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1

Telescoping Space-Station Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

Witcofski, R. D.

1986-01-01

2

Space Station Photovoltaic power modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon cell Photovoltaic (PV) power modules are key components of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) scheduled to begin deployment in 1994. Four PV power modules, providing 75 KWe of user ac power, form the cornerstone of the EPS; which is comprised of Photovoltaic (PV) power modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) power modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system. The PV modules are located on rotating outboard sections of the Space Station (SS) structure and each module incorporates its own nickel-hydrogen energy storage batteries, its own thermal control system, and some autonomous control features. The PV modules are a cost-effective and technologically mature approach for providing reliable SS electrical power and are a solid base for EPS growth, which is expected to reach 300 KWe by the end of the Space Station's 30-year design lifetime.

Tatro, Charles A.

1988-01-01

3

Trash-Disposal Module For Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents basic engineering concepts of trash-disposal module for Space Station. Module conserves valuable cargo volume and reduces both launching and returning weights of Space Shuttle or other spacecraft carrying materials to and from Space Station. Module relatively cheap and simple to operate.

Wissinger, David B.

1989-01-01

4

Pressurized modules for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crew workstations, storage, and facilities in the SSF Habitation module along with station housekeeping and supporting subsystems (power, thermal, and life support) are considered. The U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules are based on a common structural design. The pressurized logistics modules (PLMs) have maximum commonality with the other pressurized modules including common ring frames and waffle grid skin; multilayer insulation and debris shield; and one common endcone.

Hopson, George D.; Grant, Richard L.

1993-05-01

5

Pressurized modules for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew workstations, storage, and facilities in the SSF Habitation module along with station housekeeping and supporting subsystems (power, thermal, and life support) are considered. The U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules are based on a common structural design. The pressurized logistics modules (PLMs) have maximum commonality with the other pressurized modules including common ring frames and waffle grid skin; multilayer insulation and debris shield; and one common endcone.

Hopson, George D.; Grant, Richard L.

1993-01-01

6

Space Station Freedom solar dynamic modules structural modelling and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Solar Dynamic Power Module effort, structural design studies were performed to investigate issues related to the design of the power module, its pointing capabilities, and the integration of the module into the SSF infrastructure. Of particular concern from a structural viewpoint are the dynamics of the power module, the impact of the power module on the Space Station dynamics and controls, and the required control effort for obtaining the specified Solar Dynamic Power Module pointing accuracy. Structural analyses were performed to determine the structural dynamics attributes of both the existing and the proposed structural dynamics module designs. The objectives of these analyses were to generate validated Solar Dynamic Power Module NASTRAN finite element models, combine Space Station and power module models into integrated system models, perform finite element modal analyses to assess the effect of the relocations of the power module center of mass, and provide modal data to controls designers for control systems design.

Lawrence, Charles; Morris, Ron

1991-01-01

7

Automation of Space Station module power management and distribution system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on automation of space station module (SSM) power management and distribution (PMAD) system are presented. Topics covered include: reasons for power system automation; SSM/PMAD approach to automation; SSM/PMAD test bed; SSM/PMAD topology; functional partitioning; SSM/PMAD control; rack level autonomy; FRAMES AI system; and future technology needs for power system automation.

Bechtel, Robert; Weeks, Dave; Walls, Bryan

1990-01-01

8

Shielding requirements for the Space Station habitability modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, analysis, development, and tests of the total meteoroid/debris protection system for the Space Station Freedom habitability modules, such as the habitation module, the laboratory module, and the node structures, are described. Design requirements are discussed along with development efforts, including a combination of hypervelocity testing and analyses. Computer hydrocode analysis of hypervelocity impact phenomena associated with Space Station habitability structures is covered and the use of optimization techniques, engineering models, and parametric analyses is assessed. Explosive rail gun development efforts and protective capability and damage tolerance of multilayer insulation due to meteoroid/debris impact are considered. It is concluded that anticipated changes in the debris environment definition and requirements will require rescoping the tests and analysis required to develop a protection system.

Avans, Sherman L.; Horn, Jennifer R.; Williamsen, Joel E.

1990-01-01

9

Commonality analysis for the NASA Space Station Common Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of commonality to enhance cost savings, as applied to NASA's Space Station Common Module (CM), is explored. The equipment to be included in the CM is organized by subsystems of structure, power, thermal, command and data handling, environmental control and life support, and crew station. The weight, volume, and quantity of each instrument item will be subsequently added to support a cost model. The CM concept, its reference configuration, power distribution and management, and cost sensitivity options are discussed in detail. Some computer programs are outlined, stressing the importance of the existing capabilities of the STS and the optimum commonality case.

Powell, L. E.; Beam, E. E.

1985-01-01

10

Evolution of the Space Station Freedom module pattern  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reanalysis of the evolution configuration module pattern for Space Station Freedom is presented. The module pattern is to consist of one habitation module, one airlock, one cupola, two Space Shuttle Orbiter pressurized docking adapters, one assured crew return vehicle, and one pressurized logistics module. Three laboratory modules are also included. A phased plan has been developed on the basis of utilization analysis being performed and derived through actual and projected user mission requirements for the growth of pressurized elements. The evolution requirement impacts to the module pattern are outlined. Application of the growth philosophy and the physical limitations resulted in a number of core element ground rules for module pattern growth. Nodes and modules are to be grown symmetrically in order to optimize poor flight control characteristics and maximize the capability for crew dual egress between elements. Core module pattern elements are not to be grown along Y-Y axis from nodes 1 or 2 due to physical clearance problems with the thermal control system radiators operational envelope.

Gould, Marston; Hendershot, James; Saucillo, Rudy

1992-01-01

11

Conceptual design of the Space Station fluids module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Fluids Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations in the US Laboratory Module of the ISSA. The SS FCF will support a multitude of fluids and combustion science investigations over the lifetime of the ISSA and return state-of-the-art science data in a timely and efficient manner to the scientific communities. This will be accomplished through modularization of hardware, with planned, periodic upgrades; modularization of like scientific investigations that make use of common facility functions; and use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) for incorporation of new technology and new functionality. Portions of the SS FCF are scheduled to become operational on-orbit in 1999. The Fluids Module is presently scheduled for launch to orbit and integration with the Fluids/Combustion Facility in 2001. The objectives of this paper are to describe the history of the Fluids Module concept, the types of fluids science investigations which will be accommodated by the module, the hardware design heritage, the hardware concept, and the hardware breadboarding efforts currently underway.

Rohn, Dennis W.; Morilak, Daniel P.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Peterson, Todd T.

1994-01-01

12

Space station automation of common module power management and distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to automate a breadboard level Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system which possesses many functional characteristics of a specified Space Station power system. The automation system was built upon 20 kHz ac source with redundancy of the power buses. There are two power distribution control units which furnish power to six load centers which in turn enable load circuits based upon a system generated schedule. The progress in building this specified autonomous system is described. Automation of Space Station Module PMAD was accomplished by segmenting the complete task in the following four independent tasks: (1) develop a detailed approach for PMAD automation; (2) define the software and hardware elements of automation; (3) develop the automation system for the PMAD breadboard; and (4) select an appropriate host processing environment.

Miller, W.; Jones, E.; Ashworth, B.; Riedesel, J.; Myers, C.; Freeman, K.; Steele, D.; Palmer, R.; Walsh, R.; Gohring, J.

1989-01-01

13

Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

1987-01-01

14

Utilization of common pressurized modules on the Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the preliminary design review of Space Station Freedom elements and subsystems, it was shown that reductions of cost, weight, and on-orbit integration and verification would be necessary in order to meet program constraints, particularly nominal Orbiter payload launch capability. At that time, the Baseline station consisted of four resource nodes and two 44 ft modules. In this study, the viability of a common module which maintains crew and payload accommodation is assessed. The size, transportation, and orientation of modules and the accommodation of system racks and user experiments are considered and compared to baseline. Based on available weight estimates, a module pattern consisting of six 28 ft common elements with three radial and two end ports is shown to be nearly optimal. Advantageous characteristics include a reduction in assembly flights, dual egress from all elements, logical functional allocation, no adverse impacts to international partners, favorable airlock, cupola, ACRV (Assured Crew Return Vehicle), and logistics module accommodation, and desirable flight attitude and control characteristics.

Mazanek, Daniel D.; Heck, Michael L.; Gould, Marston J.

1991-01-01

15

Utilization of common pressurized modules on the Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the preliminary design review of Space Station Freedom elements and subsystems, it was shown that reductions of cost, weight, and on-orbit integration and verification would be necessary in order to meet program constraints, particularly nominal Orbiter payload launch capability. At that time, the Baseline station consisted of four resource nodes and two 44 ft modules. In this study, the viability of a common module which maintains crew and payload accommodation is assessed. The size, transportation, and orientation of modules and the accommodation of system racks and user experiments are considered and compared to baseline. Based on available weight estimates, a module pattern consisting of six 28 ft. common elements with three radial and two end ports is shown to be nearly optimal. Advantageous characteristics include a reduction in assembly flights, dual egress from all elements, logical functional allocation, no adverse impacts to international partners, favorable airlock, cupola, ACRV (Assured Crew Return Vehicle), and logistics module accommodation, and desirable flight attitude and control characteristics.

Gould, Marston J.; Heck, Michael L.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

1991-01-01

16

Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

1994-01-01

17

Space station common module network topology and hardware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

1990-01-01

18

Space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

1989-01-01

19

Space modules of Phobos-Grunt complex for prospective interplanetary stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standardized modules are considered, such as the main propulsion system, space platform, and reusable spacecraft, that were developed within the scope of the Phobos-Grunt project. It is proposed that long-term interplanetary stations for fundamental space research should be created based on these modules. A description is given of the alleged scientific space projects for the medium term.

Polishchuk, G. M.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Efanov, V. V.; Martynov, M. B.

2011-12-01

20

Automation of the space station core module power management and distribution system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the Advanced Development Program for Space Station, Marshall Space Flight Center has been developing advanced automation applications for the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system inside the Space Station modules for the past three years. The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) test bed features three artificial intelligence (AI) systems coupled with conventional automation software functioning in an autonomous or closed-loop fashion. The AI systems in the test bed include a baseline scheduler/dynamic rescheduler (LES), a load shedding management system (LPLMS), and a fault recovery and management expert system (FRAMES). This test bed will be part of the NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration for 1990 featuring cooperating expert systems in various Space Station subsystem test beds. It is concluded that advanced automation technology involving AI approaches is sufficiently mature to begin applying the technology to current and planned spacecraft applications including the Space Station.

Weeks, David J.

1988-01-01

21

Space Station Automation of Common Module Power Management and Distribution, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The new Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) testbed automation system is described. The subjects discussed include testbed 120 volt dc star bus configuration and operation, SSM/PMAD automation system architecture, faul...

B. Ashworth J. Riedesel C. Myers L. Jakstas D. Smith

1990-01-01

22

Node 2 and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) In Space Station Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named 'Kibo' (Hope). Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

2003-01-01

23

Battery reinitialization on the photovoltaic module of the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to electrical power, and an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) that houses electrical hardware and batteries for electric power regulation and storage.

G. Hajela; F. Cohen

2002-01-01

24

Exercise of the SSM/PMAD Breadboard. [Space Station Module/Power Management And Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) Breadboard is a test facility designed for advanced development of space power automation. Originally designed for 20-kHz power, the system is being converted to work with direct current (dc). Power levels are on a par with those expected for a Space Station module. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of the SSM/PMAD system in design and function are examined, and the future directions foreseen for the system are outlined.

Walls, Bryan

1989-01-01

25

A Solid State Power Controller Module for the International Space Station EXPRESS Rack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solid State Power Controller Module (SSPCM) designed For the International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack is a remote-controlled power switching unit with both 120 V DC and 28 V DC solid state power controllers (SSPCs). The SSPCs distribute and protect power to the various loads within the EXPRESS Rack. The SSPCM is designed with two 120 V DC inputs

D. S. Hart; G. B. Prickett; C. R. Schwarz; M. Mohadjer

1997-01-01

26

International Space Station Alpha's bearing, motor, and roll ring module developmental testing and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design and developmental testing associated with the bearing, motor, and roll ring module (BMRRM) used for the beta rotation axis on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The BMRRM with its controllers located in the electronic control unit (ECU), provides for the solar array pointing and tracking functions as well as power and signal transfer across a rotating interface.

Obrien, David L.

1994-01-01

27

International Space Station: Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

28

Crew considerations in the design for Space Station Freedom modules on-orbit maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents an approach to the maintenance process currently planned for the Space Station Freedom modules. In particular, it describes the planned crew interfaces with maintenance items, and the anticipated implications for the crew in performing the interior and exterior maintenance of modules developed by U.S., ESA, and NASDA. Special consideration is given to the maintenance requirements, allocations, and approach; the maintenance design; the Maintenance Workstation; the robotic mechanisms; and the developemnt of maintenance techniques.

Stokes, Jack W.; Williams, Katherine A.

1992-01-01

29

Stability Analysis for a Large-scale Space Power Network, International Space Station and Japanese Experiment Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS), which is scheduled to start the operation fully in early 2000's, is being developed and assembled on orbit since 1998 with international cooperation of the USA, Russia, Europe, Canada, and Japan. Japan participates in this ISS program and will provide the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, named ``Kibo\\

Masaaki Komatsu; Satoaki Arai

2004-01-01

30

The manned space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

Kovit, B.

31

Review of the environmental effects of the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is provided of the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO), the interaction of this environment with the Photovoltaic (PV) Power system of the Space Station Freedom is reviewed, and the environmental programs are described that are designed to investigate the interactions of the LEO environment with the photovoltaic power system. Such programs will support and impact the design of the subsystems of the PV module in order to survive the design lifetime in the LEO natural and induced environment.

Nahra, Henry K.

1989-01-01

32

Review of the environmental effects on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is provided of the environment in the low earth orbit (LEO), the interaction of this environment with the photovoltaic (PV) power system of the Space Station Freedom is reviewed, and the environmental programs are described that are designed to investigate the interaction of the LEO environment with the photovoltaic power system. Such programs will support and impact the design of the subsystems of the PV module in order to survive the design lifetime in the LEO natural and induced environment.

Nahra, Henry K.

1989-01-01

33

Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

Cohen, Marc M. (editor); Eichold, Alice (editor); Heers, Susan (editor)

1987-01-01

34

Control-structure interaction study for the Space Station solar dynamic power module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors investigate the feasibility of using a conventional PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) controller design to perform the pointing and tracking functions for the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power module. Using this simple controller design, the control/structure interaction effects were also studied without assuming frequency bandwidth separation. From the results, the feasibility of a simple solar dynamic control solution with a reduced-order model, which satisfies the basic system pointing and stability requirements, is suggested. However, the conventional control design approach is shown to be very much influenced by the order of reduction of the plant model, i.e., the number of the retained elastic modes from the full-order model. This suggests that, for complex large space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic, the conventional control system design methods may not be adequate.

Cheng, J.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.; Kim, M.

1991-01-01

35

Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space station (20) includes a plurality of modules (24) and berthing hubs (22), joined by interconnections (26) which are sideways connectable. The modules (24) and hubs (22) are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections (26) include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports (50) and a clamp latch (52) formed from a plurality of sections (54, 56 and 58) hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports (50). A hermetic seal (63) is formed between the ports (50). A utilities connection channel (68) extends between the ports (50). The channel (68) has a shell (70) with utilities connectors (74) movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules (24) and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

36

Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric form of a space station is presented that includes a description of a plurality of modules and berthing hubs, joined by interconnections which are sideways connectable. The modules and hubs are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports and a clamp latch formed from a plurality of sections hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports. A hermetic seal is formed between the ports. A utilities connection channel extends between the ports. The channel has a shell with utilities connectors movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

Cohen, M. M. (inventor)

1984-01-01

37

Space station data flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

1972-01-01

38

A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

Burattini, C.

39

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module

B. Peterson; R. Wheeler

2002-01-01

40

International Space Station exhibit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

2000-01-01

41

The ISADORA module: A multi-purpose studio for the arts for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space program has a huge, hard science, research bias. Is it fair to deny the ``significant other half'' of human knowledge, the Arts & Humanities, the opportunity to go into space? Moreover, how does one go about designing a module for artists? This is what this research hopes to reveal; a set of recommendations to the space community about what an art module should contain. Artists of different disciplines place demands on their supporting environment as in any other discipline. How will the needs of the artist translate to the International Space Station environment? More importantly, however, will be to listen to what artists may fantasize doing in space through interviews and questionnaires. It is one thing to ask artists what they might want in space. It's another thing to ask what they will do in space. Rather than coming up with recommendations based on artists' hardware needs, I also hope to come up with recommendations based on artists desires. What I am suggesting is not to put the artist through the regular usability tests in order to figure out their needs for ISADORA but to get them to contribute with what they do best; imagining... envisioning what they might possibly create aboard ISADORA. .

Seabra, Richard

2000-01-01

42

Reasoning about fault diagnosis for the space station common module thermal control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed common module thermal control system for the Space Station is designed to integrate thermal distribution and thermal control functions in order to transport heat and provide environmental temperature control through the common module. When the thermal system is operating in an off-normal state, due to component faults, an intelligent controller is called upon to diagnose the fault type, identify the fault location and determine the appropriate control action required to isolate the faulty component. A methodology is introduced for fault diagnosis based upon a combination of signal redundancy techniques and fuzzy logic. An expert system utilizes parity space representation and analytic redundancy to derive fault symptoms, the aggregate of which is assessed by a multivalued rule based system. A subscale laboratory model of the thermal control system designed is used as the testbed for the study.

Vachtsevanos, G.; Hexmoor, H.; Purves, B.

1988-01-01

43

Space station propulsion technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

Briley, G. L.

1986-01-01

44

Space Station propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewgraphs on space station propulsion systems are presented. Topics covered include: space station propulsion system requirements; space station propulsion system design; space station propulsion system drivers; hydrazine technology development; waste fluid disposal system; space station propulsion system evolution; propellant selection trade study; technology needs to water electrolysis/oxygen-hydrogen propulsion system; and technology needs for bipropellant systems.

Henderson, J.

45

The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution automation test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Module Power Management And Distribution (SSM/PMAD) automation test bed project was begun at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the mid-1980s to develop an autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution test bed simulating the Space Station Freedom Hab/Lab modules. As the test bed has matured, many new technologies and projects have been added. The author focuses on three primary areas. The first area is the overall accomplishments of the test bed itself. These include a much-improved user interface, a more efficient expert system scheduler, improved communication among the three expert systems, and initial work on adding intermediate levels of autonomy. The second area is the addition of a more realistic power source to the SSM/PMAD test bed; this project is called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS). The third area is the completion of a virtual link between the SSM/PMAD test bed at MSFC and the Autonomous Power Expert at Lewis Research Center.

Lollar, Louis F.

1991-01-01

46

Space station contamination modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

Gordon, T. D.

1989-01-01

47

Space Station Spartan Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer wil...

