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Sample records for space station module

  1. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  2. Space Station Photovoltaic power modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Silicon cell Photovoltaic (PV) power modules are key components of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) scheduled to begin deployment in 1994. Four PV power modules, providing 75 KWe of user ac power, form the cornerstone of the EPS; which is comprised of Photovoltaic (PV) power modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) power modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system. The PV modules are located on rotating outboard sections of the Space Station (SS) structure and each module incorporates its own nickel-hydrogen energy storage batteries, its own thermal control system, and some autonomous control features. The PV modules are a cost-effective and technologically mature approach for providing reliable SS electrical power and are a solid base for EPS growth, which is expected to reach 300 KWe by the end of the Space Station's 30-year design lifetime.

  3. Trash-Disposal Module For Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissinger, David B.

    1989-01-01

    Report presents basic engineering concepts of trash-disposal module for Space Station. Module conserves valuable cargo volume and reduces both launching and returning weights of Space Shuttle or other spacecraft carrying materials to and from Space Station. Module relatively cheap and simple to operate.

  4. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  5. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic modules structural modelling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, C.; Morris, R.

    1991-12-01

    In support of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Solar Dynamic Power Module effort, structural design studies were performed to investigate issues related to the design of the power module, its pointing capabilities, and the integration of the module into the SSF infrastructure. Of particular concern from a structural viewpoint are the dynamics of the power module, the impact of the power module on the Space Station dynamics and controls, and the required control effort for obtaining the specified Solar Dynamic Power Module pointing accuracy. Structural analyses were performed to determine the structural dynamics attributes of both the existing and the proposed structural dynamics module designs. The objectives of these analyses were to generate validated Solar Dynamic Power Module NASTRAN finite element models, combine Space Station and power module models into integrated system models, perform finite element modal analyses to assess the effect of the relocations of the power module center of mass, and provide modal data to controls designers for control systems design.

  6. Automation of Space Station module power management and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, Robert; Weeks, Dave; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on automation of space station module (SSM) power management and distribution (PMAD) system are presented. Topics covered include: reasons for power system automation; SSM/PMAD approach to automation; SSM/PMAD test bed; SSM/PMAD topology; functional partitioning; SSM/PMAD control; rack level autonomy; FRAMES AI system; and future technology needs for power system automation.

  7. Automated power management within a Space Station module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, William D.; Jones, Ellen F.

    1988-01-01

    An effort to advance and develop techniques and approaches for automation and autonomy in power management and distribution with a Space Station module is described. The applicable breadboard architecture is discussed, summarizing the function partitioning. The breadboard software is briefly addressed, and the breadboard automated operation is described in detail.

  8. The International Space Station Interim Control Module EPS

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.E.

    1998-07-01

    Under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is building a backup propulsion module, the Interim Control Module (ICM), for the International Space Station (ISS). The ICM will be used to reboost the ISS periodically to make up for orbit degradation caused by atmospheric drag. The ICM Electrical Power System (EPS) is similar the Clementine EPS with additional features to make it highly fault tolerant. The vehicle has 16 body mounted solar arrays populated with single junction, Gallium Arsenide solar cells and two 23 cell, 34 ampere-hour nickel cadmium batteries directly connected to a single power bus.

  9. Conceptual Design of the Space Station Fluids Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Dennis W.; Morilak, Daniel P.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Peterson, Todd T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Fluids Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations in the US Laboratory Module of the ISSA. The SS FCF will support a multitude of fluids and combustion science investigations over the lifetime of the ISSA and return state-of-the-art science data in a timely and efficient manner to the scientific communities. This will be accomplished through modularization of hardware, with planned, periodic upgrades; modularization of like scientific investigations that make use of common facility functions; and use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) for incorporation of new technology and new functionality. Portions of the SS FCF are scheduled to become operational on-orbit in 1999. The Fluids Module is presently scheduled for launch to orbit and integration with the Fluids/Combustion Facility in 2001. The objectives of this paper are to describe the history of the Fluids Module concept, the types of fluids science investigations which will be accommodated by the module, the hardware design heritage, the hardware concept, and the hardware breadboarding efforts currently underway.

  10. Conceptual design of the Space Station combustion module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morilak, Daniel P.; Rohn, Dennis W.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Combustion Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations in the US Laboratory Module of the ISSA. The SS FCF will support a multitude of fluids and combustion science investigations over the lifetime of the ISSA and return state-of-the-art science data in a timely and efficient manner to the scientific communities. This will be accomplished through modularization of hardware, with planned, periodic upgrades; modularization of like scientific investigations that make use of common facility functions; and through the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) for incorporation of new technology and new functionality. The SS FCF is scheduled to become operational on-orbit in 1999. The Combustion Module is presently scheduled for launch to orbit and integration with the Fluids/Combustion Facility in 1999. The objectives of this paper are to describe the history of the Combustion Module concept, the types of combustion science investigations which will be accommodated by the module, the hardware design heritage, the hardware concept, and the hardware breadboarding efforts currently underway.

  11. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 6: Space Station Freedom/spacelab modules compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The differences in rack requirements for Spacelab, the Shuttle Orbiter, and the United States (U.S.) laboratory module, European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module, and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of Space Station Freedom are identified. The feasibility of designing standardized mechanical, structural, electrical, data, video, thermal, and fluid interfaces to allow space flight hardware designed for use in the U.S. laboratory module to be used in other locations is assessed.

  12. Space station automation of common module power management and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W.; Jones, E.; Ashworth, B.; Riedesel, J.; Myers, C.; Freeman, K.; Steele, D.; Palmer, R.; Walsh, R.; Gohring, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to automate a breadboard level Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system which possesses many functional characteristics of a specified Space Station power system. The automation system was built upon 20 kHz ac source with redundancy of the power buses. There are two power distribution control units which furnish power to six load centers which in turn enable load circuits based upon a system generated schedule. The progress in building this specified autonomous system is described. Automation of Space Station Module PMAD was accomplished by segmenting the complete task in the following four independent tasks: (1) develop a detailed approach for PMAD automation; (2) define the software and hardware elements of automation; (3) develop the automation system for the PMAD breadboard; and (4) select an appropriate host processing environment.

  13. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  14. Mini-pressurized logistics module for space station freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondolo, Dino; Rutter, Joseph G.

    The Italian Government, acting through Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, has selected Alenia Spazio to develop a small logistics module, the Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM). This module is to be the only carrier for pressurized cargo during the Man Tended Phase of Space Station Freedom. Once permanent manned capability is achieved, the MPLM will continue to be used to supplement the capability of the other Freedom logistics elements. This paper describes the development of MPLM requirements. Design implementation is discussed including the structure, the subsystems, the major trade studies and the operational strategy for use of the module. Unique aspects of the program such as the management structure, hardware commonality, accommodation of national priorities, verification and integration and support of the hardware are presented. Due to late authorization of this program, schedule has become a prime program driver. Methods to accommodate and meet these requirements are discussed. Boeing, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Work Package One contractor, has been designated by Marshall Space Flight Center to serve as NASA's representative in providing requirements for MPLM design and oversight of its development and utilization. This unique management arrangement has been implemented and is working effectively.

  15. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

    1994-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

  16. Space station common module network topology and hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  17. Space Station module Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    This project consists of several tasks which are unified toward experimentally demonstrating the operation of a highly autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) habitation/laboratory modules. This goal will be extended to a demonstration of autonomous, cooperative power system operation for the whole SSF power system through a joint effort with NASA's Lewis Research Center, using their Autonomous Power System. Short term goals for the space station module power management and distribution include having an operational breadboard reflecting current plans for SSF, improving performance of the system communications, and improving the organization and mutability of the artificial intelligence (AI) systems. In the middle term, intermediate levels of autonomy will be added, user interfaces will be modified, and enhanced modeling capabilities will be integrated in the system. Long term goals involve conversion of all software into Ada, vigorous verification and validation efforts and, finally, seeing an impact of this research on the operation of SSF. Conversion of the system to a DC Star configuration is now in progress, and should be completed by the end of October, 1989. This configuration reflects the latest SSF module architecture. Hardware is now being procured which will improve system communications significantly. The Knowledge-Based Management System (KBMS) is initially developed and the rules from FRAMES have been implemented in the KBMS. Rules in the other two AI systems are also being grouped modularly, making them more tractable, and easier to eventually move into the KBMS. Adding an intermediate level of autonomy will require development of a planning utility, which will also be built using the KBMS. These changes will require having the user interface for the whole system available from one interface. An Enhanced Model will be developed, which will allow exercise of the system through the interface without requiring all of the power hardware to be operational. The functionality of the AI systems will continue to be advanced, including incipient failure detection. Ada conversion will begin with the lowest level processor (LLP) code. Then selected pieces of the higher level functionality will be recorded in Ada and, where possible, moved to the LLP level. Validation and verification will be done on the Ada code, and will complete sometimes after completion of the Ada conversion.

  18. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; Bozioney, Christopher M.; Brinkman, John Michael; Chestney, Louis S.; Czernec, Richard P.; Dial, William B.; Dombrosky, Deena M.; Eustace, John G.; Reid, Ryan James; Reinke, Sharon A.; Rogers, Christopher R.; Samrani, Joseph T.; Shumway, Steven Scott; Smith, Teresa Ann; Stroh, James R.; Storck, Jennifer L.; Werner, Christopher Raymond; Wilkinson, Myron A.; Zoldak, John T.; Grant, Nechelle M.; Loucks, Brian C.; Plastow, Richard A.; Pestak, Mark W.; Fletcher, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  19. Photovoltaic module start-up for the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hajela, G.P.; Hague, L.M.

    1996-12-31

    The International Space Station (ISS) US On-Orbit Segment Electric Power System (EPS) uses four photovoltaic modules (PVMs). Each PVM consists of solar array wings (SAW) for converting solar flux to electric power, nickel-hydrogen batteries for electric energy storage, electronic boxes for electric voltage control and power switching, and a thermal control system (TCS) for maintaining selected PVM components within their normal operating temperature ranges. Each PVM consists of two independent power channels, which are started sequentially. The start-up consists of deploying the SAW and photovoltaic radiator (PVR), initialization and check out of all hardware, thermally conditioning batteries, and charging batteries. After start-up, each PVM power channel is able to generate, store, and distribute electric power to ISS loads. Electric power to support start-up of the first PVM is provided by the NSTS via two auxiliary power converter units (APCUs), one per channel. During sunlit periods, the SAW provides power for the battery heaters (for thermal conditioning, as needed) and battery charging. During eclipse periods, the APCU maintains the channel in a standby mode. After start-up is complete, the APCU is disconnected and the PVM operates independently. The process used to start-up the first PVM on the ISS is described in this paper. Procedures used to bring dormant batteries to their normal operating temperature range and then to charge them to 100% state of charge (SOC) are also described. Total time required to complete start-up and the APCU power required during start-up are computed and compared to the requirements.

  20. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  1. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  2. Space modules of Phobos-Grunt complex for prospective interplanetary stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishchuk, G. M.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Efanov, V. V.; Martynov, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    Standardized modules are considered, such as the main propulsion system, space platform, and reusable spacecraft, that were developed within the scope of the Phobos-Grunt project. It is proposed that long-term interplanetary stations for fundamental space research should be created based on these modules. A description is given of the alleged scientific space projects for the medium term.

  3. Automation of the space station core module power management and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Under the Advanced Development Program for Space Station, Marshall Space Flight Center has been developing advanced automation applications for the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system inside the Space Station modules for the past three years. The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) test bed features three artificial intelligence (AI) systems coupled with conventional automation software functioning in an autonomous or closed-loop fashion. The AI systems in the test bed include a baseline scheduler/dynamic rescheduler (LES), a load shedding management system (LPLMS), and a fault recovery and management expert system (FRAMES). This test bed will be part of the NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration for 1990 featuring cooperating expert systems in various Space Station subsystem test beds. It is concluded that advanced automation technology involving AI approaches is sufficiently mature to begin applying the technology to current and planned spacecraft applications including the Space Station.

  4. Node 2 and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named 'Kibo' (Hope). Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  5. Work continues on Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), work continues on the U.S. Lab module, Destiny, which is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the International Space Station. Destiny shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The SRTM is targeted for launch on mission STS-99 in September 1999. Leonardo is scheduled to launch on mission STS- 102 in June 2000.

  6. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  7. U.S. Laboratory Module (Destiny) for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center, being readied for shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  8. U.S. Laboratory Module (Destiny) for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), under construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two end cones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  9. U.S. Laboratory Module (Destiny) for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS) is shown under construction in the West High Bay of the Space Station manufacturing facility (building 4708) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  10. International Space Station Alpha's bearing, motor, and roll ring module developmental testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, David L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the design and developmental testing associated with the bearing, motor, and roll ring module (BMRRM) used for the beta rotation axis on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The BMRRM with its controllers located in the electronic control unit (ECU), provides for the solar array pointing and tracking functions as well as power and signal transfer across a rotating interface.

  11. Crew considerations in the design for Space Station Freedom modules on-orbit maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Jack W.; Williams, Katherine A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents an approach to the maintenance process currently planned for the Space Station Freedom modules. In particular, it describes the planned crew interfaces with maintenance items, and the anticipated implications for the crew in performing the interior and exterior maintenance of modules developed by U.S., ESA, and NASDA. Special consideration is given to the maintenance requirements, allocations, and approach; the maintenance design; the Maintenance Workstation; the robotic mechanisms; and the developemnt of maintenance techniques.

  12. Space Station Freedom electric power system photovoltaic power module integrated launch package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathanson, Theodore H.; Clemens, Donald D.; Spatz, Raymond R.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the Space Station Freedom solar power module requires a weight efficient structure that will include large components within the limited load capacity of the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The design iterations to meet these requirements have evolved from a proposal concept featuring a separate cradle and integrated equipment assembly (IEA), to a package that interfaces directly with the Shuttle. Size, weight, and cost have been reduced as a result.

  13. Automation in the Space Station module power management and distribution Breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan; Lollar, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) Breadboard, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, models the power distribution within a Space Station Freedom Habitation or Laboratory module. Originally designed for 20 kHz ac power, the system is now being converted to high voltage dc power with power levels on a par with those expected for a space station module. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level process consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear, capable of quickly safing the system. The next level consists of local load center processors called Lowest Level Processors (LLP's). These LLP's execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. The level above the LLP's contains a Communication and Algorithmic Controller (CAC) which coordinates communications with the highest level. Finally, at this highest level, three cooperating Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems manage load prioritization, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. The system provides an excellent venue for developing and examining advanced automation techniques. The current system and the plans for its future are examined.

  14. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  15. Review of the environmental effects of the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is provided of the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO), the interaction of this environment with the Photovoltaic (PV) Power system of the Space Station Freedom is reviewed, and the environmental programs are described that are designed to investigate the interactions of the LEO environment with the photovoltaic power system. Such programs will support and impact the design of the subsystems of the PV module in order to survive the design lifetime in the LEO natural and induced environment.

  16. The International Space Station's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Thermal Performance of the First Five Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Cho, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Logistics Module is the primary carrier for transport of pressurized payload to the International Space Station. Performing five missions within a thirteen month span provided a unique opportunity to gather a great deal of information toward understanding and verifying the orbital performance of the vehicle. This paper will provide a brief overview of the hardware history and design capabilities followed by a summary of the missions flown, resource requirements and possibilities for the future.

  17. International Space Station Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  18. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  19. Control-structure interaction study for the Space Station solar dynamic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, J.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.; Kim, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the feasibility of using a conventional PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) controller design to perform the pointing and tracking functions for the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power module. Using this simple controller design, the control/structure interaction effects were also studied without assuming frequency bandwidth separation. From the results, the feasibility of a simple solar dynamic control solution with a reduced-order model, which satisfies the basic system pointing and stability requirements, is suggested. However, the conventional control design approach is shown to be very much influenced by the order of reduction of the plant model, i.e., the number of the retained elastic modes from the full-order model. This suggests that, for complex large space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic, the conventional control system design methods may not be adequate.

  20. Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The geometric form of a space station is presented that includes a description of a plurality of modules and berthing hubs, joined by interconnections which are sideways connectable. The modules and hubs are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports and a clamp latch formed from a plurality of sections hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports. A hermetic seal is formed between the ports. A utilities connection channel extends between the ports. The channel has a shell with utilities connectors movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

  1. Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space station (20) includes a plurality of modules (24) and berthing hubs (22), joined by interconnections (26) which are sideways connectable. The modules (24) and hubs (22) are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections (26) include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports (50) and a clamp latch (52) formed from a plurality of sections (54, 56 and 58) hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports (50). A hermetic seal (63) is formed between the ports (50). A utilities connection channel (68) extends between the ports (50). The channel (68) has a shell (70) with utilities connectors (74) movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules (24) and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

  2. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  3. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  4. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  5. A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, C.

    Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

  6. International Space Station exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  7. View of the Skylab 1 space station cluster from the Skylab 2 Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A close-up view of the Skylab 1 space station cluster can be seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 2 Command Module during its 'fly around' inspection of the cluster. This view has been enhanced. At left center the damaged solar array system wing on the Orbital Workshop (OWS) appears to be partly folded. In their preliminary inspection the crewmen noted that portions of the micrometeoroid shield had slid back underneath the OWS solar wing. Solar panels on the Apollo Telescope Mount extend out at the top center.

  8. Space station common module power system network topology and hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate power system newtork topologies for the space station common module are defined and developed and the necessary hardware for test and evaluation is provided. Martin Marietta's approach to performing the proposed program is presented. Performance of the tasks described will assure systematic development and evaluation of program results, and will provide the necessary management tools, visibility, and control techniques for performance assessment. The plan is submitted in accordance with the data requirements given and includes a comprehensive task logic flow diagram, time phased manpower requirements, a program milestone schedule, and detailed descriptions of each program task.

  9. The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution automation test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Module Power Management And Distribution (SSM/PMAD) automation test bed project was begun at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the mid-1980s to develop an autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution test bed simulating the Space Station Freedom Hab/Lab modules. As the test bed has matured, many new technologies and projects have been added. The author focuses on three primary areas. The first area is the overall accomplishments of the test bed itself. These include a much-improved user interface, a more efficient expert system scheduler, improved communication among the three expert systems, and initial work on adding intermediate levels of autonomy. The second area is the addition of a more realistic power source to the SSM/PMAD test bed; this project is called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS). The third area is the completion of a virtual link between the SSM/PMAD test bed at MSFC and the Autonomous Power Expert at Lewis Research Center.

  10. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  11. Space Station structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  12. Space Station structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-04-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  13. Space Station planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of NASA Space Station planning activities is given. Among the specific topics addressed are: the role of private contractors in the construction and operation of Space Station; international cooperation in planning Space Station configurations; and optimum management strategies for Space Station planning activities. The division of work packages for the preliminary design definition phase of the Space Station program is described.

  14. Augmentation of the space station module power management and distribution breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan; Hall, David K.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1991-01-01

    The space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard models power distribution and management, including scheduling, load prioritization, and a fault detection, identification, and recovery (FDIR) system within a Space Station Freedom habitation or laboratory module. This 120 VDC system is capable of distributing up to 30 kW of power among more than 25 loads. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear that is capable of quickly safing the system. At the next level are local load center processors, (LLP's) which execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. Above the LLP's are three cooperating artificial intelligence (AI) systems which manage load prioritizations, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. Recent upgrades to hardware and modifications to software at both the LLP and AI system levels promise a drastic increase in speed, a significant increase in functionality and reliability, and potential for further examination of advanced automation techniques. The background, SSM/PMAD, interface to the Lewis Research Center test bed, the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system, and future plans are discussed.

  15. Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the Russian Mir Space Station was photographed by a crewmember of the STS-74 mission when the Orbiter Atlantis was approaching the Mir Space Station. STS-74 was the second Space Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The Docking Module was delivered and installed, making it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with Mir. The Orbiter Atlantis delivered water, supplies, and equipment, including two new solar arrays to upgrade the Mir, and returned to Earth with experiment samples, equipment for repair and analysis, and products manufactured on the Station. Mir was constructed in orbit by cornecting different modules, seperately launched from 1986 to 1996, providing a large and livable scientific laboratory in space. The 100-ton Mir was as big as six school buses and commonly housed three crewmembers. Mir was continuously occupied, except for two short periods, and hosted international scientists and American astronauts until August 1999. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific ocean . STS-74 was launched on November 12, 1995, and landed at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995.

  16. A computer program for an analysis of the relative motion of a space station and a free flying experiment module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relative motion of a free flying experiment module in the vicinity of a space station under the perturbative effects of drag and earth oblateness was made. A listing of a computer program developed for determining the relative motion of a module utilizing the Cowell procedure is presented, as well as instructions for its use.

  17. Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This fish-eye view of the Russian Mir Space Station was photographed by a crewmember of the STS-74 mission after the separation. The image shows the installed Docking Module at bottom. The Docking Module was delivered and installed, making it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with Mir. The Orbiter Atlantis delivered water, supplies, and equipment, including two new solar arrays to upgrade the Mir; and returned to Earth with experiment samples, equipment for repair and analysis, and products manufactured on the Station. Mir was constructed in orbit by cornecting different modules, each launched separately from 1986 to 1996, providing a large and livable scientific laboratory in space. The 100-ton Mir was as big as six school buses and commonly housed three crewmembers. Mir was continuously occupied, except for two short periods, and hosted international scientists and American astronauts until August 1999. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific ocean. STS-74 was the second Space Shuttle/Mir docking mission launched on November 12, 1995, and landed at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995.

  18. Space station contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

  19. Optimal control study for the Space Station Solar Dynamic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, P. M.; Laub, A. J.; Kenney, C. S.; Pandey, P.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the design of an optimal control system for the Space Station Freedom's Solar Dynamic Fine Pointing and Tracking (SDFPT) module. A very large state model of six rigid body modes and 272 flexible modes is used in conjunction with classical LQG optimal control to produce a full-order controller which satisfies the requirements. The results obtained are compared with those of a classically designed PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) controller that was implemented for a six-rigid-body-mode forty-flexible-mode model. A major difficulty with designing LQG controllers for large models is solving the Riccati equation that arises from the optimal formulation. A Riccati solver based on a Pade approximation to the matrix sign function is used. A symmetric version of this algorithm is derived for the special class of Hamiltonion matrices, thereby yielding, for large problems, a nearly twofold speed increase over a previous algorithm.

  20. Space station automation of common module power management and distribution, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B.; Riedesel, J.; Myers, C.; Jakstas, L.; Smith, D.

