports solar arrays that power the station critical to its operation. The crew performed an EVA to identify what was causing the vibration. It was discovered that one of the 3 bearing tracks of this unconventional bearing had significant spalling damage. This paper discusses the SARJ's unique bearing design and the vulnerability in its design leading to the observed anomaly. The design of a SARJ vacuum test rig is also described along with the results of a life test that validated the proposed repair should extend the life of the SARJ a minimum of 18 years on-orbit.

  4. Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor

    1990-01-01

    NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

  5. Military space station implications. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, G.D.; Skirvin, G.D.; Wilson, G.R.

    1987-03-23

    Justifying the relevancy of a Manned Military Space Station (MMSS) and subsequently proposing its deployment to capitalize upon the United States' national security interests is the essence and purpose of this group study project. The MMSS is intended to perform a two-fold purpose: (1) facilitate military peacetime operations while simultaneously supporting and promoting civilian space initiatives; and, (2) act as a force multiplier for space and terrestrial force operations in the event of conventional, theater nuclear, and/or strategic nuclear war. Data to support the future value of the MMSS was obtained from individual and group research using unclassified sources such as professional journals, books, US Air Force Staff College reference material, and information from the US Air Force space coordinating staff in Washington, DC. The importance of space to our future and especially of a MMSS by America's national leaders and its people has yet to be fully appreciated and/or realized. The significance of space and its nexus to the United States' national security has been growing dramatically in importance since the launching of the Sputnik in 1957 by Russian. Space, as the forth dimension, cannot and should not be understated in importance as it relates to commercialism, deterrence to war, and to the stability of world order.

  6. Aeronomy from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lessons learned with The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) a new NASA experiment studying the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from a vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. The RAIDS mission focuses on the coupling and transition from the coldest part of the atmosphere, the mesopause near 85 km, up to the hottest regions of the thermosphere above 300 km. Built jointly by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and The Aerospace Corporation, RAIDS also is serving as a pathfinder experiment for atmospheric remote sensing aboard the ISS. The 51.6 deg. orbital inclination and roughly 340 km orbital altitude of the ISS required tailoring atmospheric science objectives appropriate for low- and mid-latitude observations. Orbital precession enables observations over a range of local time and solar illumination conditions, but also causes the orbital plane to intersect the Sun roughly monthly, requiring a temporary shutdown of the RAIDS sensors. Extensive station structures near the field-of-regard pose a risk of scattered light contamination which must be mitigated through good baffling of optical sensors. Activities aboard the manned station, including attitude perturbations from spacecraft dockings and construction activities, occasionally disrupt observations. A significant challenge for limb-viewing RAIDS was ISS pitch oscillations up to ±0.75 deg. per orbit associated with solar array rotation, but NASA adjusted the station’s flight characteristics to provide ±0.2 deg. pitch stability for RAIDS. Jitter and vibration at the extremity of the ISS have not been a concern for RAIDS. Finally, manned environments are notoriously dirty with respect to contamination-sensitive optical instruments, but after twelve months of continuous operation RAIDS does not exhibit any unusual degradation in sensor performance.

  7. Space Station Redesign Team: Final report to the Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is the result of the Space Station Redesign Team's activity. Its purpose is to present without bias, and in appropriate detail, the characteristics and cost of three design and management approaches for the Space Station Freedom. It was presented to the Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the Space Station on 7 Jun. 1993, in Washington, D.C.

  8. International Space Station: A System of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunez, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The ISS will be discussed from inception to date. What the different partners have contributed, the systems they have been responsible for, how we've been able to integrate those different systems into one cohesive International Space Station. And in the process supporting sophisticated research in weightlessness, accommodating thousands of experiments in life sciences, fluid physics, material sciences and a host of other disciplines. The presentation will start with an overview of KSC, then move into an explanation of ISS in detail, spending time in how all the pieces have come together. Will discuss years spent designing, testing, manufacturing and integrating the different elements throughout the different sites and shipped to the United States at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) from where it was planned to be launched in the Space Shuttle. A brief Constellation Overview will be provided as well.

  9. Preliminary design of the Space Station internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, Mark T.; Patterson, David W.; Turner, Larry D.

    1987-01-01

    The baseline preliminary design configuration of the Internal Thermal Control system (ITCS) of the U.S. Space Station pressurized elements (i.e., the Habitation and U.S. Laboratory modules, pressurized logistics carrier, and resources nodes) is defined. The ITCS is composed of both active and passive components. The subsystems which comprise the ITCS are identified and their functional descriptions are provided. The significant trades and analyses, which were performed during Phase B (i.e., the preliminary design phase) that resulted in the design described herein, are discussed. The ITCS interfaces with the station's central Heat Rejection and Transport System (HRTS), other systems, and externally attached pressurized payloads are described. Requirements on the ITCS with regard to redundancy and experiment support are also addressed.

  10. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  11. Workload characterization for the space station data communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevcik, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a permanent manned space station in the early 1990's. The station will be used to support a wide variety of activities involving Earth and space observation, satellite maintenance, scientific experimentation, and commercial manufacturing. The control and monitoring of many of these activities will require extensive computer and communications system support. In order to identify an appropriate computer and communication system for supporting the space station, an attempt to characterize the space station's data communications subsystem workload is currently underway. Some of the special aspects of the workload characterization problem are discussed in connection with the space station, and some possible approaches are presented.

  12. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn E.; Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.