J. H. Lane J. R. Schulman W. M. Neupert

1985-01-01

48

An advanced power system component test bed module for testing advanced technology at the space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of a study undertaken for the NASA-LeRC on an advanced power system component testbed designed to be attached to the space station. The study was a continuation of NASA's efforts to identify and exploit the benefits of the space station to provide a platform for science and technology development. A candidate set of advanced technology experiments

J. E. Dixon; S. Lenhart; P. Waterman; W. Wallin

1989-01-01

49

Life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana under microgravity condition in the International Space Station Kibo module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity is an important environmental factors for growth and development of plants throughout their life cycle. We have designed an experiment, which is called Space Seed, to examine the effects of microgravity on the seed to seed life cycle of plants. We have carried out this experiment using a newly developed apparatus, which is called the Plant Experiment Unit (PEU) and installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard International Space Station (ISS). The CBEF is equipped with a turntable generating artificial gravity to perform 1-G control experiment as well as micro-G experiment on board. Arabidopsis thaliana seeds sown on dry rockwool in PEUs were transported from Kennedy Space Center to the ISS Kibo module by Space Shuttle Discovery in STS-128 mission. This experiment was started on Sep. 10, 2009 and terminated on Nov. 11, 2009. Arabidopsis seeds successfully germinated, and the plants passed through both vegetative and reproductive processes, such as formation of rosette leaves, bolting of inflorescence stems, flowering, formation of siliques and seeds. Vegetative and reproductive growth were compared among micro-G plants, 1-G control, and the ground control.

Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Yano, Sachiko; Shimazu, Toru; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Kasahara, Haruo; Yashiro, Umi; Suto, Takamichi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kasahara, Hirokazu

2012-07-01

50

Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.  

PubMed

Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required. PMID:23603802

Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

2013-01-01

51

Bacterial Monitoring with Adhesive Sheet in the International Space Station-"Kibo", the Japanese Experiment Module  

PubMed Central

Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-“Kibo” module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (105 cells [cm2]?1), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required.

Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

2013-01-01

52

Mast material test program (MAMATEP). [for Solar Array Assembly of Space Station Photovoltaic Power Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MAMATEP program, which is aimed at verifying the need for and evaluating the performance of various protection techniques for the solar array assembly mast of the Space Station photovoltaic power module, is discussed. Coated and uncoated mast material samples have been environmentally tested and evaluated, before and after testing, in terms of mass and bending modulus. The protective coatings include CV-1144 silicone, a Ni/Al/InSn eutectic, and an open-weave Al braid. Long-term plasma asher results from unprotected samples indicate that, even though fiberglass-epoxy samples degrade, a protection technique may not be necessary to ensure structural integrity. A protection technique, however, may be desirable to limit or contain the amount of debris generated by the degradation of the fiberglass-epoxy.

Ciancone, Michael L.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

1988-01-01

53

Space station automation of common module power management and distribution, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) testbed automation system is described. The subjects discussed include testbed 120 volt dc star bus configuration and operation, SSM/PMAD automation system architecture, fault recovery and management expert system (FRAMES) rules english representation, the SSM/PMAD user interface, and the SSM/PMAD future direction. Several appendices are presented and include the following: SSM/PMAD interface user manual version 1.0, SSM/PMAD lowest level processor (LLP) reference, SSM/PMAD technical reference version 1.0, SSM/PMAD LLP visual control logic representation's (VCLR's), SSM/PMAD LLP/FRAMES interface control document (ICD) , and SSM/PMAD LLP switchgear interface controller (SIC) ICD.

Ashworth, B.; Riedesel, J.; Myers, C.; Jakstas, L.; Smith, D.

1990-01-01

54

The solar-terrestrial observatory as a major module of a space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar-terrestrial environment is a dynamic, tightly coupled system in which variable solar energy is transmitted through electromagnetic radiation and the solar wind to the earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere. The constantly changing solar input and the continuous redistribution of energy near the earth combine to determine the characteristics of our global environment. An understanding and subsequent management of this environment will require a coordinated set of observations of solar processes and the accompanying magnetospheric and atmospheric responses. A major element in this observational plan should be a Solar-Terrestrial Observatory module of a manned Space Station in which instruments and experimental techniques developed during short-duration Spacelab flights will be applied to extended missions in both low-altitude and geosynchronous orbits.

Chappell, C. R.

1977-01-01

55

Optimal control study for the Space Station Solar Dynamic power module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present the design of an optimal control system for the Space Station Freedom's Solar Dynamic Fine Pointing and Tracking (SDFPT) module. A very large state model of six rigid body modes and 272 flexible modes is used in conjunction with classical LQG optimal control to produce a full-order controller which satisfies the requirements. The results obtained are compared with those of a classically designed PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) controller that was implemented for a six-rigid-body-mode forty-flexible-mode model. A major difficulty with designing LQG controllers for large models is solving the Riccati equation that arises from the optimal formulation. A Riccati solver based on a Pade approximation to the matrix sign function is used. A symmetric version of this algorithm is derived for the special class of Hamiltonion matrices, thereby yielding, for large problems, a nearly twofold speed increase over a previous algorithm.

Papadopoulos, P. M.; Laub, A. J.; Kenney, C. S.; Pandey, P.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.

1991-01-01

56

Space Station MMOD Shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes International Space Station (ISS) shielding for micrometeoroid orbital debris (MMOD) protection, requirements for protection, and the technical approach to meeting requirements. Current activities in MMOD protection for ISS will be described, including efforts to augment MMOD protection by adding shields on-orbit. Observed MMOD impacts on ISS elements such as radiators, modules and returned hardware will be described. Comparisons of the observed damage with predicted damage using risk assessment software will be made.

Christiansen, Eric

2006-01-01

57

International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Lab Module Simulator Build-Up and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Sustaining Engineering program for the International Space Station (ISS), a ground simulator of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) in the Lab Module was designed and built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). To support prediction and troubleshooting, this facility is operationally and functionally similar to the flight system and flight-like components were used when available. Flight software algorithms, implemented using the LabVIEW(Registered Trademark) programming language, were used for monitoring performance and controlling operation. Validation testing of the low temperature loop was completed prior to activation of the Lab module in 2001. Assembly of the moderate temperature loop was completed in 2002 and validated in 2003. The facility has been used to address flight issues with the ITCS, successfully demonstrating the ability to add silver biocide and to adjust the pH of the coolant. Upon validation of the entire facility, it will be capable not only of checking procedures, but also of evaluating payload timelining, operational modifications, physical modifications, and other aspects affecting the thermal control system.

Wieland, Paul; Miller, Lee; Ibarra, Tom

2003-01-01

58

Space Station Spartan study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

1985-01-01

59

Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an overview of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed system and describes recent enhancements to that system. Four tasks made up the original contract: (1) common module power management and distribution system automation plan definition; (2) definition of hardware and software elements of automation; (3) design, implementation and delivery of the hardware and software making up the SSM/PMAD system; and (4) definition and development of the host breadboard computer environment. Additions and/or enhancements to the SSM/PMAD test bed that have occurred since July 1990 are reported. These include: (1) rehosting the MAESTRO scheduler; (2) reorganization of the automation software internals; (3) a more robust communications package; (4) the activity editor to the MAESTRO scheduler; (5) rehosting the LPLMS to execute under KNOMAD; implementation of intermediate levels of autonomy; (6) completion of the KNOMAD knowledge management facility; (7) significant improvement of the user interface; (8) soft and incipient fault handling design; (9) intermediate levels of autonomy, and (10) switch maintenance.

Miller, William (compiler); Britt, Daniel (compiler); Elges, Michael (compiler); Myers, Chris (compiler)

1994-01-01

60

Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

61

Free-free and fixed base modal survey tests of the Space Station Common Module Prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the testing aspects and the problems encountered during the free-free and fixed base modal surveys completed on the original Space Station Common Module Prototype (CMP). The CMP is a 40-ft long by 14.5-ft diameter 'waffle-grid' cylinder built by the Boeing Company and housed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) near Huntsville, AL. The CMP modal survey tests were conducted at MSFC by the Dynamics Test Branch. The free-free modal survey tests (June '90 to Sept. '90) included interface verification tests (IFVT), often referred to as impedance measurements, mass-additive testing and linearity studies. The fixed base modal survey tests (Feb. '91 to April '91), including linearity studies, were conducted in a fixture designed to constrain the CMP in 7 total degrees-of-freedom at five trunnion interfaces (two primary, two secondary, and the keel). The fixture also incorporated an airbag off-load system designed to alleviate the non-linear effects of friction in the primary and secondary trunnion interfaces. Numerous test configurations were performed with the objective of providing a modal data base for evaluating the various testing methodologies to verify dynamic finite element models used for input to coupled load analysis.

Driskill, T. C.; Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.

62

Hitchhiker On Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/GSFC Shuttle Small Payloads Projects Office (SSPPO) has been studying the feasibility of migrating Hitchhiker customers past present and future to the International Space Station via a "Hitchhiker like" carrier system. SSPPO has been tasked to make the most use of existing hardware and software systems and infrastructure in its study of an ISS based carrier system. This paper summarizes the results of the SSPPO Hitchhiker on International Space Station (ISS) study. Included are a number of "Hitchhiker like" carrier system concepts that take advantage of the various ISS attached payload accommodation sites. Emphasis will be given to a HH concept that attaches to the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF).

Daelemans, Gerard; Goldsmith, Theodore

1999-01-01

63

Space station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that space station planning at NASA began when NASA was created in 1958. However, the initiation of the program for a lunar landing delayed the implementation of plans for a space station. The utility of a space station was finally demonstrated with Skylab, which was launched in 1972. In May 1982, the Space Station Task Force was established to provide focus and direction for space station planning activities. The present paper provides a description of the planning activities, giving particular attention to the power system. The initial space station will be required to supply 75 kW of continuous electrical power, 60 kW for the customer and 15 kW for space station needs. Possible alternative energy sources for the space station include solar planar or concentrator arrays of either silicon or gallium arsenide.

Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.

1984-01-01

64

Space Station - early  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

James Hansen wrote: 'Langley engineers check out the interior of the inflatable 24-foot space station in January 1962.'... 'The first idea for an inflatable station was the Erectable Torus Manned Space Laboratory. A Langley space station team led by Paul Hill and Emanuel 'Manny' Schnitzer developed the concept with the help of the Goodyear Aircraft Corporation.'

1962-01-01

65

Space Station Internal Environmental and Safety Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppressio...

M. B. Cole

1987-01-01

66

Introduction to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station Freedom in FY 92 was appropriated. For FY 93, NASA is seeking $2.25 billion for the program; the planned budget for FY 94 is $2.5 billion. Further alterations to the hardware configuration for Freedom would be a serious setback; NASA intends 'to stick with the current baseline' and continue planning for utilization.

Kohrs, Richard

1992-01-01

67

International Space Station power reinitialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to electrical power, and an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) that houses electrical hardware and batteries for electric power regulation and storage.

G. Hajela; F. Cohen; P. Dalton

2003-01-01

68

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

69

Space station internal environmental and safety concerns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

Cole, Matthew B.

1987-01-01

70

Space station, 1959 to . .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

Butler, G. V.

1981-04-01

71

Implementation strategies for load center automation on the space station module/power management and distribution testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Module/Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed was developed to study the tertiary power management on modules in large spacecraft. The main goal was to study automation techniques, not necessarily develop flight ready systems. Because of the confidence gained in many of automation strategies investigated, it is appropriate to study, in more detail, implementation strategies in order to find better trade-offs for nearer to flight ready systems. These trade-offs particularly concern the weight, volume, power consumption, and performance of the automation system. These systems, in their present implementation are described.

Watson, Karen

1990-01-01

72

Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

Brush, Harold T.

1986-01-01

73

The Space Station Chronicles  

NASA Video Gallery

As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

74

Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on Space Station Freedom. Topics covered include future evolution, man-tended capability, permanently manned capability, standard payload rack dimensions, the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), commercial space projects interfaces, and pricing policy.

Keyes, Gilbert

1991-01-01

75

Space station parametric models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of two parametric models for a four-panel planar initial space station is described. The derivations of the distributed parameter model are presented in detail with the hope that the same method and procedures can be employed for stations with different configurations or for changes within the same configuration class. The 19-DOF finite-element model is also described. With the availability of the 19-DOF and a lower-DOF space station models, the frequency characteristics of the various dynamical systems in the space station environment are identified.

Hamidi, M.; Wang, S. J.

1985-01-01

76

The International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

77

Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

2000-01-01

78

Soviet MIR Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper was to determine if the Soviet MIR space station represents a significant advance when compared to the Soviets preceding Salyut 7 space station. A description and comparison of the physical features of Salyut 7 and MIR are presen...

T. E. Snook

1988-01-01

79

Space station executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

1972-01-01

80

Space Station - early  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned Space Laboratory Research. James Hansen wrote: 'Langley built and tested various models of the Erectable Torus Manned Space Laboratory, including a full-scale research model constructed by Goodyear.' The uninflated station was packed around a 24-foot diameter torus and could be launched inside a rocket. 'The first idea for an inflatable station was the Erectable Torus Manned Space Laboratory. A Langley space station team led by Paul Hill and Emanuel 'Manny' Schnitzer developed the concept with the help of the Goodyear Aircraft Corporation.'

1961-01-01

81

The space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

Munoz, Abraham

1988-01-01

82

Space Station galley design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

1986-01-01

83

Space Station - early  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned Space Laboratory Research. James Hansen wrote: 'Testing indicated that the inflatable torus could be packaged around the hub so that it occupied only 2 percent of its inflated volume.' 'The first idea for an inflatable station was the Erectable Torus Manned Space Laboratory. A Langley space station team led by Paul Hill and Emanuel 'Manny' Schnitzer developed the concept with the help of the Goodyear Aircraft Corporation.'

1961-01-01

84

Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

2006-01-01

85

Space Station Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

1986-01-01

86

Space station functional relationships analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

1988-01-01

87

International Space Station in Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after separating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistic Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

2001-01-01

88

International Space Station in Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after deparating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with the Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

2001-01-01

89

Space Station Software Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

Voigt, S. (editor)

1985-01-01

90

Military Space Station Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Justifying the relevancy of a Manned Military Space Station (MMSS) and subsequently proposing its deployment to capitalize upon the United States' national security interests is the essence and purpose of this group study project. The MMSS is intended to ...

G. D. Bourne G. D. Skirvin G. R. Wilson

1987-01-01

91

Space Station Live! Tour  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

92

International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

2013-01-01

93

Space Station Evolution Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logist...

D. B. Evans

1993-01-01

94

Light Microscopy Module: On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids Integrated Rack on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a remotely controllable, automated, on-orbit facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of physical science and biological science experiments within the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) on the International Space Station. Initially four fluid physics experiments in the FIR will use the LMM the Constrained Vapor Bubble, the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2, Physics of Colloids in Space-2, and Low Volume Fraction Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly. The first experiment will investigate heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments will investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties.

Motil, Susan M.

2002-01-01

95

Space stations favored  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Presidential Science Advisor George A. Key worth II created a new wave of enthusiasm about the future of the U.S. space program by stating in Science magazine that the National Aeronautics and Space Administratoin (NASA) should consider a major new initiative (July 8, 1983). Key worth has previously used Science magazine to provide his views on policy to the science community; in the past the messages have not been so supportive of the space program, but apparently NASA has made the case for an ambitious plan of space technology and development. The new program may involve space stations to support a colony on the moon (see Eos, April 19, 1983, p. 145) and perhaps Mars.In the July 8 Science, Keyworth is quoted as saying, “I think the country would take a major thrust in space very seriously. We've shown that the shuttle works, and is realistic. We know we have the technolgy to build a space station—most advocates of a space station readily acknowledge that it is only an intermediate step in a more ambitious longrange goal of exploring the solar system.”

Bell, Peter M.

96

The organized Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

1988-01-01

97

The organized Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

98

Protecting Astronaut Health at First Entry into Vehicles Visiting the international Space Station: Insights from Whole-Module Offgas Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has accumulated considerable experience in offgas testing of whole modules prior to their docking with the International Space Station (ISS). Since 1998, the Space Toxicology Office has performed offgas testing of the Lab module, both MPLM modules, US Airlock, Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, ATV1, HTV1, and three commercial vehicles. The goal of these tests is twofold: first, to protect the crew from adverse health effects of accumulated volatile pollutants when they first enter the module on orbit, and secondly, to determine the additional pollutant load that the ISS air revitalization systems must handle. In order to predict the amount of accumulated pollutants, the module is sealed for at least 1/5th the worst-case time interval that could occur between the last clean air purge and final hatch closure on the ground and the crew's first entry on orbit. This time can range from a few days to a few months. Typically, triplicate samples are taken at pre-planned times throughout the test. Samples are then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the rate of accumulation of pollutants is then extrapolated over time. The analytical values are indexed against 7-day spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) to provide a prediction of the total toxicity value (T-value) at the time of first entry. This T-value and the toxicological effects of specific pollutants that contribute most to the overall toxicity are then used to guide first entry operations. Finally, results are compared to first entry samples collected on orbit to determine the predictive ability of the ground-based offgas test.

Meyers, Valerie

2014-01-01

99

The NORSTAR Program: Space shuttle to space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of G-325, the first high school student-run space flight project, is updated. An overview is presented of a new international program, which involves students from space station countries who will be utilizing Get Away Special technology to cooperatively develop a prototype experiment for controlling a space station research module environment.

Fortunato, Ronald C.

1988-01-01

100

Space Station evolution study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

Evans, David B.

1993-09-01

101

Space Station evolution study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

Evans, David B.

1993-01-01

102

Welding/brazing for Space Station repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

1990-01-01

103

Space Station Commonality Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems a...

1988-01-01

104

Space Station: Orbiter Berthing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The berthing/docking maneuver is important for the construction and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Berthing has a direct effect on the SSF assembly build up and SSF/Orbiter operations. The dynamics associated with the berthing activities pot...

J. Mapar Y. C. Lin M. Kilby

1992-01-01

105

A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

Sours, Thomas J.

1989-01-01

106

Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom  

SciTech Connect

A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1991-03-01

107

Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus_minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus_minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus_minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus_minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1991-03-01

108

Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 (+ or -) 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 (+ or -) 0.7, -0.4 (+ or -) 0.3, and 76 (+ or -) 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on (Delta)p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc.

Dietz, R. N.; Goodrich, R. W.

1991-01-01

109

Space Station Technology, 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

Wright, R. L. (editor); Mays, C. R. (editor)

1984-01-01

110

A lunar space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

1989-01-01

111

Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

1990-01-01

112

Progress Resupply Craft Docks to Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The 39th ISS Progress resupply vehicle automatically docked to the aft port of the Zvezda service module of the International Space Station at 7:58 a.m. EDT on September 12 using the Kurs automated...

113

Panel on Space Station utilization benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of recent changes in the NASA Space Station, under the guidance of updated user community payload requirements. The user communities are those of astronomy, the life sciences, earth observation, and international applications. Attention is given to the resolutions that will be achievable by astronomical instruments aboard the Space Station, the testing of prototype earth observation instruments aboard the Station's manned module, and the microgravity research efforts planned in conjunction with ESA.

Rubenstein, Sy Z.; Drake, Frank; White, Stanley C.; Taranik, James V.; Jordan, Hermann; Arnold, Ray

1987-01-01

114

Designing Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

1986-01-01

115

Space station commonality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

116

Space station ventilation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

1972-01-01

117

Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

1979-01-01

118

Space Station Tethered Elevator System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. E...

L. A. Anderson

1989-01-01

119

Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

2003-01-01

120

Space Station fluid management logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

Dominick, Sam M.

121

Space Station commercial user development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

1984-01-01

122

Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of fluids and biology experiments within NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. Within the Fluids and Combustion Facility, four fluids physics experiments will utilize an instrument built around a light microscope. These experiments are the Constrained Vapor Bubble experiment (Peter C. Wayner of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2 (Paul M. Chaikin of Princeton University), the Physics of Colloids in Space-2 experiment (David A. Weitz of Harvard University), and the Low Volume Fraction Colloidal Assembly experiment (Arjun G. Yodh of the University of Pennsylvania). The first experiment investigates heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties. Key diagnostic capabilities for meeting the science requirements of the four experiments include video microscopy to observe sample features including basic structures and dynamics, interferometry to measure vapor bubble thin film thickness, laser tweezers for colloidal particle manipulation and patterning, confocal microscopy to provide enhanced three-dimensional visualization of colloidal structures, and spectrophotometry to measure colloidal crystal photonic properties.

Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Griffin, DeVon W.

2001-01-01

123

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

124

Space Station lubrication considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

1987-01-01

125

Space station contamination considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The external induced environment generated by space station activity, or more specifically by gases, particles, and light background is discussed. These contaminant species must be controlled if sensitive systems, such as solar energy collectors or science experiments exposed to the external environment are to function properly. The requirements generally set limits on the level of gas species, matter deposited on surfaces and light background levels over various spectral regions. They also address environment monitoring and contamination controls during manufacturing. Limits on effluent release and system leakages are in turn derived from these requirements.

Leger, L.; Ehlers, H.; Jacobs, S.

1986-01-01

126

Space station electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

1987-01-01

127

Boeing: International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

128

International Space Station Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

Propp, Timothy William

2001-01-01

129

Environmental monitoring for Space Station WP01  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

External contamination monitoring instrumentation for the Space Station work package one (WP01) elements, were imposed on the contractor as deliverable hardware. The monitoring instrumentation proposed by the WP01 contractor in response to the contract requirement includes both real time measurements and passive samples. Real time measurement instrumentation consists of quartz crystal microbalances for molecular deposition, ion gaseous species identification. Internal environmental contamination monitoring for particulates is included in both Lab and HAB modules. Passive samples consists of four sample mounting plates mounted external to the Space Station modules, two on the U.S. LAB, and two on the HAB module.

Zwiener, J. M.

1988-01-01

130

International Space Station: Testing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing astronauts for a journey to the red planet has become NASA's research priority for the International Space Station. But such experiments will need more than the skeleton crew now running the station. Tony Reichhardt reports.

Tony Reichhardt

2005-01-01

131

International Space Station Research Racks  

NASA Video Gallery

The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

132

Science in space with the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of the Space Station as a versatile scientific laboratory is discussed, reviewing plans under consideration by the NASA Task Force on Scientific Uses of the Space Station. The special advantages offered by the Station for expanding the scope of 'space science' beyond astrophysics, geophysics, and terrestrial remote sensing are stressed. Topics examined include the advantages of a manned presence, the scientific value and cost effectiveness of smaller, more quickly performable experiments, improved communications for ground control of Station experiments, the international nature of the Station, the need for more scientist astronauts for the Station crew, Station on-orbit maintenance and repair services for coorbiting platforms, and the need for Shuttle testing of proposed Station laboratory equipment and procedures.

Banks, Peter M.

1987-01-01

133

Space Station Neutral External Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space S...

H. Ehlers L. Leger

1988-01-01

134

Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include industry development needs and the Office of Commercial Programs strategy, the three-phase program to develop commercial space, Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), key provisions of the Joint Endeavor agreement, current commercial flight experiment requirements, the CCDS expendable launch vehicle program, the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) program, commercial launch dates, payload sponsors, the commercial roles of the Space Station Freedom, and a listing of the Office of Commercial Programs Space Station Freedom payloads.

Ott, Richard H.

1991-01-01

135

Nodes packaging option for Space Station application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

1988-01-01

136

European Space Science and Space Station Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six instruments for space sciences are presented as potential external payloads, which need accommodation on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) truss or on the Columbus Attached Laboratory (CAL) by means of a terrace or balcony: SUN (an interferometer with a...

P. L. Bernacca

1992-01-01

137

Use of Space Station for Space Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space Station cornerstone and other space science missions are outlined. The cornerstone missions are the comet nucleus sample return mission and the submillimeter heterodyne spectroscopy mission. Gamma ray spectroscopy, cosmic ray background anisotropy m...

G. P. Haskell

1987-01-01

138

NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

1999-01-01

139

Space Stations: Bones of Contention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make models representing bones on Earth and bones that have been in space. They discover what happens to bones without proper exercise and nutrition. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Byerly, Diane; Institute, Lunar A.

2006-01-01

140

A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early in the development of the Space Station it was determined that there is a need to have a vehicle which could be used in the event that the Space Station crew need to quickly depart and return to Earth when the Space Shuttle is not available. Unplanned return missions might occur because of a medical emergency, a major Space Station failure, or if there is a long-term interruption in the delivery of logistics to the Station. The rescue vehicle ms envisioned as a simple capsule-type spacecraft which would be maintained in a dormant state at the Station for several years and be quickly activated by the crew when needed. During the assembly phase for the International Space Station, unplanned return missions will be performed by the Russian Soyuz vehicle, which can return up to three people. When the Station assembly is complete there will be a need for rescue capability for up to six people. This need might be met by an additional Soyuz vehicle or by a new vehicle which might come from a variety of sources. This paper describes one candidate concept for a Space Station rescue vehicle. The proposed rescue vehicle design has the blunt-cone shape of the Apollo command module but with a larger diameter. The rescue vehicle would be delivered to the Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. The spacecraft design can accommodate six to eight people for a one-day return mission. All of the systems for the mission including deorbit propulsion are contained within the conical spacecraft and so there is no separate service module. The use of the proven Apollo re-entry shape would greatly reduce the time and cost for development and testing. Other aspects of the design are also intended to minimize development cost and simplify operations. This paper will summarize the evolution of rescue vehicle concepts, the functional requirements for a rescue vehicle, and describe the proposed design.

Petro, Andrew

1995-01-01

141

Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a foldable expandable pallet for Space Station interface attachments with a basic square configuration. Each pallet consists of a series of struts joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. The struts have hinge fittings which are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage transport to a Space Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle, and development on orbit. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the node points of the relatively widely spaced trusses of a Space Station platform. A pallet is attached to a strut at four points: one close fitting hole, two oversize holes, and a slot to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor)

1988-01-01

142

Space station based Microacceleration Experiment Platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normal Space Station Freedom activities, such as docking, astronauts' movement, equipment vibrations, and space station reboosts, exert forces on the structure, resulting in static or transient accelerations greater than many microgravity experiments can tolerate. A solution to this problem is to isolate experiments on a separate platform free from such disturbances. The Space Station Based Microacceleration Experiment Platform, a proposed solution to the Space Station microgravity experiment problem is described. It is modular in design and can be telerobotically assembled and operated. The Microacceleration Experiment Platform (MEP) consists of a minimum configuration platform to which power, propulsion, propellant, and experiment modules are added. The platform's layout is designed to take maximum advantage of the microgravity field structure in orbit.

Barber, Katy; Economopoulos, Tony; Evenson, Erik; Gonzalez, Raul; Henson, Steve; Parada, Enrique; Robinson, Rick; Scott, Mike; Spotz, Bill

1990-01-01

143

Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

1988-01-01

144

International Space Station Medical Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at the SMOT can be taken to the Mission Management Team meeting, which occurs biweekly from MCC-Houston. This meeting includes the other International Partners and all flight support and console position representatives via teleconference. ISS Crew Surgeons have handled many medical conditions on orbit; including skin rashes, dental abscesses, lacerations, and STT segment EKG changes. Fortunately to date, there have not been any forced medical evacuations from the ISS. This speaks well for the implementation of the primary, secondary and even tertiary prevention strategies invoked by the Integrated Medical Group, as there were several medical evacuations during the previous Russian space stations.

Jones, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

145

International Space Station: Don Pettit Space Chronicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASAâs Human Space Flight program contains the observations and reflections of ISS Science Officer Don Pettit while on board the International Space Station. The journal-style entries describe living and working in space, including the preparations for a space walk. The site also offers videos of Pettitâs Saturday Morning Science experiments.

2006-09-29

146

Space Station Freedom common berthing mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The two berthing halves, the active, and the passive, maintain a pressurized atmosphere to allow astronaut passage, as well as to provide a structural linkage between elements. The generic design of the CBM allows any Passive Berthing Mechanism to berth with any Active Berthing Mechanism, permitting a variety of pressurized module patterns to be built.

Illi, Erik

1992-01-01

147

Space Station robotics planning tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts are described for the set of advanced Space Station Freedom (SSF) robotics planning tools for use in the Space Station Control Center (SSCC). It is also shown how planning for SSF robotics operations is an international process, and baseline concepts are indicated for that process. Current SRMS methods provide the backdrop for this SSF theater of multiple robots, long operating time-space, advanced tools, and international cooperation.

Testa, Bridget Mintz

1992-01-01

148

Space station propulsion requirements study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

1985-01-01

149

Evolutionary Space Station fluids management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The demand for and management issues associated with fluids usage at the evolutionary Space Station are examined. A variety of fluids such as N2, He, methane and rare gases for research and development activities as well as massive quantities of cryogenic propellants for geosynchronous orbit and planetary exploration missions will need to be accommodated at the Space Station. A data base of fluid types, quantities, and projected usage schedules suggested, and potential accommodation concepts defined. Impacts to the Space Station operational configuration and necessary 'hooks and scars' to be included in the baseline design are addressed. Also presented is an operational scenario of the delivery of a cryogenic propellant tank set to the Space Station, attachment to the Space Station, and propellant transfer to and launch of a space transfer vehicle (STV). Results indicate that the cryogenic propellant requirements of STV and lunar missions may be met by tank sets attached to the Space Station, but those of Mars missions would require off-station methods.

Stevenson, Steve

1990-01-01

150

Internal contamination in the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmosphere trace contaminant control systems used in the past (Lunar Module and Skylab) and present (nuclear submarines and Shuttle) are discussed. Recommendations are made for the future Space Station contaminant control system. The prevention and control methods used are judicious material selection, detection, and specific removal equipment. Sources and effects of contamination relating to crew and equipment are also discussed.

Poythress, C.

1985-01-01

151

Vibrations and structureborne noise in space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The related literature was reviewed and a preliminary analytical model was developed for simplified acoustic and structural geometries for pressurized and unpressurized space station modules. In addition to the analytical work, an experimental program on structureborne noise generation and transmission was started. A brief review of those accomplishments is given.

Vaicaitis, R.

1985-01-01

152

Space Station Freedom food management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

1992-01-01

153

Space Station Freedom user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

1992-01-01

154

Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

1987-01-01

155

Space station neutral external environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

1988-01-01

156

Space station interior noise analysis program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

1987-01-01

157

Articulated Space Station controllability assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Reference Space Station design under consideration by NASA will contain several articular components, notably solar arrays and radiators. A technique to model articulation for use in determining Space Station controllability is described. The technique involves treating each articular component as a rigid free body, subject to the constraint of being attached to the Space Station proper. Because of the relatively large areas associated with some of the articular components, the resulting aerodynamics and solar radiation pressure induced forces and torques are shown to be significant. The effects of articulation on Space Station controllability as compared to the non-articulated rigid-body model are demonstrated. Plots of control forces and torques required to maintain orbital altitude and vehicle attitude are presented.

Heck, M. L.; Deryder, L. J.; Orr, L. H.

1985-01-01

158

Space Station Live: Microbiome Experiment  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Microbiome experiment Investigator Mark Ott to learn more about this research taking place aboard the International Space Station. The Microbiome e...

159

The International Space Station (ISS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Site provides users with a comprehensive look at the International Space Station. Included in this broad overview are links to everything from basic facts and figures to information about individual missions including downloadable press kits.

Company, The B.

2003-10-10

160

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

161

Space Station reference configuration description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

1984-01-01

162

Social factors in space station interiors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the example of the chair, which is often written into space station planning but which serves no non-cultural function in zero gravity, difficulties in overcoming cultural assumptions are discussed. An experimental approach is called for which would allow designers to separate cultural assumptions from logistic, social and psychological necessities. Simulations, systematic doubt and monitored brainstorming are recommended as part of basic research so that the designer will approach the problems of space module design with a complete program.

Cranz, Galen; Eichold, Alice; Hottes, Klaus; Jones, Kevin; Weinstein, Linda

1987-01-01

163

OSSA Space Station waste inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

1987-01-01

164

Space Station Biological Research Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

1995-01-01

165

International Space Station General Resource Reel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction and evolution of the International Space Station (ISS) is seen through various clips. Live footage shows the following: (1) the Zarya Module under construction and during launch preparations; (2) the Unity Module under construction, during launch preparations, and being lowered into the payload canister; (3) STS-88 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross and Jim Newman during training for their spacewalks, including activities in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL); (4) Zarya and Unity docking to the Service Module; (5) the Expedition 1 crew (William Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev) during emergency escape training in the Black Sea and during water survival training at Johnson Space Center; (6) the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle Drop Test; and (7) the US Destiny Laboratory Module, Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA), Service Module, Italian Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, US Airlock, and US Habitation Module under construction. Computerized animations show the following: (1) an ISS fly-around; (2) the STS-88 Space Shuttle as it docks with Zarya and attaches Zarya to the Unity Module; (3) the Space Shuttle as it docks with ISS and installs the Z1 truss segment and PMA; (4) the Soyuz spacecraft as it docks with ISS; (5) interior and exterior views of the Columbus Attached Pressurized Module; and (6) a Transhab animation showing the interior and exterior and marking the components.

1998-01-01

166

Space station propulsion analysis study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the impacts on the weight, volume and power usage of a manned space station and its 90-day resupply for three integrated, auxiliary propulsion subsystems. The study was performed in coordination with activities of the Space Staton Concept Development Group (CDG). The study focused on three space station propulsion high-low thrust options that make use of fluids that will be available on the manned space station. Specific uses of carbon dioxide, water and cryogen boiloff were considered. For each of the options the increase in station hardware mass and volume to accommodate the dual thrust option is offset by the resupply savings, relative to the reference hydrazine system, after one to several resupplies. Over the life of the station the savings in cost of logistics could be substantial. The three options are examples of alternative technology paths that, because of the opportunity they provide for integration with the environmental control life support system (ECLSS) and OTV propellant storage systems, may reduce the scarring which is required on the early station to meet the increasing propulsion requirements of the growth station.

Donovan, R. M.; Sovey, J. S.; Hannum, N. B.

1984-01-01

167

Space stations favored  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Presidential Science Advisor George A. Key worth II created a new wave of enthusiasm about the future of the U.S. space program by stating in Science magazine that the National Aeronautics and Space Administratoin (NASA) should consider a major new initiative (July 8, 1983). Key worth has previously used Science magazine to provide his views on policy to the

Peter M. Bell

1983-01-01

168

Solar dynamic power systems for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

1986-01-01

169

Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on...

2006-01-01

170

Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station

M. Frank Rose

1992-01-01

171

Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

172

The space station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The manned space station is the next major NASA program. It presents many challenges to the power system designers. The power system in turn is a major driver on the overall configuration. In this paper, the major requirements and guidelines that affect the station configuration and the power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts, both fanciful and feasible, are described and linked to the present concept. The recently completed Phase B trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of the present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given for completeness.

Baraona, C. R.

1986-01-01

173

Neutral environment for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of studies to determine the contamination compatibility of the cross boom and dual keel Space Station configurations with attached payloads are presented. The approach was to define the 3-D configuration of the Space Station and calculate surface-to-surface view factors and solid angles between surfaces and points in an extensive point matrix around the Space Station via a modified TRASYS model. The molecular number column densities along specific experiment lines-of-sight on the cross boom generally meet JSC 30426 requirements. The deposition of contaminants on payload surfaces exceeds the JSC 30426 requirements. These model predictions require updating because of the impact on background brightness predictions. An increase of a factor of 2 to 10 in column densities would result in an unacceptable optical background.

Rantanen, R. O.

1988-01-01

174

Microbe-I: fungal biota analyses of the Japanese experimental module KIBO of the International Space Station before launch and after being in orbit for about 460 days.  

PubMed

In addition to the crew, microbes also find their way aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, microbial monitoring is necessary for the health and safety of the crew and for general maintenance of the facilities of this station. Samples were collected from three sites in the Japanese experimental module KIBO on the ISS (air diffuser, handrail, and surfaces) for analysis of fungal biota approximately 1 year after this module had docked with the ISS. Samples taken from KIBO before launch and from our laboratory were used as controls. In the case of KIBO, both microbe detection sheet (MDS) and swab culture tests of orbital samples were negative. The MDS were also examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy; no microbial structures were detected. However, fungal DNAs were detected by real-time PCR and analyzed by the clone library method; Alternaria sp. and Malassezia spp. were the dominant species before launch and in space, respectively. The dominant species found in specimens from the air conditioner diffuser, lab bench, door push panel, and facility surfaces on our laboratory (ground controls) were Inonotus sp., Cladosporium sp., Malassezia spp., and Pezicula sp., respectively. The fungi in the KIBO were probably derived from contamination due to humans, while those in our laboratory came from the environment (e.g., the soil). In conclusion, the cleanliness in KIBO was equivalent to that in a clean room environment on the ground. PMID:21950271

Satoh, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Sugita, Takashi; Tsukii, Yuuji; Takatori, Kosuke; Benno, Yoshimi; Makimura, Koichi

2011-12-01

175

Space Station trash removal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

Petro, Andrew J. (inventor)

1993-01-01

176

Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A foldable expandable pallet having a basic square configuration is disclosed. Each pallet is comprised of a plurality of struts, joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. Some of the struts have hinge fittings and are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage and transport to a space station. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the relatively widely spaced trusses of a space station platform. A pallet is attached to a truss at four points; one close fitting hole; two oversize holes; and a slot; to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as an instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor)

1989-01-01

177

Space station wardroom table  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A table top for use in constricted areas has a plurality of support arms abutting at one end to form a hub. The support arms are arranged in equidistant, spaced-apart relation to each other at the ends distal to the hub. A plurality of work surface leaf sections mounted between the support arms are individually pivotable through 360 degrees about their longitudinal axes. The table top additionally has a plurality of distal leaves, each distal leaf being attached to the distal end of one of the arms. The distal leaves are pivotable between an upright position level with the support arms and a stored position below the support arms.

Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Kaplicky, Jan (Inventor); Nixon, David A. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

178

Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available to the International Space Station scientific community, introduces plans for extending microgravity analysis results to the newly arrived scientific laboratories, and provides summary information for known microgravity environment disturbers.

McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

2009-01-01

179

Space station molecular sieve development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

1986-01-01

180

Solar dynamic modules for Space Station Freedom: The relationship between fine-pointing control and thermal loading of the aperture plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic simulations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) configured with solar dynamic (SD) power modules were performed. The structure was subjected to Space Shuttle docking disturbances, while being controlled with a 'natural' vibration and tracking control approach. Three control cases were investigated for the purpose of investigating the relationship between actuator effort, SD pointing, and thermal loading on the receiver aperture plate. Transient, one-dimensional heat transfer analyses were performed to conservatively predict temperatures of the multi-layered receiver aperture plate assembly and thermal stresses in its shield layer. Results indicate that the proposed aperture plate is tolerant of concentrated flux impingement during short-lived structural disturbances. Pointing requirements may be loosened and the requirement control torques lessened from that previously specified. Downsizing and simplifying the joint drive system should result in a considerable savings mass.

Quinn, Roger D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

1992-01-01

181

Space Station information systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space operations information system is defined and characterized in a wide perspective. Interactive subsets of the total system are defined and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the concept of end-to-end systems and their repetitive population within the total system. High level program goals are reviewed and related to more explicit system requirements and user needs. Emphasis is placed on the utility and cost effectiveness of data system services from a user standpoint. Productivity, as a quantitative goal, in both development and operational phases is also addressed. Critical aspects of the approach to successful development of the data management system are discussed along with recommendations important to advanced development activities. Current and planned activity in both technology and advanced development areas are reviewed with emphasis on their importance to program success.

Swingle, W. L.; Mckay, C. W.