    1990-01-01

    The new Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) testbed automation system is described. The subjects discussed include testbed 120 volt dc star bus configuration and operation, SSM/PMAD automation system architecture, fault recovery and management expert system (FRAMES) rules english representation, the SSM/PMAD user interface, and the SSM/PMAD future direction. Several appendices are presented and include the following: SSM/PMAD interface user manual version 1.0, SSM/PMAD lowest level processor (LLP) reference, SSM/PMAD technical reference version 1.0, SSM/PMAD LLP visual control logic representation's (VCLR's), SSM/PMAD LLP/FRAMES interface control document (ICD) , and SSM/PMAD LLP switchgear interface controller (SIC) ICD.

  1. Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required. PMID:23603802

  2. Life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana under microgravity condition in the International Space Station Kibo module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Yano, Sachiko; Shimazu, Toru; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Kasahara, Haruo; Yashiro, Umi; Suto, Takamichi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kasahara, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    Gravity is an important environmental factors for growth and development of plants throughout their life cycle. We have designed an experiment, which is called Space Seed, to examine the effects of microgravity on the seed to seed life cycle of plants. We have carried out this experiment using a newly developed apparatus, which is called the Plant Experiment Unit (PEU) and installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard International Space Station (ISS). The CBEF is equipped with a turntable generating artificial gravity to perform 1-G control experiment as well as micro-G experiment on board. Arabidopsis thaliana seeds sown on dry rockwool in PEUs were transported from Kennedy Space Center to the ISS Kibo module by Space Shuttle Discovery in STS-128 mission. This experiment was started on Sep. 10, 2009 and terminated on Nov. 11, 2009. Arabidopsis seeds successfully germinated, and the plants passed through both vegetative and reproductive processes, such as formation of rosette leaves, bolting of inflorescence stems, flowering, formation of siliques and seeds. Vegetative and reproductive growth were compared among micro-G plants, 1-G control, and the ground control.

  3. Use of Human Computer Models to Influence the Design of International Space Station Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George S.; Hall, Meridith L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall design for the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion (Prop) Module consists of two bell shapes connected by a long tube having a shirt sleeve environment. The tube is to be used by the flight crew to transfer equipment and supplies from the Shuttle to ISS. Due to a desire to use existing space qualified hardware, the tube internal diameter was initially set at 38 inches, while the human engineering specification, NASA-STD-3000, required 50". Human computer modeling using the MannequinPro application was used to help make the case to enlarge the passageway to meet the specification. 3D CAD models of Prop Module were created with 38 inches, 45 inches and 50 inches passageways and human figures in the neutral body posture as well as a fetal posture were inserted into the model and systematically exercised. Results showed that only the 50 inches tube would accommodate a mid tube turn around by a large crew member, 95th percentile American males, by stature.

  4. International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Lab Module Simulator Build-Up and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul; Miller, Lee; Ibarra, Tom

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Sustaining Engineering program for the International Space Station (ISS), a ground simulator of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) in the Lab Module was designed and built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). To support prediction and troubleshooting, this facility is operationally and functionally similar to the flight system and flight-like components were used when available. Flight software algorithms, implemented using the LabVIEW(Registered Trademark) programming language, were used for monitoring performance and controlling operation. Validation testing of the low temperature loop was completed prior to activation of the Lab module in 2001. Assembly of the moderate temperature loop was completed in 2002 and validated in 2003. The facility has been used to address flight issues with the ITCS, successfully demonstrating the ability to add silver biocide and to adjust the pH of the coolant. Upon validation of the entire facility, it will be capable not only of checking procedures, but also of evaluating payload timelining, operational modifications, physical modifications, and other aspects affecting the thermal control system.

  5. Space Station MMOD Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes International Space Station (ISS) shielding for micrometeoroid orbital debris (MMOD) protection, requirements for protection, and the technical approach to meeting requirements. Current activities in MMOD protection for ISS will be described, including efforts to augment MMOD protection by adding shields on-orbit. Observed MMOD impacts on ISS elements such as radiators, modules and returned hardware will be described. Comparisons of the observed damage with predicted damage using risk assessment software will be made.

  6. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  7. Space Station - Toward Station operability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gregory R.; Paddock, Stephen G.

    1988-11-01

    Systematic operations engineering and the development of an automated operations management system (OMS) are presented as key elements of NASA's Space Station design development effort. The OMS software, which will take care of routine Space Station operations, encompasses on-board and ground-based components. Flight profiles, resource-utilization plans, crew training plans, flight-support operations, flight rules, and crew timelines all inform the OMS data base.

  8. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  9. Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, William (Compiler); Britt, Daniel (Compiler); Elges, Michael (Compiler); Myers, Chris (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed system and describes recent enhancements to that system. Four tasks made up the original contract: (1) common module power management and distribution system automation plan definition; (2) definition of hardware and software elements of automation; (3) design, implementation and delivery of the hardware and software making up the SSM/PMAD system; and (4) definition and development of the host breadboard computer environment. Additions and/or enhancements to the SSM/PMAD test bed that have occurred since July 1990 are reported. These include: (1) rehosting the MAESTRO scheduler; (2) reorganization of the automation software internals; (3) a more robust communications package; (4) the activity editor to the MAESTRO scheduler; (5) rehosting the LPLMS to execute under KNOMAD; implementation of intermediate levels of autonomy; (6) completion of the KNOMAD knowledge management facility; (7) significant improvement of the user interface; (8) soft and incipient fault handling design; (9) intermediate levels of autonomy, and (10) switch maintenance.

  10. Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

  11. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  12. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  13. Start-up capabilities of photovoltaic module for the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hajela, G.; Hague, L.

    1997-12-31

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses four photovoltaic modules (PVMs) to supply electric power for the US On-Orbit Segment (USOS). The ISS is assembled on orbit over a period of about 5 years and over 40 stages. PVMs are launched and integrated with the ISS at different times during the ISS assembly. During early stages, the electric power is provided by the integrated truss segment (ITS) P6; subsequently, ITS P4, S4, and S6 are launched. PVMs are launched into space in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) cargo bay. Each PVM consists of two independent power channels. The NSTS docks with the ISS, the PVM is removed from the cargo bay and installed on the ISS. At this stage the PVM is in stowed configuration and its batteries are in fully discharged state. The start-up consists of initialization and checkout of all hardware, deployment of SAW and photovoltaic radiator (PVR), thermal conditioning batteries, and charging batteries; not necessarily in the same order for all PVMs. PVMs are designed to be capable of on-orbit start-up, within a specified time period, when external power is applied to a specified electrical interface. This paper describes the essential steps required for PVM start-up and how these operations are performed for various PVMs. The integrated operations scenarios (IOS) prepared by the NASA, Johnson Space Center, details specific procedures and timelines for start-up of each PVM. The paper describes how dormant batteries are brought to their normal operating temperature range and then charged to 100% state of charge (SOC). Total time required to complete start-up is computed and compared to the IOS timelines. External power required during start-up is computed and compared to the requirements and/or available power on ISS. Also described is how these start-up procedures can be adopted for restart of PVMs when required.

  14. Battery Reinitialization of the Photovoltaic Module of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Gyan; Cohen, Fred; Dalton, Penni

    2002-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to electrical power and an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) that houses electrical hardware and batteries for electric power regulation and storage. Each PV module contains two independent power channels for fault tolerance. Each power channel contains three batteries in parallel to meet its performance requirements and for fault tolerance. Each battery consists of 76 Ni-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) cells in series. These 76 cells are contained in two orbital replaceable units (ORU) that are connected in series. On-orbit data are monitored and trended to ensure that all hardware is operating normally. Review of on-orbit data showed that while five batteries are operating very well, one is showing signs of mismatched ORUs. The cell pressure in the two ORUs differs by an amount that exceeds the recommended range. The reason for this abnormal behavior may be that the two ORUs have different use history. An assessment was performed and it was determined that capacity of this battery would be limited by the lower pressure ORU. Steps are being taken to reduce this pressure differential before battery capacity drops to the point of affecting its ability to meet performance requirements. As a first step, a battery reinitialization procedure was developed to reduce this pressure differential. The procedure was successfully carried out on-orbit and the pressure differential was reduced to the recommended range. This paper describes the battery performance and the consequences of mismatched ORUs that make a battery. The paper also describes the reinitialization procedure, how it was performed on orbit, and battery performance after the reinitialization. On-orbit data monitoring and trending is an ongoing activity and it will continue as ISS assembly progresses.

  15. Space Station: The next iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa M.

    1995-01-01

    NASA's international space station is nearing the completion stage of its troublesome 10-year design phase. With a revised design and new management team, NASA is tasked to deliver the station on time at a budget acceptable to both Congress and the White House. For the next three years, NASA is using tried-and-tested Russian hardware as the technical centerpiece of the station. The new station configuration consists of eight pressurized modules in which the crew can live and work; a long metal truss to connect the pieces; a robot arm for exterior jobs; a solar power system; and propelling the facility in space.

  16. Radiation Monitoring System in Service Module of International Space Station. Eight Years of Functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Petrov, Vladislav; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Volkov, Aleksey; Nikolaev, Igor; Nechaev, Oleg; Lishnevskii, Andrey; Tel, Mikhail

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) installed on board the Russian module (RM) of the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) is an important part of radiation safety system of a spacecraft. RMS function practically continuously beginning from 1 August 2001 year. Integration the RMS with other systems of RM permits to transmit measured values to the Earth by the telemetry and to reflect the radiation environment data directly to crew by the personal com-puter. There is a possibility to correct the RMS software directly on board the ISS. It permits improve greatly a confidence, reliability and validity of an information obtaining. The report presents the data about the equipment functioning and results of dose rate measurements during the period from the August of 2001 up to the August of 2009 both for normal radiation environ-ment and during solar particle events (SPE). Comparison of an absorbed dose rate measured by the detectors located in various points of the RM showed that difference of doses measured in low and high shielded areas of the RM at undisturbed radiation conditions is notably stable and not exceeds a factor of 2. At the same time during the disturbances caused by SPE it can reach of 30. This fact confirms the efficiency of a crew passage in the high-shielded area for decreasing SCR dose. Comparison data obtained with the RMS silicon detectors with the R-16 ionizing chamber data showed that for equal shielding conditions the measured values coincide with accuracy rather then 20On the whole the dose rate dynamics for various solar cycle periods and during the SPE demonstrates reasonably high regularity of crewmembers dose. But it is clear that onboard and personal dosimetric control is necessary for implementation of ALARA principle and minimization of the crewmembers personal doses.

  17. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  18. Technology for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the most significant advances made in the space station discipline technology program are examined. Technological tasks and advances in the areas of systems/operations, environmental control and life support systems, data management, power, thermal considerations, attitude control and stabilization, auxiliary propulsion, human capabilities, communications, and structures, materials, and mechanisms are discussed. An overview of NASA technology planning to support the initial space station and the evolutionary growth of the space station is given.

  19. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  20. Implementation strategies for load center automation on the space station module/power management and distribution testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Karen

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Module/Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed was developed to study the tertiary power management on modules in large spacecraft. The main goal was to study automation techniques, not necessarily develop flight ready systems. Because of the confidence gained in many of automation strategies investigated, it is appropriate to study, in more detail, implementation strategies in order to find better trade-offs for nearer to flight ready systems. These trade-offs particularly concern the weight, volume, power consumption, and performance of the automation system. These systems, in their present implementation are described.

  1. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Harold T.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  2. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  3. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  4. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  5. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  6. Space station executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

  7. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  8. Alternative representation of dyadic Green's functions for circular cylindrical cavities with applications to the EMC characterization of space station modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniele, Vito; Gilli, Marco; Graglia, Roberto D.

    2000-03-01

    This paper compares two different representations of the dyadic Green's functions for circular cylindrical cavities, also valid at the source point. The representations are obtained by considering the cavity either as a circular waveguide (longitudinal representation) or as a radial waveguide (radial representation), terminated by conducting surfaces. The radial representation of dyadic Green's functions for circular cylindrical cavities is not available in the previous literature and is applied to study the field penetrating a space station module through apertures, including lateral ones, or due either to elementary sources or to wire antennas active in the module. We show that for the typical dimensions of spatial modules the radial representations give rise to more convergent series and therefore are more suitable for the computation of the cavity electromagnetic fields. The problem of obtaining the self and mutual impedances of two wire antennas located in the cavity is also discussed in general, and various results are reported for particular cases. Simplified cavity models can be effectively applied to the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) characterization of space station modules.

  9. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  10. Space Station galley design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  11. Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

  12. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  13. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  14. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  15. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

  17. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  18. Space station functional relationships analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

    1988-01-01

    A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

  19. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida and the Bahamas. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating in the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  20. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This artist's digital concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  1. Overview of space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, Claude C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Space Station program for workshop participants is given. Covered here are overall program guidelines, international involvement, the present baseline configuration, and development plans for the coming year.

  2. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  3. Space station technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumulty, W. T.

    In an evaluation of the current technological basis for a space station, the Space Station Technology Steering Committee (SSTSC) came to the conclusion that a space station could certainly be made with existing technology. It was, however, found that state-of-the-art technology would not provide for the evolutionary growth aspects of a long life system. In the process of its reviews, the SSTSC identified 10 specific disciplines to categorize the technology which was found to be relevant or potentially applicable to a future space station design. Attention is given to the objectives for the advanced development program, systems and operations, data management, crew and life support, power, thermal management, human capability, auxiliary propulsion, fluid management systems, attitude control and stabilization, structures and mechanisms, and communications.

  4. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  5. Space station proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his State of the Union address on January 25, President Ronald Reagan announced that he was directing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “develop a permanently manned space station, and to do it within a decade.”Included in the NASA budget proposal sent to Congress the following week was $150 million for the station. This is the first request of many; expected costs will total roughly $8 billion by the early 1990's.

  6. Space Station panel appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A poll on the Space Station was conducted among AGU members last fall using a random sample of the membership. The results of this poll were summarized in Eos (January 5, 1988, p. 1). One result was that about three quarters of the respondents felt AGU should adopt a formal position on the Space Station.Subsequent to the poll, a request that such a position be established has been made. The Public Affairs Committee agreed that the request was appropriate, so a Space Station Panel was appointed by then AGU President Peter S. Eagleson. The panel will recommend a Union position for Council approval. The position will address separately the manned station itself and the associated polar platforms.

  7. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  8. Light Microscopy Module: On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids Integrated Rack on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a remotely controllable, automated, on-orbit facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of physical science and biological science experiments within the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) on the International Space Station. Initially four fluid physics experiments in the FIR will use the LMM the Constrained Vapor Bubble, the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2, Physics of Colloids in Space-2, and Low Volume Fraction Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly. The first experiment will investigate heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments will investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties.

  9. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

  10. Telerobot for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a multiple arm dexterous manipulation system, will aid in the assembly, maintenance, and servicing of the space station. Fundamental ideas and basic conceptual designs for a shuttle-based telerobot system have been produced. Recent space station studies provide additional concepts that should aid in the accomplishment of mission requirements. Currently, the FTS is in contractual source selection for a Phase B preliminary design. At the same time, design requirements are being developed through a series of robotic assessment tasks being performed at NASA and commercial installations. A number of the requirements for remote operation on the space station, necessary to supplement extravehicular activity (EVA), will be met by the FTS. Finally, technology developed for telerobotics will advance the state of the art of remote operating systems, enhance operator productivity, and prove instrumental in the evolution of an adaptive, intelligent autonomous robot.

  11. Protecting Astronaut Health at First Entry into Vehicles Visiting the international Space Station: Insights from Whole-Module Offgas Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    NASA has accumulated considerable experience in offgas testing of whole modules prior to their docking with the International Space Station (ISS). Since 1998, the Space Toxicology Office has performed offgas testing of the Lab module, both MPLM modules, US Airlock, Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, ATV1, HTV1, and three commercial vehicles. The goal of these tests is twofold: first, to protect the crew from adverse health effects of accumulated volatile pollutants when they first enter the module on orbit, and secondly, to determine the additional pollutant load that the ISS air revitalization systems must handle. In order to predict the amount of accumulated pollutants, the module is sealed for at least 1/5th the worst-case time interval that could occur between the last clean air purge and final hatch closure on the ground and the crew's first entry on orbit. This time can range from a few days to a few months. Typically, triplicate samples are taken at pre-planned times throughout the test. Samples are then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the rate of accumulation of pollutants is then extrapolated over time. The analytical values are indexed against 7-day spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) to provide a prediction of the total toxicity value (T-value) at the time of first entry. This T-value and the toxicological effects of specific pollutants that contribute most to the overall toxicity are then used to guide first entry operations. Finally, results are compared to first entry samples collected on orbit to determine the predictive ability of the ground-based offgas test.

  12. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over the Straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  13. The organized Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Leong W.

    Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

  14. The organized Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Leong W.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

  15. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as construction goes on. The habitability resources available to the crew are the crew sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to deal with ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of International Partner Laboratories. Also, Node 2 and 3 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The Node 3 module will provide additional Environmental Control and Life Support Capability. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is the effects of long duration space flight on humans, a result of this research they will determine what are the habitability requirements for long duration space flight.

  16. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  17. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wade, C. E.; Givens, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

  18. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. N.; Goodrich, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 (+ or -) 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 (+ or -) 0.7, -0.4 (+ or -) 0.3, and 76 (+ or -) 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on (Delta)p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc.

  19. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus_minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus_minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus_minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus_minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

  20. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W. )

    1991-03-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

  1. Space Station evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

  2. The NORSTAR Program: Space shuttle to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortunato, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of G-325, the first high school student-run space flight project, is updated. An overview is presented of a new international program, which involves students from space station countries who will be utilizing Get Away Special technology to cooperatively develop a prototype experiment for controlling a space station research module environment.

  3. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  4. Automatic assembly of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    A problem in the automatic assembly of space stations is the determination of guidance laws for the terminal rendezvous and docking of two structural components or modules. The problem involves the feedback control of both the relative attitude and translational motion of the modules. A suitable mathematical model based on rigid body dynamics was used. The basic requirements, physical constraints and difficulties associated with the control problem are discussed. An approach which bypasses some of the difficulties is proposed. A nonlinear guidance law satisfying the basic requirements is derived. The implementation requirements is discussed. The performance of the resulting feedback control system with rigid and flexible structural components is studied by computer simulation.

  5. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  6. Space Station Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor); Mays, C. R. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

  7. A lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  8. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  9. Space Station initiates permanent space facility development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The proposed development of the Space Station is examined. The functions and advantages of the Space Station are described. The use of a solar array system for power generation on the Station is studied; the capabilities of various other generation systems are also evaluated. The Space Station's development schedule is discussed.

  10. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  11. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  12. Panel on Space Station utilization benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubenstein, Sy Z.; Drake, Frank; White, Stanley C.; Taranik, James V.; Jordan, Hermann; Arnold, Ray

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of recent changes in the NASA Space Station, under the guidance of updated user community payload requirements. The user communities are those of astronomy, the life sciences, earth observation, and international applications. Attention is given to the resolutions that will be achievable by astronomical instruments aboard the Space Station, the testing of prototype earth observation instruments aboard the Station's manned module, and the microgravity research efforts planned in conjunction with ESA.

  13. Space Station Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of the Space Station is improved, the ability to manage and integrate its development and operation enhanced, and the cost and risk of developing the software for it is minimized by three major information systems. The Space Station Information System (SSIS) provides for the transparent collection and dissemination of operational information to all users and operators. The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) provides all the developers with timely and consistent program information and a project management 'window' to assess the project status. The Software Support Environment (SSE) provides automated tools and standards to be used by all software developers. Together, these three systems are vital to the successful execution of the program.

  14. Space Station communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, T. R.

    1986-09-01

    The selection of a proper transmission media for Space Station communications is examined. A model for evaluating different network topologies based on complexity, robustness, connectivity, and wastefulness is developed. The usefulness of the model is studied by applying it to the analysis of dual-linear bus, single-linear bus, ring, and star network topologies. The characteristics and capabilities of a coaxial broad-band cable and a fiber optic cable are compared in terms of topological considerations. The advantages provided by the coaxial broad-band cable are described. It is noted that the coaxial broad-band cable is applicable for near-term communications on the Space Station; however, the possible future transmission of high-speed data will require the use of fiber optics.

  15. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  16. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  17. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  18. Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Griffin, DeVon W.

    2001-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of fluids and biology experiments within NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. Within the Fluids and Combustion Facility, four fluids physics experiments will utilize an instrument built around a light microscope. These experiments are the Constrained Vapor Bubble experiment (Peter C. Wayner of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2 (Paul M. Chaikin of Princeton University), the Physics of Colloids in Space-2 experiment (David A. Weitz of Harvard University), and the Low Volume Fraction Colloidal Assembly experiment (Arjun G. Yodh of the University of Pennsylvania). The first experiment investigates heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties. Key diagnostic capabilities for meeting the science requirements of the four experiments include video microscopy to observe sample features including basic structures and dynamics, interferometry to measure vapor bubble thin film thickness, laser tweezers for colloidal particle manipulation and patterning, confocal microscopy to provide enhanced three-dimensional visualization of colloidal structures, and spectrophotometry to measure colloidal crystal photonic properties.

  19. Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

  20. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  1. Planning for Space Station utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, W.

    1985-01-01

    User requirements for the planned Space Station, and utilization planning to meet those needs, are discussed. The continual involvement of the customer in all aspects of the Space Station Program is to be achieved by identifying customers and by defining, refining, and integrating their requirements so as to stimulate the best possible design, development, and operations. Planning guidelines to be used in the Space Station definition process are shown and discussed, as is the Space Station Planning Schedule.

  2. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  3. Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  4. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  5. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  6. Build Your Own Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  7. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  8. Space Station Technology Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacabucci, R.; Evans, S.; Briley, G.; Delventhal, R. A.; Braunscheidel, E.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of the Space Station Propulsion Advanced Technology Programs established an in-depth data base for the baseline gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen thruster, the waste gas resistojet, and the associated system operations. These efforts included testing of a full end-to-end system at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in which oxygen and hydrogen were generated from water by electrolysis at 6.89 MPa (1,000 psia), stored and fired through the prototype thruster. Recent end-to-end system tests which generate the oxygen/hydrogen propellants by electrolysis of water at 20.67 MPa (3,000 psia) were completed on the Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). Resistojet testing has included 10,000 hours of life testing, plume characterization, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing. Extensive 25-lbf thruster testing was performed defining operating performance characteristics across the required mixture ratio and thrust level ranges. Life testing has accumulated 27 hours of operation on the prototype thruster. A total of seven injectors and five thrust chambers were fabricated to the same basic design. Five injectors and three thrust chambers designed to incorporate improved life, performance, and producibility characteristics are ready for testing. Five resistojets were fabricated and tested, with modifications made to improve producibility. The lessons learned in the area of producibility for both the O2/H2 thrusters and for the resistojet have resolved critical fabrication issues. The test results indicate that all major technology issues for long life and reliability for space station application were resolved.