    2014-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a highly automated facility developed in a joint venture/partnership between NASA and ESA center dot Allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses onboard the International Space Station (ISS) center dot Multi-user facility for high temperature materials science research center dot Launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module ?Research goals center dot Provide means of studying materials processing in space to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved center dot Benefit materials science research via the microgravity environment of space where the researcher can better isolate the effects of gravity during solidification on the properties of materials center dot Use the knowledge gained from experiments to make reliable predictions about conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials

  13. Conceptual design and integration of a Space Station resistojet propulsion assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    The resistojet propulsion module is designed as a simple, long life, low risk system offering operational flexibility to the space station program. It can dispose of a wide variety of typical space station waste fluids by using them as propellants for orbital maintenance. A high temperature mode offers relatively high specific impulse with long life while a low temperature mode can propulsively dispose of mixtures that contain oxygen or hydrocarbons without reducing thruster life or generating particulates in the plume. A low duty cycle and a plume that is confined to a small aft region minimizes the impacts on the users. Simple interfaces with other space station systems facilitate integration. It is concluded that there are no major obstacles and many advantages to developing, installing, and operating a resistojet propulsion module aboard the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station.

  14. Conceptual design and integration of a space station resistojet propulsion assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    The resistojet propulsion module is designed as a simple, long life, low risk system offering operational flexibility to the space station program. It can dispose of a wide variety of typical space station waste fluids by using them as propellants for orbital maintenance. A high temperature mode offers relatively high specific impulse with long life while a low temperature mode can propulsively dispose of mixtures that contain oxygen or hydrocarbons without reducing thruster life or generating particulates in the plume. A low duty cycle and a plume that is confined to a small aft region minimizes the impacts on the users. Simple interfaces with other space station systems facilitate integration. It is concluded that there are no major obstacles and many advantages to developing, installing, and operating a resistojet propulsion module aboard the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station.

  15. QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.

    2002-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack of the Materials Science Research Facility. The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

  16. QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

  17. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  18. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  19. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  20. Expert systems for Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.; Firschein, O.

    1985-01-01

    The expert systems required for automating key functions of the Manned Space Station (MSS) are explored. It is necessary that the expert systems developed be flexible, degrade gracefully in the case of a failure, and be able to work with incomplete data. The AI systems will have to perform interpretation and diagnosis, design, prediction and induction, and monitoring and control functions. Both quantitative and qualitative reasoning capabilities need improvements, as do automatic verification techniques, explanation and learning capabilities, and the use of metaknowledge, i. e., knowledge about the knowledge contained in the knowledge base. Information retrieval, fault isolation and manufacturing process control demonstrations are needed to validate expert systems for the MSS.

  1. International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant, nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason.

  2. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  3. International Space Station Payload Training Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Deborah B.; Noneman, Steven R.; Sanchez, Julie N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes payload crew training-related activities performed by NASA and the U.S. Payload Developer (PD) community for the International Space Station (ISS) Program. It describes how payloads will be trained and the overall training planning and integration process. The overall concept, definition, and template for payload training are described. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, organizations, and groups involved are discussed. The facilities utilized during payload training and the primary processes and activities performed to plan, develop, implement, and administer payload training for ISS crews are briefly described. Areas of improvement to crew training processes that have been achieved or are currently being worked are identified.

  4. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography lists 967 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1987 and June 30, 1987. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to the researcher, manager, and designer in technology development and mission design according to system, interactive analysis and design, structural and thermal analysis and design, structural concepts and control systems, electronics, advanced materials, assembly concepts, propulsion, and solar power satellite systems. The coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future space station.

  5. Tethered propellant resupply technique for space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    One of the primary functions of the space station is related to the propellant resupply of orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and satellites. Difficulties arise in the case of an acquisition of cryogenic propellants by means of a use of zero-gravity techniques. The use of the 'tethered propellant resupply technique' is, therefore, considered. A study is being conducted to determine the feasibility, design requirements, and operational limitations of this technique. Attention is given to aspects of gravity feed, transfer method selection, requirements related to the orbital transfer vehicle, hazard clearance, attitude control, depot operations, end mass velocity, the microgravity laboratory, and concept evaluation activities.

  6. Dedicated robotic servicing for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. F.; Arnold, G.; Gutow, D.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of a series of dedicated robotics manipulators that would be resident in the subsystems of the Space Station is presented. These would be used to do Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) exchanges, inspection of the components, and in certain cases subsystem assembly. By performing these well-definded tasks automatically, higher crew productivity would be achieved. In order to utilize the robots effectively, ORU's must be designed to allow remote release and quick disconnection of the electrical, fluid, and thermal connections. The robot must be of a modular design for ease of maintenance and must have an adaptive control capability to make-up for slight errors in programming.

  7. Intermodule ventilation studies for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Roy G.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of the Space Station intermodule ventilation system to maintain centralized control of CO2 removal and O2 supply. The resulting concentration gradients that will arise are calculated by assuming steady state, ideal gas, isothermal conditions, and perfect mixing of air within and between the pressurized elements. In order to estimate the degree of mixing actually obtained for a given ventilation scheme, a program has been developed based on a potential flow solution technique. Preliminary results from this study indicate that substantial short circuiting and recirculation air flow patterns could arise if a simple duct and diffuser air exchange method at the docking port interface were employed.

  8. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  9. Space Station GPS Multipath Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the multipath effects on the International Space Station (ISS) Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement accuracy, experimental and computational investigations were performed to estimate the carrier phase errors due to multipath. A new modeling approach is used to reduce the required computing time by separating the dynamic structure elements from the static structure elements in the multipath computations. This study confirmed that the multipath is a major error source to the ISS GPS performance and can possibly degrade the attitude determination solution. It is demonstrated that the GPS antenna carrier phase errors due to multipath can be analyzed using the electromagnetic modeling technique such as the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD).

  10. Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Gardner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.

  11. Space Station Freedom electric power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.

    1990-01-01

    The results are detailed of follow-on availability analyses performed on the Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS). The scope includes analyses of several EPS design variations, these are: the 4-photovoltaic (PV) module baseline EPS design, a 6-PV module EPS design, and a 3-solar dynamic module EPS design which included a 10 kW PV module. The analyses performed included: determining the discrete power levels that the EPS will operate at upon various component failures and the availability of each of these operating states; ranking EPS components by the relative contribution each component type gives to the power availability of the EPS; determining the availability impacts of including structural and long-life EPS components in the availability models used in the analyses; determining optimum sparing strategies, for storing space EPS components on-orbit, to maintain high average-power-capability with low lift-mass requirements; and analyses to determine the sensitivity of EPS-availability to uncertainties in the component reliability and maintainability data used.

  12. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  13. Octafluoropropane Concentration Dynamics on Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Since activating the International Space Station s (IS9 Service Module in November 2000, archival air quality samples have shown highly variable concentrations of octafluoropropane in the cabin. This variability has been directly linked to leakage from air conditioning systems on board the Service Module, Zvezda. While octafluoro- propane is not highly toxic, it presents a significant chal- lenge to the trace contaminant control systems. A discussion of octafluoropropane concentration dynamics is presented and the ability of on board trace contami- nant control systems to effectively remove octafluoropro- pane from the cabin atmosphere is assessed. Consideration is given to operational and logistics issues that may arise from octafluoropropane and other halo- carbon challenges to the contamination control systems as well as the potential for effecting cabin air quality.

  14. The MSFC space station/space operations mechanism test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, William G.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    The Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed consists of the following: a hydraulically driven, computer controlled Six Degree-of-Freedom Motion System (6DOF); a six degree-of-freedom force and moment sensor; remote driving stations with computer generated or live TV graphics; and a parallel digital processor that performs calculations to support the real time simulation. The function of the Mechanism Test Bed is to test docking and berthing mechanisms for Space Station Freedom and other orbiting space vehicles in a real time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. Typically, the docking and berthing mechanisms are composed of two mating components, one for each vehicle. In the facility, one component is attached to the motion system, while the other component is mounted to the force/moment sensor fixed in the support structure above the 6DOF. The six components of the contact forces/moments acting on the test article and its mating component are measured by the force/moment sensor.

  15. A Year in the Life of International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The past twelve months (October 2005 to September 2006) have been among the busiest in the life of the International Space Station (ISS), both in terms of on-orbit operations as well as future planning, for both ISS systems and research. The Expedition 12 and 13 crews completed their missions successfully, carrying out research for Russia, the United States, Europe and Japan, and bringing continuous ISS occupancy to nearly six years. The European Space Agency's (ESA) first Long Duration Mission on ISS is underway, involving significant international research. The Expedition 14 crew completed its training and is embarking on its own 6-month mission with a full slate of international research. Future crews are in training for their respective assembly and research missions. Shuttle flights resumed after a 10-month hiatus, delivering new research facilities and resuming assembly of ISS. ESA's Columbus research module was delivered to the Kennedy Space Center, joining Japan's Kibo research module already there. Following preflight testing, the two modules will launch in 2007 and 2008, respectively, joining Destiny as ISS's research infrastructure. A revised ISS configuration and assembly sequence were endorsed by all the Partners, with a reduced number of Shuttle flights, but for the first time including plans for post-Shuttle ISS operations after 2010. The new plan will pose significant challenges to the ISS research community. As Europe and Japan build their on-orbit research infrastructure, and long-term plans become firmer, the next 12 months should prove to be equally challenging and exciting.

  16. 78 FR 66964 - International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the...

  17. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Humans living and working in the harsh environment of space present many challenges for habitability engineers and microbiologists. Spacecraft must provide an internal environment in which physical (gas composition, pressure, temperature, and humidity), chemical, and biological environmental parameters are maintained at safe levels. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and will accompany all human-occupied spacecraft, but if biological contamination were to reach unacceptable levels, long-term human space flight would be impossible. Prevention of microbiological problems, therefore, must have a high priority. Historically, prevention of infectious disease in the crew has been the highest priority, but experience gained from the NASA-Mir program showed that microbial contamination of vehicle and life-support systems, such as biofouling of water and food, are of equal importance. The major sources of microbiological risk factors for astronauts include food, drinking water, air, surfaces, payloads, research animals, crew members, and personnel in close contact with the astronauts. In our efforts to eliminate or mitigate the negative effects of microorganisms in spacecraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented comprehensive microbial analyses of the major risk factors. This included the establishment of acceptability requirements for food, water, air, surfaces, and crew members. A robust monitoring program was then implemented to verify that the risks were within acceptable limits. Prevention of microbiological problems is preferred over mitigation of problems during flight, and preventive steps must begin very early in the design phase. Spacecraft development must include requirements to control free water from humidity, condensate, hygiene activities, and other releases. If water is available, microbes are likely to grow because sufficient nutrients are potentially available. Materials selected for the spacecraft must not promote or support microbial growth. Air filtration can dramatically reduce the number of airborne bacteria, fungi, and particulates in spacecraft breathing air. Waterborne bacteria can be reduced to acceptable levels by thermal inactivation of bacteria during water processing, along with a residual biocide, and filtration at the point of use can ensure safety. System design must include onboard capability to achieve recovery of the system from contamination. Robust housekeeping procedures that include periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Food for consumption in space must be thoroughly tested for excessive microbial content and pathogens before launch. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, payloads, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. Many of the lessons learned from the Space Shuttle and previous programs were applied in the early design phase of the International Space Station, resulting in the safest space habitat to date. This presentation describes the monitoring program for the International Space Station and will summarize results from preflight and on-orbit monitoring.

  18. Space station solar concentrator materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station will represent the first time that a solar dynamic power system will be used to generate electrical power in space. In a system such as this, sunlight is collected and focused by a solar concentrator onto the receiver of a heat engine which converts the energy into electricity. The concentrator must be capable of collecting and focusing as much of the incident sunlight as possible, and it must also withstand the atomic oxygen bombardment which occurs in low Earth orbit (LEO). This has led to the development of a system of thin film coatings applied to the concentrator facet surface in a chamber designed especially for this purpose. The system of thin film coatings employed gives both the necessary degree of reflectance and the required protection from the LEO atomic oxygen environment.

  19. Plasma contactor technology for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy; Soulas, George C.; Parkes, James; Ohlinger, Wayne L.; Schaffner, Michael S.; Nelson, Amy

    1993-01-01

    Hollow cathode plasma contactors have been baselined for Space Station Freedom to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and in particular the technology development effort on ion thruster systems. Specific efforts include optimizing the design and configuration of the contactor, validating its required lifetime, and characterizing the contactor plume and electromagnetic interference. The plasma contactor subsystems include the plasma contactor unit, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under this program these will all be brought to breadboard and engineering model development status. New test facilities have been developed, and existing facilities have been augmented, to support characterizations and life testing of contactor components and systems. This paper discusses the magnitude, scope, and status of the plasma contactor hardware development program now under way and preliminary test results on system components.

  20. Plasma contactor technology for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy; Soulas, George C.; Parkes, James; Ohlinger, Wayne L.; Schaffner, Michael S.; Nelson, Amy

    1993-01-01

    Hollow cathode plasma contactors were baselined for Space Station Freedom (SSF) to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and in particular the technology development effort on ion thruster systems. Specific efforts include optimizing the design and configuration of the contactor, validating its required lifetime, and characterizing the contactor plume and electromagnetic interference. The plasma contact or subsystems include the plasma contact or unit, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under this program these will all be brought to breadboard and engineering model development status. New test facilities were developed, and existing facilities were augmented, to support characterizations and life testing of contactor components and systems. The magnitude, scope, and status of the plasma contactor hardware development program now underway and preliminary test results on system components are discussed.

  1. Plasma contactor development for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Manzella, David H.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy; Soulas, George C.; Nelson, Amy

    1993-01-01

    Plasma contactors have been baselined for the Space Station (SS) to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and, in particular, the technology development effort on ion thrustor systems. The plasma contactor subsystems include the plasma contactor unit, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under this pre-flight development program these will all be brought to breadboard or engineering model status. Development efforts for the plasma contactor include optimizing the design and configuration of the contactor, validating its required lifetime, and characterizing the contactor plume and electromagnetic interference. The plasma contactor unit design selected for the SS is an enclosed keeper, xenon hollow cathode plasma source. This paper discusses the test results and development status of the plasma contactor unit subsystem for the SS.

  2. Space station architectural elements model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The space station must unite the properties and behavior of individual and place, using proportions from both to make whole the understanding of ourselves at this moment in evolution. Harmonious proportions in any environment are similar to the acceptance and enjoyment of the harmony of many well-tuned musical instruments. A well-tuned or well-ordered environment tends to have invisible proportions. They produce order but do not intrude on the perception and cognitive mapping of the environment. Systems of proportion are not ends in themselves but are a means to select a series of spaces which relate one to another in dimensionally specific terms. These internal relationships create a whole when the forms are harmonious. This harmonic relationship is of intrinsic value for individuals to be physically and psychologically in balance with their universe.

  3. Animal research facility for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated animal research facility is planned by NASA for Space Station Freedom which will permit long-term, man-tended experiments on the effects of space conditions on vertebrates. The key element in this facility is a standard type animal habitat which supports and maintains the animals under full bioisolation during transport and during the experiment. A holding unit accommodates the habitats with animals to be maintained at zero gravity; and a centrifuge, those to be maintained at artificial gravity for control purposes or for gravity threshold studies. A glovebox permits handling of the animals for experimental purposes and for transfer to a clean habitat. These facilities are described, and the aspects of environmental control, monitoring, and bioisolation are discussed.

  4. Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Williams, Richard S.; Comtois, Jean-Marc; Damann, Volker; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Pool, Sam L.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Knowingkov, Oleg L.; Doarn, Charles R.

    2009-09-01

    Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a rich history of bilateral and multilateral cooperation among space faring nations. Three key organizations were established, they include the agency or senior level Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), and the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). All three are staffed by senior medical personnel within each of the partner organizations of the ISS and each has specific roles and responsibilities. These three entities strive to protect the human element of spaceflight through highly effective interaction in a multilingual, multicultural program. This paper reviews the creation of this tripartite approach to the development of medical policy for ISS.

  5. Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.

  6. Space Station Reboost with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vas, Irwin E.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Scarl, Ethan A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an electrodynamic tether system to reboost the International Space Station (ISS). One recommendation is to use a partially bare tether for electron collection. Locations are suggested as to where the tether system is to be attached at the space station. The effects of the tether system on the microgravity environment may actually be beneficial, because the system can neutralize aerodrag during quiescent periods and, if deployed from a movable boom, can permit optimization of laboratory positioning with respect to acceleration contours. Alternative approaches to tether deployment and retrieval are discussed. It is shown that a relatively short tether system, 7 km long, operating at a power level of 5 kW could provide cumulative savings or over a billion dollars during a 10-year period ending in 2012. This savings is the direct result of a reduction in the number or nights that would otherwise be required to deliver propellant for reboost, with larger cost savings for higher tether usage. In addition to economic considerations, an electrodynamic tether promises a practical backup system that could ensure ISS survival in the event of an (otherwise) catastrophic delay in propellant delivery.

  7. Medical impact analysis for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Brent D.; Gardner, Reed M.; Ostler, David V.; Schulz, John M.; Logan, James S.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, Space Station medical care priorities were determined by a medical impact analysis of two analog populations, U.S. Army and U.S. Navy personnel. Diseases and injuries in the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) were ranked, using a Medical Impact Score (MIS) combining modified incidence rate and a function of disease outcome. The validity of the analysis method was tested by measuring rank order correlation between the two analog populations. Despite virtually identical age and sex distributions, Army and Navy incidence rates differed significantly for half of the ICD-9-CM categories, p less than 0.05. Disability rates differed for 76 percent, p less than 0.05. Nevertheless, Army and Navy MIS rank orders for categories and sections were not significantly different, p less than 0.001. In critical ways, the Space Station will be a safer environment than earth. Cardiac events, musculoskeletal injuries, affective psychoses, and renal calculi were among the highest scoring categories.

  8. Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) operations and safety view - Automation and robotics for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The automation and robotics requirements for the Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) are discussed. The amount of tasks to be performed by an eight-person crew, the need for an automated or directed fault analysis capability, and ground support requirements are considered. Issues important in determining the role of automation for the IOC are listed.

  9. Cathodes Delivered for Space Station Plasma Contactor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) power system is designed with high-voltage solar arrays that typically operate at output voltages of 140 to 160 volts (V). The ISS grounding scheme electrically ties the habitat modules, structure, and radiators to the negative tap of the solar arrays. Without some active charge control method, this electrical configuration and the plasma current balance would cause the habitat modules, structure, and radiators to float to voltages as large as -120 V with respect to the ambient space plasma. With such large negative floating potentials, the ISS could have deleterious interactions with the space plasma. These interactions could include arcing through insulating surfaces and sputtering of conductive surfaces as ions are accelerated by the spacecraft plasma sheath. A plasma contactor system was baselined on the ISS to prevent arcing and sputtering. The sole requirement for the system is contained within a single directive (SSP 30000, paragraph 3.1.3.2.1.8): "The Space Station structure floating potential at all points on the Space Station shall be controlled to within 40 V of the ionospheric plasma potential using a plasma contactor." NASA is developing this plasma contactor as part of the ISS electrical power system. For ISS, efficient and rapid emission of high electron currents is required from the plasma contactor system under conditions of variable and uncertain current demand. A hollow cathode plasma source is well suited for this application and was, therefore, selected as the design approach for the station plasma contactor system. In addition to the plasma source, which is referred to as a hollow cathode assembly, or HCA, the plasma contactor system includes two other subsystems. These are the power electronics unit and the xenon gas feed system. The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American is responsible for the design, fabrication, assembly, test, and integration of the plasma contactor system. Because of technical and schedule considerations, the NASA Lewis Research Center was asked to manufacture and deliver the engineering model, the qualification model, and the flight HCA units for the plasma contactor system as government furnished equipment. To date, multiple units have been built. One cathode has demonstrated approximately 28 000-hr lifetime, two development HCA units have demonstrated over 15 000-hr lifetime, and one HCA unit has demonstrated more than 38 000 ignitions. All eight flight HCA's have been manufactured, acceptance tested, and are ready for delivery to the flight contractor.

  10. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  11. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The testbed role of an early (1990-95) manned space station in large space structures technology development is defined and conceptual designs for large space structures development missions to be conducted at the space station are developed. Emphasis is placed on defining requirements and benefits of development testing on a space station in concert with ground and shuttle tests.

  12. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  13. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  14. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  15. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal...

  16. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal...

  17. 75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal...

  18. [Results of statistical analysis of the dynamics of ionizing radiation dose fields in the service module of the International Space Station in 2000-2012].

    PubMed

    Mitrikas, V G

    2014-01-01

    The on-going 24th solar cycle (SC) is distinguished from the previous ones by low activity. On the contrary, levels of proton fluxes from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are high, which increases the proton flow striking the Earth's radiation belts (ERB). Therefore, at present the absorbed dose from ERB protons should be calculated with consideration of the tangible increase of protons intensity built into the model descriptions based on experimental measurements during the minimum between cycles 19 and 20, and the cycle 21 maximum. The absorbed dose from GCR and ERB protons copies galactic protons dynamics, while the ERB electrons dose copies SC dynamics. The major factors that determine the absorbed dose value are SC phase, ISS orbital altitude and shielding of the dosimeter readings of which are used in analysis. The paper presents the results of dynamic analysis of absorbed doses measured by a variety of dosimeters, namely, R-16 (2 ionization chambers), DB8-1, DB8-2, DB8-3, DB8-4 as a function of ISS orbit altitude and SC phase. The existence of annual variation in the absorbed dose dynamics has been confirmed; several additional variations with the periods of 17 and 52 months have been detected. Modulation of absorbed dose variations by the SC and GCR amplitudes has been demonstrated. PMID:25035897

  19. Hierarchical control of intelligent machines applied to space station telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J. S.; Lumia, R.; Mccain, H.

    1987-01-01

    A hierarchical architecture is described which supports space station telerobots in a variety of modes. The system is divided into three hierarchies: task decomposition, world model, and sensory processing. Goals at each level of the task decomposition hierarchy are divided both spatially and temporally into simpler commands for the next lower level. This decomposition is repeated until, at the lowest level, the drive signals to the robot actuators are generated. To accomplish its goals, task decomposition modules must often use information stored in the world model. The purpose of the sensory system is to update the world model as rapidly as possible to keep the model in registration with the physical world. The architecture of the entire control system hierarchy and how it can be applied to space telerobot applications are discussed.

  20. Modeling a Wireless Network for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Yaprak, Ece; Lamouri, Saad

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of wireless local area network (LAN) simulation modeling methods to the hybrid LAN architecture designed for supporting crew-computing tools aboard the International Space Station (ISS). These crew-computing tools, such as wearable computers and portable advisory systems, will provide crew members with real-time vehicle and payload status information and access to digital technical and scientific libraries, significantly enhancing human capabilities in space. A wireless network, therefore, will provide wearable computer and remote instruments with the high performance computational power needed by next-generation 'intelligent' software applications. Wireless network performance in such simulated environments is characterized by the sustainable throughput of data under different traffic conditions. This data will be used to help plan the addition of more access points supporting new modules and more nodes for increased network capacity as the ISS grows.

  1. Worms on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nate; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Conley, Cassie

    2002-01-01

    C. elegans was proposed as a model system for space biology studies in 1991 and has since flown on STS-42, STS-76, and STS-95. Data obtained from these flights have confirmed that C. elegans requires adequate in flight oxygenation and displays an increased rate of mutation, much like other organisms in space. Unlike vertebrates, C. elegans has been observed to successfully complete two continuous full life cycles in space without gross developmental abnormalities. These observations, could with the utility of C. elegans as a terrestrial, fully sequenced, model system make C. elegans a good candidate for long term research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). We are currently working on technology to support biological studies aboard the ISS. A component of this effort is in the development of the Space Station Biological Research Program (SSBRP) Incubator which will be able to house organisms at a constant temperature setpoint ranging from 4deg C to 45deg C. The SSBRP Incubator provides air exchange, power, data and video ports and, when placed in the collaborative NASA/NASDA 2.5M centrifuge rotor, will be capable of providing a lg gravity control. Current plans for validation of the Incubator include video monitoring and periodic sampling of C. elegans in the Incubator onboard the ISS. Once returned to earth, samples will be distributed for analysis via a specimen sharing plan and analyzed for gene expression and other parameters of growth and development in space flight. These data should provide the C. elegans research community with a baseline from which to propose studies for future flights. We have also been developing an appropriate method of culturing C. elegans in liquid media in order to remove the need for the crew to assure that strains are properly fed. Currently, we are growing strains in the chemically defined, axenic, media developed by Dr. Nancy Lu. Wild-type animals complete multiple generations and appear generally healthy after being grown in unchanged media for a minimum of three to four weeks. To assure proper oxygenation we have chosen to grow animals in ten milliliter OptiCells(TradeMark). The choice of the OptiCell(TradeMark) also allows for automation of culturing as demonstrated for cell cultures grown in the OptiCell(TradeMark). Arrangements have been made for the liquid media to be commercially produced by Mediatech, Inc. and OptiCells(TradeMark) are available from BioCrystal Ltd.

  2. Role of the Space Station in Private Development of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhran, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is well underway in the assembly process and progressing toward completion. In February 2001, the United States laboratory "Destiny" was successfully deployed and the course of space utilization, for laboratory-based research and development (R&D) purposes, entered a new era - continuous on-orbit operations. By completion, the ISS complex will include pressurized laboratory elements from Europe, Japan, Russia and the U.S., as well as external platforms which can serve as observatories and technology development test beds serviced by a Canadian robotic manipulator. The international vision for a continuously operating, full service R&D complex in the unique environment of low-Earth orbit is becoming increasingly focused. This R&D complex will offer great opportunities for economic return as the basic research program proceeds on a global scale and the competitive advantages of the microgravity and ultravacuum environments are elucidated through empirical studies. In parallel, the ISS offers a new vantage point, both as a source for viewing of Earth and the Cosmos and as the subject of view for a global population that has grown during the dawning of the space age. In this regard, the ISS is both a working laboratory and a powerful symbol for human achievement in science and technology. Each of these aspects bears consideration as we seek to develop the beneficial attributes of space and pursue innovative approaches to expanding this space complex through private investment. Ultimately, the success of the ISS will be measured by the outcome at the end of its design lifetime. Will this incredible complex be de-orbited in a fiery finale, as have previous space platforms? Will another, perhaps still larger, space station be built through global government funding? Will the ISS ownership be transferred to a global, non-government organization for refurbishment and continuation of the mission on a privately financed basis? Steps taken by the ISS partnership today will effect the later outcome. This paper reviews the range of activities underway in the U.S., as well those being pursued on a multilateral basis across the partnership. It will report on the status of NASA planning for establishment of a non-governmental organization (NGO) to manage the U.S. share of ISS user resources and accommodations. This initiative is unprecedented for a human-rated space craft of ISS magnitude and represents an extraordinarily complex undertaking due to the multi-mission, multi-partner nature of the program. Nonetheless, major advances are scheduled for 2002, as a new NASA Administrator takes the helm and declares the study phase is over. On the global front, the ISS Partners have formed a Multilateral Commercialization Group (MCG) charged to develop Recommended Guidelines for ISS Commercial Activities. Areas such as advertising, merchandising, entertainment, and sponsorship are actively under consideration with plans to advance to the long-awaited decision phase. In conjunction with this project, the challenging issue of how to create, protect, and potentially market the ISS brand to the benefit of the Partners, as well as the scientific, technological and commercial users of the station, is approaching resolution. In the area of space product development, the NASA Commercial Space Centers are entering the era of the space station with new operating principles and practices that promise a focused and sustainable research and development program. This portfolio of seventeen cooperative agreements spans applications in biotechnology, agriculture, remote sensing, and advanced materials. The rate-limiting step has long been access to space and we now stand ready to seize the opportunities afforded by a continuously operating, full-service laboratory in orbit. Each of these initiatives will have a marked effect on evolution of the space station program from a commercial development perspective and each offers the potential to open up economic development of low-Earth orbit in the first h

  3. IVA the robot: Design guidelines and lessons learned from the first space station laboratory manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konkel, Carl R.; Powers, Allen K.; Dewitt, J. Russell

    1991-01-01

    The first interactive Space Station Freedom (SSF) lab robot exhibit was installed at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, and has been running daily since. IntraVehicular Activity (IVA) the robot is mounted in a full scale U.S. Lab (USL) mockup to educate the public on possible automation and robotic applications aboard the SSF. Responding to audio and video instructions at the Command Console, exhibit patrons may prompt IVA to perform a housekeeping task or give a speaking tour of the module. Other exemplary space station tasks are simulated and the public can even challenge IVA to a game of tic tac toe. In anticipation of such a system being built for the Space Station, a discussion is provided of the approach taken, along with suggestions for applicability to the Space Station Environment.

  4. Space station freedom resource nodes internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhoff, Paul; Dellinger, Brent; Taggert, Shawn; Cornwell, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2. A SINDA/FLUINT math model of the ITCS is described, and results of analyses for an MTC and a PMC case are shown and discussed.

  5. Investigation of structural behavior of candidate Space Station structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, John M.; Miller, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative evaluations of the structural loads, stiffness and deflections of an example Space Station truss due to a variety of influences, including manufacturing tolerances, assembly operations, and operational loading are reported. The example truss is a dual-keel design composed of 5-meter-cube modules. The truss is 21 modules high and 9 modules wide, with a transverse beam 15 modules long. One problem of concern is the amount of mismatch which will be expected when the truss is being erected on orbit. Worst-case thermal loading results in less than 0.5 inch of mismatch. The stiffness of the interface is shown to be less than 100 pounds per inch. Thus, only moderate loads will be required to overcome the mismatch. The problem of manufacturing imperfections is analyzed by the Monte Carlo approach. Deformations and internal loads are obtained for ensembles of 100 example trusses. All analyses are performed on a personal computer. The necessary routines required to supplement commercially available programs are described.

  6. Making on-orbit structural repairs to Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Harry S.; Quinn, Alberta

    1989-01-01

    One of the key factors dictating the safety and durability of the proposed U.S. Space Station is the ability to repair structural damage while remaining in orbit. Consequently, studies are conducted to identify the engineering problems associated with accomplishing structural repairs on orbit, due to zero gravity environment and exposure to extreme temperature variations. There are predominant forms of structural failure, depending on the metallic or composite material involved. Aluminum is the primary metallic material used in space vehicle applications. Welding processes on aluminum alloy structures were tested, resulting in final selection of electron beam welding as the primary technique for metallic material repair in Space. Several composite structure repair processes were bench-tested to define their applicability to on-orbit EVA requirements: induction heating prevailed. One of the unique problems identified as inherent in the on-orbit repair process is that of debris containment. The Maintenance Work Station concept provides means to prevent module contamination from repair debris and ensure the creation of a facility for crew members to work easily in a microgravity environment. Different technologies were also examined for application to EVA repair activities, and the concept selected was a spring-loaded, collapsible, box-like Debris Containement and Collection Device with incorporated fold-down tool boards and handholes in the front panel.

  7. Space station electrical power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.; Twombly, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    ARINC Research Corporation performed a preliminary reliability, and maintainability (RAM) anlaysis of the NASA space station Electric Power Station (EPS). The analysis was performed using the ARINC Research developed UNIRAM RAM assessment methodology and software program. The analysis was performed in two phases: EPS modeling and EPS RAM assessment. The EPS was modeled in four parts: the insolar power generation system, the eclipse power generation system, the power management and distribution system (both ring and radial power distribution control unit (PDCU) architectures), and the power distribution to the inner keel PDCUs. The EPS RAM assessment was conducted in five steps: the use of UNIRAM to perform baseline EPS model analyses and to determine the orbital replacement unit (ORU) criticalities; the determination of EPS sensitivity to on-orbit spared of ORUs and the provision of an indication of which ORUs may need to be spared on-orbit; the determination of EPS sensitivity to changes in ORU reliability; the determination of the expected annual number of ORU failures; and the integration of the power generator system model results with the distribution system model results to assess the full EPS. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

  8. Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches should be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JSC. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 2, containing Appendices K through U.

  9. Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JCS. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 1, containing the main body and Appendices A through J.

  10. Telescience Operations on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of telescience operations for the International Space Station (ISS). The extended duration microgravity environment of the ISS will enable microgravity science research to enter into a new era of increased scientific and technological data return. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a vision of distributed ground operations which enables the Principal Investigator direct interaction with his/her on-board experiment from his/her home location. This is the concept of telescience and is essential for maximizing the use of the long duration science environment that ISS provides. The goal of telescience is to provide the capability to fully tele-operate an experiment from any ground location in such a way as to increase the amount and quality of scientific and technological data return and decrease the operations cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. This paper also describes the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) implementation approach for the LeRC Telescience Support Center (TSC) and Principal Investigator Science Operations Sites (SOS) which will fully meet the concept of telescience as prescribed by the Agency.

  11. Evaluation of Space Station thermal control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B.; Colwell, Gene T.; Hartley, James G.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is developed for evaluating various candidates for thermal control in the orbiting Space Station. Candidates for acquisition, transport and rejection are considered. For example, thermal rejection candidates include heat pipe radiators, high capacity heat pipe radiators and liquid droplet radiators. A computer program has been developed which computes subsystem and total system weights, volumes, powers and costs for a system consisting of selected acquisition, transport and rejection candidates. The program user is also able to select mission parameters such as duration, resupply interval, thermal loads, transport distance, acquisition temperature and rejection temperature. Simulation models are included in the program which allow the user to change candidate designs. For example, for a high capacity heat pipe radiator the user may change working fluid, materials, radiator temperature, radiator geometry, surface emissivity and surface absorptivity. The program also allows the selection of several different acquisitions of thermal energy at different temperatures using different acquisition candidates.

  12. Space Station Active Thermal Control System modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hye, Abdul; Lin, Chin H.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) has been modeled using modified SINDA/SINFLO programs to solve two-phase Thermo-fluid problems. The modifications include changes in several subroutines to incorporate implicit solution which allows larger time step as compared to that for explicit solutions. Larger time step saves computer time but involves larger computational error. Several runs were made using various time steps for the ATCS model. It has been found that for a reasonable approach, three times larger time step as compared to that used in explicit method is a good value which will reduce the computer time by approximately 50 percent and still maintain the accuracy of the output data to within 90 percent of the explicit values.

  13. Space station ECLSS simplified integrated test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathyrn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Station Simplified Integrated Test (SIT) was conducted. The first in a series of three integrated Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system tests, the primary objectives of the SIT were to verify proper operation of ECLS subsystems functioning in an integrated fashion as well as to gather preliminary performance data for the partial ECLS system used in the test. A description of the SIT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements and water and gas samples taken during the test are included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test is reported providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item.

  14. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  15. Space station onboard propulsion system: Technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, J. G.; Rudland, R. S.; Redd, L. R.; Beekman, D. H.; Cuffin, S. M.; Beer, C. M.; Mccarthy, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to prepare for the design of the space station propulsion system. Propulsion system concepts were defined and schematics were developed for the most viable concepts. A dual model bipropellant system was found to deliver the largest amount of payload. However, when resupply is considered, an electrolysis system with 10 percent accumulators requires less resupply propellant, though it is penalized by the amount of time required to fill the accumulators and the power requirements for the electrolyzer. A computer simulation was prepared, which was originally intended to simulate the water electrolysis propulsion system but which was expanded to model other types of systems such as cold gas, monopropellant and bipropellant storable systems.

  16. Nutritional Requirements for Space Station Freedom Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara L.; Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to set preliminary nutritional requirements for crewmembers flying from 90 to 180 day missions on Space Station Freedom. Specific recommendations included providing crewmembers with in flight feedback on nutritional intake, weight and strength, and incorporating issues of energy intake, body weight, body composition, strength, and protein intake in the flight medicine program. Exercise must be considered an integral part of any plan to maintain nutritional status, especially those modes that stress the skeleton and maintain body weight. Nutrient intake, amount of exercise, and drugs ingested must be recorded daily; high priority should be given to development of fully automated record systems that minimize astronauts' effort. A system of nutritional supplements should be developed to provide a method for reducing intake deficits that become apparent. Finally, post flight monitoring should include bone density, muscle mass and function, and iron status at three and six months after landing.

  17. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    1 Chapter I The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station AMS is a major on the International Space Station. The purpose of the AMS experiment is to perform accurate, large acceptance (~0.5 m2 collaboration between the Italian Space Agency (ASI), INFN, NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE

  18. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The technology development of the space station is examined as it relates to space station growth and equipment requirements for future missions. Future mission topics are refined and used to establish a systems data base. Technology for human factors engineering, space maintenance, satellite design, and laser communications and tracking is discussed.

  19. The space station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  20. Rehabilitation After International Space Station Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauvin, S. J.; Shepherd, B. A. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Taddeo, T.

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitating U.S. crew members to preflight status following flights on the Russian Mir Space Station required longer than six months for full functional recovery of some of the seven crew members. Additional exercise hardware has been added on the International Space Station as well as a rehabilitative emphasis on functional fitness/agility and proprioception. The authors will describe and present the results of the rehabilitation program for ISS and evaluate rehabilitative needs for longer missions. Pre- and in-flight programs emphasize strength and aerobic conditioning. One year before launch, crew members are assigned an Astronaut Strength and Conditioning specialist. Crew members are scheduled for 2 hours, 3 days a week, for pre-flight training and 2.5 hours, six days a week, for in-flight training. Crewmembers are tested on functional fitness, agility, isokinetic strength, and submaximal cycle ergometer evaluation before and after flight. The information from these tests is used for exercise prescriptions, comparison, and evaluation of the astronaut and training programs. The rehabilitation program lasts for 45 days and is scheduled for 2 hours during each crew workday. Phase 1 of the rehabilitation program starts on landing day and places emphasis on ambulation, flexibility, and muscle strengthening. Phase 2 adds proprioceptive exercise and cardiovascular conditioning. Phase 3 (the longest phase) focuses on functional development. All programs are tailored specifically for each individual according to their test results, preferred recreational activities, and mission roles and duties. Most crew members reached or exceeded their preflight test values 45 days after flight. Some crew members subjectively indicated the need for a longer rehabilitation period. The current rehabilitation program for returning ISS crew members seems adequate in content but may need to be extended for longer expeditions.