1983-01-01

182

Space Station information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space operations information system is defined and characterized in a wide perspective. Interactive subsets of the total system are defined and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the concept of end-to-end systems and their repetitive population within the total system. High level program goals are reviewed and related to more explicit system requirements and user needs. Emphasis is placed on the utility and cost effectiveness of data system services from a user standpoint. Productivity, as a quantitative goal, in both development and operational phases is also addressed. Critical aspects of the approach to successful development of the data management system are discussed along with recommendations important to advanced development activities. Current and planned activity in both technology and advanced development areas are reviewed with emphasis on their importance to program success.

Swingle, W. L.; McKay, C. W.

1983-07-01

183

International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

2010-01-01

184

Space Station - The next logical step  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is committed to the development of a permanently manned Space Station within a decade, in concert with European and Japanese space agencies. In addition to continuing scientific research, the Space Station will proceed with applied science and industrialization experiments. International cooperation opportunities arise within the Space Station program for users (in the definition of missions), for builders (in the development of station resources and capabilities), and operators (in the orbital maintenance of the Space Station).

Finn, T. T.; Hodge, J. D.

1984-01-01

185

Science Research Facilities - Versatility for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Science Lab Module (SLM) and its interfaces are designed to minimize complexity and maximize user accommodations. The facilities provided encompass life sciences research, the control of external payloads, the servicing of customer equipment, and general scientific investigations. The SLM will have the unprecedented ability to diagnose, service, and replace equipment while in orbit. In addition, the SLM will have significant operational advantages over previous spacecraft in terms of available volume, power, and crew interaction possibilities.

Giannovario, J. A.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Massey, K.; Solly, M.

1986-01-01

186

Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

Hill, Thomas J.

1994-01-01

187

Space station full-scale docking/berthing mechanisms development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most critical operational functions for the space station is the orbital docking between the station and the STS orbiter. The program to design, fabricate, and test docking/berthing mechanisms for the space station is described. The design reflects space station overall requirements and consists of two mating docking mechanism halves. One half is designed for use on the shuttle orbiter and incorporates capture and energy attenuation systems using computer controlled electromechanical actuators and/or attenuators. The mating half incorporates a flexible feature to allow two degrees of freedom at the module-to-module interface of the space station pressurized habitat volumes. The design concepts developed for the prototype units may be used for the first space station flight hardware.

Burns, Gene C.; Price, Harold A.; Buchanan, David B.

1988-01-01

188

Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence stems, flowers, and fruits in the Plant Experiment Unit. In addition, the senescence of rosette leaves was found to be delayed in microgravity.

Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

2013-03-01

189

Space station architectural elements model study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worksphere, a user controlled computer workstation enclosure, was expanded in scope to an engineering workstation suitable for use on the Space Station as a crewmember desk in orbit. The concept was also explored as a module control station capable of enclosing enough equipment to control the station from each module. The concept has commercial potential for the Space Station and surface workstation applications. The central triangular beam interior configuration was expanded and refined to seven different beam configurations. These included triangular on center, triangular off center, square, hexagonal small, hexagonal medium, hexagonal large and the H beam. Each was explored with some considerations as to the utilities and a suggested evaluation factor methodology was presented. Scale models of each concept were made. The models were helpful in researching the seven beam configurations and determining the negative residual (unused) volume of each configuration. A flexible hardware evaluation factor concept is proposed which could be helpful in evaluating interior space volumes from a human factors point of view. A magnetic version with all the graphics is available from the author or the technical monitor.

Taylor, T. C.; Spencer, J. S.; Rocha, C. J.; Kahn, E.; Cliffton, E.; Carr, C.

1987-01-01

190

Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

Johnson, P. C. (editor); Mason, J. A. (editor)

1982-01-01

191

Space station power system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is an overview of the requirements on which the Space Station Electric Power System is based as well as a summary of the design itself. The current design, which is based on silicon photovoltaic arrays, NiH2 batteries, and 20 kHz distribution technology, meets all of the requirements.

Dunning, John W., Jr.

1988-01-01

192

Space Station Rotary Joint Mechanisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanism which will be used on the space station to position the solar arrays and radiator panels for Sun pointing and Sun avoidance is described. The unique design features will be demonstrated on advanced development models of two of the joints bei...

G. W. Driskill

1986-01-01

193

Space station rotary joint mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism which will be used on the space station to position the solar arrays and radiator panels for Sun pointing and Sun avoidance is described. The unique design features will be demonstrated on advanced development models of two of the joints being fabricated under contract to NASA-MSFC.

Driskill, Glen W.

1986-01-01

194

Space Station power system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is an overview of the requirements on which the Space Station Electric Power System is based as well as a summary of the design itself. The current design, which is based on silicon photovoltaic arrays, NiH2 batteries, and 20 kHz distribution technology, meets all of the requirements.

Dunning, John W., Jr.

1988-01-01

195

Automating Space Station operations planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

Ziemer, Kathleen A.

1989-01-01

196

The International Space Station in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

197

Space Station Freedom Common Berthing Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). T...

E. Illi

1992-01-01

198

A facility for training Space Station astronauts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) will be the primary facility for training the Space Station Freedom astronauts and the Space Station Control Center ground support personnel. Conceptually, the SSTF will consist of two parts: a Student Environment and an Author Environment. The Student Environment will contain trainers, instructor stations, computers and other equipment necessary for training. The Author Environment

Ankur R. Hajare; James R. Schmidt

1992-01-01

199

Shuttle-launch triangular space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A triangular space station deployable in orbit is described. The framework is comprized of three trusses, formed of a pair of generally planar faces consistine of foldable struts. The struts expand and lock into rigid structural engagement forming a repetition of equilater triangles and nonfolding diagonal struts interconnecting the two faces. The struts are joined together by node fittings. The framework can be packaged into a size and configuration transportable by a space shuttle. When deployed, the framework provides a large work/construction area and ample planar surface area for solar panels and thermal radiators. A plurity of modules are secured to the framework and then joined by tunnels to make an interconnected modular display. Thruster units for the space station orientation and altitude maintenance are provided.

Schneider, W. C. (inventor); Berka, R. B. (inventor); Kavanaugh, C. (inventor); Nagy, K. (inventor); Parish, R. C. (inventor); Schliesing, J. A. (inventor); Smith, P. D. (inventor); Stebbins, F. J. (inventor); Wesselski, C. J. (inventor)

1986-01-01

200

Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

1988-01-01

201

Space station power semiconductor package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

1987-01-01

202

The challenge of the US Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Space Station program is described. The objectives of the present national space policy are reviewed. International involvement and commercial use of space are the two strategies involved in the development of the Space Station. The Space Station is to be a multifunctional, modular, permanent facility with manned and unmanned platforms. The functions of the Space Station for space research projects, such as material processing and electrophoresis, are examined. The infrastructure required for commercialization of space is analyzed. NASA's space policy aimed at stimulating space commerce is discussed. NASA's plans to reduce the financial, institutional, and technical risks of space research are studied.

Beggs, J. M.

1985-01-01

203

Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

Haines, R. F.

1975-01-01

204

Space station protective coating development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generic list of Space Station surfaces and candidate material types is provided. Environmental exposures and performance requirements for the different Space Station surfaces are listed. Coating materials and the processing required to produce a viable system, and appropriate environmental simulation test facilities are being developed. Mass loss data from the original version of the atomic oxygen test chamber and the improved facility; additional environmental exposures performed on candidate materials; and materials properties measurements on candidate coatings to determine the effects of the exposures are discussed. Methodologies of production, and coating materials, used to produce the large scale demonstration articles are described. The electronic data base developed for the contract is also described. The test chamber to be used for exposure of materials to atomic oxygen was built.

Pippin, H. G.; Hill, S. G.

1989-01-01

205

Space Station Freedom propulsion activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical highlights and accomplishments made at NASA LeRC in the development of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) propulsion system are discussed. The objectives are as follows: develop and characterize resistojet-thruster components and assemblies; develop and characterize hydrogen-oxygen thruster components; and conduct system trade studies. The research projects primarily characterize propulsion performance and life. Other tests include environmental impacts, such as exhaust gas profiles and electromagnetic interference. The technical activities that are highlighted are being conducted at LeRC within the Aerospace Technology and Space Station Freedom directorates. These activities include the following: derivation of design analysis models; trade studies of design options; propulsion system impact studies; and component testing for characterization and design verification.

Spera, David A. (editor)

1990-01-01

206

Space Station solar water heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

1990-01-01

207

Space Station tethered elevator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

1989-01-01

208

Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

1990-01-01

209

Technology assessment of space stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which can be expected from a system of space stations operating over relatively long periods of time in Earth orbit, are examined. The survey is an exercise in technology assessment. It is futuristic in nature. It anticipates technological applications which are still in the planning stage, and many of the conclusions are highly speculative and for this reason controversial.

Coates, V. T.

1971-01-01

210

Space Station Freedom crew training.  

PubMed

The nature of the Space Station Freedom Program presents an array of new and enhanced challenges which need to be addressed en route to developing an effective and affordable infrastructure for crew training. Such an infrastructure is essential for the safety and success of the program. The three major challenges that affect crew training are the long lifetime of the program (thirty years), the interdependence of successive increments, and the participation of the three International Partners (Canada, European Space Agency, and Japan) and a myriad of experimenters. This paper addresses these major challenges as they drive the development of a crew training capability and the actual conduct of crew training. PMID:11542826

Bobko, K J; Gibson, E G; Maroney, S A; Muccio, J D

1990-01-01

211

Earth Views From the International Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

In celebration of Earth Day, NASA presents images of Earth captured by cameras aboard the International Space Station. Traveling at an approximate speed of 17,500 miles per hour, the space station ...

212

Fuzzy Control/Space Station Automation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and g...

M. Gersh

1990-01-01

213

International Space Station -- Human Research Facility (HRF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arn Harris Hoover of Lockheed Martin Company demonstrates an engineering mockup of the Human Research Facility (HRF) that will be installed in Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Using facilities similar to research hardware available in laboratories on Earth, the HRF will enable systematic study of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurosensory, pulmonary, radiation, and regulatory physiology to determine biomedical changes resulting from space flight. Research results obtained using this facility are relevant to the health and the performance of the astronaut as well as future exploration of space. Because this is a mockup, the actual flight hardware may vary as desings are refined. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

2000-01-01

214

International Space Station technology demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

Holt, Alan C.

1998-01-01

215

International Space Station from Space Shuttle Endeavour  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour took this spectacular image of the International Space Station during the STS118 mission, August 8-21, 2007. The image was acquired by an astronaut through one of the crew cabin windows, looking back over the length of the Shuttle. This oblique (looking at an angle from vertical, rather than straight down towards the Earth) image was acquired almost one hour after late inspection activities had begun. The sensor head of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is visible at image top left. The entire Space Station is visible at image bottom center, set against the backdrop of the Ionian Sea approximately 330 kilometers below it. Other visible features of the southeastern Mediterranean region include the toe and heel of Italy's 'boot' at image lower left, and the western coastlines of Albania and Greece, which extend across image center. Farther towards the horizon, the Aegean and Black Seas are also visible. Featured astronaut photograph STS118-E-9469 was acquired by the STS-118 crew on August 19, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera using a 28 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center.

2007-01-01

216

Design and Development of a Space Station Hazardous Material System for Assessing Chemical Compatibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Space Station nears reality in funding support from Congress, NASA plans to perform over a hundred different missions in the coming decade. Incrementally deployed, the Space Station will evolve into modules linked to an integral structure. Each mod...

R. T. Congo

1990-01-01

217

Survey of environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbital living and working environment extending from the original Zarya control module built in 1998. The expected life span of the completed station is around 10 years and during this period it will be constantly manned. It is inevitable that the ISS will also be home to an unknown number of microorganisms. This

Natalia Novikova; Patrick De Boever; Svetlana Poddubko; Elena Deshevaya; Nikolai Polikarpov; Natalia Rakova; Ilse Coninx; Max Mergeay

2006-01-01

218

Working aboard the Mir space station.  

PubMed

For more than ten years, the Mir station has been the World's only permanently manned laboratory in low earth orbit. With an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees, its ground track covers more than 85% of the Earth's surface, where approximately 95% of the population lives. For the transfer of up to three crew members per trip to and from Mir, the 6.9 t Soyuz spacecraft is used. In general, the station's crew is changed every six months, with an overlap during the exchange of between one and two weeks. A Progress spacecraft (an unmanned derivative of the Soyuz vehicle) visits the station every three months to resupply it, with up to 2.1 t of payload, and to reboost it to maintain its nominal orbital altitude. The station's core module, injected into orbit in February 1986, contains the central control post for most onboard systems, the computer for attitude control, and the telemetry and communications system. It also contains the station's largest work space, which is 7.0 m long and varies in width between 1.5 and 2.5 m. PMID:11541437

Reiter, T

1996-11-01

219

Space Station Facility government estimating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 18 ways the low bidders get low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

Brown, Joseph A.

1993-01-01

220

The Automated Planetary Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for a study on mission definition and design to determine broad technology directions and needs for advanced planetary spacecraft and future planetary missions. The discussion covers mission selection, system design, and technology assessment and review for a multicomponent spacecraft exploration facility provided with nuclear power propulsion. As an example, the Automated Planetary Space Station at Jupiter is examined as a generic concept which has the capability of conducting in-depth investigations of different aspects of the entire Jovian system. Mission planning is discussed relative to low-thrust trajectory control, automatic target identification and landing, roving vehicle operation, and automated sample analysis.

Ivie, C. V.; Friedman, L. D.

1977-01-01

221

Space Experiment Module (SEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

Brodell, Charles L.

1999-01-01

222

Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

1989-01-01

223

Space Station program status and research capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Station will be a permanent orbiting laboratory in space which will provide researchers with unprecedented opportunities for access to the space environment. Space Station is designed to provide essential resources of volume, crew, power, data handling and communications to accommodate experiments for long-duration studies in technology, materials and the life sciences. Materials and coatings for exposure research will be

Alan C. Holt

1995-01-01

224

Space station operating system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

1988-01-01

225

A customer-friendly Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1984-01-01

226

International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analysis and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will indicate changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations, and is an update to the status presented in 20031. Many new modules, and sleep stations have been added to the ISS since that time. In addition, noise mitigation efforts have reduced noise levels in some areas. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS have improved.

Allen, Christopher S.; Denham, Samuel A.

2011-01-01

227

Concrete: Potential material for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

Lin, T. D.

1992-01-01

228

International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

2005-01-01

229

Bioisolation on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal research on the Space Station presents the need for bioisolation, which is here defined as instrumental and operational provisions, which will prevent the exchange of particles greater than 0.3-micron size and microorganisms between crew and animals. Current design principles for the Biological Research Project thus call for: (1) use of specific pathogen-free animals; (2) keeping animals at all times in enclosed habitats, provided with microbial filters and a waste collection system; (3) placing habitats in a holding rack, centrifuge, and workbench, all equipped with particulate and odor filters, (4) washing dirty cage units in an equipment cleaner, with treatment and recycling of the water; (5) designing components and facilities so as to ensure maximal accessibility for cleaning; and (6) defining suitable operational procedures. Limited ground tests of prototype components indicate that proper bioisolation can thus be achieved.

Bonting, Sjoerd L.; Arno, Roger D.; Kishiyama, Jenny S.; Johnson, Catherine C.

1988-01-01

230

Space Station Freedom operations planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

1989-01-01

231

Space station trace contaminant control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different systems for the control of space station trace contaminants are outlined. The issues discussed include: spacecabin contaminant sources, technology base, contaminant control system elements and configuration, approach to contaminant control, contaminant load model definition, spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations, charcoal bed sizing and performance characteristics, catalytic oxidizer sizing and performance characteristics, special sorbent bed sizing, animal and plant research payload problems, and emergency upset contaminant removal. It is concluded that the trace contaminant control technology base is firm, the necessary hardware tools are available, and the previous design philosophy is still applicable. Some concerns are the need as opposed to danger of the catalytic oxidizer, contaminants with very low allowable concentrations, and the impact of relaxing materials requirements.

Olcutt, T.

1985-01-01

232

Space Station Freedom: A foothold on the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Space Station Freedom is given. Its modules are discussed and illustrated along with its microgravity research facilities. These facilities include the advanced protein crystal growth facility, the containerless processing facility, a furnace facility, a combustion facility, and a fluid physics/dynamics facility. The topic of living in space is also addressed.

1989-01-01

233

Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid\\/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage

William G. Dean; James W. Owen

1988-01-01

234

Survey of International Space Station Charging Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

2009-01-01

235

Historical annotated bibliography: Space Station documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is presented regarding documentation which has been produced in the Space Station program. This information will enable the researcher to locate readily documents pertinent to a particular study. It is designed to give the historian the necessary data from which to compile the written histories and to preserve records of historically significant aspects of Marshall's involvement in Space Shuttle and Space Station.

Whalen, Jessie E. (compiler); Mckinley, Sarah L. (compiler); Gates, Thomas G. (compiler)

1988-01-01

236

International Space Station power storage upgrade planned  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Earth-orbit International Space Station (ISS) grows, it needs more power which is generated by solar panels. For periods in which the planet Earth occults sunlight, energy is stored in the biggest set of batteries ever flown in space. Reliability of power is important in a space station because a failure requires costly launch of replacement components. Even greater

H. Oman

2003-01-01

237

International Space Station (ISS) Payload Information Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station Payload Information Source CD is a joint effort of NASA and United Space Alliance. It is an introduction to the Space Station's capabilities, payload accommodations and the payload integration process. The CD is designed for use in conjunction with the station payloads website. The outline for the website includes fields of research, getting on board, international partners, about the ISS, basic accommodations, specialized facilities, payload integration, payload processing, payload operations, and reference documents.

Griswold, Tom

2002-01-01

238

Space Station truss structures and construction considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although a specific configuration has not been selected for the Space Station, a gravity gradient stabilized station as a basis upon which to compare various structural and construction concepts is considered. The Space Station primary truss support structure is described in detail. Three approaches (see sketch A) which are believed to be representative of the major techniques for constructing large structures in space are also described in detail so that salient differences can be highlighted.

Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Croomes, S. D.; Schneider, W.; Bush, H. G.; Nagy, K.; Pelischek, T.; Lake, M. S.; Wesselski, C.

1985-01-01

239

Space Station end effector strategy study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

1987-01-01

240

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

241

Exobiology experiment concepts for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that stimulate the primitive earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

Griffiths, Lynn D.; Devincenzi, Donald L.

1987-01-01

242

Popocatepetl from the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Popocatepetl, or Popo, the active volcano located about 70 km southeast of Mexico City, sends a plume south on January 23, 2001. The astronaut crew on the International Space Station Alpha observed and recorded this image as they orbited to the northeast of the volcano. Popo has been frequently active for six years. On this day, the eruption plume reportedly rose to more than 9 km above sea level [for reference, Popo's summit elevation is 5426 m (17,800 feet)]. Note the smaller ash plume below the main plume (arrow). The perspective from the ISS allowed the astronauts this unique 3 dimensional view. Popo is situated between two large population centers: Mexico City (more than 18 million people, and just off the image to the right) and Puebla (about 1.2 million people). The region's dense population provides the potential for extreme impacts from volcanic hazards. Recent eruptions have been frequent, and have resulted in evacuations around the mountain. The image ISS01-ESC-5316 is provided and archived by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/

2002-01-01

243

Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

244

Space Station engineering and technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historical background, costs, organizational assignments, technology development, user requirements, mission evolution, systems analyses and design, systems engineering and integration, contracting, and policies of the space station are discussed.

1985-01-01

245

Space Station Live: Fluids and Combustion Facility  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean speaks with Robert Corban, Fluids and Combustion Facility Manager, about the research being performed aboard the International Space Station using this state...