  9. Space station electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  10. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  11. Environmental monitoring for Space Station WP01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    External contamination monitoring instrumentation for the Space Station work package one (WP01) elements, were imposed on the contractor as deliverable hardware. The monitoring instrumentation proposed by the WP01 contractor in response to the contract requirement includes both real time measurements and passive samples. Real time measurement instrumentation consists of quartz crystal microbalances for molecular deposition, ion gaseous species identification. Internal environmental contamination monitoring for particulates is included in both Lab and HAB modules. Passive samples consists of four sample mounting plates mounted external to the Space Station modules, two on the U.S. LAB, and two on the HAB module.

  12. Space Station multiple access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Nanci A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  14. Science in space with the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of the Space Station as a versatile scientific laboratory is discussed, reviewing plans under consideration by the NASA Task Force on Scientific Uses of the Space Station. The special advantages offered by the Station for expanding the scope of 'space science' beyond astrophysics, geophysics, and terrestrial remote sensing are stressed. Topics examined include the advantages of a manned presence, the scientific value and cost effectiveness of smaller, more quickly performable experiments, improved communications for ground control of Station experiments, the international nature of the Station, the need for more scientist astronauts for the Station crew, Station on-orbit maintenance and repair services for coorbiting platforms, and the need for Shuttle testing of proposed Station laboratory equipment and procedures.

  15. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  16. NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

  17. Space stations - A historical perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical evolution of the space station concept, with particular attention to NASA plans in the 1960-1980 period. Emphasis is given to the changing justification presented for station development during that period and to the political context within which station proposals were evaluated.

  18. Space Station/Skylab Sketch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Seldom in aerospace history has a major decision been as promptly and concisely recorded as with the Skylab shown in this sketch. At a meeting at the Marshall Space Flight Center on August 19, 1966, George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Marned Space Flight, used a felt pen and poster paper to pin down the final conceptual layout for the budding space station's (established as the Skylab in 1970) major elements. General Davy Jones, first program director, added his initials and those of Dr. Mueller in the lower right corner. The goals of the Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. The Skylab also conducted 19 selected experiments submitted by high school students. Skylab's 3 different 3-man crews spent up to 84 days in Earth orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for developing and integrating most of the major components of the Skylab: the Orbital Workshop (OWS), Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Payload Shroud (PS), and most of the experiments. MSFC was also responsible for providing the Saturn IB launch vehicles for three Apollo spacecraft and crews and a Saturn V launch vehicle for the Skylab.

  19. Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include industry development needs and the Office of Commercial Programs strategy, the three-phase program to develop commercial space, Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), key provisions of the Joint Endeavor agreement, current commercial flight experiment requirements, the CCDS expendable launch vehicle program, the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) program, commercial launch dates, payload sponsors, the commercial roles of the Space Station Freedom, and a listing of the Office of Commercial Programs Space Station Freedom payloads.

  20. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  1. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  2. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  3. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 3: Appendixes. Book 2: Supporting data. [spacecraft modules and environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the module concepts are reviewed, and a number of functional elements are listed. Other areas examined include some of the following; (1) mission operations; (2) environmental control and life support subsystems concepts; (3) thermal heat rejection; (4) space radiation effect analysis; and (5) satellite power system test requirements.

  4. A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Early in the development of the Space Station it was determined that there is a need to have a vehicle which could be used in the event that the Space Station crew need to quickly depart and return to Earth when the Space Shuttle is not available. Unplanned return missions might occur because of a medical emergency, a major Space Station failure, or if there is a long-term interruption in the delivery of logistics to the Station. The rescue vehicle ms envisioned as a simple capsule-type spacecraft which would be maintained in a dormant state at the Station for several years and be quickly activated by the crew when needed. During the assembly phase for the International Space Station, unplanned return missions will be performed by the Russian Soyuz vehicle, which can return up to three people. When the Station assembly is complete there will be a need for rescue capability for up to six people. This need might be met by an additional Soyuz vehicle or by a new vehicle which might come from a variety of sources. This paper describes one candidate concept for a Space Station rescue vehicle. The proposed rescue vehicle design has the blunt-cone shape of the Apollo command module but with a larger diameter. The rescue vehicle would be delivered to the Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. The spacecraft design can accommodate six to eight people for a one-day return mission. All of the systems for the mission including deorbit propulsion are contained within the conical spacecraft and so there is no separate service module. The use of the proven Apollo re-entry shape would greatly reduce the time and cost for development and testing. Other aspects of the design are also intended to minimize development cost and simplify operations. This paper will summarize the evolution of rescue vehicle concepts, the functional requirements for a rescue vehicle, and describe the proposed design.

  5. International Space Station: Expedition 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of the International Space Station (ISS) presents an inside look at the groundwork and assembly of the ISS. Footage includes both animation and live shots of a Space Shuttle liftoff. Phil West, Engineer; Dr. Catherine Clark, Chief Scientist ISS; and Joe Edwards, Astronaut, narrate the video. The first topic of discussion is People and Communications. Good communication is a key component in our ISS endeavor. Dr. Catherine Clark uses two soup cans attached by a string to demonstrate communication. Bill Nye the Science Guy talks briefly about science aboard the ISS. Charlie Spencer, Manager of Space Station Simulators, talks about communication aboard the ISS. The second topic of discussion is Engineering. Bonnie Dunbar, Astronaut at Johnson Space Flight Center, gives a tour of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). She takes us inside Node 2 and the U.S. Lab Destiny. She also shows where protein crystal growth experiments are performed. Audio terminal units are used for communication in the JEM. A demonstration of solar arrays and how they are tested is shown. Alan Bell, Project Manager MRMDF (Mobile Remote Manipulator Development Facility), describes the robot arm that is used on the ISS and how it maneuvers the Space Station. The third topic of discussion is Science and Technology. Dr. Catherine Clark, using a balloon attached to a weight, drops the apparatus to the ground to demonstrate Microgravity. The bursting of the balloon is observed. Sherri Dunnette, Imaging Technologist, describes the various cameras that are used in space. The types of still cameras used are: 1) 35 mm, 2) medium format cameras, 3) large format cameras, 4) video cameras, and 5) the DV camera. Kumar Krishen, Chief Technologist ISS, explains inframetrics, infrared vision cameras and how they perform. The Short Arm Centrifuge is shown by Dr. Millard Reske, Senior Life Scientist, to subject astronauts to forces greater than 1-g. Reske is interested in the physiological effects of the eyes and the muscular system after their exposure to forces greater than 1-g.

  6. International Space Station Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at the SMOT can be taken to the Mission Management Team meeting, which occurs biweekly from MCC-Houston. This meeting includes the other International Partners and all flight support and console position representatives via teleconference. ISS Crew Surgeons have handled many medical conditions on orbit; including skin rashes, dental abscesses, lacerations, and STT segment EKG changes. Fortunately to date, there have not been any forced medical evacuations from the ISS. This speaks well for the implementation of the primary, secondary and even tertiary prevention strategies invoked by the Integrated Medical Group, as there were several medical evacuations during the previous Russian space stations.

  7. Space Station Based Microacceleration Experiment Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Katy; Economopoulos, Tony; Evenson, Erik; Gonzalez, Raul; Henson, Steve; Parada, Enrique; Robinson, Rick; Scott, Mike; Spotz, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Normal Space Station Freedom activities, such as docking, astronauts' movement, equipment vibrations, and space station reboosts, exert forces on the structure, resulting in static or transient accelerations greater than many microgravity experiments can tolerate. A solution to this problem is to isolate experiments on a separate platform free from such disturbances. The Space Station Based Microacceleration Experiment Platform, a proposed solution to the Space Station microgravity experiment problem is described. It is modular in design and can be telerobotically assembled and operated. The Microacceleration Experiment Platform (MEP) consists of a minimum configuration platform to which power, propulsion, propellant, and experiment modules are added. The platform's layout is designed to take maximum advantage of the microgravity field structure in orbit.

  8. Space station - The next logical step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    NASA has been charged with the development, over the next decade, of a permanently manned space station in low earth orbit. The space station system will comprise a manned base and associated unmanned platforms; while one of the platforms will be in polar orbit, another (or several) platforms will, like the manned base, have an orbital inclination of 28.5 deg. Because it is permanent, the space station will have to be semiautonomous from its mission control center. NASA will take a number of steps to foster the commercial utilization of the space station, and one of the design goals of the project is the definition of astronaut facilities that are very 'customer friendly'. Reliance on a single, program-wide contractor has been deemed undesirable; several major aerospace manufacturers will instead distribute responsibility among themselves for the various modules constituting the craft.

  9. Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Described is a foldable expandable pallet for Space Station interface attachments with a basic square configuration. Each pallet consists of a series of struts joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. The struts have hinge fittings which are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage transport to a Space Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle, and development on orbit. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the node points of the relatively widely spaced trusses of a Space Station platform. A pallet is attached to a strut at four points: one close fitting hole, two oversize holes, and a slot to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

  10. Materials International Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut Patrick G. Forrester works with the the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) during extravehicular activity (EVA). MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  11. Space Station robotics planning tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Bridget Mintz

    1992-01-01

    The concepts are described for the set of advanced Space Station Freedom (SSF) robotics planning tools for use in the Space Station Control Center (SSCC). It is also shown how planning for SSF robotics operations is an international process, and baseline concepts are indicated for that process. Current SRMS methods provide the backdrop for this SSF theater of multiple robots, long operating time-space, advanced tools, and international cooperation.

  12. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

  13. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  14. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  15. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  16. Space Station Freedom food management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  17. Space Station logistics system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    This task investigates logistics requirements and logistics system concepts for the evolutionary Space Station. Requirements for the basic station, crew, user equipment, and free-flying platforms, as requirements for manned exploration initiative elements and crews while at the Space Station. Data is provided which assesses the ability of the Space Freedom logistics carriers to accommodate the logistics loads per year. Also, advanced carrier concepts are defined and assessed against the logistics requirements. The implications on Earth-to-orbit vehicles of accommodating the logistics requirements, using various types of carriers, are assessed on a year by year basis.

  18. Vibrations and structureborne noise in space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1985-01-01

    The related literature was reviewed and a preliminary analytical model was developed for simplified acoustic and structural geometries for pressurized and unpressurized space station modules. In addition to the analytical work, an experimental program on structureborne noise generation and transmission was started. A brief review of those accomplishments is given.

  19. Space station interior noise analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-01-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  20. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  1. Enterprise: an International Commercial Space Station Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounge, John M.

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the U.S. aerospace company SPACEHAB, Inc., (SPACEHAB) and the Russian aerospace company Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (RSC-Energia), initiated a joint project to establish a commercial venture on the International Space Station (ISS). The approach of this venture is to use private capital to build and attach a commercial habitable module (the "Enterprise Module") to the Russian Segment of the ISS. The module will become an element of the Russian Segment; in return, exclusive rights to use this module for commercial business will be granted to its developers. The Enterprise Module has been designed as a multipurpose module that can provide research accommodation, stowage and crew support services. Recent NASA budget decisions have resulted in the cancellation of NASA's ISS habitation module, a significant delay in its new ISS crew return vehicle, and a mandate to stabilize the ISS program. These constraints limit the ISS crew size to three people and result in very little time available for ISS research support. Since research activity is the primary reason this Space Station is being built, the ISS program must find a way to support a robust international research program as soon as possible. The time is right for a commercial initiative incorporating the Enterprise Module, outfitted with life support systems, and commercially procured Soyuz vehicles to provide the capability to increase ISS crew size to six by the end of 2005.

  2. Space station automation and autonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.F.

    1984-08-01

    Mission definition and technology assessment studies support the necessity of incorporating increasing degrees of automation in a space station. As presently envisioned, a space station will evolve over 10-20 years. As the complexity of the space station grows, decision-making must be transferred from the crew to an on-board computer system in order to increase the productivity of the man/machine system. Thus, growth considerations require that provision be made for increasing degrees of automation as the space station evolves. Awareness by the planners and technologists of automated system interactions, of the functional role of automation and autonomy, and of design concepts that permit growth will significantly affect technology and system choices. The power system is an excellent case study for examining its possible evolution from manual to automated and continued evolution towards autonomous control. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the requirements for this evolution from the systems perspective.

  3. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  4. Challenges of Space Station navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pixley, P. T.

    A description of the main navigational challenges posed by the Space Station program is given. Among the specific navigational problems addressed are: attitude reference control for payload support applications; traffic control system requirements; navigational system for proximity operations; and the development of automated navigation systems. Navigational problems associated with solar array and radiator orientation are discussed in detail. A schematic diagram of the Space Station reference configuration is provided.

  5. Space station configuration and flight dynamics identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metter, E.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station will be assembled in low earth orbit by a combination of deployable and space erectable modules that are progressively integrated during successive flights of the Shuttle. The crew assisted space construction will result in a configuration which is a large scale composite of structural elements having connectivity with a wide range of possible end conditions and imprecisely known dynamic characteristics. The generic applications of Flight Dynamics Identification to the candidate Space Station configurations currently under consideration are described. Identification functions are categorized, and the various methods for extracting parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of specific characteristics of interest to both engineering subsystems and users of the Station's commercial and scientific facilities. Onboard implementation architecture and constraints are discussed from the viewpoint of maximizing integration of the Identification process with the flight subsystem's data and signal flow.

  6. OSSA Space Station waste inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

  7. Space platforms/stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    Platforms in low-earth orbit are examined as simple and cost-effective solutions to the problem of long-duration space flight, providing stability, utilities and access for a variety of Shuttle-tended replaceable payloads over extended periods of time. The requirements for space platforms, which will encompass the advantages of both the free-flying and Shuttle-Spacelab operational modes, are discussed, with consideration given to payloads, operations and platform systems, and the status of the space platform concept, which is expected to begin development in early 1983 following definition studies and design selection, is noted. Possible paths in the evolution of space platform facilities to more advanced concepts are then outlined. Finally, the concept of the Science and Applications Manned Space Platform is examined as the first step toward a permanent manned United States presence in space.

  8. Social factors in space station interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranz, Galen; Eichold, Alice; Hottes, Klaus; Jones, Kevin; Weinstein, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Using the example of the chair, which is often written into space station planning but which serves no non-cultural function in zero gravity, difficulties in overcoming cultural assumptions are discussed. An experimental approach is called for which would allow designers to separate cultural assumptions from logistic, social and psychological necessities. Simulations, systematic doubt and monitored brainstorming are recommended as part of basic research so that the designer will approach the problems of space module design with a complete program.

  9. Space vehicle deployment from Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Paul K.

    1990-01-01

    When launching a spacecraft from Earth parking orbit to deep space, it is highly desirable to have the hyperbolic excess velocity vector (v-infinity) contained in the parking orbit plane. Ground launches can force the parking orbit plane to contain the v-infinity vector by using launch azimuth and lift-off time as independent variables. When launching from the Space Station, a new set of variables comes into play. The Space Station orbit is of fixed inclination but precessing due to the Earth's oblateness. Its plane will seldom (and may never) contain the desired v-infinity vector. Consequently, the departure strategy will usually require multiple burns and include a plane change. Also, the concept of 'launch window' will be somewhat different from Earth surface launches. An analysis of the deployment of interplanetary spacecraft from the Space Station is described, with emphasis on the effect of the trajectory characteristics on station operations. Several planetary mission types are analyzed, including manned Mars missions and unmanned high declination departures. The constraint of Space Station orbit nodal position is quantified and the operational implications for Space Station reboost strategy are examined.

  10. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  11. House sustains Space Station funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    The House of Representatives rejected an amendment on July 29 that would have eliminated funds for Space Station Freedom. The House voted 237 to 181 against an amendment by representatives Bob Traxler (D.-Mich.) and Bill Green (R.-N.Y.) that called for terminating funding for Freedom, except for $525 million to shut down the program.Opponents of the space station had criticized its cost and questioned its scientific value, while supporters argued that the station would spawn over 75,000 jobs and give a boost to the aerospace industry.

  12. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  13. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  14. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

  16. Inter-Module Ventilation Changes to the International Space Station Vehicle to Support Integration of the International Docking Adapter and Commercial Crew Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is continuing to evolve in the post-Space Shuttle era. The ISS vehicle configuration that is in operation was designed for docking of a Space Shuttle vehicle, and designs currently under development for commercial crew vehicles require different interfaces. The ECLSS Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem (THC) Inter-Module Ventilation (IMV) must be modified in order to support two docking interfaces at the forward end of ISS, to provide the required air exchange. Development of a new higher-speed IMV fan and extensive ducting modifications are underway to support the new Commercial Crew Vehicle interfaces. This paper will review the new ECLSS IMV development requirements, component design and hardware status, subsystem analysis and testing performed to date, and implementation plan to support Commercial Crew Vehicle docking.

  17. Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

  18. Modular space station phase B extension: Mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffey, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    The MSS system, capable of supporting a six-man crew, is described as consisting of four common station modules, two special modules (core and power), and a cargo module arranged in a cruciform. The station buildup, and space station subsystems including environmental control life support, electrical power, guidance and control are also described. The MSS system weights are presented for design-to-weight, closeout weights, and shuttle payload weights.

  19. Space Station ECLSS Integration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) contract with NASA MSFC covered the time frame from 9 May 1985 to 31 Dec. 1992. The contract roughly covered the period of Space Station Freedom (SSF) development from early Phase B through Phase C/D Critical Design Review (CDR). During this time, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-Huntsville (formerly McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company) performed an analytical support role to MSFC for the development of analytical math models and engineering trade studies related to the design of the ECLSS for the SSF.

  20. Space Station Payload Adaptation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Kenneth R.; Adams, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    The development and design of a system of containers for the efficient integration of Space Station payloads is described called the Space Station Payload Adaptation System (SSPAS). The SSPAS was developed to address the incorporation of multiple payloads, the use of a small payload carrier, large numbers of samples, and on-orbit servicing. SSPAS subsystems such as the Spacelab rack are modular and designed for integration into the 'Quick Is Beautiful' (QIB) facility. The QIB is designed to provide access to space for small- and medium-sized microgravity research projects and proof-of-concept investigations. The power-distribution and heat-rejection potential of the QIB are described, and an improved experiment-apparatus container is proposed. The SSPAS rack-mounting and container concepts are concluded to make up an efficent system that can effectively exploit the R&D potential of the Space Station.

  1. Space Station Freedom solar array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom solar array program is required to provide a 75-kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-yr design point. The design of flexible-substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years is discussed. The tradeoff study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  2. Columbus: ready for the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Patti, Bernardo; Chesson, Robert; Zell, Martin; Thirkettle, Alan

    2005-02-01

    One of the key contributions to the development and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is ESA's Columbus Laboratory Module. It will be transported to the ISS, together with its payload complement, on Space Shuttle Assembly Flight 1E in 2006. Columbus's readiness for launch requires the availability not only of the Module itself, but also three other major elements being provided by ESA, namely: the Ground Segment, consisting of the Columbus Control Centre and the User Support and Operations Centres (USOCs), the Operations products, and the Crew Training. PMID:16134284

  3. Materials International Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Backdropped by a sunrise, the newly installed Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is visible on this image. MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment. The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock during extravehicular activity (EVA) of the STS-105 mission. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  4. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Skylab's success proved that scientific experimentation in a low gravity environment was essential to scientific progress. A more permanent structure was needed to provide this space laboratory. President Ronald Reagan, on January 25, 1984, during his State of the Union address, claimed that the United States should exploit the new frontier of space, and directed NASA to build a permanent marned space station within a decade. The idea was that the space station would not only be used as a laboratory for the advancement of science and medicine, but would also provide a staging area for building a lunar base and manned expeditions to Mars and elsewhere in the solar system. President Reagan invited the international community to join with the United States in this endeavour. NASA and several countries moved forward with this concept. By December 1985, the first phase of the space station was well underway with the design concept for the crew compartments and laboratories. Pictured are two NASA astronauts, at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), practicing construction techniques they later used to construct the space station after it was deployed.

  5. $425 million for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The Space Station will funded at only about half of the $767 million requested in the 1988 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and overall the agency will receive $8,856 billion for the current fiscal year (FY) in the deficit-reduction package passed by Congress in late December. Despite an earlier complaint that reductions in the space station budget would kill the program and an apparent lack of support from the White House, NASA's official reaction was full of good cheer.NASA will be able to use the $425 million in two installments, $200 million now and $225 million in June. In October, NASA administrator James Fletcher stated in a letter to Senator Jake Garn (R-Utah) that if the space station received no more than $440 million, he would “recommend termination” of the program. But after the budget was approved, NASA said that the $425 million “reflected the strong commitment of the President and the Congress to proceed with the development of a space station.” A recent request to President Reagan from congressional proponents of the station for a letter of support for the multibillion dollar project was declined.

  6. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The manned space station is the next major NASA program. It presents many challenges to the power system designers. The power system in turn is a major driver on the overall configuration. In this paper, the major requirements and guidelines that affect the station configuration and the power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts, both fanciful and feasible, are described and linked to the present concept. The recently completed Phase B trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of the present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given for completeness.

  7. Vulnerability of Space Station Freedom Modules: A Study of the Effects of Module Perforation on Crew and Equipment. Volume 2; Analytical Modeling of Internal Debris Cloud Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Davenport, Quint

    1995-01-01

    In this part of the report, a first-principles based model is developed to predict the overpressure and temperature effects of a perforating orbital debris particle impact within a pressurized habitable module. While the effects of a perforating debris particles on crew and equipment can be severe, only a limited number of empirical studies focusing on space vehicles have been performed to date. Traditionally, crew loss or incapacitation due to a perforating impact has primarily been of interest to military organizations and as such have focused on military vehicles and systems. The module wall considered in this study is initially assumed to be a standard Whippletype dual-wall system in which the outer wall protects the module and its inhabitants by disrupting impacting particles. The model is developed in a way such that it sequentially characterizes the phenomena comprising the impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the inner wall, the creation and motion of the debris cloud that enters the module interior, and the effects of the debris cloud within the module on module pressure and temperature levels. This is accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory.

  8. Space Station Freedom media handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This handbook explains in lay terms, the work that is going on at the NASA Centers and contractors' plants in designing and developing the Space Station Freedom. It discusses the roles, responsibilities, and tasks required to build the Space Station Freedom's elements, systems, and components. New, required ground facilities are described, organized by NASA Center in order to provide a local angle for the media. Included are information on the historical perspective, international aspects, the utilization of the Space Station Freedom, a look at future possibilities, a description of the program, its management, program phases and milestones, and considerable information on the role of various NASA Centers, contractors and international partners. A list of abbreviations, a four-page glossary, and a list of NASA contacts are contained in the appendices.

  9. Space station wardroom table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Kaplicky, Jan (Inventor); Nixon, David A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A table top for use in constricted areas has a plurality of support arms abutting at one end to form a hub. The support arms are arranged in equidistant, spaced-apart relation to each other at the ends distal to the hub. A plurality of work surface leaf sections mounted between the support arms are individually pivotable through 360 degrees about their longitudinal axes. The table top additionally has a plurality of distal leaves, each distal leaf being attached to the distal end of one of the arms. The distal leaves are pivotable between an upright position level with the support arms and a stored position below the support arms.