246

March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Station Configuration (Narrated)  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation, presented by Expedition 32 Lead Flight Director Dina Contella during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows the configuration of the space station durin...

247

March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Station Configuration  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation, presented by Expedition 32 Lead Flight Director Dina Contella during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows the configuration of the space station durin...

248

Space Station Freedom combustion research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame spread of liquids, drop combustion, and quenching of panicle-air flames. Unfortunately, the same features that make microgravity attractive for fundamental combustion experiments, introduce new fire and explosion hazards that have no counterpart on earth. For example, microgravity can cause broader flammability limits, novel regimes of flame spread, enhanced effects of flame radiation, slower fire detector response, and enhanced combustion upon injecting fire extinguishing agents, among others. On the other hand, spacecraft provide an opportunity to use 'fire-safe' atmospheres due to their controlled environment. Investigation of these problems is just beginning, with specific fire safety experiments supplementing the space based fundamental experiments listed earlier; thus, much remains to be done to develop an adequate technology base for fire and explosion safety considerations for spacecraft.

Faeth, G. M.

1992-01-01

249

Catastrophic Failure Modes Assessment of the International Space Station Alpha  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a series of analyses to quantify the hazardous effects of meteoroid/debris penetration of Space Station Alpha manned module protective structures. These analyses concentrate on determining (a) the critical crack length associated with six manned module pressure wall designs that, if exceeded, would lead to unstopped crack propagation and rupture of manned modules, and (b) the likelihood of crew or station loss following penetration of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine tanks aboard the proposed Russian FGB ('Tug') propulsion module and critical elements aboard the control moment gyro module (SPP-1). Results from these quantified safety analyses are useful in improving specific design areas, thereby reducing the overall likelihood of crew or station loss following orbital debris penetration.

Lutz, B. E. P.; Goodwin, C. J.

1996-01-01

250

Space station propulsion-ECLSS interaction study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The benefits of the utilization of effluents of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system are examined. Various ECLSS-propulsion system interaction options are evaluated and compared on the basis of weight, volume, and power requirements. Annual propulsive impulse to maintain station altitude during a complete solar cycle of eleven years and the effect on station resupply are considered.

Brennan, Scott M.

1986-01-01

251

Key Structures Mechanical Issues of the European Space Station and Platform Program Columbus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main technical features of the Columbus space segment are discussed. The attached pressurized module (APM), integrated into NASA's Space Station Freedom; the man tended free flyer (MTFF) - Europe's first step into autonomy in space; and the polar plat...

S. Gazey E. Winkelhoff

1988-01-01

252

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97...designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that space station, subject to the...

2013-10-01

253

Space station: A step into the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station is an essential element of NASA's ongoing program to recover from the loss of the Challenger and to regain for the United States its position of leadership in space. The Space Station Program has made substantial progress and some of the major efforts undertaken are discussed briefly. A few of the Space Station policies which have shaped the program are reviewed. NASA is dedicated to building a Station that, in serving science, technology, and commerce assured the United States a future in space as exciting and rewarding as the past. In cooperation with partners in the industry and abroad, the intent is to develop a Space Station that is intellectually productive, technically demanding, and genuinely useful.

Stofan, Andrew J.

1989-01-01

254

Regeneration of water at space stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station.

Grigoriev, A. I.; Sinyak, Yu. E.; Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Protasov, N. N.; Andreychuk, P. O.

2011-05-01

255

Engineering of the International Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The International Space Station is about the size of a football field and weighs 827,794 pounds! So how did we get something so big into space? In pieces! Fifteen different countries from all aroun...

256

Transporting the International Space Station Truss Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A section of the International Space Station truss assembly arrived at the Marshall Space Flight Center on NASA's Super Guppy cargo plane for structural and design testing as well as installation of critical flight hardware.

2000-01-01

257

Orbital Path of the International Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...

258

A facility for training Space Station astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) will be the primary facility for training the Space Station Freedom astronauts and the Space Station Control Center ground support personnel. Conceptually, the SSTF will consist of two parts: a Student Environment and an Author Environment. The Student Environment will contain trainers, instructor stations, computers and other equipment necessary for training. The Author Environment will contain the systems that will be used to manage, develop, integrate, test and verify, operate and maintain the equipment and software in the Student Environment.

Hajare, Ankur R.; Schmidt, James R.

259

Space Station - An innovative approach to manufacturing development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the common modules for the planned dual-keel Space Station, which is a figure-eight configuration that requires the use of four common modules linked by six docking nodes in the center of the Station, is examined. The fabrication of the proposed common module designs, which are a four-barrel common module structure built using excess external tank barrel panels (Martin Marietta Michoud Aerospace), and a three-barrel design consisting of 2219 Al skins with a waffle-grid pattern machined on the outer surface (Boeing Aerospace Corporation) is described. The assistance provided by the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory, in particular the variable polarity plasma arc welding process, in the development of the common modules is discussed.

Sullivan, Kenneth W.; Bramon, Christopher J.

1987-01-01

260

Space Station: Leadership for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No longer limited to occasional spectaculars, space has become an essential, almost commonplace dimension of national life. Among other things, space is an arena of competition with our allies and adversaries, a place of business, a field of research, and an avenue of cooperation with our allies. The space station will play a critical role in each of these endeavors. Perhaps the most significant feature of the space station, essential to its utility for science, commerce, and technology, is the permanent nature of its crew. The space station will build upon the tradition of employing new capabilities to explore further and question deeper, and by providing a permanent presence, the station should significantly increase the opportunities for conducting research in space. Economic productivity is, in part, a function of technical innovation. A major thrust of the station design effort is devoted to enhancing performance through advanced technology. The space station represents the commitment of the United States to a future in space. Perhaps most importantly, as recovery from the loss of Challenger and its crew continues, the space station symbolizes the national determination to remain undeterred by tragedy and to continue exploring the frontiers of space.

Martin, Franklin D.; Finn, Terence T.

1987-01-01

261

Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

Rose, M. Frank

1992-01-01

262

Astrodynamics problems of the Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary views of the IAF Astrodynamics Committee on the astrodynamics problems related to the Space Station concept are presented. A brief description of the Space Station system and of its original features is given. Some astrodynamics problems are considered in more detail, concerning attitude motion (modeling, attitude determination and control, and tether applications) and orbital motion (transfer, docking, navigation\\/positioning\\/guidance,

J.-P. Marec; P. Bainum; J. V. Breakwell; C. Marchal; V. J. Modi

1988-01-01

263

Space Station Proximity Operations and Window Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a...

R. F. Haines

1988-01-01

264

Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

Gersh, Mark

1990-01-01

265

STS-111 Onboard Photo of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Backdropped against the blackness of space is the International Space Station (ISS), as viewed from the approching Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission, in June 2002. Expedition Five replaced Expedition Four crew after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System that allows the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is necessary for future construction tasks; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm, and the task of unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

266

Space station wardroom habitability and equipment study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental designs in life-size mock-up form for the wardroom facility for the Space Station Habitability Module are explored and developed. In Phase 1, three preliminary concepts for the wardroom configuration are fabricated and evaluated. In Phase 2, the results of Phase 1 are combined with a specific range of program design requirements to provide the design criteria for the fabrication of an innovative medium-fidelity mock-up of a wardrobe configuration. The study also focuses on the design and preliminary prototyping of selected equipment items including crew exercise compartments, a meal/meeting table and a portable workstation. Design criteria and requirements are discussed and documented. Preliminary and final mock-ups and equipment prototypes are described and illustrated.

Nixon, David; Miller, Christopher; Fauquet, Regis

1989-01-01

267

SAMPIE Measurements of the Space Station Plasma Current Analyzed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In March of 1994, STS-62 carried the NASA Lewis Research Center's Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) into orbit, where it investigated the plasma current collected and the arcs from solar arrays and other space power materials immersed in the low-Earth-orbit space plasma. One of the important experiments conducted was the plasma current collected by a four-cell coupon sample of solar array cells for the international space station. The importance of this experiment dates back to the 1990 and 1991 meetings of the Space Station Electrical Grounding Tiger Team. The Tiger Team determined that unless the electrical potentials on the space station structure were actively controlled via a plasma contactor, the space station structure would arc into the plasma at a rate that would destroy the thermal properties of its surface coatings in only a few years of operation. The space station plasma contactor will control its potentials by emitting electrons into the surrounding low-Earth-orbit plasma at the same rate that they are collected by the solar arrays. Thus, the level at which the space station solar arrays can collect current is very important in verifying that the plasma contactor design can do its job.

1996-01-01

268

Advanced planar array development for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Advanced Planar Array Development for the Space Station contract are presented. The original objectives of the contract were: (1) to develop a process for manufacturing superstrate assemblies, (2) to demonstrate superstrate technology through fabrication and test, (3) to develop and analyze a preliminary solar array wing design, and (4) to fabricate a wing segment based on wing design. The primary tasks completed were designing test modules, fabricating, and testing them. LMSC performed three tasks which included thermal cycle testing for 2000 thermal cycles, thermal balance testing at the Boeing Environmental Test Lab in Kent, Washington, and acceptance testing a 15 ft x 50 in panel segment for 100 thermal cycles. The surperstrate modules performed well during both thermal cycle testing and thermal balance testing. The successful completion of these tests demonstrate the technical feasibility of a solar array power system utilizing superstrate technology. This final report describes the major elements of this contract including the manufacturing process used to fabricate modules, the tests performed, and the results and conclusions of the tests.

1987-01-01

269

Power beaming options for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on power beaming options for the space station are presented. Topics covered include: power plant locations; beamed power options (lasers or microwaves); space power system technology; planned TSS experiment; microwave transmission experiment for space shuttle cargo bay; and power transmission configuration from space shuttle to free-flying platform.

Glaser, Peter E.

1990-01-01

270

Visiting the International Space Station - my mission diary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle "Endeavour", with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed "Raffaello" logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US "Destiny" module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main task during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station.

Guidoni, U.

2001-08-01

271

The role of tethers on space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of research and development that addressed the usefulness of tether applications in space, particularly for space station are described. A well organized and structured effort of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry and academia have defined the engineering and technological requirements of space tethers and their broad range of economic and operational benefits. The work directed by seven NASA Field Centers is consolidated and structured to cover the general and specific roles of tethers in space as they apply to NASA's planned space station. This is followed by a description of tether systems and operations. A summary of NASA's plans for tether applications in space for years to come is given.

Vontiesenhausen, G. (editor)

1985-01-01

272

Electrical power system design for the US space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multipurpose, manned, permanent space station will be our next step toward utilization of space. A multikilowatt electrical power system will be critical to its success. The power systems for the space station manned core and platforms that have been selected in definition studies are described. The system selected for the platforms uses silicon arrays and Ni-H2 batteries. The power system for the manned core is a hybrid employing arrays and batteries identical to those on the platform along with solar dynamic modules using either Brayton or organic Rankine engines. The power system requirements, candidate technologies, and configurations that were considered, and the basis for selection, are discussed.

Nored, Donald L.; Bernatowicz, Daniel T.

1986-01-01

273

Knowledge-based machine vision systems for space station automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer vision techniques which have the potential for use on the space station and related applications are assessed. A knowledge-based vision system (expert vision system) and the development of a demonstration system for it are described. This system implements some of the capabilities that would be necessary in a machine vision system for the robot arm of the laboratory module in the space station. A Perceptics 9200e image processor, on a host VAXstation, was used to develop the demonstration system. In order to use realistic test images, photographs of actual space shuttle simulator panels were used. The system's capabilities of scene identification and scene matching are discussed.

Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

1989-01-01

274

Materials Science Standard Rack on Interntional Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line drawing depicts the location of one of three racks that will make up the Materials Science Research Facility in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Other positions will be occupied by a variety of racks supporting research in combustion, fluids, biotechnology, and human physiology, and racks to support lab and station opertions. The Materials Science Research Facility is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

1999-01-01

275

Integratable propulsion systems for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen/hydrogen propulsion system options for space station orbit maintenance and attitude control were developed and evaluated relative to monopropellant and storable bipropellant propulsion systems. Space station propulsion requirements were analyzed with reference to such considerations as station size, altitude, power, crew size, and orbit transfer vehicle and orbital maneuvering vehicle servicing requirements. The evolutionary growth of oxygen/hydrogen bipropellant propulsion as an integral part of several interrelated space station functions, e.g., life support, power, and thermal management was considered. Propellant resupply evolves from resupply based on transport of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to water. The advantages of the operation of the space station based on an oxygen/hydrogen economy are presented and discussed.

Rosenberg, S. D.; Judd, D. C.; Garrison, P. W.

1985-01-01

276

Space station structures and dynamics test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses challenges for development and implementation of technology. One specific challenge is the development of a dynamics test program for defining the space station design requirements, and identifying and characterizing phenomena affecting the space station's design and development. The test proposal, as outlined, is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station (SS). Development of a parametric data base and verification of the mathematical models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The four test phases planned are discussed: testing of SS applicable structural concepts; testing of SS prototypes; testing of actual SS structural hardware; and on-orbit testing of SS construction.

Bugg, Frank M.; Ivey, E. W.; Moore, C. J.; Townsend, John S.

1987-01-01

277

Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

2012-01-01

278

Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

2012-01-01

279

Autonomy issues for an operational space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the last decade, both the U.S. and the Soviet space programs have taken significant preliminary steps in developing technology and systems which are appropriate for the establishment of space stations. The degree of autonomy which will be provided for the station and the role of the crew represents one of the most critical considerations. The present investigation is concerned with a review of the major autonomy issues associated with a permanent, low earth orbit, operational space station. It is shown that both operational effectiveness and crew safety issues require a relatively high degree of space station autonomy. The autonomy level should, for instance, be higher than that of the present space shuttle. Attention is given to various levels of spacecraft autonomy, system integrity, attitude determination and control, navigation and orbit maintenance, system maintenance and resupply, mission support, and implementation of autonomy.

Daly, K. C.; Cox, K. J.

1983-01-01

280

Space station structures and dynamics test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses unique challenges for development and implementation of new technology. The technology arises from the special requirement that the station be built and constructed to function in a weightless environment, where static loads are minimal and secondary to system dynamics and control problems. One specific challenge confronting NASA is the development of a dynamics test program for: (1) defining space station design requirements, and (2) identifying the characterizing phenomena affecting the station's design and development. A general definition of the space station dynamic test program, as proposed by MSFC, forms the subject of this report. The test proposal is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station. The test program will help to define the key issues and/or problems inherent to large space structure analysis, design, and testing. Development of a parametric data base and verification of the math models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The philosophy is to integrate dynamics into the design phase through extensive ground testing and analytical ground simulations of generic systems, prototype elements, and subassemblies. On-orbit testing of the station will also be used to define its capability.

Moore, Carleton J.; Townsend, John S.; Ivey, Edward W.

1987-01-01

281

Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

1991-01-01

282

Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is a high resolution and wide dynamic range dual sensor-based accelerometry instrumentation system to be installed within the International Space Station's (ISS) US Laboratory Module. The MAMS instrument will provide highly accurate acceleration measurement data over the nano-g to milli-g range characterizing the Lab Module environment in the frequency spectrum from 10-4 Hz to

James E. Rice; James C. Fox; William G. Lange; Robert W. Dietrich; W. O. Wagar

1999-01-01

283

Robotic systems for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic systems will play a critical role in the on-orbit assembly, external maintenance and operations of the International Space Station. This paper reviews the mission and tasks to be performed by the external robotic devices on the Station and provides an overview of the design of the mobile servicing system for the Station. The mobile servicing system represents the state-of-the-art

M. F. Stieber; C. P. Trudel; D. G. Hunter

1997-01-01

284

An automated deep space communications station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an architecture being implemented for an autonomous Deep Space Tracking Station(DS-T). The architecture targets fully automated routine operations encompassing scheduling and resource allocation, antenna and receiver predict generation, track procedure generation from service requests, and closed loop control and error recovery for the station subsystems. This architecture is being validated by construction of a prototype DS-T station

Forest Fisher; Steve Chien; Leslie Paal; E. Law; N. Golshan; Mike Stockett

1998-01-01

285

Transporting the International Space Station Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 45-foot, port-side (P1) truss segment flight article for the International Space Station is being transported to the Redstone Airfield, Marshall Space Flight Center. The truss will be loaded aboard NASA's Super Guppy cargo plane for shipment to the Kennedy Space Center.

2000-01-01

286

Crew Tension during a Space Station Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two space simulation studies for the European Space Agency found that interpersonal tension increased in the beginning, around the middle, and toward the end of the confinement. This article reports data from a third study where this issue was further examined. Three subjects were confined in the MIR space station simulator in Moscow for 135 days. Communication analysis, peer rating,

Gro M. Sandal

2001-01-01

287

Station Robotics Testing at Johnson Space Center  

NASA Video Gallery

At the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfer orbital repla...

288

NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

289

OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

Cressy, Philip J.

1992-01-01

290

OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

Cressy, Philip J.

291

Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of

Alan C. Holt

1993-01-01

292

Robotics for Space Station, Tape 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shot on location at the Goddard Robotics Laboratory, this video uses state of the art Wavefront animation to take the viewer on a tour of the robotics that may, someday, be a part of Space Station Freedom.

1989-01-01

293

View of Hurricane Igor From Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Cameras mounted on the International Space Station captured new views of Hurricane Igor heading westward over the Atlantic Ocean the morning of Sept. 13. Igor was at Category 4 strength with maximu...

294

Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

Arno, Roger D.

1987-01-01

295

Assembly of user systems at Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical and programmatic benefits of on-orbit assembly are outlined. Operational and automation considerations relating to on-orbit assembly are reviewed. Space Station capabilities for orbital assembly are discussed.

Cline, Helmut P.; Lavigna, Thomas A.

1987-01-01

296

Space Station Live: EarthKAM  

NASA Video Gallery

Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan interviews Brion Au, EarthKAM Payload Developer. The NASA education program enables middle school students to take pictures of the Earth from the Internation...

297

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maintenance, that fact should be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems must also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment of a...

2013-10-01

298

International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required an...

L. Johnson M. Herrmann

1998-01-01

299

Historical Annotated Bibliography: Space Station Documents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is presented regarding documentation which has been produced in the Space Station program. This information will enable the researcher to locate readily documents pertinent to a particular study. It is designed to give the historian the necess...

J. E. Whalen S. L. Mckinley T. G. Gates

1988-01-01

300

Proximity operations in space station environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on proximity operations in space station environment are presented. Topics covered include: automated flight; remote manual piloting; task requirements and constraints; problem formulation; and flight parameter flow/pilot interaction for proximity operations task.

Rhodes, Brandt

1990-01-01

301

The space station: Human factors and productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factor researchers and engineers are making inputs into the early stages of the design of the Space Station to improve both the quality of life and work on-orbit. Effective integration of the human factors information related to various Intravehicular Activity (IVA), Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and teletobotics systems during the Space Station design will result in increased productivity, increased flexibility of the Space Stations systems, lower cost of operations, improved reliability, and increased safety for the crew onboard the Space Station. The major features of productivity examined include the cognitive and physical effort involved in work, the accuracy of worker output and ability to maintain performance at a high level of accuracy, the speed and temporal efficiency with which a worker performs, crewmember satisfaction with their work environment, and the relation between performance and cost.

Gillan, D. J.; Burns, M. J.; Nicodemus, C. L.; Smith, R. L.

1986-01-01

302

Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ...