  10. Measurement of Linear Energy Transfer Spectra of High-LET Space Radiation Inside the International Space Station Modules (2013-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inozemtsev, K. O.; Kushin, V. V.; Maklyaev, E. F.; Shurshakov, V. A.

    The field of space radiation in low-Earth orbit is extremely complicated due to many reasons. It is formed mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particles and trapped particles in the south Atlantic anomaly region. In addition radiation field is affected by shielding and scattering of incident primary particles by surrounding material. The contribution of short - range particles produced in the nuclear interactions in the shielding and contents of the spacecraft to the total radiation field is comparable to the primary component at high values of dE/dx. Preliminary linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of high-LET space radiation were measured in different compartments of the Russian segment of International Space Station (ISS) by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) CR-39 TASTRACK. Measurements were carried out during ISS-37/38/39 expeditions in MATROSHKA-R space experiment. The comparison of experimental spectra with simulated one was made in order of data verification.

  11. Space Station trash removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  12. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    'The $2.3 million Integrative Life Support System (ILSS) arrives at Langley by barge (right) from its manufacturer, the Convair Division of General Dynamics, in August 1965.' 'Test subjects occupied this facility for as long as 28 days at a time.' 'The unique structure stood 18 feet tall, weighted 30 tons, and was housed in a cylindrical tank 18 feet in diameter.' 'In the years following its long-anticipated arrival, manned and unmanned tests in the big test chamber provided a wealth of new information about how various life-support systems would work individually and together. The longest human occupancy experiment lasted 28 days. The ILSS test program even included microbiological experiments on possible toxic contaminants in space. Langley management heartily supported the ILSS program, thus allowing it to encompass the efforts of dozens of Langley staff members in the Space systems and Instrument Research divisions.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), pp. 304-305.

  13. Solar dynamic modules for Space Station Freedom: The relationship between fine-pointing control and thermal loading of the aperture plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic simulations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) configured with solar dynamic (SD) power modules were performed. The structure was subjected to Space Shuttle docking disturbances, while being controlled with a 'natural' vibration and tracking control approach. Three control cases were investigated for the purpose of investigating the relationship between actuator effort, SD pointing, and thermal loading on the receiver aperture plate. Transient, one-dimensional heat transfer analyses were performed to conservatively predict temperatures of the multi-layered receiver aperture plate assembly and thermal stresses in its shield layer. Results indicate that the proposed aperture plate is tolerant of concentrated flux impingement during short-lived structural disturbances. Pointing requirements may be loosened and the requirement control torques lessened from that previously specified. Downsizing and simplifying the joint drive system should result in a considerable savings mass.

  14. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  15. Space Station - Risks and vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    In assessing the prospects of the NASA Space Station program, it is important to take account of the long term perspective embodied in the proposal; its international participants are seen as entering a complex web of developmental and operational interdependence of indefinite duration. It is noted to be rather unclear, however, to what extent this is contemplated by such potential partners as the ESA, which has its own program goals. These competing hopes for eventual autonomy in space station operations will have considerable economic, technological, and political consequences extending well into the next century.

  16. Space Station information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, W. L.; Mckay, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    The space operations information system is defined and characterized in a wide perspective. Interactive subsets of the total system are defined and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the concept of end-to-end systems and their repetitive population within the total system. High level program goals are reviewed and related to more explicit system requirements and user needs. Emphasis is placed on the utility and cost effectiveness of data system services from a user standpoint. Productivity, as a quantitative goal, in both development and operational phases is also addressed. Critical aspects of the approach to successful development of the data management system are discussed along with recommendations important to advanced development activities. Current and planned activity in both technology and advanced development areas are reviewed with emphasis on their importance to program success.

  17. Space station molecular sieve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  18. Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available to the International Space Station scientific community, introduces plans for extending microgravity analysis results to the newly arrived scientific laboratories, and provides summary information for known microgravity environment disturbers.

  19. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence stems, flowers, and fruits in the Plant Experiment Unit. In addition, the senescence of rosette leaves was found to be delayed in microgravity.

  20. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study. Space station program fluid management systems databook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Lydon, M.

    1988-01-01

    Commonality and integration of propulsion and fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements are being evaluated. The Space Station elements consist of the core station, which includes habitation and laboratory modules, nodes, airlocks, and trusswork; and associated vehicles, platforms, experiments, and payloads. The program is being performed as two discrete tasks. Task 1 investigated the components of the Space Station architecture to determine the feasibility and practicality of commonality and integration among the various propulsion elements. This task was completed. Task 2 is examining integration and commonality among fluid systems which were identified by the Phase B Space Station contractors as being part of the initial operating capability (IOC) and growth Space Station architectures. Requirements and descriptions for reference fluid systems were compiled from Space Station documentation and other sources. The fluid systems being examined are: an experiment gas supply system, an oxygen/hydrogen supply system, an integrated water system, the integrated nitrogen system, and the integrated waste fluids system. Definitions and descriptions of alternate systems were developed, along with analyses and discussions of their benefits and detriments. This databook includes fluid systems descriptions, requirements, schematic diagrams, component lists, and discussions of the fluid systems. In addition, cost comparison are used in some cases to determine the optimum system for a specific task.

  1. International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

  2. Manned space stations - A perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  3. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  4. Space Station - The next logical step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. T.; Hodge, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is committed to the development of a permanently manned Space Station within a decade, in concert with European and Japanese space agencies. In addition to continuing scientific research, the Space Station will proceed with applied science and industrialization experiments. International cooperation opportunities arise within the Space Station program for users (in the definition of missions), for builders (in the development of station resources and capabilities), and operators (in the orbital maintenance of the Space Station).

  5. Space station architectural elements model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. C.; Spencer, J. S.; Rocha, C. J.; Kahn, E.; Cliffton, E.; Carr, C.

    1987-01-01

    The worksphere, a user controlled computer workstation enclosure, was expanded in scope to an engineering workstation suitable for use on the Space Station as a crewmember desk in orbit. The concept was also explored as a module control station capable of enclosing enough equipment to control the station from each module. The concept has commercial potential for the Space Station and surface workstation applications. The central triangular beam interior configuration was expanded and refined to seven different beam configurations. These included triangular on center, triangular off center, square, hexagonal small, hexagonal medium, hexagonal large and the H beam. Each was explored with some considerations as to the utilities and a suggested evaluation factor methodology was presented. Scale models of each concept were made. The models were helpful in researching the seven beam configurations and determining the negative residual (unused) volume of each configuration. A flexible hardware evaluation factor concept is proposed which could be helpful in evaluating interior space volumes from a human factors point of view. A magnetic version with all the graphics is available from the author or the technical monitor.

  6. Space Station Freedom media handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Work underway at NASA to design and develop Space Station Freedom is described in this handbook. The roles, responsibilities, and tasks at NASA are discussed in order to provide information for the media. Ground facilities are described with a look towards future possibilities and requirements. Historical perspectives, international cooperation, and the responsibilities of specific NASA centers are also examined.

  7. Space station power system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of the requirements on which the Space Station Electric Power System is based as well as a summary of the design itself. The current design, which is based on silicon photovoltaic arrays, NiH2 batteries, and 20 kHz distribution technology, meets all of the requirements.

  8. Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Williams, R. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

  9. Automating Space Station operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  10. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin; Cassidy, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    NASA policy concerning the commercial infrastructure of the Space Station is examined. Plans for receiving and evaluating unsolicited proposals to provide commercial infrastructure are outlined. The guidelines for development of the commercial infrastructure and examples of opportunities for industry are listed. Also, a program for industry feedback concerning the commercial infrastructure policy is discussed.

  11. Independent Review of U.S. and Russian Probabilistic Risk Assessments for the International Space Station Mini Research Module #2 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Mini-Research Module-2 (MRM-2), a Russian module on the International Space Station, does not meet its requirements for micrometeoroid and orbital debris probability of no penetration (PNP). To document this condition, the primary Russian Federal Space Agency ISS contractor, S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation-Energia (RSC-E), submitted an ISS non-compliance report (NCR) which was presented at the 5R Stage Operations Readiness Review (SORR) in October 2009. In the NCR, RSC-E argued for waiving the PNP requirement based on several factors, one of which was the risk of catastrophic failure was acceptably low at 1 in 11,100. However, NASA independently performed an assessment of the catastrophic risk resulting in a value of 1 in 1380 and believed that the risk at that level was unacceptable. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to evaluate the two competing catastrophic risk values and determine which was more accurate. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  12. Space station full-scale docking/berthing mechanisms development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Gene C.; Price, Harold A.; Buchanan, David B.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most critical operational functions for the space station is the orbital docking between the station and the STS orbiter. The program to design, fabricate, and test docking/berthing mechanisms for the space station is described. The design reflects space station overall requirements and consists of two mating docking mechanism halves. One half is designed for use on the shuttle orbiter and incorporates capture and energy attenuation systems using computer controlled electromechanical actuators and/or attenuators. The mating half incorporates a flexible feature to allow two degrees of freedom at the module-to-module interface of the space station pressurized habitat volumes. The design concepts developed for the prototype units may be used for the first space station flight hardware.

  13. The International Space Station in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

  14. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  15. Space stations and space platforms - Concepts, design, infrastructure, and uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I. (Editor); Herman, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include space infrastructures and early Space Station and platform planning. Consideration is given to the supportive role of the Space Station and platform in future astronomy, earth observation, planetary, and communication space missions. Papers are presented on the history of the Space Station and space platform concepts, potential designs of space stations and space platforms, and long-range plans for space research.

  16. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that this evolution can be accomplished while conducting critical on-orbit operations with minimal hardware changes.

  17. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be...

  18. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be...

  19. Crew quarters for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    The only long-term U.S. manned space mission completed has been Skylab, which has similarities as well as differences to the proposed Space Station. With the exception of Skylab missions, there has been a dearth of experience on which to base the design of the individual Space Station Freedom crew quarters. Shuttle missions commonly do not have sleep compartments, only 'sleeping arrangements'. There are provisions made for each crewmember to have a sleep restraint and a sleep liner, which are attached to a bulkhead or a locker. When the Shuttle flights began to have more than one working shift, crew quarters became necessary due to noise and other disturbances caused by crew task-related activities. Shuttle missions that have planned work shifts have incorporated sleep compartments. To assist in gaining more information and insight for the design of the crew quarters for the Space Station Freedom, a survey was given to current crewmembers with flight experience. The results from this survey were compiled and integrated with information from the literature covering space experience, privacy, and human-factors issues.

  20. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  1. Space Station power requirements and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Huckins, E.; Ahlf, P.

    1994-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the space station configuration and summarizes the requirements, architecture, and significant challenges associated with the Electrical Power System (EPS). The space station configuration was baselined during the Systems Design Review (SDR) process in March, 1994. The current configuration includes the addition of Russia as an international partner, resulting in major changes to the assembly sequence, pressurized module complement, and overall power architecture. The Russian contributions to the power system architecture, as well as an overview and development status of the US provided elements is presented. Finally, a planned flight demonstration of solar dynamic power system on the Mir as part of the first phase of US/Russian cooperation in human space flight is described.

  2. International Space Station -- Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate microgravity science experiments on board Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF will be a permanet facility aboard the ISS, and will be capable of accommodating up to ten science investigations per year. It will support the NASA Science and Technology Research Plans for the International Space Station (ISS) which require sustained systematic research of the effects of reduced gravity in the areas of fluid physics and combustion science. From left to right are the Combustion Integrated Rack, the Shared Rack, and the Fluids Integrated Rack. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  3. Space station propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

  4. The partnership: Space shuttle, space science, and space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Philip E.; Freitag, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Space Station Program functions, design, and planned implementation is presented. The discussed functions for the permanently manned space facility include: (1) development of new technologies and related commercial products; (2) observations of the Earth and the universe; (3) provision of service facilities for resupply, maintenance, upgrade and repair of payloads and spacecraft; (4) provision of a transportation node for stationing, processing and dispatching payloads and vehicles; (5) provision of manufacturing and assembly facilities; (6) provision of a storage depot for parts and payloads; and (7) provision of a staging base for future space endeavors. The fundamental concept for the Space Station, as given, is that it be designed, operated, and evolved in response to a broad variety of scientific, technological, and commercial user interests. The Space Shuttle's role as the principal transportation system for the construction and maintenance of the Space Station and the servicing and support of the station crew is also discussed.

  5. The challenge of the US Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station program is described. The objectives of the present national space policy are reviewed. International involvement and commercial use of space are the two strategies involved in the development of the Space Station. The Space Station is to be a multifunctional, modular, permanent facility with manned and unmanned platforms. The functions of the Space Station for space research projects, such as material processing and electrophoresis, are examined. The infrastructure required for commercialization of space is analyzed. NASA's space policy aimed at stimulating space commerce is discussed. NASA's plans to reduce the financial, institutional, and technical risks of space research are studied.

  6. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  7. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  8. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  9. NASA's space program - Space Station: A status report and a view of its value for space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of the Space Station program and the proposed configuration, operation, and evolution of the Space Station are described. The Space Station is to be composed of a manned base and two unmanned platforms; the configuration of the Station is dual keel, and the baseline system includes a hybrid power system with photovoltaics providing 25 kW and solar dynamics providing 50 kW. International participation in the development and use of the Space Station, in particular the design of the pressurized modules, is discussed. Intended scientific uses of the Space Station Complex are considered.

  10. Space Station Freedom - Status of the U.S. segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoe, John David F.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Space Station Freedom program is given. The results of a technical audit of the U.S. program, and the reorganization taking place at NASA HQ are discussed. Some areas resolved in the past year such as the type of power to be delivered to each pressurized module and the definition of common payload interfaces within all modules are reviewed. The utility of the Space Station Freedom is emphasized.

  11. Space station protective coating development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Hill, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    A generic list of Space Station surfaces and candidate material types is provided. Environmental exposures and performance requirements for the different Space Station surfaces are listed. Coating materials and the processing required to produce a viable system, and appropriate environmental simulation test facilities are being developed. Mass loss data from the original version of the atomic oxygen test chamber and the improved facility; additional environmental exposures performed on candidate materials; and materials properties measurements on candidate coatings to determine the effects of the exposures are discussed. Methodologies of production, and coating materials, used to produce the large scale demonstration articles are described. The electronic data base developed for the contract is also described. The test chamber to be used for exposure of materials to atomic oxygen was built.

  12. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  13. Technology assessment of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, V. T.

    1971-01-01

    The social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which can be expected from a system of space stations operating over relatively long periods of time in Earth orbit, are examined. The survey is an exercise in technology assessment. It is futuristic in nature. It anticipates technological applications which are still in the planning stage, and many of the conclusions are highly speculative and for this reason controversial.

  14. Space research in the era of the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The major elements of the NASA manned space station are described, and science activities it could be used for are suggested. The core facilities include at least two major laboratory modules with supporting utilities, including habitation accommodations, docking facilities, power and heat rejection units, and external space and support for attached payloads. A vertically oriented structure, called the Power Tower, is being studied. Scientific accommodations inside the modules include major facility instrumentation for a variety of microgravity research projects, with initial emphasis upon materials research and life sciences. The second element is composed of free-flying satellites operating in orbits near the core station. The third element consists of satellites in polar orbits. One or more large, multi-instrument platforms are planned for Earth observation and solar-terrestrial processes research.

  15. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  16. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shown here is the International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss in preparation for installation in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at NASA's Kennedy Space Center )KSC)in Florida. The truss launched October 7, 2002 on the STS-112 mission and will be attached during three spacewalks. Constructed primarily of aluminum, it measures 45 feet long, 15 feet wide, 10 feet tall, and weighs over 27,000 pounds. It is one of nine similar truss segments that, combined, will serve as the Station's main backbone, measuring 356 feet from end to end upon completion. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss was flown to the Marshall Space Flight Center, in Huntsville, Alabama where brackets, cable trays, fluid tubing, and other secondary components and outfitting items were added. In Huntsville, it was screened for manufacturing flaws, including pressure and leak checking tubing, and electrical checks for cabling, before being shipped to KSC for final hardware installation and testing. The Space Station's labs, living modules, solar arrays, heat radiators, and other main components will be attached to the truss.

  18. Space station freedom crew training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobko, Karol J.; Gibson, Edward G.; Maroney, Susan A.; Muccio, James D.

    The nature of the Space Station Freedom Program presents an array of new and enhanced challenges which need to be addressed en route to developing an effective and affordable infrastructure for crew training. Such an infrastructure is essential for the safety and success of the program. The three major challenges that affect crew training are the long lifetime of the program (thirty years), the interdependence of successive increments, and the participation of the three International Partners (Canada, European Space Agency, and Japan) and a myriad of experimenters. This paper addresses these major challenges as they drive the development of a crew training capability and the actual conduct of crew training.

  19. The International Space Station Assembly on Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As engineers continue to prepare the International Space Station (ISS) for in-orbit assembly in the year 2002, ANSYS software has proven instrumental in resolving a structural problem in the project's two primary station modules -- Nodes 1 and 2. Proof pressure tests performed in May revealed "low temperature, post-yield creep" in some of the Nodes' gussets, which were designed to reinforce ports for loads from station keeping and reboost motion of the entire space station. An extensive effort was undertaken to characterize the creep behavior of the 2219-T851 aluminum forging material from which the gussets were made. Engineers at Sverdrup Technology, Inc. (Huntsville, AL) were responsible for conducting a combined elastic-plastic-creep analysis of the gussets to determine the amount of residual compressive stress which existed in the gussets following the proof pressure tests, and to determine the stress-strain history in the gussets while on-orbit. Boeing, NASA's Space Station prime contractor, supplied the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model geometry and developed the creep equations from the experimental data taken by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center. The goal of this effort was to implement the uniaxial creep equations into a three dimensional finite element program, and to determine analytically whether or not the creep was something that the space station program could live with. The objective was to show analytically that either the creep rate was at an acceptable level, or that the node module had to be modified to lower the stress levels to where creep did not occur. The elastic-plastic-creep analysis was performed using the ANSYS finite element program of ANSYS, Inc. (Houston, PA). The analysis revealed that the gussets encountered a compressive stress of approximately 30,000 pounds per square inch (psi) when unloaded. This compressive residual stress significantly lowered the maximum tension stress in the gussets which decreased the creep strain rate. The analysis also showed that the gussets would not experience a great deal of creep from future pressure tests if braces or struts proposed by Boeing were installed to redistribute stress away from them. Subsequent analysis of on-orbit station keeping and reboost loads convinced Boeing that the gussets should be removed altogether.

  20. Space Station Freedom altitude strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Brian M.; Teplitz, Scott B.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) altitude strategy provides guidelines and assumptions to determine an altitude profile for Freedom. The process for determining an altitude profile incorporates several factors such as where the Space Shuttle will rendezvous with the SSF, when reboosts must occur, and what atmospheric conditions exist causing decay. The altitude strategy has an influence on all areas of SSF development and mission planning. The altitude strategy directly affects the micro-gravity environment for experiments, propulsion and control system sizing, and Space Shuttle delivery manifests. Indirectly the altitude strategy influences almost every system and operation within the Space Station Program. Evolution of the SSF altitude strategy has been a very dynamic process over the past few years. Each altitude strategy in turn has emphasized a different consideration. Examples include a constant Space Shuttle rendezvous altitude for mission planning simplicity, or constant micro-gravity levels with its inherent emphasis on payloads, or lifetime altitudes to provide a safety buffer to loss of control conditions. Currently a new altitude strategy is in development. This altitude strategy will emphasize Space Shuttle delivery optimization. Since propellant is counted against Space Shuttle payload-to-orbit capacity, lowering the rendezvous altitude will not always increase the net payload-to-orbit, since more propellant would be required for reboost. This altitude strategy will also consider altitude biases to account for Space Shuttle launch slips and an unexpected worsening of atmospheric conditions. Safety concerns will define a lower operational altitude limit, while radiation levels will define upper altitude constraints. The evolution of past and current SSF altitude strategies and the development of a new altitude strategy which focuses on operational issues as opposed to design are discussed.

  1. Space station operations task force summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

  2. Space station architectural elements model study. Space station human factors research review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Khan, Eyoub; Spencer, John; Rocha, Carlos; Cliffton, Ethan Wilson

    1987-01-01

    Presentation visuals and an extended abstract represent a study to explore and analyze the interaction of major utilities distribution, generic workstation, and spatial composition of the SPACEHAB space station module. Issues addressed include packing densities vs. circulation, efficiency of packing vs. standardization, flexibility vs. diversity, and composition of interior volume as space for living vs. residual negative volume. The result of the study is expected to be a series of observations and preliminary evaluation criteria which focus on the productive living environment for a module in orbit.

  3. International Space Station from Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour took this spectacular image of the International Space Station during the STS118 mission, August 8-21, 2007. The image was acquired by an astronaut through one of the crew cabin windows, looking back over the length of the Shuttle. This oblique (looking at an angle from vertical, rather than straight down towards the Earth) image was acquired almost one hour after late inspection activities had begun. The sensor head of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is visible at image top left. The entire Space Station is visible at image bottom center, set against the backdrop of the Ionian Sea approximately 330 kilometers below it. Other visible features of the southeastern Mediterranean region include the toe and heel of Italy's 'boot' at image lower left, and the western coastlines of Albania and Greece, which extend across image center. Farther towards the horizon, the Aegean and Black Seas are also visible. Featured astronaut photograph STS118-E-9469 was acquired by the STS-118 crew on August 19, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera using a 28 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center.

  4. International Space Station -- Human Research Facility (HRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Arn Harris Hoover of Lockheed Martin Company demonstrates an engineering mockup of the Human Research Facility (HRF) that will be installed in Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Using facilities similar to research hardware available in laboratories on Earth, the HRF will enable systematic study of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurosensory, pulmonary, radiation, and regulatory physiology to determine biomedical changes resulting from space flight. Research results obtained using this facility are relevant to the health and the performance of the astronaut as well as future exploration of space. Because this is a mockup, the actual flight hardware may vary as desings are refined. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  5. Space Station body mounted radiator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.; Duschatko, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration has been given to utilizing the external area of the Space Station common modules or resource nodes to provide heat rejection. A program was undertaken to define the best body mounted radiator design, to define and build a full size test article and to conduct testing to verify performance. Trade studies were conducted and a preferred design selected. The selected design employed high performance grooved heat pipes of an off-the-shelf design. Twenty panels, each about 1.2 m wide by 5.6 m long are installed on each module rejecting a total of about 12 kW. The radiators are interfaced with the module thermal control loop by use of a refrigerant 21 loop with an on-orbit operable disconnect at each panel. A one-panel test article has been designed and is currently being fabricated. Testing is scheduled to be conducted in June of 1987.