D. C. Ferguson B. Gardner

2002-01-01

303

Alternative strategies for space station financing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attributes of the proposed space station program are oriented toward research activities and technologies which generate long term benefits for mankind. Unless such technologies are deemed of national interest and thus are government funded, they must stand on their own in the market place. Therefore, the objectives of a United States space station should be based on commercial criteria; otherwise, such a project attracts no long term funding. There is encouraging evidence that some potential space station activities should generate revenues from shuttle related projects within the decade. Materials processing concepts as well as remote sensing indicate substantial potential. Futhermore, the economics and thus the commercial feasibility of such projects will be improved by the operating efficiencies available with an ongoing space station program.

Walklet, D. C.; Heenan, A. T.

1983-01-01

304

Design knowledge capture for the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The benefits of design knowledge availability are identifiable and pervasive. The implementation of design knowledge capture and storage using current technology increases the probability for success, while providing for a degree of access compatibility with future applications. The space station design definition should be expanded to include design knowledge. Design knowledge should be captured. A critical timing relationship exists between the space station development program, and the implementation of this project.

Crouse, K. R.; Wechsler, D. B.

1987-01-01

305

Live from Space Station Learning Technologies Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Final Report for the Live From Space Station (LFSS) project under the Learning Technologies Project FY 2001 of the MSFC Education Programs Department. AZ Technology, Inc. (AZTek) has developed and implemented science education software tools to support tasks under the LTP program. Initial audience consisted of 26 TreK in the Classroom schools and thousands of museum visitors to the International Space Station: The Earth Tour exhibit sponsored by Discovery Place museum.

2001-01-01

306

Space station evolution: Planning for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for permanently manned presence in space has been recognized by the United States and its international partners for many years. The development of this capability was delayed due to the concurrent recognition that reusable earth-to-orbit transportation was also needed and should be developed first. While the decision to go ahead with a permanently manned Space Station was on hold, requirements for the use of the Station were accumulating as ground-based research and the data from unmanned spacecraft sparked the imagination of both scientists and entrepreneurs. Thus, by the time of the Space Station implementation decision in the early 1980's, a variety of disciplines, with a variety of requirements, needed to be accommodated on one Space Station. Additional future requirements could be forecast for advanced missions that were still in the early planning stages. The logical response was the development of a multi-purpose Space Station with the ability to evolve on-orbit to new capabilities as required by user needs and national or international decisions, i.e., to build an evolutionary Space Station. Planning for evolution is conducted in parallel with the design and development of the baseline Space Station. Evolution planning is a strategic management process to facilitate change and protect future decisions. The objective is not to forecast the future, but to understand the future options and the implications of these on today's decisions. The major actions required now are: (1) the incorporation of evolution provisions (hooks and scars) in the baseline Space Station; and (2) the initiation of an evolution advanced development program.

Diaz, Alphonso V.; Askins, Barbara S.

1987-01-01

307

Space Station Freedom natural environment design models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom program has established a series of natural environment models and databases for utilization in design and operations planning activities. The suite of models and databases that have either been selected from among internationally recognized standards or developed specifically for spacecraft design applications are presented. The models have been integrated with an orbit propagator and employed to compute environmental conditions for planned operations altitudes of Space Station Freedom.

Suggs, Robert M.

1993-01-01

308

Space station assembly/servicing capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim is to place a permanently manned space station on-orbit around the Earth, which is international in scope. The program is nearing the close of the system definition and preliminary design phase. The first shuttle launch for space station assembly on-orbit is estimated for January 1993. Topics perceived to be important to on-orbit assembly and servicing are discussed. This presentation is represented by charts.

Joyce, Joseph

1986-01-01

309

Remote sensing of water clouds temperature with an infrared camera on board the International Space Station in the frame of Japan Experiment Module-Extreme Universe Space Observatory mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) is an astronomical telescope that will be hosted by the Japan Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station. The telescope will determine ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray properties by measuring the UV fluorescence light generated in the interaction between the cosmic rays and the atmosphere. Therefore, cloud information is crucial for a proper interpretation of the data. To obtain the cloud top height, an infrared (IR) camera is being designed. The design is constrained by JEM-EUSO requirements, which have led to a bi-spectral camera option (10.8- and 12-?m bands). The bi-spectral design has allowed us to develop a split-window algorithm to correct the atmospheric effects and retrieve the cloud temperature from the brightness temperatures (BTs) in the bands aforementioned. The algorithm has been validated in synthetic scenarios at pixel level. The results show that the algorithm is able to retrieve the temperature with accuracy much better than the requirement of 3K. It has also been tested in two-dimensional scenarios by applying it to moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of BTs in bands 31 similar to those of the IR camera. The retrieved temperatures are in a very good agreement with the temperatures given by MODIS.

Briz, Susana; de Castro, Antonio J.; Fernández-Gómez, Isabel; Rodríguez, Irene; López, Fernando

2014-01-01

310

Microdisturbances on the International Space Station during dynamic operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of analysis of microdisturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) at performing various dynamic operations are presented. Docking of transfer manned and cargo vehicles Progress and Soyuz to various docking modules of the ISS, docking of the Space Shuttle Discovery, the ISS orbit correction and, also, disturbances at "EVA" (Extra Vehicular Activity) operations during astronauts working on the external ISS surface are considered. The results of measuring microaccelerations by sensors of both Russian and American segments are analyzed.

Belyaev, M. Yu.; Volkov, O. N.; Ryabukha, S. B.

2013-07-01

311

Space Station resupply using expendable launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usefulness of the use of ELVs, including those of other nations, to supplement the Space Shuttle in resupplying the NASA Space Station is evaluated. Two reference ELV resupply missions are analyzed: the first uses a space-based transfer vehicle, such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, for berthing and deberthing; the second relies on an active transfer vehicle to deliver the logistics element directly to the Space Station. An account is given of the program-management implications of the proposed use of ELVs.

Kempinski, Robert; Teague, Donald

312

Gravitational biology on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

1983-01-01

313

Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

Ruggeri, Robert T.

1987-01-01

314

Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

Speth, Randall C.

1998-01-01

315

Predictive momentum management for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station control moment gyro momentum management is addressed by posing a deterministic optimization problem with a performance index that includes station external torque loading, gyro control torque demand, and excursions from desired reference attitudes. It is shown that a simple analytic desired attitude solution exists for all axes with pitch prescription decoupled, but roll and yaw coupled. Continuous gyro desaturation is shown to fit neatly into the scheme. Example results for pitch axis control of the NASA power tower Space Station are shown based on predictive attitude prescription. Control effector loading is shown to be reduced by this method when compared to more conventional momentum management techniques.

Hatis, P. D.

1986-01-01

316

Coping with data from Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume of data from future NASA space missions will be phenomenal. Here, we examine the expected data flow from the Space Station Freedom and describe techniques that are being developed to transport and process that data. Networking in space, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data systems (CCSDS), NASA institutional ground support, communications system architecture, and principal data types and formats are discussed.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1991-01-01

317

Space Campers Speak With Station Science Communication Coordinator  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, International Space Station Science Communication Coordinator Liz Warren participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with ...

318

Strategic planning for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

Griner, Carolyn S.

1990-01-01

319

International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multiband optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument. This analysis supported the preliminary studies to determine feasibility of utilizing the International Space Station as an observing platform for a SHORE type of instrument. Rigorous analyses will be performed if a SHORE flight program is initiated. The analysis begins with the discussion of the coordinate systems involved and then conversion from the target coordinate system to the instrument coordinate system. Next the geometry of remote observations from the Space Station is investigated including the effects of the instrument location in Space Station and the effects of the line of sight to the target. The disturbance and error environment on Space Station is discussed covering factors contributing to drift and jitter, accuracy of pointing data and target and instrument accuracies.

Jacobson, Craig A.

2007-01-01

320

Disturbance and vibration isolation in space stations by means of mechanical decoupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A decoupling approach to disturbance and vibration isolation in large space stations composed of modules interconnected by flexible members is proposed. A simplified mathematical model for the motion of the space station core and a laboratory module with both torsional vibration and translational motion decouplers is used in this study. The dynamic behavior of the model in the presence of decoupler friction is analyzed. Estimates for the maximum excursions of the laboratory module induced by various types of external disturbance are derived. The paper concludes with a simulation study involving the hard-docking of a space shuttle with a space station.

Wang, P. K. C.

1987-01-01

321

Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

1999-01-01

322

International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

Showstack, Randy

323

Microgravity Environment on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primary feature of the International Space Station will be its microgravity environment--an environment in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. Various types of data are gathered when science experiments are conducted. The acceleration levels experienced during experiment operation should be factored into the analysis of the results of most microgravity experiments. To this end, the Space Acceleration Measurement System records the acceleration levels to support microgravity researchers for nearly three years of International Space Station operations. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project assists the experiments principal investigators with their analysis of the acceleration (microgravity) environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project provides cataloged data, periodic analysis summary reports, specialized reports for experiment teams, and real-time data in a variety of user-defined formats. Characterization of the various microgravity carriers (e.g., Shuttle and International Space Station) is also accomplished for the experiment teams. Presented in this paper will be a short description of how microgravity disturbances may affect some experiment classes, a snapshot of the microgravity environment, and a view into how well the space station is expected to meet the user requirements.

DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin

2004-01-01

324

Space Station Live: Seedling Growth  

NASA Video Gallery

Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Carol Jacobs, payload operations director at the Marshall Space Flight Center's POIC, about the Seedling Growth experiment talking place aboard the Inte...

325

Impact of restructuring on Space Station Freedom assembly sequence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom program and the process used to develop an assembly sequence are overviewed, with special attention given to the outcome of the recent restructuring activity and the positive impact it had on the Space Station design and the assembly sequence. The many technically complex and challenging aspects of the assembly sequence planning are examined, including the launch vehicle integration, the spacecraft systems capability development, and the availability of resources. It is shown that the restructuring reduced the size and the complexity of the Space Station, while the increase of ground integration through the use of preintegrated truss and shortened modules offers a reduced program risk and reduced demands on the STS.

Chung, Steven Y.; Wanagas, John D.; Wright, Stephen

1992-01-01

326

International Space Station Increment Operations Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Industrial Operator (IO) has defined End-to-End services to perform efficiently all required operations tasks for the Manned Space Program (MSP) as agreed during the Ministerial Council in Edinburgh in November 2001. Those services are the result of a detailed task analysis based on the operations processes as derived from the Space Station Program Implementation Plans (SPIP) and defined in

Horst Michaelis; Christian Sielaff

2002-01-01

327

Military space station implications. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Justifying the relevancy of a Manned Military Space Station (MMSS) and subsequently proposing its deployment to capitalize upon the United States' national security interests is the essence and purpose of this group study project. The MMSS is intended to perform a two-fold purpose: (1) facilitate military peacetime operations while simultaneously supporting and promoting civilian space initiatives; and, (2) act as

G. D. Bourne; G. D. Skirvin; G. R. Wilson

1987-01-01

328

Space Station Engineering and Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolving space station program will be examined through a series of more specific studies: maintainability; research and technology in space; solar thermodynamics research and technology; program performance; onboard command and control; and research and technology road maps. The purpose is to provide comments on approaches to long-term, reliable operation at low cost in terms of funds and crew time.

1985-01-01

329

Space station 'Skylab' - The harvest begins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial difficulties connected with the damage suffered by the space station during the launching operation and approaches for overcoming these difficulties are discussed along with the results obtained by the astronauts in their investigations. Attention is given to biomedical results, new solar discoveries, observations of the earth, materials research, and the new products obtained as a result of space processing.

Von Puttkamer, J.

1974-01-01

330

International Space Station Power System Model Validated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) is a computer model of the International Space Station's (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This uniquely integrated, detailed model can predict EPS capability, assess EPS performance during a given mission with a specified load demand, conduct what-if studies, and support on-orbit anomaly resolution.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Delleur, Ann M.

2002-01-01

331

Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

Santy, Patricia A.

1990-01-01

332

Space Station RT and E Utilization Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descriptive information on a set of 241 mission concepts was reviewed to establish preliminary Space Station outfitting needs for technology development missions. The missions studied covered the full range of in-space technology development activities envisioned for early Space Station operations and included both pressurized volume and attached payload requirements. Equipment needs were compared with outfitting plans for the life sciences and microgravity user communities, and a number of potential outfitting additions were identified. Outfitting implementation was addressed by selecting a strawman mission complement for each of seven technical themes, by organizing the missions into flight scenarios, and by assessing the associated outfitting buildup for planning impacts.

Wunsch, P. K.; Anderson, P. H.

1989-01-01

333

Artificial magnetic field for the space station (Protecting space stations in future space missions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Explanation Strong solar storms and cosmic rays make great disturbances for equip-ment outside the magnetosphere. Also these disturbances are so harmful for biological process of living cells. If one decides to stay more outside the Earth, one's healthy is in a great danger. To investigate space station situation against strong solar storms, 5 recent strong solar storms have been

Ahmadi Tara

2010-01-01

334

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

335

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

336

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

337

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000-pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

338

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 upon its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

339

International Space Station Sports a New Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000- pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

340

Comparative analyses of space-to-space central power stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technological and economical impact of a large central power station in Earth orbit on the performance and cost of future spacecraft and their orbital transfer systems are examined. It is shown that beaming power to remote users cannot be cost effective if the central power station uses the same power generation system that is readily available for provision of onboard power and microwave transmission and reception of power through space for use in space is not cost competitive with onboard power or propulsion systems. Laser and receivers are required to make central power stations feasible. Remote power transmission for propulsion of orbital transfer vehicles promises major cost benefits. Direct nuclear pumped or solar pumped laser power station concepts are attractive with laser thermal and laser electric propulsion systems. These power stations are also competitive, on a mass and cost basis, with a photovoltaic power station.

Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

1981-01-01

341

Chronology: Msfc Space Station Program, 1982 - Present. Major Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) maintains an active program to capture historical information and documentation on the MSFC's roles regarding Space Shuttle and Space Station. Marshall History Report 12, called Chronology: MSFC Space Station Progra...

J. E. Whalen S. L. Mckinley T. G. Gates

1988-01-01

342

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

2001-01-01

343

EXPRESS Rack Technology for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EXPRESS rack provides accommodations for standard Mid-deck Locker and ISIS drawer payloads on the International Space Station. A design overview of the basic EXPRESS rack and two derivatives, the Human Research Facility and the Habitat Holding Rack, is given in Part I. In Part II, the design of the Solid State Power Control Module (SSPCM) is reviewed. The SSPCM is a programmable and remotely controllable power switching and voltage conversion unit which distributes and protects up to 3kW of 12OVDC and 28VDC power to payloads and rack subsystem components. Part III details the development and testing of a new data storage device, the BRP EXPRESS Memory Unit (BEMU). The BEMU is a conduction-cooled device which operates on 28VDC and is based on Boeing-modified 9GB commercial disk-drive technology. In Part IV results of a preliminary design effort for a rack Passive Damping System (PDS) are reported. The PDS is intended to isolate ISPR-based experiment racks from on-orbit vibration. System performance predictions based on component developmental testing indicate that such a system can provide effective isolation at frequencies of 1 Hz and above.

Davis, Ted B.; Adams, J. Brian; Fisher, Edward M., Jr.; Prickett, Guy B.; Smith, Timothy G.

1999-01-01

344

Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a

Anatoly I. Grigoriev; Richard S. Williams; Jean-Marc Comtois; Volker Damann; Shoichi Tachibana; Arnauld E. Nicogossian; Valery V. Bogomolov; Sam L. Pool; Ashot E. Sargsyan; Oleg L. Knowingkov; Charles R. Doarn

2009-01-01

345

Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport\\/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior

Gale R. Sundberg

1990-01-01

346

Space Stations: Follow the Bouncing Ball!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners predict whether a ball on Earth or a ball on the Moon bounces higher when dropped and why. They simulate the experiment by dropping high- and regular-bounce balls from their shoulder height. Learners discover that in microgravity, a little energy goes a long way! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Byerly, Diane; Institute, Lunar A.

2006-01-01

347

Space station preliminary design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a 3 month preliminary design and analysis effort is presented. The configuration that emerged consists of a very stiff deployable truss structure with an overall triangular cross section having universal modules attached at the apexes. Sufficient analysis was performed to show feasibility of the configuration. An evaluation of the structure shows that desirable attributes of the configuration are: (1) the solar cells, radiators, and antennas will be mounted to stiff structure to minimize control problems during orbit maintenance and correction, docking, and attitude control; (2) large flat areas are available for mounting and servicing of equipment; (3) Large mass items can be mounted near the center of gravity of the system to minimize gravity gradient torques; (4) the trusses are lightweight structures and can be transported into orbit in one Shuttle flight; (5) the trusses are expandable and will require a minimum of EVA; and (6) the modules are anticipated to be structurally identical except for internal equipment to minimize cost.

1982-01-01

348

Tethered nuclear power for the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

Bents, D. J.

1985-01-01

349

The space station integrated refuse management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

Anderson, Loren A.

1988-01-01

350

Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

Bents, D. J.

1985-01-01

351

Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications systems design approach which is intended to satisfy the stringent link requirements. The operational scenario, system configuration, signal design, antenna system management, and link performance analysis are discussed in detail. It is shown that the return link can transmit up to 21.6 Mb/s and maintain at least a 3-dB link margin through proper power and antenna management control at a maximum distance of 37 km. It is suggested that the proposed system, which is compatible with the space station multiple-access system, can be a model for other space station interoperating elements or users to save the development cost and reduce the technical and schedule risks.

Arndt, D.; Novosad, S. W.; Tu, K.; Loh, Y. C.; Kuo, Y. S.

1988-01-01

352

Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

1989-01-01

353

The Space Station integrated refuse management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Central Florida's design of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station is addressed. Four integratable subsystems capable of handling an estimated Orbiter shortfall of nearly 40,000 lbs of refuse produced annually are discussed. The subsystems investigated were: (1) collection and transfer; (2) recycle and reuse; (3) advanced disposal; and (4) propulsion assist in disposal. Emphasis is placed on the recycling or reuse of those materials ultimately providing a source of Space Station refuse. Special consideration is given to various disposal methods capable of completely removing refuse from close proximity of the Space Station. There is evidence that pyrolysis is the optimal solution for disposal of refuse through employment of a Rocket Jettison Vehicle. Additionally, design considerations and specifications of the Refuse Management System are discussed. Optimal and alternate design solutions for each of the four subsystems are summarized. Finally, the system configuration is described and reviewed.

1988-01-01

354

Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications systems design approach which is intended to satisfy the stringent link requirements. The operational scenario, system configuration, signal design, antenna system management, and link performance analysis are discussed in detail. It is shown that the return link can transmit up to 21.6 Mb/s and maintain at least a 3-dB link margin through proper power and antenna management control at a maximum distance of 37 km. It is suggested that the proposed system, which is compatible with the space station multiple-access system, can be a model for other space station interoperating elements or users to save the development cost and reduce the technical and schedule risks.

Arndt, D.; Novosad, S. W.; Tu, K.; Loh, Y. C.; Kuo, Y. S.

355

Space Station Power System Advanced Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the Space Station Advanced Development Program are related to the development of a set of design options and/or new capabilities to support Space Station development and operation, taking into account also a quantification of the performance and risk of key state-of-the-art technologies, and a reduction of the cost and schedule risk in Space Station development. Attention is given to the photovoltaic power system, a solar dynamic system, and aspects of power management and distribution. A major issue will be the selection of the power generation system. In view of the advantages of the solar dynamic system, it is attempted to resolve issues associated with this system.

Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.; Valgora, M. E.

1985-01-01

356

New Crew Docks With Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The Soyuz TMA-22 spacecraft carrying NASA astronaut Dan Burbank and Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin docked to the International Space Stationâ??s Poisk mini-research modul...