  6. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  7. Preparing EMU for Space Station.

    PubMed

    Wilde, R C

    1995-07-01

    In today's fiscally constrained environment, it can be expected that systems designed for one space program will increasingly be used to support other programs. The example of the U.S. extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), designed for use with the Space Shuttle, and now part of the baseline for the International Space Station (ISS) program, illustrates the adaption process. Certifying the Shuttle's EMU for use aboard ISS requires addressing three fundamental issues: Identifying new ISS requirements to be imposed on the EMU. Extending Shuttle's EMU on-orbit service interval to meet ISS's longer missions. Certifying Shuttle's EMU to meet new environments unique to ISS. Upon completion of the certification process, Shuttle's EMU will meet all requirements for supporting both the Shuttle and ISS program. This paper discusses the processes for addressing these issues and progress to date in achieving resolution. PMID:11541316

  8. Space Station life sciences guidelines for nonhuman experiment accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R.; Hilchey, J.

    1985-01-01

    Life scientists will utilize one of four habitable modules which constitute the initial Space Station configuration. This module will be initially employed for studies related to nonhuman and human life sciences. At a later date, a new module, devoted entirely to nonhuman life sciences will be launched. This report presents a description of the characteristics of a Space Station laboratory facility from the standpoint of nonhuman research requirements. Attention is given to the science rationale for experiments which support applied medical research and basic gravitational biology, mission profiles and typical equipment and subsystem descriptions, issues associated with the accommodation of nonhuman life sciences on the Space Station, and conceptual designs for the initial operational capability configuration and later Space Station life-sciences research facilities.

  9. The NASA Space Station program plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The design of a permanently manned space station is discussed. The role of the space shuttle, planning guidelines, international cooperation, and commercial possibilities are among the topics discussed.

  10. Space Station Facility government estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 18 ways the low bidders get low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

  11. Case Study of Risk Mitigation Based on Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) Testing for the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James Mike; Clanton, Stephen Edward

    2004-01-01

    Within the pressurized elements of the International Space Station (ISS), requirements exist to ensure a safe, habitable environment for the crew. In order to provide this environment, thermal control components work in conjunction with software controls to provide heat rejection for subsystem avionics equipment, for the environmental control system and for experiment payloads. It is essential to ISS operations, mission success and crew safety that necessary testing incorporates the extreme conditions to ensure proper performance. This paper provides a general description and methodology applied to thermal related Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) tests for the ISS Node 2 module. A detailed test plan was developed and implemented with two objectives: the first was for risk mitigation of the thermal control algorithms and software qualification, and the second was for data collection which will substantiate thermalhydraulic models of the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). Analytical models are utilized to determine on-orbit performance for conditions and scenarios where the simulation of actual on-orbit system performance is limited by test configuration constraints. Node 2 IATCS HSI activities were performed at the Alenia Spazio facility in Torino, Italy with participation from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Alenia Spazio, Jacobs Engineering Sverdrup (JE Sverdrup) and Boeing.

  12. Space Biosciences, Space-X, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Space Biosciences Research on the International Space Station uses living organisms to study a variety of research questions. To enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. To develop the fundations for a safe, productive human exploration of space. To improve the quality of life on earth.

  13. Low temperature research aboard the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Ruiz, R.; Lee, M. C.; Reinker, R.

    1996-06-01

    A cryogenic Space Station facility is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and industrial partners to support the microgravity needs of the international scientific community. The facility will be attached to the Japanese Experiments Module's Exposed Facility and will operate with a 6 month helium cryogen lifetime. Flights of the facility are planned at 2 year intervals starting in 2003 with each flight accommodating multiple scientific experiments. Capabilities, conceptual designs and development plans for the facility will be discussed along with a summary of potential near term flight candidate experiments.

  14. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  15. Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

  16. Space Station automation and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A group of fifteen students in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, has been involved in a design project under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Systems Research Center (SRC) at UMCP. The goal of the NASA/USRA project was to first obtain a refinement of the design work done in Spring 1986 on the proposed Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) for the Space Station. This was followed by design exercises involving the OMV and two armed service vehicle. Three students worked on projects suggested by NASA Goddard scientists for ten weeks this past summer. The knowledge gained from the summer design exercise has been used to improve our current design of the MRMS. To this end, the following program was undertaken for the Fall semester 1986: (1) refinement of the MRMS design; and (2) addition of vision capability to our design.

  17. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  18. Solar dynamic power for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on Earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  19. Interferometer for Space Station Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Inspection of space station windows for micrometeorite damage would be a difficult task insitu using current inspection techniques. Commercially available optical profilometers and inspection systems are relatively large, about the size of a desktop computer tower, and require a stable platform to inspect the test object. Also, many devices currently available are designed for a laboratory or controlled environments requiring external computer control. This paper presents an approach using a highly developed optical interferometer to inspect the windows from inside the space station itself using a self- contained hand held device. The interferometer would be capable as a minimum of detecting damage as small as one ten thousands of an inch in diameter and depth while interrogating a relatively large area. The current developmental state of this device is still in the proof of concept stage. The background section of this paper will discuss the current state of the art of profilometers as well as the desired configuration of the self-contained, hand held device. Then, a discussion of the developments and findings that will allow the configuration change with suggested approaches appearing in the proof of concept section.

  20. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  1. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the frame of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station (ISS) is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European Columbus module the experiment “Dose Distribution Inside the ISS” (DOSIS), under the project and science lead of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The DOSIS experiment consists of a combination of “Passive Detector Packages” (PDP) distributed at eleven locations inside Columbus for the measurement of the spatial variation of the radiation field and two active Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTELs) with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) in a dedicated nomex pouch mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) for the measurement of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. The DOSIS experiment suite measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 2009 to June 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the follow up DOSIS 3D experiment. The hardware for DOSIS 3D was launched with Soyuz 30S to the ISS on May 15th 2012. The PDPs are replaced with each even number Soyuz flight starting with Soyuz 30S. Data from the active detectors is transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated once a month for this action. The presentation will give an overview of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D experiment and focus on the results from the passive radiation detectors from the DOSIS 3D experiment (2012 - 2014) in comparison to the data of the DOSIS experiment (2009 - 2011). The Polish contribution was supported by the National Science Centre (No DEC-2012/06/M/ST9/00423). The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are financially supported by BMWi under Grants 50WB0826, 50WB1026 and 50WB1232.

  2. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Denham, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analysis and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will indicate changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations, and is an update to the status presented in 20031. Many new modules, and sleep stations have been added to the ISS since that time. In addition, noise mitigation efforts have reduced noise levels in some areas. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS have improved.

  3. A customer-friendly Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  4. AI applications for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boarnet, Marlon; Culbert, Chris; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    NASA is currently developing a space station for long-term usage of space. This space station presents NASA with numerous problems which may be best handled by effective use of expert systems. The authors outline some of the benefits expert systems will provide, some of the issues involved in choosing appropriate applications, and the impact expert systems will have on the design of the space station.

  5. Emergency egress requirements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    An objective was to determine if the pressurized elements and hatchways of the Space Station Freedom support the emergency egress of crewmembers during operation of the station at the stage of Permanently Manned Capacity. Emergency egress was defined as the exit from a pressurized element when an event occurs which makes that element uninhabitable. The possible egress paths for four emergency scenarios considered were: (1) accident occurs in a module and crewmembers translate to the attached node; (2) accident occurs at a node and crewmembers translate through it to the safe node; (3) accident occurs at a module close to a node and crewmembers are not able to translate through the affected area; and (4) accident occurs at a node and crewmembers cannot translate through it. The structural design of the pressurized elements and the hatches studied is adequate for the emergence egress translation requirement. The current location of a few racks may cause some obstruction for egress to the orbiter. The egress time required in the worst situation is estimated to be about 3 mins. There is a chance of getting crewmembers trapped in a module in case of a severe accident. Aids are needed for emergency egress translation.

  6. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

  7. International space station. Large scale integration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Brad

    The International Space Station is the most complex large scale integration program in development today. The approach developed for specification, subsystem development, and verification lay a firm basis on which future programs of this nature can be based. International Space Station is composed of many critical items, hardware and software, built by numerous International Partners, NASA Institutions, and U.S. Contractors and is launched over a period of five years. Each launch creates a unique configuration that must be safe, survivable, operable, and support ongoing assembly (assemblable) to arrive at the assembly complete configuration in 2003. The approaches to integrating each of the modules into a viable spacecraft and continue the assembly is a challenge in itself. Added to this challenge are the severe schedule constraints and lack of an "Iron Bird", which prevents assembly and checkout of each on-orbit configuration prior to launch. This paper will focus on the following areas: 1) Specification development process explaining how the requirements and specifications were derived using a modular concept driven by launch vehicle capability. Each module is composed of components of subsystems versus completed subsystems. 2) Approach to stage (each stage consists of the launched module added to the current on-orbit spacecraft) specifications. Specifically, how each launched module and stage ensures support of the current and future elements of the assembly. 3) Verification approach, due to the schedule constraints, is primarily analysis supported by testing. Specifically, how are the interfaces ensured to mate and function on-orbit when they cannot be mated before launch. 4) Lessons learned. Where can we improve this complex system design and integration task?

  8. Technologies for space station autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents an informal survey of experts in the field of spacecraft automation, with recommendations for which technologies should be given the greatest development attention for implementation on the initial 1990's NASA Space Station. The recommendations implemented an autonomy philosophy that was developed by the Concept Development Group's Autonomy Working Group during 1983. They were based on assessments of the technologies' likely maturity by 1987, and of their impact on recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and productivity. The three technology areas recommended for programmatic emphasis were: (1) artificial intelligence expert (knowledge based) systems and processors; (2) fault tolerant computing; and (3) high order (procedure oriented) computer languages. This report also describes other elements required for Station autonomy, including technologies for later implementation, system evolvability, and management attitudes and goals. The cost impact of various technologies is treated qualitatively, and some cases in which both the recurring and nonrecurring costs might be reduced while the crew productivity is increased, are also considered. Strong programmatic emphasis on life cycle cost and productivity is recommended.

  9. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  10. Bioisolation on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.; Arno, Roger D.; Kishiyama, Jenny S.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1988-01-01

    Animal research on the Space Station presents the need for bioisolation, which is here defined as instrumental and operational provisions, which will prevent the exchange of particles greater than 0.3-micron size and microorganisms between crew and animals. Current design principles for the Biological Research Project thus call for: (1) use of specific pathogen-free animals; (2) keeping animals at all times in enclosed habitats, provided with microbial filters and a waste collection system; (3) placing habitats in a holding rack, centrifuge, and workbench, all equipped with particulate and odor filters, (4) washing dirty cage units in an equipment cleaner, with treatment and recycling of the water; (5) designing components and facilities so as to ensure maximal accessibility for cleaning; and (6) defining suitable operational procedures. Limited ground tests of prototype components indicate that proper bioisolation can thus be achieved.

  11. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  12. Space Station tethered waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, Charles C.

    1988-01-01

    The Shuttle Transportation System (STS) launches more payload to the Space Station than can be returned creating an accumulation of waste. Several methods of deorbiting the waste are compared including an OMV, solid rocket motors, and a tether system. The use of tethers is shown to offer the unique potential of having a net savings in STS launch requirement. Tether technology is being developed which can satisfy the deorbit requirements but additional effort is required in waste processing, packaging, and container design. The first step in developing this capability is already underway in the Small Expendable Deployer System program. A developmental flight test of a tether initiated recovery system is seen as the second step in the evolution of this capability.

  13. Space station trace contaminant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcutt, T.

    1985-01-01

    Different systems for the control of space station trace contaminants are outlined. The issues discussed include: spacecabin contaminant sources, technology base, contaminant control system elements and configuration, approach to contaminant control, contaminant load model definition, spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations, charcoal bed sizing and performance characteristics, catalytic oxidizer sizing and performance characteristics, special sorbent bed sizing, animal and plant research payload problems, and emergency upset contaminant removal. It is concluded that the trace contaminant control technology base is firm, the necessary hardware tools are available, and the previous design philosophy is still applicable. Some concerns are the need as opposed to danger of the catalytic oxidizer, contaminants with very low allowable concentrations, and the impact of relaxing materials requirements.

  14. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  15. Concrete: Potential material for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

  16. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  17. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  18. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  19. Development of large earth orbital space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehricke, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    This paper outlines the major aspects of the development of large earth orbital space stations. At the outset, the uses of the space station are surveyed and the major systems and configurational drivers enumerated. A representative 12-man space station, studied by the Space Division of North American Rockwell Corporation under NASA contract is described. The subsequent discussion centers around earth-to-orbit logistics and possible future missions with emphasis on the establishment of a branch station geosynchronous orbit. In dealing with the associated transportation between low and high orbits, the concept of a geospace shuttle station oscillating between near-earth and synchronous orbit is compared with conventional shuttle vehicles with chemical and nuclear propulsion. In the final part, the evolution of the 12-man space station to a larger space base is described.

  20. Historical annotated bibliography: Space Station documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Jessie E. (Compiler); Mckinley, Sarah L. (Compiler); Gates, Thomas G. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Information is presented regarding documentation which has been produced in the Space Station program. This information will enable the researcher to locate readily documents pertinent to a particular study. It is designed to give the historian the necessary data from which to compile the written histories and to preserve records of historically significant aspects of Marshall's involvement in Space Shuttle and Space Station.

  1. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  2. Space Station Freedom: A foothold on the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the Space Station Freedom is given. Its modules are discussed and illustrated along with its microgravity research facilities. These facilities include the advanced protein crystal growth facility, the containerless processing facility, a furnace facility, a combustion facility, and a fluid physics/dynamics facility. The topic of living in space is also addressed.

  3. Space hands-on universe telescope and orbiting wide-angle light-collector telescope to be built on the Japanese experiment module exposure facility of the international space station

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Pennypacker, C.

    1999-01-01

    A concept study to build great observatories on, and deploy from, the ISS is presented. Use of the ISS infra-structure including robotic arms and astronauts{close_quote} EVA would permit a construction of very large optical telescopes. We envisage that the second phase of the ISS after its initial construction can landmark a new era for both ISS and Space Sciences. Ultimately, this study would plan a 10-or 20-meter class space telescope. For its first step, we envisioned an immediate extension of the Exposed Facility of ISS for building a {open_quotes}Work-bench{close_quotes} for this purpose. Initial activities can begin with two modest-sized telescopes soon after the ISS construction. These early missions being studied are space Hands-On Universe Telescope (SHOUT) and Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collector (OWL). SHOUT is a 1-m telescope for science education. It will be built and adjusted on the exposure module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station by using a robotic arm and the EVA of astronauts. We also seek the possibility to release it from ISS after its perfection on orbit, so that it is free from the vibrations and gas contaminations on and around the ISS. SHOUT is an engineering prototype of 10-m Space Telescope (Space SUBARU Telescope). It would be scaled from the Space-SUBARU telescope so that the testing with the SHOUT would warrant the required specifications for the 10-meter Space-SUBARU construction on the ISS. The goal of the test with the SHOUT is to warrant a spatial resolution of 0.01 arc-seconds using the active/adaptive optics. It will test the following three major engineering challenges: (1) active/adaptive optics in space; (2) building of large structures by astronauts; and (3) release of a spacecraft from ISS to a free-flying orbit. The present feasibility study for the next generation great observatories that are to be built on the JEM Exposure Facility (EF) has been already funded by the Japan Space Forum, under the auspices of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. Included in this study are SHOUT, Space SUBARU telescope as well as OWL, Large Area gamma-ray Telescope (LAGT), and Space Submilimeter and Infrared Telescope (S-SIT). {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Space Station end effector strategy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Payload Information Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station Payload Information Source CD is a joint effort of NASA and United Space Alliance. It is an introduction to the Space Station's capabilities, payload accommodations and the payload integration process. The CD is designed for use in conjunction with the station payloads website. The outline for the website includes fields of research, getting on board, international partners, about the ISS, basic accommodations, specialized facilities, payload integration, payload processing, payload operations, and reference documents.

  6. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

  7. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference was held on 3-6 Aug. 1992 in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prospective space station researchers and the people in NASA and industry with whom they would be working to exchange information and discuss plans and opportunities for space station research. Topics covered include: research capabilities; research plans and opportunities; life sciences research; technology research; and microgravity research and biotechnology.

  8. Maintainability planning for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned NASA Space Station, which is expected to have many years of on-orbit operation, for the first time confronts spacecraft designers with major questions of maintainability in design. A Maintainability Guidelines Document has been distributed to all Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design personnel of the Space Station Program Office. Trade studies are being performed to determine the most economical balance between initial (reliability) cost and life cycle cost (crew time and replacement hardware) costs.

  9. Space Station truss structures and construction considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Croomes, S. D.; Schneider, W.; Bush, H. G.; Nagy, K.; Pelischek, T.; Lake, M. S.; Wesselski, C.

    1985-01-01

    Although a specific configuration has not been selected for the Space Station, a gravity gradient stabilized station as a basis upon which to compare various structural and construction concepts is considered. The Space Station primary truss support structure is described in detail. Three approaches (see sketch A) which are believed to be representative of the major techniques for constructing large structures in space are also described in detail so that salient differences can be highlighted.

  10. Space Station engineering and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Historical background, costs, organizational assignments, technology development, user requirements, mission evolution, systems analyses and design, systems engineering and integration, contracting, and policies of the space station are discussed.

  11. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  12. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame spread of liquids, drop combustion, and quenching of panicle-air flames. Unfortunately, the same features that make microgravity attractive for fundamental combustion experiments, introduce new fire and explosion hazards that have no counterpart on earth. For example, microgravity can cause broader flammability limits, novel regimes of flame spread, enhanced effects of flame radiation, slower fire detector response, and enhanced combustion upon injecting fire extinguishing agents, among others. On the other hand, spacecraft provide an opportunity to use 'fire-safe' atmospheres due to their controlled environment. Investigation of these problems is just beginning, with specific fire safety experiments supplementing the space based fundamental experiments listed earlier; thus, much remains to be done to develop an adequate technology base for fire and explosion safety considerations for spacecraft.

  13. Maintenance evaluation for space station liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugel, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Many of the thermal and environmental control life support subsystems as well as other subsystems of the space station utilize various liquids and contain components which are either expendables or are life-limited in some way. Since the space station has a 20-year minimum orbital lifetime requirement, there will also be random failures occurring within the various liquid-containing subsystems. These factors as well as the planned space station build-up sequence require that maintenance concepts be developed prior to the design phase. This applies to the equipment which needs maintenance as well as the equipment which may be required at a maintenance work station within the space station. This paper presents several maintenance concepts for liquid-containing items and a flight experiment program which would allow for evaluation and improvement of these concepts so they can be incorporated in the space station designs at the outset of its design phase.

  14. Concurrent development of fault management hardware and software in the SSM/PMAD. [Space Station Module/Power Management And Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Kenneth A.; Walsh, Rick; Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station issues in fault management are discussed. The system background is described with attention given to design guidelines and power hardware. A contractually developed fault management system, FRAMES, is integrated with the energy management functions, the control switchgear, and the scheduling and operations management functions. The constraints that shaped the FRAMES system and its implementation are considered.

  15. Space station propulsion-ECLSS interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Scott M.

    1986-01-01

    The benefits of the utilization of effluents of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system are examined. Various ECLSS-propulsion system interaction options are evaluated and compared on the basis of weight, volume, and power requirements. Annual propulsive impulse to maintain station altitude during a complete solar cycle of eleven years and the effect on station resupply are considered.

  16. Catastrophic Failure Modes Assessment of the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. E. P.; Goodwin, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses to quantify the hazardous effects of meteoroid/debris penetration of Space Station Alpha manned module protective structures. These analyses concentrate on determining (a) the critical crack length associated with six manned module pressure wall designs that, if exceeded, would lead to unstopped crack propagation and rupture of manned modules, and (b) the likelihood of crew or station loss following penetration of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine tanks aboard the proposed Russian FGB ('Tug') propulsion module and critical elements aboard the control moment gyro module (SPP-1). Results from these quantified safety analyses are useful in improving specific design areas, thereby reducing the overall likelihood of crew or station loss following orbital debris penetration.

  17. Space station: A step into the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station is an essential element of NASA's ongoing program to recover from the loss of the Challenger and to regain for the United States its position of leadership in space. The Space Station Program has made substantial progress and some of the major efforts undertaken are discussed briefly. A few of the Space Station policies which have shaped the program are reviewed. NASA is dedicated to building a Station that, in serving science, technology, and commerce assured the United States a future in space as exciting and rewarding as the past. In cooperation with partners in the industry and abroad, the intent is to develop a Space Station that is intellectually productive, technically demanding, and genuinely useful.

  18. Regeneration of water at space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Sinyak, Yu. E.; Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Protasov, N. N.; Andreychuk, P. O.

    2011-05-01

    The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station.

  19. Space station: The next logical step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Andrew J.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics with respect to the space station program are discussed: (1) unmanned free-flyers; (2) recent progress; (3) the space shuttle; (4) international participation; (5) science, commerce, and technology; and (6) private sector participation.

  20. Space Station communications system design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the methodologies currently being used as the framework within which the NASA Space Station's communications system is to be designed and analyzed. A key aspect of the CAD/analysis system being employed is its potential growth in size and capabilities, since Space Station design requirements will continue to be defined and modified. The Space Station is expected to furnish communications between itself and astronauts on EVA, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicles, Orbital Transfer Vehicles, Space Shuttle orbiters, free-flying spacecraft, coorbiting platforms, and the Space Shuttle's own Mobile Service Center.

  1. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Lousma is at the Apollo Telescope Mount EVA work station assembling one of the two 55-foot long sectionalized poles for the twin pole solar shield which was deployed to help cool the Orbital Workshop. Part of the Airlock Module's thermal/meteoroid curtain is in the left foreground.

  2. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  3. Space station access with VentureStar™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulconer, Walt; Randolph, Don

    1998-01-01

    The VentureStar™ reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will dramatically reduce the cost of access to the International Space Station (ISS). It will begin servicing the ISS starting in mid-2004 and become the primary space transportation provider by 2006. This paper discusses the ongoing development of VentureStar™, Space Transportation System (STS) to VentureStar transition plans, and how VentureStar will service the space station.

  4. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  5. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M. Frank

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  6. Space Station: Leadership for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Franklin D.; Finn, Terence T.