357

Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

1990-01-01

358

Space Station thermal control system evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal control system (TCS) for the space station assembly complete configuration includes a two-phase central thermal bus with a supplemental body mounted radiator system. Evolution of the space station from a heat rejection capacity of 75 kW to 300 kW will require scars to expand the thermal fluid distribution network, equipment replacement to enable greater thermal transport capacity, and enlargement of the heat rejection subsystem for increased heat rejection. The TCS requirements for assembly completion and growth are presented along with a review of the basic structure of the active and passive thermal control systems which include provisions for growth.

Bullock, Richard L.

1990-01-01

359

Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

Smith, David A.

2004-01-01

360

Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

1987-01-01

361

Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

1989-01-01

362

Performance evaluation of advanced space suit concepts for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for an advanced space suit for Space Station EVA and the methods used to evaluate candidate suit concepts are examined. Two candidate Space Station suits, the AX-5 and the Mk. III, are described and illustrated. The methods to test these suits are discussed, including, tests at the NASA/Johnson Space Center Weightless Environment Training Facility, tests in the microgravity environment of the KC-135 aircraft, CO2 washout evaluations, component torque measurements, environmental hazards protection evaluations, and component cycle life verification.

Klaus, David M.; West, Philip R.

1989-01-01

363

Risk analysis of space transportation during the space station era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study addresses the operational risks of manned space transportation during the era of space station deployment along with alternative launch vehicle architectures to reduce the risks. Vehicle architectures considered included shuttle only, an additional unmanned launch vehicle, and a second manned/unmanned launch vehicle. Projections are made for the operational parameters and flight event probabilities. Using these projections and Space Station era mission models, the operability of alternative vehicle architectures are examined, and implications to future manned space program plans are summarized.

1989-01-01

364

Quantum optics experiments using the International Space Station: a proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose performing quantum optics experiments in a ground-to-space scenario using the International Space Station, which is equipped with a glass viewing window and a photographer's lens mounted on a motorized camera pod. A dedicated small add-on module with single-photon detection, time-tagging and classical communication capabilities would enable us to perform the first-ever quantum optics experiments in space. We present preliminary design concepts for the ground and flight segments and study the feasibility of the intended mission scenario.

Scheidl, T.; Wille, E.; Ursin, R.

2013-04-01

365

International Space Station Medical Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals and objectives of the ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) are to: 1) Maximize the utilization the ISS and other spaceflight platforms to assess the effects of longduration spaceflight on human systems; 2) Devise and verify strategies to ensure optimal crew performance; 3) Enable development and validation of a suite of integrated physical (e.g., exercise), pharmacologic and/or nutritional countermeasures against deleterious effects of space flight that may impact mission success or crew health. The ISSMP provides planning, integration, and implementation services for Human Research Program research tasks and evaluation activities requiring access to space or related flight resources on the ISS, Shuttle, Soyuz, Progress, or other spaceflight vehicles and platforms. This includes pre- and postflight activities; 2) ISSMP services include operations and sustaining engineering for HRP flight hardware; experiment integration and operation, including individual research tasks and on-orbit validation of next generation on-orbit equipment; medical operations; procedures development and validation; and crew training tools and processes, as well as operation and sustaining engineering for the Telescience Support Center; and 3) The ISSMP integrates the HRP approved flight activity complement and interfaces with external implementing organizations, such as the ISS Payloads Office and International Partners, to accomplish the HRP's objectives. This effort is led by JSC with Baseline Data Collection support from KSC.

Starkey, Blythe A.

2008-01-01

366

Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

1990-01-01

367

A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.

1985-01-01

368

Rendezvous missions: From ISS to lunar space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There was a lot of experience gained in the rendezvous of different vehicles in the LEO during the years of human space exploration. In the framework of the Apollo program when the astronauts landed on the surface of the Moon, the docking of the Lunar Module launched from the Moon?s surface to the Apollo Command Module was successfully implemented in the near-Moon orbit. Presently many space agencies are considering a return to the Moon. It is necessary to solve the new task of docking the vehicle launched from the Earth to the long-term near-Moon orbital station taking into account specific constraints. Based on the ISS experience the author proposes a number of ballistic rendezvous strategies that provide for docking to the near-Moon orbital station with minimum propellant consumption. The trade-off analysis of the given rendezvous strategies is presented.

Murtazin, Rafail

2014-08-01

369

Radiological assessment for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circumstances have made it necessary to reassess the risks to Space Station Freedom crewmembers that arise from exposure to the space radiation environment. An option is being considered to place it in an orbit similar to that of the Russian Mir space station. This means it would be in a 51.6 deg inclination orbit instead of the previously planned 28.5 deg inclination orbit. A broad range of altitudes is still being considered, although the baseline is a 407 km orbit. In addition, recent data from the Japanese A-bomb survivors has made it necessary for NASA to have the exposure limits reviewed. Preliminary findings of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements indicate that the limits must be significantly reduced. Finally, the Space Station will be a laboratory where effects of long-term zero gravity on human physiology will be studied in detail. It is possible that a few crewmembers will be assigned to as many as three 1-year missions. Thus, their accumulated exposure will exceed 1,000 days. Results of this radiation risk assessment for Space Station Freedom crewmembers finds that females less than 35 years old will be confined to mission assignments where the altitude is less than about 400 km. Slight restrictions may also need to be made for male crewmembers less than 35 years old.

Badhwar, Gautam D.; Hardy, Alva C.; Robbins, Donald E.; Atwell, William

1993-01-01

370

Berthing simulator for space station and orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a real-time man-in-the-loop berthing simulator is in progress at NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) to conduct a parametric study and to measure forces during contact conditions of the actual docking mechanisms for the Space Station Freedom and the orbiter. In berthing, the docking ports of the Space Station and the orbiter are brought together using the orbiter robotic arm to control the relative motion of the vehicles. The berthing simulator consists of a dynamics docking test system (DDTS), computer system, simulator software, and workstations. In the DDTS, the Space Station, and the orbiter docking mechanisms are mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) table and a fixed platform above the table. Six load cells are used on the fixed platform to measure forces during contact conditions of the docking mechanisms. Two Encore Concept 32/9780 computers are used to simulate the orbiter robotic arm and to operate the berthing simulator. A systematic procedure for a real-time dynamic initialization is being developed to synchronize the Space Station docking port trajectory with the 6 DOF table movement. The berthing test can be conducted manually or automatically and can be extended for any two orbiting vehicles using a simulated robotic arm. The real-time operation of the berthing simulator is briefly described.

Veerasamy, Sam

1991-01-01

371

Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

Willits, Charles

1990-01-01

372

Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

1987-01-01

373

Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth

1998-01-01

374

Trends in Space Station telemetry applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft telemetry systems have evolved from simple hardware devices to complex computer applications performing data acquisition and formatting tasks. This paper reviews the role of spacecraft computers in performing telemetry functions and examines computer-based telemetry systems being considered for use on the NASA Space Station.

Muratore, John F.

1987-01-01

375

Space Station Auxiliary Thrust Chamber Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to design, fabricate and test a 50 lb sub f (222 N) thruster was undertaken (Contract NAS 3-24656) to demonstrate the applicability of the reverse flow concept as an item of auxiliary propulsion for the space station. The thruster was to operate...

J. M. Senneff

1986-01-01

376

Space Station: Key to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

377

The assembly of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the International Space Station (ISS) program 15 months before the planned launch of the first element is discussed. The design and planning stages of the program are completed, and the flight hardware construction and launch preparation phases are underway. The assembly sequence is outlined and the schedule for the early utilization of the ISS is discussed.

Askew, R.

1996-01-01

378

Telemedicine for the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical care for the integrated crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will require close co-operation between the partner agencies in the areas of selection, medical surveillance, countermeasures, and handling of acute medical problems. Based on a commonly accepted policy of shared care and responsibilities medical guidelines, procedures, and standards for medical data and communication need to be harmonised

D. Wilke; D. Padeken; Th. Weber; R. Gerzer

1999-01-01

379

The International Space Station and Atmospheric Drag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze an altitude graph of the International Space Station to understand its rate of altitude loss as a result of atmospheric drag and solar activity. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

380

Hygiene Water Recovery Aboard the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The system for hygiene water recovery, which is currently in operation aboard the orbital Space Station Mir, is considered. The system receives untreated hygiene water as a water/air mixture from the handwash and shower facilities, separates the mixture p...

N. M. Samsonov N. S. Farafonov L. K. Abramov S. S. Bocharov N. N. Protasov

1991-01-01

381

Microgravity Particle Research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

Squyres, Steven W. (editor); Mckay, Christopher P. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor)

1987-01-01

382

Motion of a space station. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this first part of the work we develop the equations of motion of a triaxial space station in orbit around the oblate Earth. A first order solution of the problem is presented and the method of complete integration of the system is outlined up to second order of approximation. The zero order part of the Hamiltonian includes both the

G. E. O. Giacaglia; W. H. Jefferys

1971-01-01

383

Adaptive control for the space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an adaptive control algorithm along with the proposed inner-loop plant augmentation for controlling the space station under severe conditions of shuttle docking, mass and inertia change, and model truncation. Simulation results with a simplified model show that the controller is robust and the plant dynamics closely follows that of the reference model. Reasonable results have been observed

C. Che-Hang; Shyh Jong Wang; Cornelius T. Leondes

1987-01-01

384

Robust controllers for space station momentum management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of controllers for space station attitude control and momentum management is described. Fundamental control performance tradeoffs between stabilization, attitude regulation, and momentum magnitudes are explored using H-infinity optimization. The resulting controllers stabilize the unstable gravity gradient torques, keep attitudes and momentums due to aero disturbance torques small, and are robust to uncertainties in the moments of inertia of

Michael R. Elgersma; Gunter Stein; Michael R. Jackson; John Yeichner

1992-01-01

385

Reliability models for Space Station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a methodology for the reliability evaluation of Space Station power system. The two options considered are the photovoltaic system and the solar dynamic system. Reliability models for both of these options are described along with the methodology for calculating the reliability indices.

Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kim, Y.; Wagner, H.

1987-01-01

386

HDTV From the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph representation presents an overview of development of an improved high definition television system (HDTV) for the International Space Station (ISS). Topics covered include: current ISS video system, experience with HD camcorders on-orbit, live HD on-orbit requirements, ISS HDTV downlink, HD downlink test and future plans

Grubbs, Rodney

2003-01-01

387

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: December 3, 2012,...

2012-11-01

388

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: August 28, 2012,...

2012-07-12

389

Performance Requirements Analysis for Payload Delivery from a Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operations conducted from a space station in low Earth orbit which have different constraints and opportunities than those conducted from direct Earth launch were examined. While a space station relieves many size and performance constraints on the space ...

A. L. Friedlander J. K. Soldner J. Bell G. W. Ricks R. E. Kincade

1983-01-01

390

Trajectory Planning Scheme for Spacecraft in the Space Station Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simulated annealing is used to solve a minimum fuel trajectory problem in the space station environment. The environment is special because the space station will define a multivehicle environment in space. The optimization surface is a complex nonlinear ...

J. A. Soller, A. J. Grunwald, S. R. Ellis

1991-01-01

391

SOAR 89: Space Station. Space suit test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elements of the test program for the space suit to be used on Space Station Freedom are noted in viewgraph form. Information is given on evaluation objectives, zero gravity evaluation, mobility evaluation, extravehicular activity task evaluation, and shoulder joint evaluation.

Kosmo, Joseph J.; West, Philip; Rouen, Michael

1990-01-01

392

Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

Wade, Donald C. (inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (inventor); Schliesing, John A. (inventor)

1995-01-01

393

Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important aspect of planning for Space Station Freedom at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the placement of the viewing windows and cameras for optimum crewmember use. Researchers and analysts are evaluating the placement options using a three-dimensional graphics program called PLAID. This program, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), is being used to determine the extent to which the viewing requirements for assembly and operations are being met. A variety of window placement options in specific modules are assessed for accessibility. In addition, window and camera placements are analyzed to insure that viewing areas are not obstructed by the truss assemblies, externally-mounted payloads, or any other station element. Other factors being examined include anthropometric design considerations, workstation interfaces, structural issues, and mechanical elements.

Goldsberry, B. S.; Lippert, B. O.; McKee, S. D.; Lewis, J. L.; Mount, F. E.

394

Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important aspect of planning for Space Station Freedom at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the placement of the viewing windows and cameras for optimum crewmember use. Researchers and analysts are evaluating the placement options using a three-dimensional graphics program called PLAID. This program, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), is being used to determine the extent to which the viewing requirements for assembly and operations are being met. A variety of window placement options in specific modules are assessed for accessibility. In addition, window and camera placements are analyzed to insure that viewing areas are not obstructed by the truss assemblies, externally-mounted payloads, or any other station element. Other factors being examined include anthropometric design considerations, workstation interfaces, structural issues, and mechanical elements.

Goldsberry, B. S.; Lippert, B. O.; Mckee, S. D.; Lewis, J. L., Jr.; Mount, F. E.

1989-01-01

395

Performance requirements analysis for payload delivery from a space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operations conducted from a space station in low Earth orbit which have different constraints and opportunities than those conducted from direct Earth launch were examined. While a space station relieves many size and performance constraints on the space shuttle, the space station's inertial orbit has different launch window constraints from those associated with customary Earth launches which reflect upon upper stage capability. A performance requirements analysis was developed to provide a reference source of parametric data, and specific case solutions and upper stage sizing trade to assist potential space station users and space station and upper stage developers assess the impacts of a space station on missions of interest.

Friedlander, A. L.; Soldner, J. K.; Bell, J. (editor); Ricks, G. W.; Kincade, R. E.; Deatkins, D.; Reynolds, R.; Nader, B. A.; Hill, O.; Babb, G. R.

1983-01-01

396

Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences program: to ensure the health, safety, and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental knowledge of biological processes. Space-based research has already shown that people and plants respond the same way to the microgravity environment: they lose structure. However, the mechanisms by which they respond are different, and researchers do not yet know much about these mechanisms. Life science research accommodations on Freedom will include facilities for experiments designed to address this and other questions, in fields such as gravitational biology, space physiology, and biomedical monitoring and countermeasures research.

Phillips, Robert W.

1992-01-01

397

Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the infrastructure needed to catalyze this biotechnology revolution that could eventually lead to production of medical and pharmaceutical products in space. The biotechnology program discussed herein is evidence of this collaborative effort, with industry involvement from Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc., government participation through the NASA Commercial Space program, and academic guidance from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Blending the strengths and resources of each collaborator creates a strong partnership, that offers enormous research and commercial opportunities.

Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Hardin, Juanita R.; Lewis, Marian L.

1998-01-01

398

Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

2005-01-01

399

Future international cooperation on space stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of the next thirty years, extensive international cooperation in space may become the norm rather than the exception. The benefits from the mutual application and exchange of assets and knowledge may enable the development of projects that no nation could afford alone. Cooperation on technical projects may also yield political benefits such as alliance building, although potentially at a cost of making the program hostage to the vagaries of international politics. Successful past cooperative projects include the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, Spacelab and Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. The ongoing Space Station Freedom program is offering the first sustained long term opportunity for international cooperation in space. In addition to enabling potential advances in science and technology development, the station may serve as the stepping stone for future international efforts in areas such as planetary exploration. Any significant future increase in international cooperation would likely need to include both the United States and the Soviet Union. Such cooperation could offer many unique possibilities, including interactions between the Freedom and Mir. Indeed the success of future manned exploration missions may well depend on how well space-faring nations learn to cooperate with each other. International involvement in technical programs always creates an additional element of complexity regarding the technical requirements and resource management of a project. However, the experience of international cooperation to date tells us that there can be significant gains, both tangible and symbolic, from international participation.

Bartoe, John-David

400

Space Station Freedom electrical performance model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

1993-01-01

401

Animal research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for in-depth, long- and short-term animal experimentation in space to qualify man for long-duration space missions, and to study the effects of the absence and presence of Earth's gravity and of heavy particle radiation on the development and functioning of vertebrates is described. The major facilities required for these investigations and to be installed on the Space Station are: modular habitats for holding rodents and small primates in full bioisolation; a habitat holding facility; 1.8 and 4.0 m dia centrifuges; a multipurpose workbench; and a cage cleaner/disposal system. The design concepts, functions, and characteristics of these facilities are described.

Bonting, S. L.; Arno, R. D.; Corbin, S. D.

1987-01-01

402

Technology development on evolutionary space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered are presented in view graph form and include a space research and technology (R&T) mission statement and a NASA action plan. With respect to an integrated technology plan for the civil space program, the following topics are also covered: (1) an R&T strategy; (2) a NASA technology maturation strategy; (3) an Office of Space Flight (OSF) technology requirements evaluation; (4) an external technology perspectives summary; (5) a work breakdown structure; (6) critical user requirements/ strategic plan element categorization; (7) technology flight experiments; (8) proposed station paylods by thrust; and (9) an integrated traffic model

Ambrus, Judith H.

1991-01-01

403

Biological research on a Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Station can provide reliable, long duration access to ug environments for basic and applied biological research. The uniqueness of access to near-weightless environments to probe fundamental questions of significance to gravitational and Space biologists can be exploited from many vantage points. Access to centrifuge facilities that can provide 1 g and hypo-g controls will permit identification of gravity-dependent or primary effects. Understanding secondary effects of the ug environment as well will allow a fuller exploitation of the Space environment.

Krikorian, A. D.; Johnson, Catherine C.

1990-01-01

404

Space station freedom life sciences activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life sciences activities being planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) as of Fall 1992 are discussed. Planning for these activities is ongoing. Therefore, this description should be viewed as indicative of the prevailing ideas at one particular time in the SSF development cycle. The proposed contributions of the Canadian Space Agency (CSN) the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and the United States are all discussed in detail. In each case, the life sciences goals, and the way in which each partner proposes to achieve their goals, are reviewed.

Taylor, G. R.

1994-01-01

405

Life In Space: An Introduction To Space Life Sciences And The International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the space environment upon living organisms is profound. Its effects range from alterations in sub-cellular processes to changes in the structure and function of whole organ systems. As the number of astronaut and cosmonaut crews flown in space has grown, so to has our understanding of the effects of the space environment upon biological systems. There are many parallels between the physiology of space flight and terrestrial disease processes, and the response of astronaut crews themselves to long-duration space deployment is therefore of central interest. In the next 15 years the International Space Station (ISS) will serve as a permanently manned dedicated life and physical sciences platform for the further investigation of these phenomena. The European Space Agency's Columbus module will hold the bulk of the ISS life science capability and, in combination with NASA's Human Research Facility (HRF) will accommodate the rack mounted experimental apparatus. The programme of experimentation will include efforts in fundamental biology, human physiology, behavioural science and space biomedical research. In the four decades since Yuri Gagarin first orbited the Earth, space life science has emerged as a field of study in its own right. The ISS takes us into the next era of human space exploration, and it is hoped that its programme of research will yield new insights, novel therapeutic interventions, and improved biotechnology for terrestrial application.

Fong, Kevin

2001-11-01

406

The role of the Space Station in the further exploration of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for space-science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) are reviewed, with a focus on biological and medical research with implications for manned missions to the moon and planets (in a scenario culminating in the establishment of a space colony by about the year 2018). Both applied biomedical research (determining the limits of human endurance in space and developing CELSS technology to extend them) and basic research (on the physiological response of plants and animals to the space environment) are discussed, and particular attention is given to the design and deployment schedule for the ISS biomedical hardware modules (Life Sciences Module, Centrifuge Module, and Variable-Gravity Research Facility). Also included are diagrams; drawings; photographs; and tables listing the individual experiments, their objectives, and the hardware required.

Bonting, S. L.