    1987-01-01

    No longer limited to occasional spectaculars, space has become an essential, almost commonplace dimension of national life. Among other things, space is an arena of competition with our allies and adversaries, a place of business, a field of research, and an avenue of cooperation with our allies. The space station will play a critical role in each of these endeavors. Perhaps the most significant feature of the space station, essential to its utility for science, commerce, and technology, is the permanent nature of its crew. The space station will build upon the tradition of employing new capabilities to explore further and question deeper, and by providing a permanent presence, the station should significantly increase the opportunities for conducting research in space. Economic productivity is, in part, a function of technical innovation. A major thrust of the station design effort is devoted to enhancing performance through advanced technology. The space station represents the commitment of the United States to a future in space. Perhaps most importantly, as recovery from the loss of Challenger and its crew continues, the space station symbolizes the national determination to remain undeterred by tragedy and to continue exploring the frontiers of space.

  7. Variable artificial gravity facility for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The project selected by the U.S. Naval Academy and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the 1986-87 NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was a variable artificial gravity facility, an adjunct to the Space Station. Recently, Goddard Space Flight Center had proposed that a formal study be conducted by NASA to investigate the question of whether an artificial gravity capability should be added to the Space Station. Therefore, not only does this project fit the goals of the Design Program, but it was a timely and interesting project. The variable artificial gravity was generated by a spinning module, and became an adjunct to the Space Station. It was planned that as much of the Space Station technology as possible be incorporated into the design. The components of the system were inserted into orbit. The specific design parameters were essentially open. The primary design objectives were: (1) The highest gravity level sufficient to prevent bone calcium loss in astronauts. (2) The cost of the Space Station should not be increased by more than 20 percent. (3) The number of launches to orbit the Space Station should not be increased by more than 30 percent. A secondary design objective was to investigate whether this design was suitable for a long duration space flight, such as a mission to Mars, or if the design is easily and inexpensively modified for such a mission.

  8. Advanced software tools space station focused technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Information is given in outline form on advanced software tools for the Space Station data management system. The Space Station data management system is identified as a highly distributed system with payload users controlling experiments and processing payload data from home facilities.

  9. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by the blue and white Earth is a Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) on the exterior of the Station. The photograph was taken during the second bout of STS-118 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). MISSE collects information on how different materials weather in the environment of space.

  10. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  11. Space station models, mockups and simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.; Osgood, A.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines for space station models, mockups, and simulators are presented. The types of Boeing models, mockups, and simulators are given along with the classes and characteristics. The use of models in the 767 program is briefly given. Computerized human factors tools are outlined. The use of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing in the approach for the space station is advocated.

  12. Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

  13. Status of space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.; Sheibley, Dean W.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the manned space station configuration and the power systems are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. The recently completed phase B tradeoff study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described. The present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems are also summarized for completeness.

  14. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Matthew Fisk; Mclallin, Kerry; Zernic, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased Space Station user requirements and advancing technologies. The Space Station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial Space Station systems such as guidance, navigation, and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage, which must be planned-in, in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  15. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Matthew F.; Mclallin, Kerry L.; Zernic, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased space station user requirements and advancing technologies. The space station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial space station systems such as guidance navigation and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage which must be planned-in in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  16. Space station wardroom habitability and equipment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Miller, Christopher; Fauquet, Regis

    1989-01-01

    Experimental designs in life-size mock-up form for the wardroom facility for the Space Station Habitability Module are explored and developed. In Phase 1, three preliminary concepts for the wardroom configuration are fabricated and evaluated. In Phase 2, the results of Phase 1 are combined with a specific range of program design requirements to provide the design criteria for the fabrication of an innovative medium-fidelity mock-up of a wardrobe configuration. The study also focuses on the design and preliminary prototyping of selected equipment items including crew exercise compartments, a meal/meeting table and a portable workstation. Design criteria and requirements are discussed and documented. Preliminary and final mock-ups and equipment prototypes are described and illustrated.

  17. Selected materials issues associated with Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Visentine, J.; Santos-Mason, B.

    1987-01-01

    Compatibility of Space Station hardware with the space environment is one of the major materials development issues. The projected long life of the Space Station elements (about 30 years for structural components and 20 years for power systems), the large number of day/night thermal cycles that have to be withstood during the life of the Station, and the effects of atomic oxygen and UV irradiation on exposed surfaces demand new considerations in selection of materials. Reaction efficiencies of materials for Space Station applications derived from LEO experiments are presented together with surface recession predictions for various Space Station components. Developments in the areas of protective coatings and of laboratory facilities for evaluating the effects of atomic oxygen are discussed.

  18. STS-111 Onboard Photo of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Backdropped against the blackness of space is the International Space Station (ISS), as viewed from the approching Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission, in June 2002. Expedition Five replaced Expedition Four crew after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System that allows the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is necessary for future construction tasks; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm, and the task of unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  19. A new marketplace in space: the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belingheri, M.

    2001-08-01

    This article discusses the potential markets for the Station, the potential customers, why they might want to be in space and what they need from the Agency in order to get there. It also outlines ESA's strategy for making the Space Station a new marketplace in space.

  20. Visiting the International Space Station--my mission diary.

    PubMed

    Guidoni, G

    2001-08-01

    Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle 'Endeavour', with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed 'Raffaello' logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US 'Destiny' module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main tasks during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station. PMID:15008205

  1. 75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee. The purpose... the International Space Station, including transportation, crew rotation, training, and...

  2. The role of tethers on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of research and development that addressed the usefulness of tether applications in space, particularly for space station are described. A well organized and structured effort of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry and academia have defined the engineering and technological requirements of space tethers and their broad range of economic and operational benefits. The work directed by seven NASA Field Centers is consolidated and structured to cover the general and specific roles of tethers in space as they apply to NASA's planned space station. This is followed by a description of tether systems and operations. A summary of NASA's plans for tether applications in space for years to come is given.

  3. Progressive autonomy. [for space station systems operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the evolution of a space station in terms of the progression of autonomy, as systems perspectives and architectural concepts permit. The distinction between automation and autonomy is considered along with the evolution of autonomy, and the evolution of automation in station operations. Attention is given to the startup of a complex technological system, aspects of station control, questions of crew operational support, factors regarding the habitability of a space station, system design philosophy for autonomy, evolvability, latent capability, stage commonality, and multiple modularity. It is concluded that an evolutionary space station operating over a period of 10-20 years with a great increase in capability over that time will require a design philosophy which is more flexible and open-ended than for previous space systems.

  4. Space-station crew-safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Baseline rescue and survival concepts for future space station crews are described. Preliminary studies are being carried out to identify potential threats to crew safety and means to counteract the dangers. Significant factors being considered include the type of threat, the warning time, the number of crewmembers, strategies for protection of the crew (including life-support measures redundancy), and the dependence of space station crews on ground personnel. Attention is being given to the impact of safety devices on the space station geometry and cost, as well as the equipment necessary to maintain the crew in a psychological status positive enough to cope with emergencies. Typical threats would be fire, crewmember illness or injury, and abandonment of the station. A Shuttle launch could take up to 12 days, while equipping the space station with an emergency return capsule would permit return on the same day as the capsule was occupied.

  5. Space station structures and dynamics test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, Frank M.; Ivey, E. W.; Moore, C. J.; Townsend, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses challenges for development and implementation of technology. One specific challenge is the development of a dynamics test program for defining the space station design requirements, and identifying and characterizing phenomena affecting the space station's design and development. The test proposal, as outlined, is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station (SS). Development of a parametric data base and verification of the mathematical models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The four test phases planned are discussed: testing of SS applicable structural concepts; testing of SS prototypes; testing of actual SS structural hardware; and on-orbit testing of SS construction.

  6. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  7. Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesel, M. A.; Barga, R. S.; Dawson, J. F.; Hutton, P. H.; Kurtz, R. J.; Lemon, D. K.

    Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the Space Station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques.

  8. Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Kurtz, R.J.; Barga, R.S.; Hutton, P.H.; Lemon, D.K.

    1991-08-01

    Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the space station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full-scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Electrical power system design for the US space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, Donald L.; Bernatowicz, Daniel T.

    1986-01-01

    The multipurpose, manned, permanent space station will be our next step toward utilization of space. A multikilowatt electrical power system will be critical to its success. The power systems for the space station manned core and platforms that have been selected in definition studies are described. The system selected for the platforms uses silicon arrays and Ni-H2 batteries. The power system for the manned core is a hybrid employing arrays and batteries identical to those on the platform along with solar dynamic modules using either Brayton or organic Rankine engines. The power system requirements, candidate technologies, and configurations that were considered, and the basis for selection, are discussed.

  10. Knowledge-based machine vision systems for space station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision techniques which have the potential for use on the space station and related applications are assessed. A knowledge-based vision system (expert vision system) and the development of a demonstration system for it are described. This system implements some of the capabilities that would be necessary in a machine vision system for the robot arm of the laboratory module in the space station. A Perceptics 9200e image processor, on a host VAXstation, was used to develop the demonstration system. In order to use realistic test images, photographs of actual space shuttle simulator panels were used. The system's capabilities of scene identification and scene matching are discussed.

  11. The Space Station: In the beginning...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Hans

    1993-12-01

    The history of interest in and development of the space station concept is given. It is pointed out that the decision to base manned lunar missions on the 'lunar orbit rendezvous method', as opposed to Earth orbit staging, slowed development of space station proposals in the 1960s. Planned use of Skylab as a space station with Space Shuttle resupply failed when skylab returned to Earth in 1979 before the first Space Shuttle could be launched. The reluctance of Johnson Space Center officials to involve astronauts in the kind of lengthy extra-vehicular activity (EVA) required for space station construction was, and continues to be, a major sticking point. After a symposium in 1983 aired the EVA isues extensively, a proposal was presented for a baseline configuration space station program, and it was accepted on December 1, 1983. A series of reconsiderations of the baseline configuration led to the space station Freedom concept, which would cost significatly more than original estimates. This led to deterioration in interest in the program, leading to near death of the program by 1992. A major reconsideration study mandated by the Clinton Administration has resulted in abandonment of the Freedom concept and a return to a reduced-scope version of the project. Congress approved the program by a narrow margin on June 21, 1993.

  12. Proposal for a remotely manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minsky, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    The United States is in trouble in space. The costs of the proposed Space Station Freedom have grown beyond reach, and the present design is obsolete. The trouble has come from imagining that there are only two alternatives: manned vs. unmanned. Both choices have led us into designs that do not appear to be practical. On one side, the United States simply does not possess the robotic technology needed to operate or assemble a sophisticated unmanned space station. On the other side, the manned designs that are now under way seem far too costly and dangerous, with all of its thousands of extravehicular activity (EVA) hours. More would be accomplished at far less cost by proceeding in a different way. The design of a space station made of modular, Erector Set-like parts is proposed which is to be assembled using earth-based remotely-controlled binary-tree telerobots. Earth-based workers could be trained to build the station in space using simulators. A small preassembled spacecraft would be launched with a few telerobots, and then, telerobots could be ferried into orbit along with stocks of additional parts. Trained terrestrial workers would remotely assemble a larger station, and materials for additional power and life support systems could be launched. Finally, human scientists and explorers could be sent to the space station. Other aspects of such a space station program are discussed.

  13. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, alarm audibility, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analyses and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will reveal changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations and is an update to the status presented in 2011. Since this last status report, many payloads (science experiment hardware) have been added and a significant number of quiet ventilation fans have replaced noisier fans in the Russian Segment. Also, noise mitigation efforts are planned to reduce the noise levels of the T2 treadmill and levels in Node 3, in general. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS continue to improve.

  14. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  15. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  16. Space station structures and dynamics test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.; Townsend, John S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses unique challenges for development and implementation of new technology. The technology arises from the special requirement that the station be built and constructed to function in a weightless environment, where static loads are minimal and secondary to system dynamics and control problems. One specific challenge confronting NASA is the development of a dynamics test program for: (1) defining space station design requirements, and (2) identifying the characterizing phenomena affecting the station's design and development. A general definition of the space station dynamic test program, as proposed by MSFC, forms the subject of this report. The test proposal is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station. The test program will help to define the key issues and/or problems inherent to large space structure analysis, design, and testing. Development of a parametric data base and verification of the math models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The philosophy is to integrate dynamics into the design phase through extensive ground testing and analytical ground simulations of generic systems, prototype elements, and subassemblies. On-orbit testing of the station will also be used to define its capability.

  17. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  18. Raising the AIQ of the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems and robotics technologies are to be significantly advanced during the Space Station program. Artificial intelligence systems (AI) on the Station will include 'scars', which will permit upgrading the AI capabilities as the Station evolves to autonomy. NASA-Ames is managing the development of the AI systems through a series of demonstrations, the first, controlling a single subsystem, to be performed in 1988. The capabilities being integrated into the first demonstration are described; however, machine learning and goal-driven natural language understanding will not reach a prototype stage until the mid-1990s. Steps which will be taken to endow the computer systems with the ability to move from heuristic reasoning to factual knowledge, i.e., learning from experience, are explored. It is noted that the development of Space Station expert systems depends on the development of experts in Station operations, which will not happen until the Station has been used extensively by crew members.

  19. Leonardo MPLM in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Center) The Multi-Purpose Launch Module, named Leonardo, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). At left is a Rack Insertion Device. Above the Leonardo are the windows of the tour room where visitors can watch the activities in the SSPF. Scheduled to be launched on STS-100 on Dec. 2, 1999, the Italian-built MPLM will be carried in the payload bay of the Shuttle orbiter, and will provide storage and additional work space for up to two astronauts when docked to the International Space Station. The Leonardo is the first of three modules being provided by Alenia Aerospazio. The second MPLM, to be handed over in April 1999, is named Raffaello. A third module, to be named Donatello, is due to be delivered in October 2000 for launch in January 2001.

  20. OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressy, Philip J.

    Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

  1. OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, Philip J.

    1992-01-01

    Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

  2. Space station synergetic RAM-logistics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejulio, Edmund T.; Leet, Joel H.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Maintenance Planning and Analysis (MP&A) Study is a step in the overall Space Station Program to define optimum approaches for on-orbit maintenance planning and logistics support. The approach used in the MP&A study and the analysis process used are presented. Emphasis is on maintenance activities and processes that can be accomplished on orbit within the known design and support constraints of the Space Station. From these analyses, recommendations for maintainability/maintenance requirements are established. The ultimate goal of the study is to reduce on-orbit maintenance requirements to a practical and safe minimum, thereby conserving crew time for productive endeavors. The reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) and operations performance evaluation models used were assembled and developed as part of the MP&A study and are described. A representative space station system design is presented to illustrate the analysis process.

  3. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  4. Assessing availability of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gizinski, Stephen J., III; Schondorf, Steven Y.

    1990-01-01

    An availability assessment process developed by the Space Station Freedom Program Office Operations Organization is reviewed. The process under consideration is aimed at highlighting design attributes which hamper operations for development of appropriate design alternatives.

  5. Space Station data management system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

    1987-01-01

    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  6. NASA, Rockets, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    General overview of NASA, Launch Services Program, and the Slosh experiment aboard the International Space Station. This presentation is designed to be presented in front of university level students in hopes of inspiring them to go into STEM careers.

  7. Habitability factors in a rotating space station.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Factors aiding man to adjust to the artificial gravity environment of a rotating space station in orbit are considered. From recent experiments reported by Newsom et al. (1966), it is known that, if man is taken stepwise into a rotating environment, he can adjust (without becoming ill) to spin rates above that required for maintaining an artificial gravity environment in a space station. Little or no data are available, and much work remains to be done in the area of prehabituation and the rate at which habituation is extinguished. At least three factors must be considered in the design of an artificial gravity space station, and these factors directly affect the degree of habitability of the space-station environment. The three factors are rotation rate, stability, and Coriolis force.

  8. The space station: Human factors and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, D. J.; Burns, M. J.; Nicodemus, C. L.; Smith, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor researchers and engineers are making inputs into the early stages of the design of the Space Station to improve both the quality of life and work on-orbit. Effective integration of the human factors information related to various Intravehicular Activity (IVA), Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and teletobotics systems during the Space Station design will result in increased productivity, increased flexibility of the Space Stations systems, lower cost of operations, improved reliability, and increased safety for the crew onboard the Space Station. The major features of productivity examined include the cognitive and physical effort involved in work, the accuracy of worker output and ability to maintain performance at a high level of accuracy, the speed and temporal efficiency with which a worker performs, crewmember satisfaction with their work environment, and the relation between performance and cost.

  9. Alternative strategies for space station financing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walklet, D. C.; Heenan, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    The attributes of the proposed space station program are oriented toward research activities and technologies which generate long term benefits for mankind. Unless such technologies are deemed of national interest and thus are government funded, they must stand on their own in the market place. Therefore, the objectives of a United States space station should be based on commercial criteria; otherwise, such a project attracts no long term funding. There is encouraging evidence that some potential space station activities should generate revenues from shuttle related projects within the decade. Materials processing concepts as well as remote sensing indicate substantial potential. Futhermore, the economics and thus the commercial feasibility of such projects will be improved by the operating efficiencies available with an ongoing space station program.

  10. Predictive Attitude Maintenance For A Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.

    1989-01-01

    Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.

  11. Live from Space Station Learning Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Live From Space Station (LFSS) project under the Learning Technologies Project FY 2001 of the MSFC Education Programs Department. AZ Technology, Inc. (AZTek) has developed and implemented science education software tools to support tasks under the LTP program. Initial audience consisted of 26 TreK in the Classroom schools and thousands of museum visitors to the International Space Station: The Earth Tour exhibit sponsored by Discovery Place museum.

  12. Overview of the Space Station communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Willett, Daniel; Paul, Sunil

    1990-01-01

    Within the Space Station Freedom program, the communications and data-processing capabilities that will be used to handle the operational and scientific information needs will be provided by a Space Station information and communications system. This system will be composed of a variety of elements, networks, and subnetworks. The networks and how they are interconnected are described. The discussion covers communications system elements and services, elements of the onboard systems, wide-area transport network elements, and command and control elements.

  13. The induced environment around Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha R.; Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The potential impact of the International Space Station on its immediate environment is discussed, summarizing the results of recent investigations by NASA working groups. Consideration is given to the neutral-gas environment, induced photon emission, particulate contamination, the ionized environment, the Induced-environment Monitoring Package proposed for inclusion in the Space Station equipment, and recommendations for further research. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  14. Space station evolution: Planning for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Alphonso V.; Askins, Barbara S.

    1987-01-01

    The need for permanently manned presence in space has been recognized by the United States and its international partners for many years. The development of this capability was delayed due to the concurrent recognition that reusable earth-to-orbit transportation was also needed and should be developed first. While the decision to go ahead with a permanently manned Space Station was on hold, requirements for the use of the Station were accumulating as ground-based research and the data from unmanned spacecraft sparked the imagination of both scientists and entrepreneurs. Thus, by the time of the Space Station implementation decision in the early 1980's, a variety of disciplines, with a variety of requirements, needed to be accommodated on one Space Station. Additional future requirements could be forecast for advanced missions that were still in the early planning stages. The logical response was the development of a multi-purpose Space Station with the ability to evolve on-orbit to new capabilities as required by user needs and national or international decisions, i.e., to build an evolutionary Space Station. Planning for evolution is conducted in parallel with the design and development of the baseline Space Station. Evolution planning is a strategic management process to facilitate change and protect future decisions. The objective is not to forecast the future, but to understand the future options and the implications of these on today's decisions. The major actions required now are: (1) the incorporation of evolution provisions (hooks and scars) in the baseline Space Station; and (2) the initiation of an evolution advanced development program.

  15. Design knowledge capture for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.; Wechsler, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits of design knowledge availability are identifiable and pervasive. The implementation of design knowledge capture and storage using current technology increases the probability for success, while providing for a degree of access compatibility with future applications. The space station design definition should be expanded to include design knowledge. Design knowledge should be captured. A critical timing relationship exists between the space station development program, and the implementation of this project.

  16. Composite tubes for the Space Station truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.; Tenney, Darrel R.

    1986-01-01

    The reference configuration of NASA's Space Station includes a large truss structure to support the various modules and solar arrays. This truss structure will be constructed from tubular members approximately 2 in. in diameter and up to 23 ft in length. The important design considerations for this structure are light weight, high stiffness, dimensional stability, and long-term durability. Continuous graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials can meet the structural requirements, and are leading candidates for the tubular truss members. However, there are concerns regarding the durability of composites during the long-term exposure to atomic oxygen and thermal cycling that will be encountered during the Space Station service life. This paper discusses space environmental factors and their effect on composite materials, and provides estimates of the changes in mechanical and thermal properties of composites exposed to long-term Space Station conditions. The effect of low velocity impact and handling damage on composite tube properties is also discussed.

  17. Vibrations and structureborne noise in space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Lyrintzis, C. S.; Bofilios, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical models were developed to predict vibrations and structureborne noise generation of cylindrical and rectangular acoustic enclosures. These models are then used to determine structural vibration levels and interior noise to random point input forces. The guidelines developed could provide preliminary information on acoustical and vibrational environments in space station habitability modules under orbital operations. The structural models include single wall monocoque shell, double wall shell, stiffened orthotropic shell, descretely stiffened flat panels, and a coupled system composed of a cantilever beam structure and a stiffened sidewall. Aluminum and fiber reinforced composite materials are considered for single and double wall shells. The end caps of the cylindrical enclosures are modeled either as single or double wall circular plates. Sound generation in the interior space is calculated by coupling the structural vibrations to the acoustic field in the enclosure. Modal methods and transfer matrix techniques are used to obtain structural vibrations. Parametric studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of interior noise environment to changes in input, geometric and structural conditions.

  18. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  19. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  3. Operational medicine in Space Station era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, S.; Buchanan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Medical considerations for long duration manned space missions are examined. The requirements and hardware for medical operations on the Space Station are diagrammatically presented. The physiological and psychological changes that have been observed during space flights are discussed. Crew health maintenance and medical care in the Space Station environment require earth-based and in flight continuity. It is also necessary to identify the appropriate zero-G therapeutic methods for treating a patient. Techniques for transferring patients in orbit and to earth are studied. Considerations are given to control and life support systems and data management for medical operations.

  4. Gravitational biology on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  5. Space station rotational equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Carroll, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic equations of motion are developed which describe the rotational motion for a large space structure having rotating appendages. The presence of the appendages produce torque coupling terms which are dependent on the inertia properties of the appendages and the rotational rates for both the space structure and the appendages. These equations were formulated to incorporate into the Space Station Attitude Control and Stabilization Test Bed to accurately describe the influence rotating solar arrays and thermal radiators have on the dynamic behavior of the Space Station.

  6. Microdisturbances on the International Space Station during dynamic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Volkov, O. N.; Ryabukha, S. B.

    2013-07-01

    The results of analysis of microdisturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) at performing various dynamic operations are presented. Docking of transfer manned and cargo vehicles Progress and Soyuz to various docking modules of the ISS, docking of the Space Shuttle Discovery, the ISS orbit correction and, also, disturbances at "EVA" (Extra Vehicular Activity) operations during astronauts working on the external ISS surface are considered. The results of measuring microaccelerations by sensors of both Russian and American segments are analyzed.

  7. A modular propulsion system required for Space Station assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Morano, J.S.; Henderson, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station Freedom Manned Base will be assembled on-orbit over the course of several years and multiple Space Shuttle flights. This paper discusses the assembly sequence evolution and its effects on the propulsion system. Relevant descriptions and parameters are given for the gaseous propellant storage, thruster quantity and orientation, and resistojet module. Specific assembly sequences are described and their most important characteristics are compared.

  8. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  9. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The mission requirements, economic benefits, and time table of deployment of the space station are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) mission requirements overwhelmingly support the need for a space station; (2) a single space station is the way to begin; (3) the space station must evolve its capability; (4) the orbit transfer vehicle aspect of the space station will provide significant economic benefit; and (5) an early, affordable, effective way to start the space station program is needed.

  10. Space Stations using the Skylon Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.

    After the International Space Station is decommissioned in 2020 or soon after, Skylon will be an operating launch system and it is the obvious means to launch any successor in orbit infrastructure. The study looked at establishing 14 stations of 7 different types located from Low Earth Orbit to the Moon's surface with common elements all launched by Skylon. The key reason for the study was to validate Skylon could launch such an infrastructure, but the study's secondary objectives were to contribute to consideration of what should replace the ISS, and explore a ``multiple small station'' architecture. It was found that the total acquisition costs for LEO stations could be below 1 billion (2010) while for stations beyond LEO total acquisition costs were found to be between 3 and £5 billion. No technical constraints on the Skylon launch system were found that would prevent it launching all 14 stations in under 5 years.

  11. Space Station Freedom capabilities for users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Snyder, Robert S.; Willenberg, Harvey J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Station Freedom's major objectives are to prepare for human space exploration by providing a long-duration, continuously habitable spacecraft in low earth orbit for physiology studies and for development of systems to support human presence in space and to enable laboratory and observational research in space. As a result of restructuring and the preliminary design review, designs of Space Station Freedom architecture and systems have progressed to the point where the accommodations for users can be well described. These capabilities are enumerated, covering such important resources as power and cooling, rack volume and external accommodations, crew time, data and command rates, and acceleration environment. Related items such as total energy, data management systems, and interfaces, station attitude, payload transportation, and on board and ground facilities are considered.

  12. The issue is leadership. [Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Four NASA Phase B centers (NASA-Johnson, NASA-Marshall, NASA-Goddard, and NASA-Lewis) are responsible for construction, assembly, servicing, habitat, and other particular tasks and functions of the Space Station. The project has been joined by the aerospace programs of Canada, Japan, and the European Space Agency, ensuring technological and financial support, and cooperative use by the participants. Some of the future uses of the Space Station include biomedical research and applications; experiments in solar-terrestrial physics and astronomy; building, maintenance, and launching of space instruments and planetary missions; manufacturing and processing of materials that call for the conditions of microgravity and weightlessness; supporting communication operations; and improving earth and atmospheric observations. The political significance of the Space Station as a symbol of leadership and of friendly cooperation is noted.

  13. Coping with data from Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1991-01-01

    The volume of data from future NASA space missions will be phenomenal. Here, we examine the expected data flow from the Space Station Freedom and describe techniques that are being developed to transport and process that data. Networking in space, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data systems (CCSDS), NASA institutional ground support, communications system architecture, and principal data types and formats are discussed.

  14. Should the Space Station be an ark?

    PubMed

    Wassersug, R

    1994-08-01

    This essay explores the pros and cons of maximizing the number of species that can be maintained on the Space Station. It reviews some of the history of comparative space biology to show that different cultures have different perspectives on the study of non-traditional research organisms (ie non-rodents) in space. Despite these differences, there are simple principles that all international partners in the Space Station endeavour should be able to uphold when deciding what facilities to build and what species to fly. As an argument for maximizing the taxonomic diversity on the Space Station, examples are given to show how very similar organisms may have different reactions to microgravity. At the same time the political pressure in the USA to make the Space Station an institution specifically servicing the 'health, well-being and economic benefits of people on earth', is acknowledged. Ultimately the justification for what species will be on the Space Station should rest with the quality of the scientific questions being asked. PMID:11542222

  15. Life sciences utilization of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lawrence P.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will provide the United States' first permanently manned laboratory in space. It will allow, for the first time, long term systematic life sciences investigations in microgravity. This presentation provides a top-level overview of the planned utilization of Space Station Freedom by NASA's Life Sciences Division. The historical drivers for conducting life sciences research on a permanently manned laboratory in space as well as the advantages that a space station platform provides for life sciences research are discussed. This background information leads into a description of NASA's strategy for having a fully operational International Life Sciences Research Facility by the year 2000. Achieving this capability requires the development of the five discipline focused 'common core' facilities. Once developed, these facilities will be brought to the space station during the Man-Tended Capability phase, checked out and brought into operation. Their delivery must be integrated with the Space Station Freedom manifest. At the beginning of Permanent Manned Capability, the infrastructure is expected to be completed and the Life Sciences Division's SSF Program will become fully operational. A brief facility description, anticipated launch date and a focused objective is provided for each of the life sciences facilities, including the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) Facility, Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), Gas Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF), Centrifuge Facility (CF), and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility. In addition, hardware developed by other NASA organizations and the SSF International Partners for an International Life Sciences Research Facility is also discussed.

  16. Strategic planning for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Carolyn S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

  17. Space station overrun ires NASA, Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    With a new administration in place, future funding for the space station seems promising. In mid-February, the Clinton administration announced that it will seek $2.25 billion for the station in the fiscal year 1994 budget. But at a House Subcommittee on Space hearing on March 3, members divided on the station issue questioned NASA, McDonnell Douglas, and IBM witnesses as to why budget projections for the project's next 3 years have grown by about $500 million.Although subcommittee chairman Ralph M. Hall (D-Tex.) voiced support for NASA and urged, “We all want the same thing, a space station of reasonable cost,” there seemed to be little consensus among other members who feel the science capability has been cut to a point that will make the project, as one member put it, “a floating whistlestop in the sky.”

  18. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  19. International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multiband optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument. This analysis supported the preliminary studies to determine feasibility of utilizing the International Space Station as an observing platform for a SHORE type of instrument. Rigorous analyses will be performed if a SHORE flight program is initiated. The analysis begins with the discussion of the coordinate systems involved and then conversion from the target coordinate system to the instrument coordinate system. Next the geometry of remote observations from the Space Station is investigated including the effects of the instrument location in Space Station and the effects of the line of sight to the target. The disturbance and error environment on Space Station is discussed covering factors contributing to drift and jitter, accuracy of pointing data and target and instrument accuracies.

  20. Microgravity Environment on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A primary feature of the International Space Station will be its microgravity environment--an environment in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. Various types of data are gathered when science experiments are conducted. The acceleration levels experienced during experiment operation should be factored into the analysis of the results of most microgravity experiments. To this end, the Space Acceleration Measurement System records the acceleration levels to support microgravity researchers for nearly three years of International Space Station operations. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project assists the experiments principal investigators with their analysis of the acceleration (microgravity) environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project provides cataloged data, periodic analysis summary reports, specialized reports for experiment teams, and real-time data in a variety of user-defined formats. Characterization of the various microgravity carriers (e.g., Shuttle and International Space Station) is also accomplished for the experiment teams. Presented in this paper will be a short description of how microgravity disturbances may affect some experiment classes, a snapshot of the microgravity environment, and a view into how well the space station is expected to meet the user requirements.

  1. International Space Station Power System Model Validated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Delleur, Ann M.

    2002-01-01

    System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) is a computer model of the International Space Station's (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This uniquely integrated, detailed model can predict EPS capability, assess EPS performance during a given mission with a specified load demand, conduct what-if studies, and support on-orbit anomaly resolution.

  2. Space station 'Skylab' - The harvest begins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1974-01-01

    Initial difficulties connected with the damage suffered by the space station during the launching operation and approaches for overcoming these difficulties are discussed along with the results obtained by the astronauts in their investigations. Attention is given to biomedical results, new solar discoveries, observations of the earth, materials research, and the new products obtained as a result of space processing.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Five Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmembers include (left to right) Cosmonaut Verleri Korzun, Commander; Astronaut Peggy Whitson, flight engineer; and Cosmonaut Sergei Treschev, flight engineer. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111, in April 2002, Expedition Five replaced Expedition Four on the International Space Station (ISS) for a scheduled 4-month mission. Expedition Five carried several new experiments and science facilities to the ISS. The research compliment included 24 new and continuing investigations:10 human life sciences studies, 6 in microgravity, 5 in space product development, and 3 sponsored by the Office of Space Flight. The new experiments are expected to lead to new insights in the fields of materials, plant science, commercial biotechnology, and the long term effects of space flight on humans. 280 hours will be devoted to research in addition to the continuing building of the ISS. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  4. Space Station Engineering and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The evolving space station program will be examined through a series of more specific studies: maintainability; research and technology in space; solar thermodynamics research and technology; program performance; onboard command and control; and research and technology road maps. The purpose is to provide comments on approaches to long-term, reliable operation at low cost in terms of funds and crew time.

  5. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

  6. Space Station RT and E Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, P. K.; Anderson, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Descriptive information on a set of 241 mission concepts was reviewed to establish preliminary Space Station outfitting needs for technology development missions. The missions studied covered the full range of in-space technology development activities envisioned for early Space Station operations and included both pressurized volume and attached payload requirements. Equipment needs were compared with outfitting plans for the life sciences and microgravity user communities, and a number of potential outfitting additions were identified. Outfitting implementation was addressed by selecting a strawman mission complement for each of seven technical themes, by organizing the missions into flight scenarios, and by assessing the associated outfitting buildup for planning impacts.

  7. Impact of restructuring on Space Station Freedom assembly sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Steven Y.; Wanagas, John D.; Wright, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program and the process used to develop an assembly sequence are overviewed, with special attention given to the outcome of the recent restructuring activity and the positive impact it had on the Space Station design and the assembly sequence. The many technically complex and challenging aspects of the assembly sequence planning are examined, including the launch vehicle integration, the spacecraft systems capability development, and the availability of resources. It is shown that the restructuring reduced the size and the complexity of the Space Station, while the increase of ground integration through the use of preintegrated truss and shortened modules offers a reduced program risk and reduced demands on the STS.

  8. Vision requirements for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Problems which will be encountered by computer vision systems in Space Station operations are discussed, along with solutions be examined at Johnson Space Station. Lighting cannot be controlled in space, nor can the random presence of reflective surfaces. Task-oriented capabilities are to include docking to moving objects, identification of unexpected objects during autonomous flights to different orbits, and diagnoses of damage and repair requirements for autonomous Space Station inspection robots. The approaches being examined to provide these and other capabilities are television IR sensors, advanced pattern recognition programs feeding on data from laser probes, laser radar for robot eyesight and arrays of SMART sensors for automated location and tracking of target objects. Attention is also being given to liquid crystal light valves for optical processing of images for comparisons with on-board electronic libraries of images.

  9. Space Station tethered refueling facility operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefel, E. R.; Rudolph, L. K.; Fester, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The space-based orbital transfer vehicle will require a large cryogenic fuel storage facility at the Space Station. An alternative to fuel storage onboard the Space Station, is on a tethered orbital refueling facility (TORF) which is separated from the Space Station by a sufficient distance to induce a gravity gradient to settle the propellants. Facility operations are a major concern associated with a tethered LO2/LH2 storage depot. A study was carried out to analyze these operations so as to identify the preferred TORF deployment direction (up or down) and whether the TORF should be permanently or intermittently deployed. The analyses considered safety, contamination, rendezvous, servicing, transportation rate, communication, and viewing. An upwardly, intermittently deployed facility is the preferred configuration for a tethered cryogenic fuel storage.

  10. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  11. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  12. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000-pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  13. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000- pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. International Space Station Sports a New Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 upon its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  15. Grumman evaluates Space Station thermal control and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kandebo, S.W.

    1985-09-01

    Attention is given to the definition of requirements for the NASA Space Station's electrical power and thermal control systems, which must be highly dependable to minimize the need for external support and will embody a highly flexible modular design concept. Module maintenance will be performed by in-orbit replacement of failed modules, and energy storage system growth will be accomplished by the incorporation of additional modules. Both photovoltaic and solar heat-driven electrical generator concepts are under consideration as the basis of the power system.

  16. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

  17. Space station thermal control surfaces. Volume 1: Interim report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. space program goals for long-duration manned missions place particular demands on thermal-control systems. The objective of this program is to develop plans which are based on the present thermal-control technology, and which will keep pace with the other space program elements. The program tasks are as follows: (1) requirements analysis, with the objectives to define the thermal-control-surface requirements for both space station and 25 kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal-control-surface technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements; (2) technology assessment, with the objectives to perform a literature/industry survey on thermal-control surfaces, to compare current technology with the requirements developed in the first task, and to determine what technology advancements are required for both the space station and the 25 kW power module; and (3) program planning that defines new initiative and/or program augmentation for development and testing areas required to provide the proper environment control for the space station and the 25 kW power module.

  18. Comparative analyses of space-to-space central power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The technological and economical impact of a large central power station in Earth orbit on the performance and cost of future spacecraft and their orbital transfer systems are examined. It is shown that beaming power to remote users cannot be cost effective if the central power station uses the same power generation system that is readily available for provision of onboard power and microwave transmission and reception of power through space for use in space is not cost competitive with onboard power or propulsion systems. Laser and receivers are required to make central power stations feasible. Remote power transmission for propulsion of orbital transfer vehicles promises major cost benefits. Direct nuclear pumped or solar pumped laser power station concepts are attractive with laser thermal and laser electric propulsion systems. These power stations are also competitive, on a mass and cost basis, with a photovoltaic power station.

  19. Space Station and the life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.; Leonard, J. I.; Cramer, D. B.; Bishop, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Previous fundamental research in space life sciences is examined, and consideration is devoted to studies relevant to Space Station activities. Microgravity causes weight loss, hemoconcentration, and orthostatic intolerance when astronauts returns to earth. Losses in bone density, bone calcium, and muscle nitrogen have also been observed, together with cardiovascular deconditioning, fluid-electrolyte metabolism alteration, and space sickness. Experiments have been performed with plants, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, tissue cultures, invertebrate species, and with nonhuman vertebrates, showing little effect on simple cell functions. The Spacelab first flight will feature seven life science experiments and the second flight, two. Further studies will be performed on later flights. Continued life science studies to optimize human performance in space are necessary for the efficient operation of a Space Station and the assembly of large space structures, particularly in interaction with automated machinery.

  20. International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

  1. EXPRESS Rack Technology for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Ted B.; Adams, J. Brian; Fisher, Edward M., Jr.; Prickett, Guy B.; Smith, Timothy G.

    1999-01-01

    The EXPRESS rack provides accommodations for standard Mid-deck Locker and ISIS drawer payloads on the International Space Station. A design overview of the basic EXPRESS rack and two derivatives, the Human Research Facility and the Habitat Holding Rack, is given in Part I. In Part II, the design of the Solid State Power Control Module (SSPCM) is reviewed. The SSPCM is a programmable and remotely controllable power switching and voltage conversion unit which distributes and protects up to 3kW of 12OVDC and 28VDC power to payloads and rack subsystem components. Part III details the development and testing of a new data storage device, the BRP EXPRESS Memory Unit (BEMU). The BEMU is a conduction-cooled device which operates on 28VDC and is based on Boeing-modified 9GB commercial disk-drive technology. In Part IV results of a preliminary design effort for a rack Passive Damping System (PDS) are reported. The PDS is intended to isolate ISPR-based experiment racks from on-orbit vibration. System performance predictions based on component developmental testing indicate that such a system can provide effective isolation at frequencies of 1 Hz and above.

  2. Practical Applications of a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The potential uses of a special station for civil and commercial applications is examined. Five panels of experts representing user-oriented communities, and a sixth panel which dealth with system design considerations, based their studies on the assumption that the station would be a large platform, capable of housing a wide array of diverse instruments, and could be either manned or unmanned. The Earth's Resources Panel dealt with applications of remote sensing for resource assessment. The Earth's Environment Panel dealt with the Earth's atmosphere and its impact on society. The Ocean Operations Panel looked at both science and applications. The Satellite Communications Panel assessed the potential role of a space station in the evolution of commercial telecommunication services up to the year 2000. The Materials Science and Engineering panel focused on the utility of a space station environment for materials processing.

  3. Space station preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a 3 month preliminary design and analysis effort is presented. The configuration that emerged consists of a very stiff deployable truss structure with an overall triangular cross section having universal modules attached at the apexes. Sufficient analysis was performed to show feasibility of the configuration. An evaluation of the structure shows that desirable attributes of the configuration are: (1) the solar cells, radiators, and antennas will be mounted to stiff structure to minimize control problems during orbit maintenance and correction, docking, and attitude control; (2) large flat areas are available for mounting and servicing of equipment; (3) Large mass items can be mounted near the center of gravity of the system to minimize gravity gradient torques; (4) the trusses are lightweight structures and can be transported into orbit in one Shuttle flight; (5) the trusses are expandable and will require a minimum of EVA; and (6) the modules are anticipated to be structurally identical except for internal equipment to minimize cost.

  4. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  5. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  6. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  7. Phase I Space Station power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    The development of the electric power system (EPS) for the Space Station is discussed. The EPS requirements related to station size, operational lifetime, operational autonomy, and technology evolution are considered. It is suggested that environmental control and life support will require 55 kWe of power. The possible use of solar photovoltaic, solar thermal dynamic, or a hybrid combination of the two are examined.

  8. Health maintenance on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Medical support for extended manned missions aboard such spacecraft as the NASA Space Shuttle must encompass prevention, diagnosis, and therapy capabilities in the preflight and postflight as well as actual mission phases. An evaluation is presently made of the technological and management challenges that must be met in order to furnish an adequate inflight health care delivery system that possesses adequate inflight health care, real-time environmental monitoring, physiological countermeasures, and medical rescue/recovery facilities for ill or injured crew members.

  9. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The...

  10. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee....

  11. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee....

  12. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee....

  13. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The...

  14. The Space Station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The University of Central Florida's design of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station is addressed. Four integratable subsystems capable of handling an estimated Orbiter shortfall of nearly 40,000 lbs of refuse produced annually are discussed. The subsystems investigated were: (1) collection and transfer; (2) recycle and reuse; (3) advanced disposal; and (4) propulsion assist in disposal. Emphasis is placed on the recycling or reuse of those materials ultimately providing a source of Space Station refuse. Special consideration is given to various disposal methods capable of completely removing refuse from close proximity of the Space Station. There is evidence that pyrolysis is the optimal solution for disposal of refuse through employment of a Rocket Jettison Vehicle. Additionally, design considerations and specifications of the Refuse Management System are discussed. Optimal and alternate design solutions for each of the four subsystems are summarized. Finally, the system configuration is described and reviewed.

  15. Space Station Freedom Data Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anngienetta R.; Deskevich, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The SSF Data Assessment Study was initiated to identify payload and operations data requirements to be supported in the Space Station era. To initiate the study payload requirements from the projected SSF user community were obtained utilizing an electronic questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire were incorporated in a personal computer compatible database used for mission scheduling and end-to-end communications analyses. This paper discusses data flow paths and associated latencies, communications bottlenecks, resource needs versus availability, payload scheduling 'warning flags' and payload data loading requirements for each major milestone in the Space Station buildup sequence. This paper also presents the statistical and analytical assessments produced using the data base, an experiment scheduling program, and a Space Station unique end-to-end simulation model. The modeling concepts and simulation methodologies presented in this paper provide a foundation for forecasting communication requirements and identifying modeling tools to be used in the SSF Tactical Operations Planning (TOP) process.

  16. Artist's Concept of International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  17. Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

    1989-01-01

    The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

  18. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, D.; Novosad, S. W.; Tu, K.; Loh, Y. C.; Kuo, Y. S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications systems design approach which is intended to satisfy the stringent link requirements. The operational scenario, system configuration, signal design, antenna system management, and link performance analysis are discussed in detail. It is shown that the return link can transmit up to 21.6 Mb/s and maintain at least a 3-dB link margin through proper power and antenna management control at a maximum distance of 37 km. It is suggested that the proposed system, which is compatible with the space station multiple-access system, can be a model for other space station interoperating elements or users to save the development cost and reduce the technical and schedule risks.

  19. Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  20. Tethered nuclear power for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  1. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  2. International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

  3. International Space Station Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, Blythe A.

    2008-01-01

    The goals and objectives of the ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) are to: 1) Maximize the utilization the ISS and other spaceflight platforms to assess the effects of longduration spaceflight on human systems; 2) Devise and verify strategies to ensure optimal crew performance; 3) Enable development and validation of a suite of integrated physical (e.g., exercise), pharmacologic and/or nutritional countermeasures against deleterious effects of space flight that may impact mission success or crew health. The ISSMP provides planning, integration, and implementation services for Human Research Program research tasks and evaluation activities requiring access to space or related flight resources on the ISS, Shuttle, Soyuz, Progress, or other spaceflight vehicles and platforms. This includes pre- and postflight activities; 2) ISSMP services include operations and sustaining engineering for HRP flight hardware; experiment integration and operation, including individual research tasks and on-orbit validation of next generation on-orbit equipment; medical operations; procedures development and validation; and crew training tools and processes, as well as operation and sustaining engineering for the Telescience Support Center; and 3) The ISSMP integrates the HRP approved flight activity complement and interfaces with external implementing organizations, such as the ISS Payloads Office and International Partners, to accomplish the HRP's objectives. This effort is led by JSC with Baseline Data Collection support from KSC.

  4. Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

  5. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  6. Adaptive Attitude Control System For Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Bayard, David S.; Wang, Shyh J.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents theoretical foundation for attitude control system for proposed Space Station Freedom in orbit around Earth. Intended to maintain space station in torque equilibrium with designated axes of its structure aligned with local vertical, local along-trajectory horizontal, and local across-trajectory horizontal axes, respectively. System required to provide desired combination of control performance and stability in presence of disturbances (e.g., variations in masses of payloads, movements of astronauts and equipment, atmospheric drag, gravitational anomalies, and interactions with docking spacecraft).

  7. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  8. Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

  9. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  10. Assembling a Space Station in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.; Lounge, J. Michael; Walker, David M.

    1990-01-01

    The factors affecting the degree of difficulty of assembling a Space Station in orbit and ways of arriving at the optimum construction solution are briefly reviewed and applied to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The assembly of the SSF navigation and control systems and the relevant tools and methods are examined along with the characteristics of early assembly flights. The most significant challenges facing the construction of the SSF are discussed, and new technologies which will be incorporated into the SSF are briefly considered.

  11. Scientific Utilization Planning for Chinese Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidong, Gu

    The program of building Chinese Space Station (CSS) , which is planned to be launched around 2020-2022, was approved in 2010 by Chinese government. As the key task for CSS program, the scientific utilization planning started even earlier. With contribution from hundreds of scientists, the science domain for CSS is now defined at present, and the related experimental facilities are also preliminary determined. The scientific utilization plan for Chinese space station covers 9 fields, which will be human medical science, space life science and space bio-technology, microgravity fluid physics and combustion, space Material science, fundamental physics in microgravity, space physics and space environment, space astronomy, space geo-science, and new technology demonstration for space utilization. This paper will give a brief introduction about technical background of CSS, scientific utilization plan in main field, and general information of the research facilities. CSS will serve on orbit for almost 10 years, and the utilization planning for CSS is a long-term and sustained process. The utilization plan will be updated and extended in the further, and make CSS an outstanding solution for space utilization of larger scale.

  12. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  13. Radiological assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Hardy, Alva C.; Robbins, Donald E.; Atwell, William

    1993-01-01

    Circumstances have made it necessary to reassess the risks to Space Station Freedom crewmembers that arise from exposure to the space radiation environment. An option is being considered to place it in an orbit similar to that of the Russian Mir space station. This means it would be in a 51.6 deg inclination orbit instead of the previously planned 28.5 deg inclination orbit. A broad range of altitudes is still being considered, although the baseline is a 407 km orbit. In addition, recent data from the Japanese A-bomb survivors has made it necessary for NASA to have the exposure limits reviewed. Preliminary findings of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements indicate that the limits must be significantly reduced. Finally, the Space Station will be a laboratory where effects of long-term zero gravity on human physiology will be studied in detail. It is possible that a few crewmembers will be assigned to as many as three 1-year missions. Thus, their accumulated exposure will exceed 1,000 days. Results of this radiation risk assessment for Space Station Freedom crewmembers finds that females less than 35 years old will be confined to mission assignments where the altitude is less than about 400 km. Slight restrictions may also need to be made for male crewmembers less than 35 years old.

  14. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  15. Rendezvous missions: From ISS to lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazin, Rafail

    2014-08-01

    There was a lot of experience gained in the rendezvous of different vehicles in the LEO during the years of human space exploration. In the framework of the Apollo program when the astronauts landed on the surface of the Moon, the docking of the Lunar Module launched from the Moon's surface to the Apollo Command Module was successfully implemented in the near-Moon orbit. Presently many space agencies are considering a return to the Moon. It is necessary to solve the new task of docking the vehicle launched from the Earth to the long-term near-Moon orbital station taking into account specific constraints. Based on the ISS experience the author proposes a number of ballistic rendezvous strategies that provide for docking to the near-Moon orbital station with minimum propellant consumption. The trade-off analysis of the given rendezvous strategies is presented.

  16. The development of the International Space Station centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tamotsu

    2004-11-01

    Gravitational biology research facility "Centrifuge" is currently under development for the International Space Station. Research in the Complex Organism Biology, indispensable to the progress in Health Science, is only possible in the Centrifuge aboard the station. So, on-orbit 1 G controls for various specimens including small mammals, fish, and higher plants will be rigorously done in the Centrifuge. This facility is also capable of providing "reduced gravity" likely on the Moon or on Mars. Thus, it will play a key role in creating knowledge of space fundamental biology. As part of the offset of NASA's Shuttle launch services for the Japanese Experiment Module, JAXA is developing the Centrifuge Rotor (CR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). Critical Design Review (CDR) of LSG was conducted on July 2004, while the system CDRs of the CAM and CR are scheduled for December 2004 and August 2005, respectively. Their launch schedules are under review. PMID:15858334

  17. Productivity in an evolutionary space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Carlisle, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Space station productivity is treated from a systems point of view, considering the functions and attributes of space station development, formation, and operation that affect productivity. An optimum planning method is needed to assure that the station will have mission flexibility, technology advancement, maintainability, and evolutionary capability. Advanced technology will be designed into the housekeeping and utility functions of the station. Greater risk taking may be allowed into designs if the potential benefits of the advanced system support the risk, and if the system can be buffered from causing a failure cascade throughout the station. A common data base is needed to store and track all designs, developments, and changes in the station subsystems. Systems that can be automated and free the human inhabitants for more productive work are favored, as are modular components that are highly fault-free. Human control must also be possible, especially during check-out and verification, and also for teaching the automated systems new or modified tasks.

  18. Planning for orbital repairs to the Space Station and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Harry S.; Quinn, Alberta

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes an extensive study that was performed to establish a baseline for tools, materials, and repair techniques that will be needed for an astronaut to repair structures in an orbital environment, with a view towards future on-orbit repairs to the Space Station. The study program confirmed the premise that repairs must and can be made by astronauts while in an orbital environment. Scenarios for both welding repair and composite repair techniques are presented, along with a discussion of human factors considerations. A Space Station maintenance work station module is described, followed by a discussion of the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator test facility used to evaluate crew work performance in zero g conditions.

  19. A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

  20. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  1. Defining a national microgravity facility for America's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, Tripty; Sharpe, A.; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    1985-01-01

    Plans for a Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility (with a Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory Module as its main element) on the U.S. Space Station are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, graphs, tables, and diagrams. Consideration is given to the ideal and practically achievable acceleration environment, on-orbit sample preparation and analysis, crew operations, technology-development requirements, and classes of materials with commercial potential (with an emphasis on organic molecular crystals).

  2. Customer and mission influence on space station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Overall Space Station architecture is presented in schematic outlines and plans. How the customer and mission needs influence this design is studied. The uses, occupants, activities, interfaces, utilities, locomotion, environments, and technological costs are all factors which influence the architecture. User and system functions are profiled, interfaces are characterized and functions are grouped. These lead to packaging of functions into modules and the design of system and user accommodations.

  3. Space Station flexible dynamics under plume impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1993-01-01

    Assembly of the Space Station requires numerous construction flights by the Space Shuttle. A particularly challenging problem is that of control of each intermediate station configuration when the shuttle orbiter is approaching it to deliver the next component. The necessary braking maneuvers cause orbiter thruster plumes to impinge on the station, especially its solar arrays. This in turn causes both overall attitude errors and excitation of flexible-body vibration modes. These plume loads are predicted to lead to CMG saturation during the approach of the orbiter to the SC-5 station configuration, necessitating the use of the station RCS jets for desaturation. They are also expected to lead to significant excitation of solar array vibrations. It is therefore of great practical importance to investigate the effects of plume loads on the flexible dynamics of station configuration SC-5 as accurately as possible. However, this system possesses a great many flexible modes (89 below 5 rad/s), making analysis time-consuming and complicated. Model reduction techniques can be used to overcome this problem, reducing the system model to one which retains only the significant dynamics, i.e. those which are strongly excited by the control inputs or plume disturbance forces and which strongly couple with the measured outputs. The particular technique to be used in this study is the subsystem balancing approach which was previously developed by the present investigator. This method is very efficient computationally. Furthermore, it gives accurate results even for the difficult case where the structure has many closed-spaced natural frequencies, when standard modal truncation can give misleading results. Station configuration SC-5 is a good example of such a structure.

  4. Space Station flexible dynamics under plume impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1993-12-01

    Assembly of the Space Station requires numerous construction flights by the Space Shuttle. A particularly challenging problem is that of control of each intermediate station configuration when the shuttle orbiter is approaching it to deliver the next component. The necessary braking maneuvers cause orbiter thruster plumes to impinge on the station, especially its solar arrays. This in turn causes both overall attitude errors and excitation of flexible-body vibration modes. These plume loads are predicted to lead to CMG saturation during the approach of the orbiter to the SC-5 station configuration, necessitating the use of the station RCS jets for desaturation. They are also expected to lead to significant excitation of solar array vibrations. It is therefore of great practical importance to investigate the effects of plume loads on the flexible dynamics of station configuration SC-5 as accurately as possible. However, this system possesses a great many flexible modes (89 below 5 rad/s), making analysis time-consuming and complicated. Model reduction techniques can be used to overcome this problem, reducing the system model to one which retains only the significant dynamics, i.e. those which are strongly excited by the control inputs or plume disturbance forces and which strongly couple with the measured outputs. The particular technique to be used in this study is the subsystem balancing approach which was previously developed by the present investigator. This method is very efficient computationally. Furthermore, it gives accurate results even for the difficult case where the structure has many closed-spaced natural frequencies, when standard modal truncation can give misleading results. Station configuration SC-5 is a good example of such a structure.

  5. Centaur operations at the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J.; Thompson, W.; Bennett, F.; Holdridge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of using a Centaur vehicle as a testbed to demonstrate critical OTV technologies at the Space Station. Two Technology Demonstration Missions (TDMs) were identified: (1) Accommodations, and (2) Operations. The Accommodations TDM contained: (1) berthing, (2) checkout, maintenance and safing, and (3) payload integration missions. The Operations TDM contained: (1) a cryogenic propellant resupply mission, and (2) Centaur deployment activities. A modified Space Station Co-Orbiting Platform (COP) was selected as the optimum refueling and launch node due to safety and operational considerations. After completion of the TDMs, the fueled Centaur would carry out a mission to actually test deployment and help offset TDM costs. From the Station, the Centaur could carry a single payload in excess of 20,000 pounds to geosynchronous orbit or multiple payloads.

  6. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  8. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  9. Artificial magnetic field for the space station (Protecting space stations in future space missions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi Tara, Miss

    Problem Explanation Strong solar storms and cosmic rays make great disturbances for equip-ment outside the magnetosphere. Also these disturbances are so harmful for biological process of living cells. If one decides to stay more outside the Earth, one's healthy is in a great danger. To investigate space station situation against strong solar storms, 5 recent strong solar storms have been selected. Dst of these storms are more than -300 nT. Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i.e. these fields always are anti-aligned because artificial field could change direction by itself basic on the situation of Sun. Relationship between artificial field and solar storm has two types: 1) Artifi-cial field loads up to solar storm's magnetic field and makes magnetic reconnection 2) artificial field repulses energetic solar particles. These below equations show situation of artificial field against magnetic reconnection with magnetic field of solar storm and repulsing particles. Basic on the volume of repulsed particles the strength of field could be: Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i.e. these fields always are anti-aligned because artificial field could change direction by itself basic on the situation of Sun. Relationship between artificial field and solar storm has two types: 1) Artificial field loads up to solar storm's magnetic field and makes magnetic reconnection 2) ar-tificial field repulses energetic solar particles. These below equations show situation of artificial field against magnetic reconnection with magnetic field of solar storm and repulsing particles. Basic on the volume of repulsed particles the strength of field could be: General equation of artificial field: Equations of artificial field basic on the magnetic reconnection: Also equation of balance of electrical energy is: That , V and P are denoting respectively density, velocity and pressure. is plasma energy density. J= current density, Bo =artificial magnetic field, B,E=plasma magnetic and electric field. Vs=volume of a sphere with r radius and =resistance General equation of artificial field: Equations of artificial field basic on the magnetic reconnec-tion: Also equation of balance of electrical energy is: That , V and P are denoting respectively density, velocity and pressure. is plasma energy density. J= current density, Bo =artificial magnetic field, B,E=plasma magnetic and electric field. Vs=volume of a sphere with r radius and =resistance Results Tab II. Danger percentage of 5 strong solar storms for equipment and astronauts in the future space station within the influence on artificial field As has been shown in Tab II artificial magnetic field could pass great dangers of solar storms and protect space station wherever of free space. FIG.2) Upper panel shows X-ray flux at two wavelengths 0.5-4 ˚ and 1-8 ˚. Lower Panel shows Proton flux in various energy levels received on the Moon's A A surface from solar storm 2000(obtained from simulation) 0-14(UT) obtained from outside the field, 14-7(UT) obtained from receiver in the field, 7-0(UT) obtained from receiver behind in-strument Conclusion In this brief paper, I describe a way to protect future space station from energetic particles. This field could reduce damage of solar storms and cosmic rays that arrived to the space station outside the Earth magnetic field. This field performs as magnetosphere for space station. It could change its situation and make easy live on the space station. This strong magnetic field must be generated by low-temperature superconductors. They are suit-able material to use at generating a strong magnetic field. These materials could be used in the structure of spacecrafts during long duration space travels in future

  10. Telerobotics: Research needs for evolving space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, L.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that triplicate planning for telerobotics applicable to space stations is needed. It is important to carry out research to accomplish tasks: (1) with man alone (such as extra-vehicular activities), (2) with autonomous robots, and (3) with telerobotics. The research necessary to carry out these approaches is compared and contrasted in order to clarify present problems.

  11. International Space Station Supports International Polar Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2007-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides an excellent venue for observing Earth systems. Starting in March 2007 and coinciding with the beginning of the International Polar Year (IPY), NASA's Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload invites IPY investigators to submit requests for relevant imagery be collected from the ISS.

  12. Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Susan J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment are presented. After a brief overview of the SSE, the implementation approach and the current and planned functionality are described. The implications and future potential of this common environment for software development and sustaining engineering are also discussed.

  13. Space Station: Key to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

  14. Microgravity Particle Research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W. (Editor); Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

  15. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  16. Research opportunities on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogleman, Guy

    1990-01-01

    Two interdisciplinary facilities that have been proposed for the Space Station, the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility and the Cosmic Dust Collector Facility, are reviewed. Both of these facilities provide opportunities for scientists interested in carbon related research to perform experiments in earth orbit.

  17. Microgravity particle research on the Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Squyres, S.W.; Mckay, C.P.; Schwartz, D.E.

    1987-12-01

    Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

  18. Microwave Cavity Clocks On Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. a.; Nissen, J. A.; Wang, S.; Stricker, D. A.; Avaloff, D.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the status of a microwave cavity clock experiment to perform improved tests of Local Position Invariance and Lorentz Invariance on the International Space Station in conjunction with atomic clocks. Significant improvements over present bounds are expected in both cases. The oscillators can also be used to enhance the performance of atomic clocks at short time scales for other experiments.

  19. Payload training for the Space Station ERA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Carolyn S.; Lewis, Charles M.; Smith, Kenneth A.

    1992-01-01

    Training astronaut and ground controllers for payload operations onboard Space Station Freedom presents challenges not found in precursor programs such as Skylab and Spacelab. The evolution from current Spacelab payload training concepts is discussed, and the proposed SSF payload training approach is presented along with development strategies and recommendations.

  20. Space station heavy lift launch vehicle utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryder, L. J.

    1988-04-01

    The use of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLVs) for Space Station assembly, logistics. and resupply is explored. Potential HLLVs, including those based on the Titan, and Shuttle-derived vehicles (SDV), are discussed. The baseline Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF) Space Station assembly sequence is described and compared with assembly options made possible through the use of HLLVs. The issues of cost, dual compatibility with the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System (STS), co-manifesting of payloads with other science missions cargo return, and ground handling and launch facilities are also considered. The main advantage achieved by using HLLVs are simplification of assembly procedures, added resupply capability, and increased assured access to space. The major disadvantages are increased orbital flight operations complexity, higher logistics costs, and additional ground handling/launch facility requirements. Also, there will not be any improvement in return cargo capacity, nor any addition to crew transport capabilities. Finally, the dual STS/HLLV compatibility should be maintained to minimize program risk. HLLV and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle design must parallel that of the Space Station.

  1. Concept of adaptability in space modules.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M

    1990-10-01

    The space program is aiming towards the permanent use of space; to build and establish an orbital space station, a Moon base and depart to Mars and beyond. We must look after the total independency from the Earth's natural resources and work in the design of a modular space base in which each module is capable of duplicating one natural process, and that all these modules in combination take us to conceive a space base capable of sustaining life. Every area of human knowledge must be involved. This modular concept will let us see other space goals as extensions of the primary project. The basic technology has to be defined, then relatively minor adjustments will let us reach new objectives such as a first approach for a lunar base and for a Mars manned mission. This concept aims towards an open technology in which standards and recommendations will be created to assemble huge space bases and spaceships from specific modules that perform certain functions, that in combination will let us reach the status of permanent use and exploration of space. PMID:11540550

  2. The Canadian Space Agency's Space Station Remote Manipulator System arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers guide a segment of the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) past the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The segment joins two others for a campaign of prelaunch processing activities. CSA's first contribution to the International Space Station (ISS), the SSRMS is the primary means of transferring payloads between the orbiter payload bay and the ISS for assembly. The 56-foot-long robotic arm includes two 12- foot booms joined by a hinge. Seven joints on the arm allow highly flexible and precise movement. Latching End Effectors are mounted on each end of the arm for grappling. Video cameras mounted on the booms and end effectors will give astronauts maximum visibility for operations and maintenance tasks on the ISS. The SSRMS is scheduled to be launched aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-100, currently planned for July 2000.

  3. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and telepresence/kinetic processes), (3) subsystem tests of advanced nuclear power, nuclear propulsion and communication systems (using boom extensions, remote station-keeping platforms and mobile EVA crew and robots), and (4) logistics support (crew and equipment) and command and control of deep space transport assembly, maintenance, and refueling (using a station-keeping platform).

  4. The Space Station - Mankind's permanent presence in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, H.

    1984-01-01

    The present discussion is concerned with developments which led finally to the announcement of a new U.S. national commitment in January 1984. According to this announcement, plans are to be developed for the establishment of a permanently manned orbiting Space Station to be deployed within the decade. Early concepts regarding a space station go back to 1869, when a story was published in the 'Atlantic Monthly' about a large earth-orbiting sphere, built of brick, in which people lived and worked. Some decades later, the idea was taken up by Oberth in Germany and Tsiolkovsky in Russia. Their work had a decisive influence on Goddard in the U.S. and von Braun in Germany, who developed basic propulsion systems. Attention is given to rocket developments during and after the Second World War, the trip to the moon, the post-Apollo program, the Space Shuttle and the 1970's, planning for the Space Station, opposition to the Space Station, the Space Station debate, international and commercial interest, and the President's decision.

  5. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the Space Station could be expensive for users; costing in many cases millions of dollars to get a payload from conception to retrieval. It is also recognized that some of the potential users cannot or will not invest a lot of money or effort into Space Station utilization, unless there is a perceived significant commercial potential. How best to fund Space Station payloads is under study. Space Station Freedom will provide the first opportunity for Canada to conduct experiments in a long-duration microgravity environment. CSA have been developing and funding potential users for some time, and considerable interest has been shown by the response to our SOI earlier this year. Canada can be one of the two earliest users for the Space Station, along with NASA. We hope to take full advantage of this opportunity.

  6. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the Space Station could be expensive for users; costing in many cases millions of dollars to get a payload from conception to retrieval. It is also recognized that some of the potential users cannot or will not invest a lot of money or effort into Space Station utilization, unless there is a perceived significant commercial potential. How best to fund Space Station payloads is under study. Space Station Freedom will provide the first opportunity for Canada to conduct experiments in a long-duration microgravity environment. CSA have been developing and funding potential users for some time, and considerable interest has been shown by the response to our SOI earlier this year. Space Station, along with NASA. &We hope to take full advantage of this opportunity.

  7. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  8. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Donald C. (Inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (Inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (Inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (Inventor); Schliesing, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  9. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Donald C. (Inventor); Delafuente, Horatio (Inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (Inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (Inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (Inventor); Schleisling, John A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavylift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a Shuttle Orbiter using the launch vehicle of the Shuttle Orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are pre-integrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  10. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station...

  11. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station...

  12. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences program: to ensure the health, safety, and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental knowledge of biological processes. Space-based research has already shown that people and plants respond the same way to the microgravity environment: they lose structure. However, the mechanisms by which they respond are different, and researchers do not yet know much about these mechanisms. Life science research accommodations on Freedom will include facilities for experiments designed to address this and other questions, in fields such as gravitational biology, space physiology, and biomedical monitoring and countermeasures research.

  13. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences program: to ensure the health, safety, and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental knowledge of biological processes. Space-based research has already shown that people and plants respond the same way to the microgravity environment: they lose structure. However, the mechanisms by which they respond are different, and researchers do not yet know much about these mechanisms. Life science research accommodations on Freedom will include facilities for experiments designed to address this and other questions, in fields such as gravitational biology, space physiology, and biomedical monitoring and countermeasures research.

  14. Space Station Freedom electrical performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.

  15. Emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, R. J.

    Emulsion chambers offer several unique features for the study of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions and spectra aboard a permanent manned Space Station. Emulsion-chamber experiments provide the highest acceptance/weight ratio of any current experimental technique, are invulnerable to mechanical shocks and temperature excursions associated with space flight, do not employ volatile or explosive components or materials, and are not dependent upon data communications or recording systems. Space-Station personnel would be employed to replace track-sensitive materials as required by background accumulation. Several emulsion-chamber designs are proposed, including both conventional passive calorimetric detectors and a hybrid superconducting-magnetic-spectrometer system. Results of preliminary simulation studies are presented. Operational logistics are discussed.

  16. Photovoltaic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is described with special attention to its electric power system. The photovoltaic arrays, the battery energy storage system, and the power management and distribution system are also discussed. The current design of Freedom's power system and the system requirements, trade studies, and competing factors which lead to system selections are referenced. This will be the largest power system ever flown in space. This system represents the culmination of many developments that have improved system performance, reduced cost, and improved reliability. Key developments and their evolution into the current space station solar array design are briefly described. The features of the solar cell and the array including the development, design, test, and flight hardware production status are given.

  17. Photovoltaic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is described with special attention given to its electric power system. The photovoltaic arrays, the battery energy storage system, and the power management, and distribution system are also discussed. The current design of Freedom's power system and the system requirements, trade studies, and competing factors which lead to system selections are referenced. This will be the largest power system ever flown in space. This system represents the culmination of many developments that have improved system performance, reduced cost, and improved reliability. Key developments and their evolution into the current space station solar array design are briefly described. The features of the solar cell and the array including the development, design, test, and flight hardware production status are given.

  18. Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Hardin, Juanita R.; Lewis, Marian L.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the infrastructure needed to catalyze this biotechnology revolution that could eventually lead to production of medical and pharmaceutical products in space. The biotechnology program discussed herein is evidence of this collaborative effort, with industry involvement from Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc., government participation through the NASA Commercial Space program, and academic guidance from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Blending the strengths and resources of each collaborator creates a strong partnership, that offers enormous research and commercial opportunities.

  19. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  20. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsberry, B. S.; Lippert, B. O.; Mckee, S. D.; Lewis, J. L., Jr.; Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of planning for Space Station Freedom at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the placement of the viewing windows and cameras for optimum crewmember use. Researchers and analysts are evaluating the placement options using a three-dimensional graphics program called PLAID. This program, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), is being used to determine the extent to which the viewing requirements for assembly and operations are being met. A variety of window placement options in specific modules are assessed for accessibility. In addition, window and camera placements are analyzed to insure that viewing areas are not obstructed by the truss assemblies, externally-mounted payloads, or any other station element. Other factors being examined include anthropometric design considerations, workstation interfaces, structural issues, and mechanical elements.