1989-01-01

407

Space station propulsion technology: Space station propulsion system test bed test plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of the hydrogen/oxygen Space Station Propulsion System will demonstrate the technology readiness for the IOC application. To facilitate early demonstration of this technology and to allow demonstration of maturing technology, this testing will be performed with the components installed on a test bed which simulated the Space Station Structure. The test plan contains a description of the test bed, test objective, instrumentation plan, and controls plan. Each of these is discussed in detail.

Briley, G. L.

1986-01-01

408

Space Station Engineering and Technology Development: Proceedings of the Panel on In-Space Engineering Research and Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1984 the ad hoc committee on Space Station Engineering and Technology Development of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) conducted a review of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space station program planning. The review addressed the initial operating configuration (IOC) of the station. The ASEB has reconstituted the ad hoc committee which then established panels to address each specific related subject. The participants of the panels come from the committee, industry, and universities. The proceedings of the Panel on In Space Engineering Research and Technology Development are presented in this report. Activities, and plans for identifying and developing R&T programs to be conducted by the space station and related in space support needs including module requirements are addressed. Consideration is given to use of the station for R&T for other government agencies, universities, and industry.

1985-01-01

409

Application of robotic mechanisms to simulation of the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the European COLUMBUS Module is to be attached to the International Space Station. On the way to the successful planning, deployment and operation of the module, computer generated and animated models are being used to optimize performance. Under contract of the German Space Agency DLR, it has become IRF's task to provide a Projective Virtual Reality System to

E. Freund; J. Rossmann; C. Turner

2003-01-01

410

Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

1985-03-01

411

Space Station Freedom growth power requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Options and scenarios for the evolution of Space Station Freedom beyond the current baseline have been established and analyzed at NASA Langley Research Center to identify growth requirements for the program's Preliminary Requirements Review (PRR). Time-phase requirements for electrical power and other critical resources were determined based upon the future needs of the science, technology and commercial users. In addition, impacts and resource growth were determined for the utilization of station as a transportation node in support of human exploration initiatives to the moon and/or Mars. The set of requirements chosen for the PRR were selected on the basis of their adequacy in accommodating each of the evolution options and scenarios within each option, thereby maximizing future flexibility. In the case of electrical power, growth to 275 kW (average) was determined to be adequate for evolutionary missions and station housekeeping growth, given projections of future earth-to-orbit transportation capabilities.

Meredith, B. D.; Ahlf, P. R.; Saucillo, R. J.

1990-01-01

412

Space Station Freedom. A Foothold on the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the planning of the space station program. Sections included are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "A New Era Begins" (discussing scientific experiments on the space station); (3) "Living in Space"; (4) "Dreams Fulfilled" (summarizing the history of the space station development, including the skylab and shuttle); (5) "Building a Way…

David, Leonard

413

Space station dynamics, attitude control and momentum management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Attitude Control System software test-bed provides a rigorous environment for the design, development and functional verification of GN and C algorithms and software. The approach taken for the simulation of the vehicle dynamics and environmental models using a computationally efficient algorithm is discussed. The simulation includes capabilities for docking/berthing dynamics, prescribed motion dynamics associated with the Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) and microgravity disturbances. The vehicle dynamics module interfaces with the test-bed through the central Communicator facility which is in turn driven by the Station Control Simulator (SCS) Executive. The Communicator addresses issues such as the interface between the discrete flight software and the continuous vehicle dynamics, and multi-programming aspects such as the complex flow of control in real-time programs. Combined with the flight software and redundancy management modules, the facility provides a flexible, user-oriented simulation platform.

Sunkel, John W.; Singh, Ramen P.; Vengopal, Ravi

1989-01-01

414

Evaluation of Space Station Meteoroid/Debris Shielding Materials, Supplement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheets are included. They were converted from Lotus version 2.1 to version 1A, which is more common and can also be read by all subsequent versions. MS-DOS V.3.10 was used to format the diskette. Additional information can be attained by contacting: Eric L. Christiansen, Eagle Engineering, (713)338-2682. 1) IMPACT.WKS Analytical model described in Section 4.2 and Appendix A. 2) HUGONIOT.WKS Calculates peak shock pressure as described in Appendix C. 3) FIGOFMER.WKS Empirical model described in Section 4.1 and Appendix B. 4) DEB_VDIS.WKS Contains orbital debris velocity distribution for typical Space Station orbit. Calculates the fraction of debris below the velocity causing aluminum projectiles to melt as described in Section 3.3. 5) MOD_CRIT.WKS Determines the critical orbital debris and meteoroid size that a Space Station hab or lab module should be designed to protect against based on a 0.9955 probability of no penetration as described in Section 3.3. 6) SSMOD_CE.WKS Determines the number and maximum size of perforations expected in an aluminum bumper of a Space Station common module over its orbital lifetime as discussed in Section 3.3.

1987-01-01

415

Payload Planning for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the evolution of the International Space Station (ISS) was performed for the purpose of understanding the project objectives. It was requested than an analysis of the current Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) Partnership Utilization Plan (PUP) traffic model be completed to monitor the process through which the scientific experiments called payloads are manifested for flight to the ISS. A viewing analysis of the ISS was also proposed to identify the capability to observe the United States Laboratory (US LAB) during the assembly sequence. Observations of the Drop-Tower experiment and nondestructive testing procedures were also performed to maximize the intern's technical experience. Contributions were made to the meeting in which the 1996 OSAT or Code X PUP traffic model was generated using the software tool, Filemaker Pro. The current OSAT traffic model satisfies the requirement for manifesting and delivering the proposed payloads to station. The current viewing capability of station provides the ability to view the US LAB during station assembly sequence. The Drop Tower experiment successfully simulates the effect of microgravity and conveniently documents the results for later use. The non-destructive test proved effective in determining stress in various components tested.

Johnson, Tameka J.

1995-01-01

416

Robotic mobile servicing platform for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The semi-autonomous inspection and servicing of the Space Station's major thermal, electrical, mechanical subsystems are critical needs for the safe and reliable operation of the station. A conceptual design is presented of a self-intelligent, small and highly mobile robotic platform. Equipped with suitable inspection sensors (cameras, ammonia detectors, etc.), this system's primary mission is to perform routine, autonomous inspection of the Station's primary subsystems. Typical tasks include detection of leaks from thermal fluid or refueling lines, as well as detection of micro-meteroid damage to the primary structure. Equipped with stereo cameras and a dexterous manipulator, simple teleoperator repairs and small On-orbit Replacement Unit (ORU) changeout can also be accomplished. More difficult robotic repairs would be left to the larger, more sophisticated Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS). An ancillary function is to ferry crew members and equipment around the station. The primary design objectives were to provide a flexible, but uncomplicated robotic platform, one which caused minimal impact to the design of the Station's primary structure but could accept more advanced telerobotic technology as it evolves.

Lowenthal, S. H.; Vanerden, L.

1987-01-01

417

STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

2001-01-01

418

Electrical breakdown of Space Station Freedom surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be the largest and highest power spacecraft that the U.S. has put into orbit. The solar array will generate 160 volts nominal when in sunlight, and the present baseline design is for the negative end of the solar array to be tied to SSF structure. Due to the balance of leakage currents through the plasma, the structure will be driven approximately 140 volts negative of the ambient conductive ionospheric plasma. Surface materials such as anodized aluminum will have this voltage drop across a thin dielectric which may not have sufficient dielectric strength to prevent dielectric breakdown. This can lead to arcing on the exterior surfaces of Space Station.

Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Bechtel, R. T.; Gray, P. A.

1992-01-01

419

Space Station Freedom integrated fault model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demonstration of an integrated fault propagation model for Space Station Freedom is described. The demonstration uses a HyperCard graphical interface to show how failures can propagate from one component to another, both within a system and between systems. It also shows how hardware failures can impact certain defined functions like reboost, atmosphere maintenance or collision avoidance. The demonstration enables the user to view block diagrams for the various space station systems using an overview screen, and interactively choose a component and see what single or dual failure combinations can cause it to fail. It also allows the user to directly view the fault model, which is a collection of drawing and text listings accessible from a guide screen. Fault modeling provides a useful technique for analyzing individual systems and also interactions between systems in the presence of multiple failures so that a complete picture of failure tolerance and component criticality can be achieved.

Becker, Fred J.

1989-01-01

420

Space station attached payload program support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The USRA is providing management and technical support for the peer review of the Space Station Freedom Attached Payload proposals. USRA is arranging for consultants to evaluate proposals, arranging meeting facilities for the reviewers to meet in Huntsville, Alabama and management of the actual review meetings. Assistance in developing an Experiment Requirements Data Base and Engineering/Technical Assessment support for the MSFC Technical Evaluation Team is also being provided. The results of the project will be coordinated into a consistent set of reviews and reports by USRA. The strengths and weaknesses analysis provided by the peer panel reviewers will by used NASA personnel in the selection of experiments for implementation on the Space Station Freedom.

Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Brown, Bardle D.

1989-01-01

421

Hypervelocity impact damage assessment for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To inhibit damage and limit the probability of penetration of the Space Station pressure wall by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, a shield placed away from the wall is used to form a double wall. To determine shield effectiveness and assess impact damage, existing test data were reviewed and additional testing was performed for Space Station double wall designs. Empirical spallation and penetration functions derived from the data show that shield thickness and impact angle affect the damage to the wall. Thick shields reduce wall damage for low angle impacts but increase damage for oblique impacts. Multilayer insulation between the shield and wall reduces impact damage to the wall. A relationship between impact velocity and spall damage to the wall is demonstrated. Preliminary test results on Li-Al shield material indicate possible improved effectiveness over Al shields.

Coronado, Alex R.; Gibbins, Martin N.; Stern, Paul H.

1988-01-01

422

Exobiology research on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) is a multidisciplinary experiment laboratory being developed by NASA at Ames Research Center for delivery to Space Station Freedom in 1998. This facility will employ the low-gravity environment of the Space Station to enable aerosol experiments of much longer duration than is possible in any ground-based laboratory. Studies of fractal aggregates that are impossible to sustain on Earth will also be enabled. Three research areas within exobiology that will benefit from the GGSF are described here. An analysis of the needs of this research and of other suggested experiments has produced a list of science requirements which the facility design must accommodate. A GGSF design concept developed in the first stage of flight hardware development to meet these requirements is also described.

Huntington, J. L.; Stratton, D. M.; Scattergood, T. W.

1995-01-01

423

Space assembly interruptability with applications to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of assembling large structures in space creates the possibility of construction interruptions. The unscheduled interruption of the assembly process may require abandoning the Station and returning to Earth. This interruption may be due to: crew illness/injury, Shuttle Orbiter mechanical failure, Orbiter or Station pressure loss, space debris damage, etc. If not handled properly these interruptions may jeopardize crew safety, Orbiter operations and the recoverability of the structure being assembled. The problem of space assembly interruptability was first addressed in January 1989 by astronaut Vance Brand (NASA-JSC) to Dr. George Morgenthaler at the University of Colorado - Boulder, at which time an Interruptability Team was organized at the University to study the problem of Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability. The approach which is being undertaken at the University of Colorado is to create a methodology capable of analyzing generic structures. This is being accomplished by developing a software tool, DYCA, to plan assembly sequences, and will be used in conjunction with INTERPRO, the INTERrupatbility PROgram, to analyze the Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability problem. Using an automated networking approach with some human interaction, the most favorable near-term safing plus options will be calculated in the event of an interruption. PERT network techniques are employed to analyze which of these near-term improvements provide the optimal long-term response, as far as impact on the time and cost of the overall project are concerned.

Wade, James W.

1990-01-01

424

[Comment on “Space station?”] Not now  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the shuttle development started, its acceptance was greatly supported by the promise of a $100/kg transport fare. From 1985, this has risen to $ll,000/kg (and never dropped since), which gives an interesting clue to the reliability of cost estimates for the Space Station. It is very likely that the Challenger disaster will cause another price jump due to increase safety requirements and may lift the price per transported kilogram beyond perhaps $20,000/kg.

Keppler, Erhard

425

Space Station Freedom contamination requirements and predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom (SSF) requirements for the induced external gaseous and particulate environment have been defined. They include the Assembly Complete (AC) and the Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) phases which were established since the original configuration was developed. Requirements for both SSF configurations are discussed. Preliminary assessments of the impacts on SSF design and operation indicate that these requirements are both realistic and acceptable to the users with attached payloads.

Ehlers, Horst K. F.

1990-01-01

426

MAX: A space station computer option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on Max, a space station computer option, is given in viewgraph form. The computer option is characterized by embedded, real-time applications; synchronous, cyclic operation and asynchronous, event driven operation; computationally intensive and data intensive processing; a wide range of throughput and memory requirements; a range of fault tolerant requirements from none to full; and maintainability, including capability for on-line substitution in critical systems.

Smith, D. B.; Rasmussen, R. D.

1985-01-01

427

Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

1989-01-01

428

Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

1990-01-01

429

Artificial magnetic field for the space station (Protecting space stations in future space missions)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem Explanation Strong solar storms and cosmic rays make great disturbances for equip-ment outside the magnetosphere. Also these disturbances are so harmful for biological process of living cells. If one decides to stay more outside the Earth, one's healthy is in a great danger. To investigate space station situation against strong solar storms, 5 recent strong solar storms have been selected. Dst of these storms are more than -300 nT. Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i.e. these fields always are anti-aligned because artificial field could change direction by itself basic on the situation of Sun. Relationship between artificial field and solar storm has two types: 1) Artifi-cial field loads up to solar storm's magnetic field and makes magnetic reconnection 2) artificial field repulses energetic solar particles. These below equations show situation of artificial field against magnetic reconnection with magnetic field of solar storm and repulsing particles. Basic on the volume of repulsed particles the strength of field could be: Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i

Ahmadi Tara, Miss

430

Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Summary of technical reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics, and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. In order to accommodate the furnace modules with the resources required to operate, SSFF developed a design that meets the needs of the wide range of furnaces that are planned for the SSFF. The system design is divided into subsystems which provide the functions of interfacing to the SSF services, conditioning and control for furnace module use, providing the controlled services to the furnace modules, and interfacing to and acquiring data from the furnace modules. The subsystems, described in detail, are as follows: Power Conditioning and Distribution Subsystem; Data Management Subsystem; Software; Gas Distribution Subsystem; Thermal Control Subsystem; and Mechanical Structures Subsystem.

1992-01-01

431

International Space Station Materials: Selected Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) program is of such complexity and scale that there have been numerous issues addressed regarding safety of materials: from design to manufacturing, test, launch, assembly on-orbit, and operations. A selection of lessons learned from the ISS materials perspective will be provided. Topics of discussion are: flammability evaluation of materials with connection to on-orbit operations; toxicity findings for foams; compatibility testing for materials in fluid systems; and contamination control in precision clean systems and critical space vehicle surfaces.

Golden, Johnny L.

2007-01-01

432

Human Factors and the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

Peacock, Brian; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Novak, Jennifer; Rathjen, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Maida, James; Woolford, Barbara

2001-01-01

433

Space station orbit design using dynamic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A space station orbit design mission is characterized by a long-duration and multi-step decision process. First, the long-duration design process is divided into multiple planning periods, each of which consists of five basic flight segments. Second, each planning period is modeled as a multi-step decision process, and the orbital altitude strategies of different flight segments have interaction effects on each other. Third, a dynamic programming method is used to optimize the total propellant consumption of a planning period while considering interaction effects. The step cost of each decision segment is the propellant for orbital-decay maintenance or lifting altitude, and is calculated by approximate analytical equations and combining a shooting iteration method. The proposed approach is demonstrated for a typical orbit design problem of a space station. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively optimize the design of altitude strategies, and can save considerable propellant consumption for the space station than previous public studies.

Lin, Kun-Peng; Luo, Ya-Zhong; Tang, Guo-Jin

2013-08-01

434

Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System architecture - Centralized versus distributed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both Centralized and Distributed approaches are being evaluated for the installation of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) equipment in the Space Station. In the Centralized facility concept, integrated processing equipment is located in two modules with plumbing used to circulate ECLS services throughout the Station. The Distributed approach locates the ECLS subsystems in every module of the Space Station with each subsystem designed to meet its own module needs. This paper defines the two approaches and how the advantages and disadvantages of each are tied to the choice of Space Station architecture. Other considerations and evaluations include: crew movement, Station evolution and the ducting impact needed to circulate ECLS services from centrally located processing equipment.

Boehm, A. M.; Behrend, A. F.

1984-01-01

435

Space Station Freedom Gateway to the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

1992-01-01

436

Planning for Space Station Freedom laboratory payload integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom is being developed to support extensive missions involving microgravity research and applications. Requirements for on-orbit payload integration and the simultaneous payload integration of multiple mission increments will provide the stimulus to develop new streamlined integration procedures in order to take advantage of the increased capabilities offered by Freedom. The United States Laboratory and its user accommodations are described. The process of integrating users' experiments and equipment into the United States Laboratory and the Pressurized Logistics Modules is described. This process includes the strategic and tactical phases of Space Station utilization planning. The support that the Work Package 01 Utilization office will provide to the users and hardware developers, in the form of Experiment Integration Engineers, early accommodation assessments, and physical integration of experiment equipment, is described. Plans for integrated payload analytical integration are also described.

Willenberg, Harvey J.; Torre, Larry P.

1989-01-01

437

SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

438

Predicting Microgravity Levels for Space Station Using VAPEPS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: a vibroacoustic payload environment prediction system (VAPEPS); objectives of the JPL space station analysis effort; statistical energy analysis (SEA); VAPEPS Space Station Freedom (SSF) model descri...

G. Badilla T. Bergen D. Kern T. Scharton

1992-01-01

439

Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station – overview and comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the

T. Berger; M. Hajek; L. Summerer; N. Vana; Y. Akatov; V. Shurshakov; V. Arkhangelsky

2004-01-01

440

[Reply to “Space Station?” by L. H. Meredith] Space Station? We need two  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First, the point must be made that this nation desperately needs a space station if it is to maintain any legitimate claim to being a spacefaring nation. Unfortunately, the type space station that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will ultimately put up will probably not be the one best suited to our needs, and it most definitely will not be the most cost-effective one. I disagree with L. H. Meredith's assertion (statement letter in Eos, September 29, 1987) that there is no role in the space station for microgravity research and manufacturing. However, he hit the nail on the head by saying that its main justification would be in providing “a required step toward the manned exploration of the Solar System.”

Farrand, William

441

Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage shell and an outer shell receiving the inner shell and spaced about it. The novelty appears to lie in the integration of thermally efficient cryogenic storage techniques with phase change materials, including the multilayer metalized surface thin plastic film insulation and the vacuum between the shells. Additionally the fiberglass constructed shells having fiberglass honeycomb portions, and the lining of the space between the shells with foil combine to form a storage container which may keep food and biological samples at very low temperatures for very long periods of time utilizing a passive system.

Dean, William G (inventor); Owen, James W. (inventor)

1988-01-01

442

Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom.  

PubMed

The scheduling of crew rotations for up to 180 days on Space Station Freedom presents a special challenge for behavioral scientists who are tasked with providing psychological support for the crews, their families, and mission flight controllers. Preflight psychological support planning may minimize the negative impact of psychological and social issues on mission success, as well as assist NASA management in making real-time mission planning decisions in the event of a significant social event (for example, the death of a family member). During flight, the combined psychological, emotional, and social stressors on the astronauts must be monitored, along with other aspects of their health. The Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will have the capability of providing preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems which may develop. Psychological support will not end with the termination of the mission. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel whose job will be to facilitate the transition--physical and mental--from the space environment back to planet Earth. This paper reviews each phase of mission planning for Space Station Freedom and specifies those factors that may be critical for psychological health maintenance on extended-duration space missions. PMID:11537620

Santy, P A

1990-01-01

443

Space Station Freedom - A resource for aerospace education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals