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Sample records for spaceflight alters bacterial

  1. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  2. Altered bone turnover during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Morey, E. R.; Liu, C.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications in calcium metabolism during spaceflight were studied, using parameters that reflect bone turnover. Bone formation rate, medullary area, bone length, bone density, pore size distribution, and differential bone cell number were evaluated in growing rate both immediately after and 25 days after orbital spaceflights aboard the Soviet biological satellites Cosmos 782 and 936. The primary effect of space flight on bone turnover was a reversible inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface. A simultaneous increase in the length of the periosteal arrest line suggests that bone formation ceased along corresponding portions of that surface. Possible reasons include increased secretion of glucocorticoids and mechanical unloading of the skeleton due to near-weightlessness, while starvation and immobilization are excluded as causes.

  3. Toll mediated infection response is altered by gravity and spaceflight in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katherine; Kleinhesselink, Kurt; George, Michael D; Morgan, Rachel; Smallwood, Tangi; Hammonds, Ann S; Fuller, Patrick M; Saelao, Perot; Alley, Jeff; Gibbs, Allen G; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; von Kalm, Laurence; Fuller, Charles A; Beckingham, Kathleen M; Kimbrell, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Space travel presents unlimited opportunities for exploration and discovery, but requires better understanding of the biological consequences of long-term exposure to spaceflight. Immune function in particular is relevant for space travel. Human immune responses are weakened in space, with increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and immune-related conditions. In addition, microorganisms can become more virulent in space, causing further challenges to health. To understand these issues better and to contribute to design of effective countermeasures, we used the Drosophila model of innate immunity to study immune responses in both hypergravity and spaceflight. Focusing on infections mediated through the conserved Toll and Imd signaling pathways, we found that hypergravity improves resistance to Toll-mediated fungal infections except in a known gravitaxis mutant of the yuri gagarin gene. These results led to the first spaceflight project on Drosophila immunity, in which flies that developed to adulthood in microgravity were assessed for immune responses by transcription profiling on return to Earth. Spaceflight alone altered transcription, producing activation of the heat shock stress system. Space flies subsequently infected by fungus failed to activate the Toll pathway. In contrast, bacterial infection produced normal activation of the Imd pathway. We speculate on possible linkage between functional Toll signaling and the heat shock chaperone system. Our major findings are that hypergravity and spaceflight have opposing effects, and that spaceflight produces stress-related transcriptional responses and results in a specific inability to mount a Toll-mediated infection response. PMID:24475130

  4. Toll Mediated Infection Response Is Altered by Gravity and Spaceflight in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Katherine; Kleinhesselink, Kurt; George, Michael D.; Morgan, Rachel; Smallwood, Tangi; Hammonds, Ann S.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Saelao, Perot; Alley, Jeff; Gibbs, Allen G.; Hoshizaki, Deborah K.; von Kalm, Laurence; Fuller, Charles A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Kimbrell, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Space travel presents unlimited opportunities for exploration and discovery, but requires better understanding of the biological consequences of long-term exposure to spaceflight. Immune function in particular is relevant for space travel. Human immune responses are weakened in space, with increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and immune-related conditions. In addition, microorganisms can become more virulent in space, causing further challenges to health. To understand these issues better and to contribute to design of effective countermeasures, we used the Drosophila model of innate immunity to study immune responses in both hypergravity and spaceflight. Focusing on infections mediated through the conserved Toll and Imd signaling pathways, we found that hypergravity improves resistance to Toll-mediated fungal infections except in a known gravitaxis mutant of the yuri gagarin gene. These results led to the first spaceflight project on Drosophila immunity, in which flies that developed to adulthood in microgravity were assessed for immune responses by transcription profiling on return to Earth. Spaceflight alone altered transcription, producing activation of the heat shock stress system. Space flies subsequently infected by fungus failed to activate the Toll pathway. In contrast, bacterial infection produced normal activation of the Imd pathway. We speculate on possible linkage between functional Toll signaling and the heat shock chaperone system. Our major findings are that hypergravity and spaceflight have opposing effects, and that spaceflight produces stress-related transcriptional responses and results in a specific inability to mount a Toll-mediated infection response. PMID:24475130

  5. Spaceflight alters immune cell function and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Mandel, Adrian D.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Berry, Wallace D.; Taylor, Gerald R.; Lesniak, A. T.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which were performed onboard Cosmos 2044 to determine spaceflight effects on immunologically important cell function and distribution. Results indicate that bone marrow cells from flown and suspended rats exhibited a decreased response to a granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with the bone marrow cells from control rats. Bone marrow cells showed an increase in the percentage of cells expressing markers for helper T-cells in the myelogenous population and increased percentages of anti-asialo granulocyte/monocyte-1-bearing interleulin-2 receptor bearing pan T- and helper T-cells in the lymphocytic population.

  6. Workshop on Spaceflight Alterations in Host-Microorganism Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2010-01-01

    On June 11, 2009, a workshop that included internal and external experts was convened to determine the risk of changes in microorganisms that could alter host-microorganism interactions during a mission. The evidence is based in part on multiple flight experiments which indicate altered virulence in Salmonella typhimurium when cultured in flight. The workshop participants were tasked to determine if adequate information was available to initiate changes in NASA's current approach to infectious disease risk assessment and medical operations. The consensus of the participants is that the current evidence was not adequate to provide direction for operational changes; however, the evidence is compelling and clearly indicates that changes to microorganisms were occurring during spaceflight and further research is required.

  7. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  8. Spaceflight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Reynolds, J. L.; Cubano, L. A.; Hatton, J. P.; Lawless, B. D.; Piepmeier, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    Alteration in cytoskeletal organization appears to underlie mechanisms of gravity sensitivity in space-flown cells. Human T lymphoblastoid cells (Jurkat) were flown on the Space Shuttle to test the hypothesis that growth responsiveness is associated with microtubule anomalies and mediated by apoptosis. Cell growth was stimulated in microgravity by increasing serum concentration. After 4 and 48 h, cells filtered from medium were fixed with formalin. Post-flight, confocal microscopy revealed diffuse, shortened microtubules extending from poorly defined microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). In comparable ground controls, discrete microtubule filaments radiated from organized MTOCs and branched toward the cell membrane. At 4 h, 30% of flown, compared to 17% of ground, cells showed DNA condensation characteristic of apoptosis. Time-dependent increase of the apoptosis-associated Fas/ APO-1 protein in static flown, but not the in-flight 1 g centrifuged or ground controls, confirmed microgravity-associated apoptosis. By 48 h, ground cultures had increased by 40%. Flown populations did not increase, though some cells were cycling and actively metabolizing glucose. We conclude that cytoskeletal alteration, growth retardation, and metabolic changes in space-flown lymphocytes are concomitant with increased apoptosis and time-dependent elevation of Fas/APO-1 protein. We suggest that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight is linked to apoptosis.

  9. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns are altered during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Popp, Michael P.; Gurley, William B.; Guy, Charles; Norwood, Kelly L.; Ferl, Robert J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments results in differential gene expression. A 5-day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β-Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns initially by using the Adh/GUS transgene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response (Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J., 2001. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis, Plant Physiol. 126, 613-621). As a follow-on to the reporter gene analysis, we report here the evaluation of genome-wide patterns of native gene expression within Arabidopsis shoots utilizing the Agilent DNA array of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - Taqman®). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays probed with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to RNA isolated from ground control plants revealed 182 genes that were differentially expressed in response to the spaceflight mission by more than 4-fold, and of those only 50 genes were expressed at levels chosen to support a conservative change call. None of the genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were induced to this level. However, genes related to heat shock were dramatically induced - but in a pattern and under growth conditions that are not easily explained by elevated temperatures. These gene expression data are discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment and with regard to potential future spaceflight experiment

  10. Spaceflight Induces Specific Alterations in the Proteomes of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jin; Denison, Fiona; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Life in spaceflight demonstrates remarkable acclimation processes within the specialized habitats of vehicles subjected to the myriad of unique environmental issues associated with orbital trajectories. To examine the response processes that occur in plants in space, leaves and roots from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings from three GFP reporter lines that were grown from seed for 12 days on the International Space Station and preserved on orbit in RNAlater were returned to Earth and analyzed by using iTRAQ broad-scale proteomics procedures. Using stringent criteria, we identified over 1500 proteins, which included 1167 leaf proteins and 1150 root proteins we were able to accurately quantify. Quantification revealed 256 leaf proteins and 358 root proteins that showed statistically significant differential abundance in the spaceflight samples compared to ground controls, with few proteins differentially regulated in common between leaves and roots. This indicates that there are measurable proteomics responses to spaceflight and that the responses are organ-specific. These proteomics data were compared with transcriptome data from similar spaceflight samples, showing that there is a positive but limited relationship between transcriptome and proteome regulation of the overall spaceflight responses of plants. These results are discussed in terms of emergence understanding of plant responses to spaceflight particularly with regard to cell wall remodeling, as well as in the context of deriving multiple omics data sets from a single on-orbit preservation and operations approach. Key Words: Space biology—Proteomics—Gene expression—ISS. Astrobiology 15, 32–56. PMID:25517942

  11. Spaceflight induces specific alterations in the proteomes of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Koh, Jin; Denison, Fiona; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Life in spaceflight demonstrates remarkable acclimation processes within the specialized habitats of vehicles subjected to the myriad of unique environmental issues associated with orbital trajectories. To examine the response processes that occur in plants in space, leaves and roots from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings from three GFP reporter lines that were grown from seed for 12 days on the International Space Station and preserved on orbit in RNAlater were returned to Earth and analyzed by using iTRAQ broad-scale proteomics procedures. Using stringent criteria, we identified over 1500 proteins, which included 1167 leaf proteins and 1150 root proteins we were able to accurately quantify. Quantification revealed 256 leaf proteins and 358 root proteins that showed statistically significant differential abundance in the spaceflight samples compared to ground controls, with few proteins differentially regulated in common between leaves and roots. This indicates that there are measurable proteomics responses to spaceflight and that the responses are organ-specific. These proteomics data were compared with transcriptome data from similar spaceflight samples, showing that there is a positive but limited relationship between transcriptome and proteome regulation of the overall spaceflight responses of plants. These results are discussed in terms of emergence understanding of plant responses to spaceflight particularly with regard to cell wall remodeling, as well as in the context of deriving multiple omics data sets from a single on-orbit preservation and operations approach. PMID:25517942

  12. Alteration of renal function of rats following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Following spaceflight, changes in renal function of humans have been suggested. To assess the effects of readaptation on renal function, urine was collected from male rats ( approximately 245 g) over a 2-wk period following a 14-day spaceflight. Rats were assigned to three groups: flight animals (n = 6), flight controls (n = 6) housed in the flight cages on the ground, and vivarium controls (n = 5) housed in standard shoe box cages. Animals were placed into individual metabolic cages for urine collection. Urine output was significantly increased for 3 days following flight. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate. Creatinine excretion rate increased over the first two postflight days. Glomerular filtration rate increased immediately following spaceflight without changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, K+, or osmolality. Increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and a decreased percent reabsorption of the filtered load. Osmolal clearance was increased immediately postflight while free water clearance was decreased. In growing rats, the diuresis after short-duration spaceflight is the result of an increase in solute excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  13. The role of psychoneuroendocrine factors on spaceflight-induced immunological alterations.

    PubMed

    Meehan, R; Whitson, P; Sams, C

    1993-09-01

    This paper summarizes previous in-flight infections and novel conditions of spaceflight that may suppress immune function. Granulocytosis, monocytosis, and lymphopenia are routinely observed following short duration orbital flights. Subtle changes within the monocyte and T cell populations can also be noted by flow cytometric analysis. The similarity between the immunological changes observed after spaceflight and other diverse environmental stressors suggest that most of these alterations may be neuroendocrine-mediated. Available data support the hypothesis that spaceflight and other environmental stressors modulate normal immune regulation via stress hormones, other than exclusively glucocorticoids. It will be essential to simultaneously collect in-flight endocrine, immunologic, and infectious illness data to determine the clinical significance of these results. Additional research that delineates the neuroendocrine mechanisms of stress-induced changes in normal immune regulation will allow clinicians in the future to initiate prophylactic immunomodulator therapy to restore immune competence altered by the stress of long-duration spaceflight and therefore reduce morbidity from infectious illness, autoimmune disease, or malignancy. PMID:8371053

  14. The role of psychoneuroendocrine factors on spaceflight-induced immunological alterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R.; Whitson, P.; Sams, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes previous in-flight infections and novel conditions of spaceflight that may suppress immune function. Granulocytosis, monocytosis, and lymphopenia are routinely observed following short duration orbital flights. Subtle changes within the monocyte and T cell populations can also be noted by flow cytometric analysis. The similarity between the immunological changes observed after spaceflight and other diverse environmental stressors suggest that most of these alterations may be neuroendocrine-mediated. Available data support the hypothesis that spaceflight and other environmental stressors modulate normal immune regulation via stress hormones, other than exclusively glucocorticoids. It will be essential to simultaneously collect in-flight endocrine, immunologic, and infectious illness data to determine the clinical significance of these results. Additional research that delineates the neuroendocrine mechanisms of stress-induced changes in normal immune regulation will allow clinicians in the future to initiate prophylactic immunomodulator therapy to restore immune competence altered by the stress of long-duration spaceflight and therefore reduce morbidity from infectious illness, autoimmune disease, or malignancy.

  15. Post-Spaceflight (STS-135) Mouse Splenocytes Demonstrate Altered Activation Properties and Surface Molecule Expression

    PubMed Central

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in immune function have been documented during or post-spaceflight and in ground based models of microgravity. Identification of immune parameters that are dysregulated during spaceflight is an important step in mitigating crew health risks during deep space missions. The in vitro analysis of leukocyte activity post-spaceflight in both human and animal species is primarily focused on lymphocytic function. This report completes a broader spectrum analysis of mouse lymphocyte and monocyte changes post 13 days orbital flight (mission STS-135). Analysis includes an examination in surface markers for cell activation, and antigen presentation and co-stimulatory molecules. Cytokine production was measured after stimulation with T-cell mitogen or TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-5 agonists. Splenocyte surface marker analysis immediate post-spaceflight and after in vitro culture demonstrated unique changes in phenotypic populations between the flight mice and matched treatment ground controls. Post-spaceflight splenocytes (flight splenocytes) had lower expression intensity of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ cells, lower percentage of CD11c+MHC II+ cells, and higher percentage of CD11c+MHC I+ populations compared to ground controls. The flight splenocytes demonstrated an increase in phagocytic activity. Stimulation with ConA led to decrease in CD4+ population but increased CD4+CD25+ cells compared to ground controls. Culturing with TLR agonists led to a decrease in CD11c+ population in splenocytes isolated from flight mice compared to ground controls. Consequently, flight splenocytes with or without TLR-agonist stimulation showed a decrease in CD11c+MHC I+, CD11c+MHC II+, and CD11c+CD86+ cells compared to ground controls. Production of IFN-γ was decreased and IL-2 was increased from ConA stimulated flight splenocytes. This study demonstrated that expression of surface molecules can be affected by conditions of spaceflight and impaired responsiveness persists under culture

  16. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S; Plawsky, Joel L; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

  17. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Chang, Tammy T; Martinez, Emily M; Li, Chai-Fei

    2015-12-01

    Altered immune function has been demonstrated in astronauts during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab; this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the International Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the first report that spaceflight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically confirmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21. PMID:26276131

  18. Alteration of gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to microgravity during a spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Wayne E.; Bhasin, Shalender; Lalani, Rukhsana; Datta, Anuj; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of skeletal muscle wasting during spaceflights, we investigated whether intramuscular gene expression profiles are affected, by using DNA microarray methods. Male rats sent on the 17-day NASA STS-90 Neurolab spaceflight were sacrificed 24 hours after return to earth (MG group). Ground control rats were maintained for 17 days in flight-simulated cages (CS group). Spaceflight induced a 19% and 23% loss of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle mass, respectively, as compared to ground controls. Muscle RNA was analyzed by the Clontech Atlas DNA expression array in four rats, with two MG/ CS pairs for the tibialis anterior, and one pair for the gastrocnemius. Alterations in gene expression were verified for selected genes by reverse-transcription PCR. In both muscles of MG rats, mRNAs for 12 genes were up-regulated by over 2-fold, and 38 were down-regulated compared to controls. There was inhibition of genes for cell proliferation and growth factor cascades, including cell cycle genes and signal transduction proteins, such as p21 Cip1, retinoblastoma (Rb), cyclins G1/S, -E and -D3, MAP kinase 3, MAD3, and ras related protein RAB2. These data indicate that following exposure to microgravity, there is downregulation of genes involved in regulation of muscle satellite cell replication.

  19. Altered Cytokine Production By Specific Human Peripheral Blood Cell Subsets Immediately Following Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Cubbage, Michael L.; Sams, Clarence F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted to combine standard immunological assays with the cellular resolving power of the flow cytometer to positively identify the specific cell types involved in spaceflight-induced immune alterations. We have obtained whole blood samples from 27 astronauts collected at three timepoints (L-10, R+0 and R+3) surrounding four recent space shuttle missions. The duration of these missions ranged from 10 to 18 days. Assays performed included serum/urine cortisol, comprehensive subset phenotyping, assessment of cellular activation markers and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following spaceflight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated trends towards a decreased percentage of T cells and an increased percentage of B cells. Nearly all of the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, which was dramatic in some individuals. Assessment of memory (CD45RA+) vs. naive (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was more ambiguous, with subjects tending to group more as a flight crew. All subjects from one mission demonstrated an increased CD45RA:CD45RO ratio, while all subjects from another Mission demonstrated a decreased ratio. While no significant trend was seen in the monocyte population as defined by scatter, a decreased percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset was seen following spaceflight in all subjects tested. In general, most of the cellular changes described above which were assessed at R+O and compared to L-10 trended to pre-flight levels by R+3. Although no significant differences were seen in the expression of the cellular activation markers CD69 and CD25 following exposure to microgravity, significant alterations were seen in cytokine production in response to mitogenic activation for specific subsets. T cell (CD3+) production of IL-2 was significantly decreased

  20. Immunosuppression during spaceflight deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, D S; Greenleaf, J E

    1998-02-01

    Spaceflight results in immunosuppression which is likely due mainly to neurohumoral factors released in response to intermittent stress effects during flight. However, no major non-physiological health problems have been reported during or following spaceflight, but diseases resulting from immunosuppression could occur on long-duration missions and would include bacterial, fungal, and viral infections in addition to increased incidence of neoplasia and autoimmunity. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics appear to be altered during spaceflight and, as a consequence, alternative drug administration and dosing procedures will need to be developed. Moderate exercise training enhances immune function, but in-flight exercise may affect immunological parameters and immunity in ways not yet ascertained. Hyperosmolality may enhance some immune parameters, and attenuate others especially when associated with dehydration and exercise. Reducing in-flight stress may attenuate flight-induced immunosuppression, but pharmacological interventions may be essential to prevent undesirable immune responses which may occur on long-duration missions to Mars. PMID:9491259

  1. Reduced receptor aggregation and altered cytoskeleton in cultured myocytes after space-flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, R.; Roberts, R.; Reitstetter, R.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out parallel experiments first on the slow clinostat and then in space-flight to examine the effects of altered gravity on the aggregation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the structure of the cytoskeleton in cultured Xenopus embryonic muscle cells. By examining the concordance between results from space flight and the clinostat, we tested whether the slow clinostat is a relevant simulation paradigm. Space-flown cells showed marked changes in the distribution and organization of actin filaments and had a reduced incidence of acetylcholine receptor aggregates at the site of contact with polystyrene beads. Similar effects were found after clinostat rotation. The sensitivity of synaptic receptor aggregation and cytoskeletal morphology suggests that in the microgravity of space cell behavior may be importantly altered.

  2. Altered distribution of mitochondria in rat soleus muscle fibers after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Gordon J.; Martin, Thomas P.; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.; Oganov, V. S.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an exposure to microgravity on the distribution of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity throughout the soleus muscle fibers was investigated by measuring SDH activity throughout the cross section of 20-30 fibers each of the slow-twitch oxidative and fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic types of fibers in rats exposed to 12.5 days in space aboard Cosmos 1887. It was found that, after the spaceflight, the entire regional distribution of SDH activity was significantly altered (as compared to ground controls) in the slow-twitch oxidative fibers, whereas the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers from muscles of flown rats exhibited a significantly lower SDH activity only in their subsarcolemmal region.

  3. Altered Innate and Lymphocytic Immunity in Murine Splenocytes Following Short-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Quiriarte, Heather; Sams, Clarence F.

    2011-01-01

    Immune dysregulation has been demonstrated following spaceflight of varying durations and limited in-flight studies indicate this phenomenon may persist during spaceflight. Causes may include microgravity, physiological stress, isolation, confinement and disrupted circadian rhythms. To further investigate the mechanisms associated with flight-associated immune changes, murine splenocytes immune parameters were assessed following 14 day space flight on Space Shuttle mission STS-135.

  4. Low-Shear Force Associated with Modeled Microgravity and Spaceflight Does Not Similarly Impact the Virulence of Notable Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Ahmed, Sandeel; Eunson, John; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    As their environments change, microbes experience various threats and stressors, and in the hyper-competitive microbial world, dynamism and the ability to rapidly respond to such changes allow microbes to outcompete their nutrient-seeking neighbors. Viewed in that light, the very difference between microbial life and death depends on effective stress-response mechanisms. In addition to the more commonly studied temperature, nutritional, and chemical stressors, research has begun to characterize microbial responses to physical stress, namely low-shear stress. In fact, microbial responses to low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), which emulates the microgravity experienced in space, have been studied quite widely in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Interestingly, LSMMG-induced changes in the virulence potential of several Gram-negative enteric bacteria, e.g., an increased enterotoxigenic Eschericia coli-mediated fluid secretion in ligated ileal loops of mice, an increased adherent invasive E. coli-mediated infectivity of Caco-2 cells, an increased Salmonella Typhimurium-mediated invasion of both epithelial and macrophage cells, and S. Typhimurium hypervirulence phenotype in BALB/c mice when infected by the intraperitoneal route. Although these were some examples where virulence of the bacteria was increased, there are instances where organisms became less virulent under LSMMG, e.g., hypovirulence of Yersinia pestis in cell culture infections and hypovirulence of methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. In general, a number of LSMMG-exposed bacteria (but not all) seemed better equipped to handle subsequent stressors such as osmotic shock, acid shock, heat shock, and exposure to chemotherapeutics. This mini-review primarily discusses both LSMMG-induced as well as bonafide spaceflight-specific alterations in bacterial virulence potential, demonstrating that pathogens

  5. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations Indicate In-vivo Hormonal Regulation of Immunity is Altered During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crician, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aspects of immune system dysregulation associated with long-duration spaceflight have yet to be fully characterized, and may represent a clinical risk to crewmembers during deep space missions. Plasma cytokine concentration may serve as an indicator of in vivo physiological changes or immune system mobilization. Methods: The plasma concentrations of 22 cytokines were monitored in 28 astronauts during long-duration spaceflight onboard the International Space Station. Blood samples were collected three times before flight, 3-5 times during flight (depending on mission duration), at landing and 30 days post-landing. Analysis was performed by bead array immunoassay. Results: With few exceptions, minimal detectable mean plasma levels (<10 pg/ml) were observed at baseline (launch minus 180) for innate inflammatory cytokines or adaptive regulatory cytokines, however IL-1ra and several chemokines were constitutively present. An increase in the plasma concentration IL-8, IL-1ra, Tpo, CCL4, CXCL5, TNF(alpha), GM-CSF and VEGF was observed associated with spaceflight. Significant post-flight increases were observed for IL-6 and CCL2. No significant alterations were observed during or following spaceflight for adaptive/T-regulatory cytokines (IL-2, IFN(gamma), IL-17, IL4, IL-5, IL-10). Conclusions: This pattern of cytokine dysregulation suggests multiple physiological adaptations persist during flight, including inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis and thrombocyte regulation.

  6. Simulation of Ophthalmic Alterations at the Arctic, Antarctica and the International Space Station for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio; Gonçalves, Cristiane

    2016-07-01

    Well, we propose a series of long-period medical simulations in scientific bases at the Arctic, at Antarctica and aboard the International Space Station (ISS), involving natural ophthalmic diseases such as radiation, solar and trauma retinopathy, keratoconus, cataract, glaucoma, etc., and ophthalmic alterations by accidental injuries. These natural diseases, without a previous diagnosis, specially those specific retinopathy, appear after 1 month to 1.5 year, in average. Such studies will be valuable for the human deep-space exploration because during long-duration spaceflight, such as staying at the ISS, a Moon base and a manned trip to planet Mars, requires several months within such environments, and during such periods ophthalmic diseases and accidents might eventually occur, which could seriously affect the 'round-the-clock' work schedule of the astronauts and the long-duration spaceflight manned program.

  7. Spaceflight-induced alterations in cerebral artery vasoconstrictor, mechanical, and structural properties: implications for elevated cerebral perfusion and intracranial pressure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Curtis R.; Hanna, Mina; Behnke, Bradley J.; Stabley, John N.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Davis, Robert T.; Ghosh, Payal; Papadopoulos, Anthony; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that cerebral blood flow is both increased and diminished in astronauts on return to Earth. Data from ground-based animal models simulating the effects of microgravity have shown that decrements in cerebral perfusion are associated with enhanced vasoconstriction and structural remodeling of cerebral arteries. Based on these results, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 13 d of spaceflight [Space Transportation System (STS)-135 shuttle mission] enhances myogenic vasoconstriction, increases medial wall thickness, and elicits no change in the mechanical properties of mouse cerebral arteries. Basilar and posterior communicating arteries (PCAs) were isolated from 9-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice for in vitro vascular and mechanical testing. Contrary to that hypothesized, myogenic vasoconstrictor responses were lower and vascular distensibility greater in arteries from spaceflight group (SF) mice (n=7) relative to ground-based control group (GC) mice (n=12). Basilar artery maximal diameter was greater in SF mice (SF: 236±9 μm and GC: 215±5 μm) with no difference in medial wall thickness (SF: 12.4±1.6 μm; GC: 12.2±1.2 μm). Stiffness of the PCA, as characterized via nanoindentation, was lower in SF mice (SF: 3.4±0.3 N/m; GC: 5.4±0.8 N/m). Collectively, spaceflight-induced reductions in myogenic vasoconstriction and stiffness and increases in maximal diameter of cerebral arteries signify that elevations in brain blood flow may occur during spaceflight. Such changes in cerebral vascular control of perfusion could contribute to increases in intracranial pressure and an associated impairment of visual acuity in astronauts during spaceflight.—Taylor, C. R., Hanna, M., Behnke, B. J., Stabley, J. N., McCullough, D. J., Davis III, R. T., Ghosh, P., Papadopoulos, A., Muller-Delp, J. M., Delp, M. D. Spaceflight-induced alterations in cerebral artery vasoconstrictor, mechanical, and structural properties: implications for elevated

  8. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations Indicate That In Vivo Hormonal Regulation of Immunity Is Altered During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Sara R.; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather D.; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of immune system dysregulation associated with long-duration spaceflight have yet to be fully characterized and may represent a clinical risk to crewmembers during deep space missions. Plasma cytokine concentration may serve as an indicator of in vivo physiological changes or immune system mobilization. The plasma concentrations of 22 cytokines were monitored in 28 astronauts during long-duration spaceflight onboard the International Space Station. Blood samples were collected 3 times before flight, 3–5 times during flight (depending on mission duration), at landing, and 30 days after landing. Analysis was performed by bead array immunoassay. With few exceptions, minimal detectable mean plasma concentrations were observed at baseline (launch minus 180) for innate inflammatory cytokines or adaptive regulatory cytokines; however, interleukin (IL)-1ra and several chemokines and growth factors were constitutively present. An increase in the plasma concentration, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL-8, IL-1ra, thrombopoietin (Tpo), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine ligand 4/macrophage inhibitory protein 1b (CCL4), and C-X-C motif chemokine 5/epithelial neutrophil-activating protein 78 (CXCL5) was observed associated with spaceflight. No significant alterations were observed during or following spaceflight for the inflammatory or adaptive/T-regulatory cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, FGF basic, CCL3, or CCL5. This pattern of cytokine dysregulation suggests multiple physiological adaptations persist during flight, including inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis, and thrombocyte regulation. PMID:24702175

  9. Plasma cytokine concentrations indicate that in vivo hormonal regulation of immunity is altered during long-duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Crucian, Brian E; Zwart, Sara R; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather D; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence F; Smith, Scott M

    2014-10-01

    Aspects of immune system dysregulation associated with long-duration spaceflight have yet to be fully characterized and may represent a clinical risk to crewmembers during deep space missions. Plasma cytokine concentration may serve as an indicator of in vivo physiological changes or immune system mobilization. The plasma concentrations of 22 cytokines were monitored in 28 astronauts during long-duration spaceflight onboard the International Space Station. Blood samples were collected 3 times before flight, 3-5 times during flight (depending on mission duration), at landing, and 30 days after landing. Analysis was performed by bead array immunoassay. With few exceptions, minimal detectable mean plasma concentrations were observed at baseline (launch minus 180) for innate inflammatory cytokines or adaptive regulatory cytokines; however, interleukin (IL)-1ra and several chemokines and growth factors were constitutively present. An increase in the plasma concentration, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL-8, IL-1ra, thrombopoietin (Tpo), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine ligand 4/macrophage inhibitory protein 1b (CCL4), and C-X-C motif chemokine 5/epithelial neutrophil-activating protein 78 (CXCL5) was observed associated with spaceflight. No significant alterations were observed during or following spaceflight for the inflammatory or adaptive/T-regulatory cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, FGF basic, CCL3, or CCL5. This pattern of cytokine dysregulation suggests multiple physiological adaptations persist during flight, including inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis, and thrombocyte regulation. PMID:24702175

  10. Altered skeletal pattern of gene expression in response to spaceflight and hindlimb elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to osteopenia, in part by inhibiting bone formation. Using an animal model (hindlimb elevation) that simulates the weightlessness of spaceflight, we and others showed a reversible inhibition of bone formation and bone mineralization. In this study, we have measured the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin in the tibiae of rats flown aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration Shuttle Flight STS-54 and compared the results with those obtained from their ground-based controls and from the bones of hindlimb-elevated animals. Spaceflight and hindlimb elevation transiently increase the mRNA levels for IGF-I, IGF-IR, and alkaline phosphatase but decrease the mRNA levels for osteocalcin. The changes in osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels are consistent with a shift toward decreased maturation, whereas the rise in IGF-I and IGF-IR mRNA levels may indicate a compensatory response to the fall in bone formation. We conclude that skeletal unloading during spaceflight or hindlimb elevation resets the pattern of gene expression in the osteoblast, giving it a less mature profile.

  11. Spaceflight-induced bone loss alters failure mode and reduces bending strength in murine spinal segments.

    PubMed

    Berg-Johansen, Britta; Liebenberg, Ellen C; Li, Alfred; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation rates are quadrupled in astronauts following spaceflight. While bending motions are main contributors to herniation, the effects of microgravity on the bending properties of spinal discs are unknown. Consequently, the goal of this study was to quantify the bending properties of tail discs from mice with or without microgravity exposure. Caudal motion segments from six mice returned from a 30-day Bion M1 mission and eight vivarium controls were loaded to failure in four-point bending. After testing, specimens were processed using histology to determine the location of failure, and adjacent motion segments were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify bone properties. We observed that spaceflight significantly shortened the nonlinear toe region of the force-displacement curve by 32% and reduced the bending strength by 17%. Flight mouse spinal segments tended to fail within the growth plate and epiphyseal bone, while controls tended to fail at the disc-vertebra junction. Spaceflight significantly reduced vertebral bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and trabecular thickness, which may explain the tendency of flight specimens to fail within the epiphyseal bone. Together, these results indicate that vertebral bone loss during spaceflight may degrade spine bending properties and contribute to increased disc herniation risk in astronauts. PMID:26285046

  12. Microbiological concerns and methodological approaches related to bacterial water quality in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, Barry H.; Mcfeters, Gordon A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of microbiological issues are of critical importance to crew health and system performance in spacecraft water systems. This presentation reviews an army of these concerns which include factors that influence water treatment and disinfection in spaceflight such as biofilm formation and the physiological responses of bacteria in clean water systems. Factors associated with spaceflight like aerosol formation under conditions of microgravity are also discussed within the context of airborne infections such as Legionellosis. Finally, a spectrum of analytical approaches is reviewed to provide an evaluation of methodological alternatives that have been suggested or used to detect microorganisms of interest in water systems. These range from classical approaches employing colony formation on specific microbiological growth media to direct (i.e. microscopic) and indirect (e.g. electrochemical) methods as well as the use of molecular approaches and gene probes. These techniques are critically evaluated for their potential utility in determining microbiological water quality through the detection of microorganisms under the influence of ambient environmental stress inherent in spaceflight water systems.

  13. Spaceflight on the Bion-M1 biosatellite alters cerebral artery vasomotor and mechanical properties in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sofronova, Svetlana I.; Tarasova, Olga S.; Gaynullina, Dina; Borzykh, Anna A.; Behnke, Bradley J.; Stabley, John N.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Maraj, Joshua J.; Hanna, Mina; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Vinogradova, Olga L.

    2015-01-01

    Conditions during spaceflight, such as the loss of the head-to-foot gravity vector, are thought to potentially alter cerebral blood flow and vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the functional, mechanical, and structural properties of cerebral arteries. Male C57BL/6N mice were flown 30 days in a Bion-M1 biosatellite. Basilar arteries isolated from spaceflight (SF) (n = 6), habitat control (HC) (n = 6), and vivarium control (VC) (n = 16) mice were used for in vitro functional and mechanical testing and histological structural analysis. The results demonstrate that vasoconstriction elicited through a voltage-gated Ca2+ mechanism (30–80 mM KCl) and thromboxane A2 receptors (10−8 − 3 × 10−5 M U46619) are lower in cerebral arteries from SF mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase activity (1 μM Y27632) abolished group differences in U46619-evoked contractions. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation elicited by acetylcholine (10 μM, 2 μM U46619 preconstriction) was virtually absent in cerebral arteries from SF mice. The pressure-diameter relation was lower in arteries from SF mice relative to that in HC mice, which was not related to differences in the extracellular matrix protein elastin or collagen content or the elastin/collagen ratio in the basilar arteries. Diameter, medial wall thickness, and medial cross-sectional area of unpressurized basilar arteries were not different among groups. These results suggest that the microgravity-induced attenuation of both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator properties may limit the range of vascular control of cerebral perfusion or impair the distribution of brain blood flow during periods of stress. PMID:25593287

  14. Spaceflight on the Bion-M1 biosatellite alters cerebral artery vasomotor and mechanical properties in mice.

    PubMed

    Sofronova, Svetlana I; Tarasova, Olga S; Gaynullina, Dina; Borzykh, Anna A; Behnke, Bradley J; Stabley, John N; McCullough, Danielle J; Maraj, Joshua J; Hanna, Mina; Muller-Delp, Judy M; Vinogradova, Olga L; Delp, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Conditions during spaceflight, such as the loss of the head-to-foot gravity vector, are thought to potentially alter cerebral blood flow and vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the functional, mechanical, and structural properties of cerebral arteries. Male C57BL/6N mice were flown 30 days in a Bion-M1 biosatellite. Basilar arteries isolated from spaceflight (SF) (n = 6), habitat control (HC) (n = 6), and vivarium control (VC) (n = 16) mice were used for in vitro functional and mechanical testing and histological structural analysis. The results demonstrate that vasoconstriction elicited through a voltage-gated Ca(2+) mechanism (30-80 mM KCl) and thromboxane A2 receptors (10(-8) - 3 × 10(-5) M U46619) are lower in cerebral arteries from SF mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase activity (1 μM Y27632) abolished group differences in U46619-evoked contractions. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation elicited by acetylcholine (10 μM, 2 μM U46619 preconstriction) was virtually absent in cerebral arteries from SF mice. The pressure-diameter relation was lower in arteries from SF mice relative to that in HC mice, which was not related to differences in the extracellular matrix protein elastin or collagen content or the elastin/collagen ratio in the basilar arteries. Diameter, medial wall thickness, and medial cross-sectional area of unpressurized basilar arteries were not different among groups. These results suggest that the microgravity-induced attenuation of both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator properties may limit the range of vascular control of cerebral perfusion or impair the distribution of brain blood flow during periods of stress. PMID:25593287

  15. Cultivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the Human Spaceflight Environment Leads to Alterations in the Frequency and Spectrum of Spontaneous Rifampicin-Resistance Mutations in the rpoB Gene.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are persistent inhabitants of human spaceflight habitats and represent potential opportunistic pathogens. The effect of the human spaceflight environment on the growth and the frequency of mutations to antibiotic resistance in the model organism Staphylococcus epidermidis strain ATCC12228 was investigated. Six cultures of the test organism were cultivated in biological research in canisters-Petri dish fixation units for 122 h on orbit in the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the SpaceX-3 resupply mission. Asynchronous ground controls (GCs) consisted of identical sets of cultures cultivated for 122 h in the ISS Environmental Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. S. epidermidis exhibited significantly lower viable counts but significantly higher frequencies of mutation to rifampicin (Rif) resistance in space vs. GC cultures. The spectrum of mutations in the rpoB gene leading to Rif(R) was altered in S. epidermidis isolates cultivated in the ISS compared to GCs. The results suggest that the human spaceflight environment induces unique physiologic stresses on growing bacterial cells leading to changes in mutagenic potential. PMID:27446039

  16. Cultivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the Human Spaceflight Environment Leads to Alterations in the Frequency and Spectrum of Spontaneous Rifampicin-Resistance Mutations in the rpoB Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are persistent inhabitants of human spaceflight habitats and represent potential opportunistic pathogens. The effect of the human spaceflight environment on the growth and the frequency of mutations to antibiotic resistance in the model organism Staphylococcus epidermidis strain ATCC12228 was investigated. Six cultures of the test organism were cultivated in biological research in canisters–Petri dish fixation units for 122 h on orbit in the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the SpaceX-3 resupply mission. Asynchronous ground controls (GCs) consisted of identical sets of cultures cultivated for 122 h in the ISS Environmental Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. S. epidermidis exhibited significantly lower viable counts but significantly higher frequencies of mutation to rifampicin (Rif) resistance in space vs. GC cultures. The spectrum of mutations in the rpoB gene leading to RifR was altered in S. epidermidis isolates cultivated in the ISS compared to GCs. The results suggest that the human spaceflight environment induces unique physiologic stresses on growing bacterial cells leading to changes in mutagenic potential. PMID:27446039

  17. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Coretti, Lorena; Pero, Raffaela; Lembo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the principal bacterial products known to elicit inflammation. Cells of myeloid lineage such as monocytes and macrophages, but also epithelial cells give rise to an inflammatory response upon LPS stimulation. This phenomenon implies reprogramming of cell specific gene expression that can occur through different mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Given their intrinsic nature, epigenetic modifications may be involved both in the acute response to LPS and in the establishment of a preconditioned genomic state (epigenomic memory) that may potentially influence the host response to further contacts with microorganisms. Information has accumulated during the last years aimed at elucidating the epigenetic mechanisms which underlie the cellular LPS response. These findings, summarized in this chapter, will hopefully be a good basis for a definition of the complete cascade of LPS-induced epigenetic events and their biological significance in different cell types. PMID:26659265

  18. Long-Duration Spaceflight During the Bion-M1 Spaceflight Experiment Resulted in Significant Bone Loss in the Femoral Head and Alterations in Stem Cell Differentiation Potential in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora; Globus, Ruth

    Scientific understanding of the effects of microgravity on mammalian physiology has been limited to short duration spaceflight experiments (10-15 days). As long duration and inter-planetary missions are being initiated, there is a great need to understand the long-term effects of spaceflight on various physiological processes, including stem cell-based tissue regeneration. Bion-M1, for the first time, enabled the possibility of studying the effects of 30-days of microgravity exposure on a mouse model with sufficient sample size to enable statistical analysis. In this experiment, we hypothesized that microgravity negatively impacts stem cell based tissue regeneration, such as bone remodeling and regeneration from hematopoietic and mesenchymal precursors, thereby resulting in tissue degeneration in mice exposed to spaceflight. To test this hypothesis we collected the pelvis and proximal femur from space-flown mice and asynchronous ground controls and analyzed bone and bone marrow using techniques including Microcomputed Tomography (MicroCT), and in-vitro differentiation and differentiating cell motility assays. To determine the effects of 30-days spaceflight on bone tissue mass, we used MicroCT to analyze the trabecular bone of the femoral head and the cortical bone of the femoral neck and mid-shaft. We found that spaceflight caused a 45% decrease in bone volume ratio, a 17% decrease in trabecular thickness, a 25% decrease in trabecular number, and a 17% increase in trabecular spacing of trabecular bone. Furthermore, structural model index and trabecular pattern factor were increased by 32% and 82% respectively indicating that 30-days spaceflight resulted not only in a large loss of trabecular bone but also in a decrease of bone strength indicators. Analysis of the femoral neck cortical bone showed an increase in marrow area and cortical porosity indicating an overall widening of the femoral neck. Interestingly, no significant alterations were found in the cortical

  19. Thermal design and turbidity sensor for autonomous bacterial growth measurements in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    van Benthem, Roel; Krooneman, Janneke; de Grave, Wubbo; Hammenga-Dorenbos, Hilma

    2009-04-01

    For application of biological air filters in manned spacecraft, research on bacterial growth is carried out under microgravity conditions. For the BIOFILTER experiment, flown in 2005 on FOTON M2, eight turbidity sensors to measure the growth rate of the bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 were used. Also thermal management provisions were implemented to control the internal temperature. The design and performance of the BIOFILTER equipment as well as results of the biological ground reference experiments performed in 2006 are discussed. High-performance thermal (vacuum) insulation (lambda= 0.7 mW/mK) and phase change material were implemented, keeping the BIOFILTER internal temperature below 16 degrees C during the 4-day integration period between transport and launch. After launch, in microgravity, the growth of X. autotrophicus GJ10 was successfully triggered by a temperature increase by using an internal heater to 26 degrees C. Although the operation of the sensor electronics was not fully satisfying, the bacterial growth was measured with the sensors, revealing growth rates between 0.046 and 0.077 h(-1) in microgravity, that is, approximately 1.5-2.5 times slower than routinely measured on Earth under optimal laboratory conditions. For the ground-reference experiments the equipment box, containing the eight sensors, was placed on a random positioning machine performing random rotations at 0.5 degrees /min (settling compensation) and 90 degrees /min (microgravity simulation) while the environment was controlled, accurately repeating the BIOFILTER internal temperature profile. Despite the rotation speed differences, growth rates of 0.115 h(-1) were confirmed by both the ground reference experiments. Biological interpretation of the measurements is, however, compromised owing to poor mixing and other unknown physical and biological phenomena that need to be addressed for further space experiments using these kinds of systems. PMID:19426313

  20. Evaluation of Thermoregulation After Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, S. M.; Williams, W. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Gonzalez, R.

    1999-01-01

    Altered thermoregulation has been reported following spaceflight simulations such as water immersion and bedrest but it has never been evaluated immediately after actual spaceflight. Impaired thermoregulation may have significant impact during various spaceflight activities such as countermeasure exercise, extravehicular activity (EVA), landing, and egress. It would be manifested as an increased body temperature and heart rate and decreased work capacity and endurance. In this study we evaluated the exercise responses of two crewmembers following a long duration spaceflight and measured their changes in body temperatures, skin blood flow, sweating and heat production during a mild submaximal exercise stress.

  1. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  2. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host tropism.

    PubMed

    Viana, David; Comos, María; McAdam, Paul R; Ward, Melissa J; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Penadés, José R

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. To investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago and that only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host tropism of a microorganism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into new host species populations. PMID:25685890

  3. Spaceflight-induced alterations in cerebral artery vasoconstrictor, mechanical, and structural properties: implications for elevated cerebral perfusion and intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Curtis R; Hanna, Mina; Behnke, Bradley J; Stabley, John N; McCullough, Danielle J; Davis, Robert T; Ghosh, Payal; Papadopoulos, Anthony; Muller-Delp, Judy M; Delp, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Evidence indicates that cerebral blood flow is both increased and diminished in astronauts on return to Earth. Data from ground-based animal models simulating the effects of microgravity have shown that decrements in cerebral perfusion are associated with enhanced vasoconstriction and structural remodeling of cerebral arteries. Based on these results, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 13 d of spaceflight [Space Transportation System (STS)-135 shuttle mission] enhances myogenic vasoconstriction, increases medial wall thickness, and elicits no change in the mechanical properties of mouse cerebral arteries. Basilar and posterior communicating arteries (PCAs) were isolated from 9-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice for in vitro vascular and mechanical testing. Contrary to that hypothesized, myogenic vasoconstrictor responses were lower and vascular distensibility greater in arteries from spaceflight group (SF) mice (n=7) relative to ground-based control group (GC) mice (n=12). Basilar artery maximal diameter was greater in SF mice (SF: 236±9 μm and GC: 215±5 μm) with no difference in medial wall thickness (SF: 12.4±1.6 μm; GC: 12.2±1.2 μm). Stiffness of the PCA, as characterized via nanoindentation, was lower in SF mice (SF: 3.4±0.3 N/m; GC: 5.4±0.8 N/m). Collectively, spaceflight-induced reductions in myogenic vasoconstriction and stiffness and increases in maximal diameter of cerebral arteries signify that elevations in brain blood flow may occur during spaceflight. Such changes in cerebral vascular control of perfusion could contribute to increases in intracranial pressure and an associated impairment of visual acuity in astronauts during spaceflight. PMID:23457215

  4. Spaceflight Causes Increased Virulence of Serratia Marcescens on a Drosophila Melanogaster Host

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Wade, William; Clemens-Grisham, Rachel; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Lera, Matthew P.; Gresser, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, or the fruit fly, has long been an important organism for Earth-based research, and is now increasingly utilized as a model system to understand the biological effects of spaceflight. Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have shown altered immune responses in 3rd instar larvae and adult males following spaceflight, changes similar to those observed in astronauts. In addition, spaceflight has also been shown to affect bacterial physiology, as evidenced by studies describing altered virulence of Salmonella typhimurium following spaceflight and variation in biofilm growth patterns for the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa during flight. We recently sent Serratia marcescens Db11, a Drosophila pathogen and an opportunistic human pathogen, to the ISS on SpaceX-5 (Fruit Fly Lab-01). S. marcescens samples were stored at 4degC for 24 days on-orbit and then allowed to grow for 120 hours at ambient station temperature before being returned to Earth. Upon return, bacteria were isolated and preserved in 50% glycerol or RNAlater. Storage, growth, and isolation for ground control samples were performed using the same procedures. Spaceflight and ground samples stored in 50% glycerol were diluted and injected into 5-7-day-old ground-born adult D. melanogaster. Lethality was significantly greater in flies injected with the spaceflight samples compared to those injected with ground bacterial samples. These results indicate a shift in the virulence profile of the spaceflight S. marcescens Db11 and will be further assessed with molecular biological analyses. Our findings strengthen the conclusion that spaceflight impacts the virulence of bacterial pathogens on model host organisms such as the fruit fly. This research was supported by NASA's ISS Program Office (ISSPO) and Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications (SLPSRA).

  5. Produced water exposure alters bacterial response to biocides.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Lipus, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle

    2014-11-01

    Microbial activity during the holding and reuse of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations, termed produced water, may lead to issues with corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. Biocides are applied to control biological activity, often with limited efficacy, which is typically attributed to chemical interactions with the produced water. However, it is unknown whether there is a biologically driven mechanism to biocide tolerance in produced water. Here, we demonstrate that produced water exposure results in an enhanced tolerance against the typically used biocide glutaraldehyde and increased susceptibility to the oxidative biocide hypochlorite in a native and a model bacteria and that this altered resistance is due to the salinity of the produced water. In addition, we elucidate the genetic response of the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens to produced water exposure to provide a mechanistic interpretation of the altered biocide resistance. The RNA-seq data demonstrated the induction of genes involved in osmotic stress, energy production and conversion, membrane integrity, and protein transport following produced water exposure, which facilitates bacterial survival and alters biocide tolerance. Efforts to fundamentally understand biocide resistance mechanisms, which enable the optimization of biocide application, hold significant implications for greening of the fracturing process through encouraging produced water recycling. Specifically, these results suggest the necessity of optimizing biocide application at the level of individual shale plays, rather than historical experience, based upon produced water characteristics and salinity. PMID:25279933

  6. Substantial Alterations of the Cutaneous Bacterial Biota in Psoriatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan; Tseng, Chi-hong; Strober, Bruce E.; Pei, Zhiheng; Blaser, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    For psoriasis, an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the skin, the microbial biota has not been defined using cultivation-independent methods. We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for archaea and bacteria to examine the microbiota of normal and psoriatic skin. From 6 patients, 19 cutaneous samples (13 from diseased skin and 6 from normal skin) were obtained. Extracted DNA was subjected to the broad range PCR, and 1,925 cloned products were compared with 2,038 products previously reported from healthy persons. Using 98% sequence identity as a species boundary, 1,841 (95.6%) clones were similar to known bacterial 16S rDNA, representing 6 phyla, 86 genera, or 189 species-level operational taxonomic unit (SLOTU); 84 (4.4%) clones with <98% identity probably represented novel species. The most abundant and diverse phylum populating the psoriatic lesions was Firmicutes (46.2%), significantly (P<0.001) overrepresented, compared to the samples from uninvolved skin of the patients (39.0%) and healthy persons (24.4%). In contrast, Actinobacteria, the most prevalent and diverse phylum in normal skin samples from both healthy persons (47.6%) and the patients (47.8%), was significantly (P<0.01) underrepresented in the psoriatic lesion samples (37.3%). Representation of Propionibacterium species were lower in the psoriatic lesions (2.9±5.5%) than from normal persons (21.1±18.2%; P<0.001), whereas normal skin from the psoriatic patients showed intermediate levels (12.3±21.6%). We conclude that psoriasis is associated with substantial alteration in the composition and representation of the cutaneous bacterial biota. PMID:18648509

  7. Alteration of macrophage membrane lipids following processing of bacterial peptidoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Polanski, M.; Gray, G.R.

    1986-03-01

    As part of the continuing investigation into the role played by macrophages in antigen presentation and bacterial adjuvant activation, the authors have examined the metabolites produced by macrophages after encounter with peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan was chosen because it contains N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide), a known adjuvant whose primary target cell is the macrophage. In previous work, the authors established that a series of muramyl dipeptide-like glycopeptides was released into the medium following phagocytosis of peptidoglycan by a macrophage cell line. Here the authors report on the finding that, additionally, a membrane lipid has been covalently altered by the addition of a peptidoglycan fragment. Bacillus subtilis cell walls which had been radiolabeled in their muramic acid, glucosamine and alanine residues, were incubated with the murine macrophage cell line RAW264. Using standard lipid extraction procedures, a lipid was isolated and found to contain equal molar ratios of alanine, glutamic acid and diaminopimelic acid. Since lipidated peptidoglycan peptides have been shown to be immunoactivators, the isolated lipid derivative may serve as a signal for interactions with other lymphocytes.

  8. Spaceflight Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a review of NASA Johnson Space Center's Toxicology program. The mission of this program is to protect crews from toxic exposures during spaceflight. The presentation reviews some of the health hazards. A toxicological hazard level chart is presented that reviews the rating of hazard level, irritancy, systemic effects and containability. The program also participates in the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group.

  9. Pharmacokinetic consequences of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, L.; Cintron, N. M.

    1991-01-01

    Spaceflight induces a wide range of physiological and biochemical changes, including disruption of gastrointestinal (GI) function, fluid and electrolyte balance, circulatory dynamics, and organ blood flow, as well as hormonal and metabolic perturbations. Any of these changes can influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of in-flight medication. That spaceflight may alter bioavailability was proposed when drugs prescribed to alleviate space motion sickness (SMS) had little therapeutic effect. Characterization of the pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic behavior of operationally critical medications is crucial for their effective use in flight; as a first step, we sought to determine whether drugs administered in space actually reach the site of action at concentrations sufficient to elicit the therapeutic response.

  10. Experimental sulfate amendment alters peatland bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Strickman, R J S; Fulthorpe, R R; Coleman Wasik, J K; Engstrom, D R; Mitchell, C P J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a long-term, peatland-scale sulfate addition experiment, the impact of varying sulfate deposition on bacterial community responses was assessed using 16S tag encoded pyrosequencing. In three separate areas of the peatland, sulfate manipulations included an eight year quadrupling of atmospheric sulfate deposition (experimental), a 3-year recovery to background deposition following 5years of elevated deposition (recovery), and a control area. Peat concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, were measured, the production of which is attributable to a growing list of microorganisms, including many sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The total bacterial and Deltaproteobacterial community structures in the experimental treatment differed significantly from those in the control and recovery treatments that were either indistinguishable or very similar to one another. Notably, the relatively rapid return (within three years) of bacterial community structure in the recovery treatment to a state similar to the control, demonstrates significant resilience of the peatland bacterial community to changes in atmospheric sulfate deposition. Changes in MeHg accumulation between sulfate treatments correlated with changes in the Deltaproteobacterial community, suggesting that sulfate may affect MeHg production through changes in the community structure of this group. PMID:27267720

  11. Regeneration of eye tissues is modulated by altered levels of gravity at 1g, 2g, and in microgravity during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Mitashov, Victor

    The pursuit of human space exploration requires detailed knowledge of microgravity-related changes in fundamental biological processes, and their effects on health. Normal regeneration of organs and tissues is one such fundamental process that allows maintenance of vitality and function of living organisms. Animal models of tissue regeneration include the newt (Pleurodeles waltl, Urodela) eye, which has been extensively used by our team in Russian Bion and Foton microgravity experiments since 1985, and in recent NASA 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge hypergravity experiments. In total, these experiments allow us to draw several broad conclusions: Newt lens regeneration is significantly altered in microgravity and hypergravity relative to 1g controls. Lenses formed in microgravity are larger and more developed than those regenerated in 1g controls; Microgravity alterations of lens regeneration can persist after spaceflight, and continue to affect repeated removal and regeneration of the lens after return to 1g; Microgravity increases the numbers of early stage regenerative proliferating BrdU-labeled cells in dorsal iris progenitors and in the lens regenerate. Regeneration under hypergravity conditions at 2g inhibits lens regeneration, and often causes retinal detachment. Molecular mechanisms regulating lens regeneration rate include FGF2 signaling, (a key pathway for eye tissue development and regeneration), and an expression of stress-related proteins - HSPs. In conclusion, regeneration of lens and other eye tissues in the newt is sensitive to, and regulated by the level of gravity mechanotransduction and developmental signaling pathways, with microgravity favoring stem cell progenitor proliferation, and gravity at 1g promoting terminal differentiation, while hypergravity at 2g often causes damage of delicate regenerating tissues.

  12. Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic or G-CSF as Potential Countermeasures for Impaired Control of Bacterial Infection Associated with an SPE Exposure during Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghong; Holmes, Veronica; Ni, Houping; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew

    2015-01-01

    A major risk for astronauts during prolonged space flight is infection as a result of the combined effects of microgravity, situational and confinement stress, alterations in food intake, altered circadian rhythm, and radiation that can significantly impair the immune system and the body’s defense systems. We previously reported a massive increase in morbidity with a decrease in the ability to control a bacterial challenge when mice were maintained under hindlimb suspension (HS) conditions and exposed to solar particle event (SPE)-like radiation. HS and SPE-like radiation treatment alone resulted in a borderline significant increase in morbidity. Therefore, development and testing of countermeasures that can be used during extended space missions in the setting of exposure to SPE radiation becomes a serious need. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of enrofloxacin (an orally bioavailable antibiotic) and Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (Neulasta) on enhancing resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice subjected to HS and SPE-like radiation. The results revealed that treatment with enrofloxacin or G-CSF enhanced bacterial clearance and significantly decreased morbidity and mortality in challenged mice exposed to suspension and radiation. These results establish that antibiotics, such as enrofloxacin, and G-CSF could be effective countermeasures to decrease the risk of bacterial infections after exposure to SPE radiation during extended space flight, thereby reducing both the risk to the crew and the danger of mission failure. PMID:25793272

  13. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression. PMID:26962942

  14. Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnyak, A. T.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Rykova, M. P.; Meshkov, D. O.; Mastro, A.; Konstantinova, I.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures. Among the changes noted in animals after spaceflight are alterations in lymphocytic blastogenesis, cytokine function, natural killer cell activity, and colony-stimulating factors. The nature and significance of spaceflight-induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.

  15. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    bacterial diversity in surface sediments and resulting in distinct bacterial communities even at depth within the burrow. In an area of high macrofaunal abundance, this could lead to alterations in the microbial transformations of important nutrients at the sediment-water interface. PMID:20596074

  16. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

  17. The role of cytokines in immune changes induced by spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Miller, E. S.

    1993-01-01

    It has become apparent that spaceflight alters many immune responses. Among the regulatory components of the immune response that have been shown to be affected by spaceflight is the cytokine network. Spaceflight, as well as model systems of spaceflight, have been shown to affect the production and action of various cytokines including interferons, interleukins, colony stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. These changes have been shown not to involve a general shutdown of the cytokine network but, rather, to involve selective alterations of specific cytokine functions by spaceflight. The full breadth of changes in cytokines induced by spaceflight, as well as mechanisms, duration, adaptation, reversibility, and significance to resistance to infection and neoplastic diseases, remains to be established.

  18. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  19. Altered Functionality of Anti-Bacterial Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Anne; Long, Ronald E.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Hafner, Julie; Rodemich-Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Marrero, Jorge; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0) immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG) that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease. Methods The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined. Results Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure. Conclusions Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease. PMID:23750224

  20. Alteration textures in terrestrial volcanic glass and the associated bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Olsson-Francis, K; Herrera, A; Meunier, A

    2009-01-01

    Alteration textures were examined in subglacial (hyaloclastite) deposits at Valafell, Southern Iceland. Pitted and 'elongate' alteration features are observed in the glass similar to granular and tubular features reported previously in deep-ocean basaltic glasses, but elongate features generally did not have a length to width ratio greater than five. Elongate features were found in only 7% of surfaces. Crystalline basalt clasts, which are incorporated into the hyaloclastite, did not display elongate structures. Pitted alteration features were poorly defined in crystalline basalt, comprising only 4% of the surface compared to 47% in the case of basaltic glass. Examination of silica-rich glass (obsidian) and rhyolite similarly showed poorly defined pitted textures that comprised less than 15% of the surface and no elongate features were observed. These data highlight the differences in alteration textures between terrestrial basaltic glass and previously studied deep-ocean and subsurface basaltic glass, and the important role of mineralogy in controlling the type and abundance of alteration features. The hyaloclastite contains a diverse and abundant bacterial population, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis, which could be involved in weathering the glass. Despite the presence of phototrophs, we show that they were not involved in the production of most alteration textures in the basaltic glass materials we examined. PMID:19200146

  1. Gyramides Prevent Bacterial Growth by Inhibiting DNA Gyrase and Altering Chromosome Topology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics targeting DNA gyrase have been a clinical success story for the past half-century, and the emergence of bacterial resistance has fueled the search for new gyrase inhibitors. In this paper we demonstrate that a new class of gyrase inhibitors, the gyramides, are bacteriostatic agents that competitively inhibit the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli gyrase and produce supercoiled DNA in vivo. E. coli cells treated with gyramide A have abnormally localized, condensed chromosomes that blocks DNA replication and interrupts chromosome segregation. The resulting alterations in DNA topology inhibit cell division through a mechanism that involves the SOS pathway. Importantly, gyramide A is a specific inhibitor of gyrase and does not inhibit the closely related E. coli enzyme topoisomerase IV. E. coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to gyramide A do not display cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin. The results demonstrate that the gyramides prevent bacterial growth by a mechanism in which the topological state of chromosomes is altered and halts DNA replication and segregation. The specificity and activity of the gyramides for inhibiting gyrase makes these compounds important chemical tools for studying the mechanism of gyrase and the connection between DNA topology and bacterial cell division. PMID:24712739

  2. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Lathers, Claire M.

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on the rate of adaptation of the human cardiovascular system to conditions of spaceflight, with particular attention given to data obtained during spaceflight in the U.S. Space Shuttle Program. It is pointed out that many of the cardiovascular changes that occurred during spaceflights that lasted from 2 to 11 days can be traced directly to changes in the body fluid volume. The beneficial effects of a fluid loading countermeasure (oral rehydration) and of the supine body position on the heart rate during the spaceflight are demonstrated. It is noted that, after hours or a few days of spaceflight, a state of adaptation is reached, in which the subject is well adapted and appropriately hydrated for the weightless environment. However, the return to the normal gravity of the earth leaves the individual especially sensitive to orthostatic stress.

  3. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  4. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean’s largest oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beman, J. Michael; Carolan, Molly T.

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans’ largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  5. Altered host cell-bacteria interaction due to nanoparticle interaction with a bacterial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Tara D; Lindler, Heidi; McNealy, Tamara L

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) use in everyday applications creates the potential for NPs to enter the environment where, in aquatic systems, they are likely to settle on substrates and interact with microbial communities. Legionella pneumophila biofilms are found as part of microbial communities in both natural and man-made environments, especially in man-made cooling systems. The bacterium is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Legionella requires a host cell for replication in the environment, and amoebae commonly serve as this host cell. Our previous work demonstrated significant changes in Legionella biofilm morphology after exposure to 0.7 μg/L gold NPs (AuNPs). Here, we investigate how these morphology changes alter host-bacteria interactions using Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a model. Host-bacteria-NP interactions are affected by NP characteristics. Biofilms exposed to 4- and 18-nm, citrate-capped, spherical AuNPs significantly altered the grazing ability of A. polyphaga, which was not observed in biofilms exposed to 24-nm polystyrene beads. Uptake and replication of NP-exposed planktonic L. pneumophila within A. polyphaga were not altered regardless of NP size or core chemistry. Nanomaterial effects on the interaction of benthic organisms and bacteria may be directly or, as shown here, indirectly dependent on bacterial morphology. NP contamination therefore may alter interactions in a normal ecosystem function. PMID:23052925

  6. Altered tRNA characteristics and 3' maturation in bacterial symbionts with reduced genomes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Allison K; Moran, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    Translational efficiency is controlled by tRNAs and other genome-encoded mechanisms. In organelles, translational processes are dramatically altered because of genome shrinkage and horizontal acquisition of gene products. The influence of genome reduction on translation in endosymbionts is largely unknown. Here, we investigate whether divergent lineages of Buchnera aphidicola, the reduced-genome bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, possess altered translational features compared with their free-living relative, Escherichia coli. Our RNAseq data support the hypothesis that translation is less optimal in Buchnera than in E. coli. We observed a specific, convergent, pattern of tRNA loss in Buchnera and other endosymbionts that have undergone genome shrinkage. Furthermore, many modified nucleoside pathways that are important for E. coli translation are lost in Buchnera. Additionally, Buchnera's A + T compositional bias has resulted in reduced tRNA thermostability, and may have altered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognition sites. Buchnera tRNA genes are shorter than those of E. coli, as the majority no longer has a genome-encoded 3' CCA; however, all the expressed, shortened tRNAs undergo 3' CCA maturation. Moreover, expression of tRNA isoacceptors was not correlated with the usage of corresponding codons. Overall, our data suggest that endosymbiont genome evolution alters tRNA characteristics that are known to influence translational efficiency in their free-living relative. PMID:22689638

  7. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance. PMID:27023388

  8. A Bactericidal Guanidinomethyl Biaryl That Alters the Dynamics of Bacterial FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Malvika; Parhi, Ajit K.; Zhang, Yongzheng; LaVoie, Edmond J.; Tuske, Steve; Arnold, Eddy; Kerrigan, John E.; Pilch, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of multidrug resistance among clinically significant bacterial pathogens underscores a critical need for the development of new classes of antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a guanidinomethyl biaryl compound {1-((4′-(tert-butyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl)guanidine} that targets the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In vitro studies with various bacterial FtsZ proteins reveal that the compound alters the dynamics of FtsZ self-polymerization via a stimulatory mechanism, while minimally impacting the polymerization of tubulin, the closest mammalian homologue of FtsZ. The FtsZ binding site of the compound is identified through a combination of computational and mutational approaches. The compound exhibits a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity, including activity against the multidrug-resistant pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), while also exhibiting a minimal potential to induce resistance. Taken together, our results highlight the compound as a promising new FtsZ-targeting bactericidal agent. PMID:23050700

  9. Bacterial Chitinolytic Communities Respond to Chitin and pH Alteration in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kielak, Anna M.; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes. PMID:23104407

  10. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil.

    PubMed

    Kielak, Anna M; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes. PMID:23104407

  11. 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel Evidence and Status Review For: the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and NASA Research and Education Support Services (NRESS) on December 17, 2015 (list of participants is in Section VI of this report). The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight (from here on referred to as the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report), and also received a status review of the Risk. The opening section of the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report provides written descriptions of various incidents that have occurred during space missions. In most of these incidents, the main underlying contributing factors are not easy to identify unambiguously. For example, in section 1.9, a number of falls occurred while astronauts were walking on the moon. It is not clear to the SRP, however, why they fell. It is only possible to extrapolate from likely specific psychophysical or physiological abnormalities, but how these abnormalities were determined, and how they were directly responsible for the falls is unclear to the SRP. Section 2.1.2 on proprioception is very interesting, but the functional significance of the abnormalities detected is not clear. The SRP sees this as a problem throughout the report: a mapping between the component abnormalities identified and the holistic behaviors that are most relevant, for example, controlling the vehicle, and locomotion during egress, is generally lacking. The SRP thinks the cognitive section is too strongly focused on vestibular functioning. The SRP questions the notion that the main cognitive effects are mainly attributable to reversible vestibular changes induced by spaceflight. The SRP thinks that there can also

  12. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P.

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  13. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets.

    PubMed

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results. PMID:25974531

  14. Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett, Nancy V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp. PMID:16347183

  15. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simpson, Rodney T.; Moore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming. PMID:25324836

  16. Chromosomal position shift of a regulatory gene alters the bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gerganova, Veneta; Berger, Michael; Zaldastanishvili, Elisabed; Sobetzko, Patrick; Lafon, Corinne; Mourez, Michael; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-09-30

    Recent studies strongly suggest that in bacterial cells the order of genes along the chromosomal origin-to-terminus axis is determinative for regulation of the growth phase-dependent gene expression. The prediction from this observation is that positional displacement of pleiotropic genes will affect the genetic regulation and hence, the cellular phenotype. To test this prediction we inserted the origin-proximal dusB-fis operon encoding the global regulator FIS in the vicinity of replication terminus on both arms of the Escherichia coli chromosome. We found that the lower fis gene dosage in the strains with terminus-proximal dusB-fis operons was compensated by increased fis expression such that the intracellular concentration of FIS was homeostatically adjusted. Nevertheless, despite unchanged FIS levels the positional displacement of dusB-fis impaired the competitive growth fitness of cells and altered the state of the overarching network regulating DNA topology, as well as the cellular response to environmental stress, hazardous substances and antibiotics. Our finding that the chromosomal repositioning of a regulatory gene can determine the cellular phenotype unveils an important yet unexplored facet of the genetic control mechanisms and paves the way for novel approaches to manipulate bacterial physiology. PMID:26170236

  17. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host-tropism

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Melissa J.; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M.; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M.; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Penadés, José R.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host-tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host-species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. In order to investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host-species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago, and that only a single natural nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one which could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host-tropism of a micro-organism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into novel host-species populations. PMID:25685890

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans Bacterial Pathogen Resistant bus-4 Mutants Produce Altered Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Lisa M.; Mizanur, Rahman M.; Jankowska, Ewa; Hodgkin, Jonathan; O′Rourke, Delia; Stroud, Dave; Ghosh, Salil; Cipollo, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorabditis elegans bus-4 glycosyltransferase mutants are resistant to infection by Microbacterium nematophilum, Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and have altered susceptibility to two Leucobacter species Verde1 and Verde2. Our objective in this study was to define the glycosylation changes leading to this phenotype to better understand how these changes lead to pathogen resistance. We performed MALDI-TOF MS, tandem MS and GC/MS experiments to reveal fine structural detail for the bus-4 N- and O-glycan pools. We observed dramatic changes in O-glycans and moderate ones in N-glycan pools compared to the parent strain. Ce core-I glycans, the nematode's mucin glycan equivalent, were doubled in abundance, halved in charge and bore shifts in terminal substitutions. The fucosyl O-glycans, Ce core-II and neutral fucosyl forms, were also increased in abundance as were fucosyl N-glycans. Quantitative expression analysis revealed that two mucins, let-653 and osm-8, were upregulated nearly 40 fold and also revealed was a dramatic increase in GDP-Man 4,6 dehydratease expression. We performed detailed lectin binding studies that showed changes in glycoconjugates in the surface coat, cuticle surface and intestine. The combined changes in cell surface glycoconjugate distribution, increased abundance and altered properties of mucin provide an environment where likely the above pathogens are not exposed to normal glycoconjugate dependent cues leading to barriers to these bacterial infections. PMID:25296196

  19. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  20. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  1. Contribution of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin to bacterial virulence and to intraperitoneal alterations in peritonitis.

    PubMed

    May, A K; Gleason, T G; Sawyer, R G; Pruett, T L

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-hemolysin (Hly) is a common exotoxin produced by Escherichia coli that enhances virulence in a number of clinical infections. The addition of hemolysin production to laboratory bacterial strains is known to increase the lethality of E. coli peritonitis. However, the mechanisms involved have not been determined and the contribution of hemolysin to the alterations in the host intraperitoneal environment and the leukocyte response is not known. Utilizing a rat peritonitis model, we show that wild-type hemolytic E. coli strains have a significant competitive advantage over nonhemolytic strains within the peritoneum. To examine the specific contribution of Hly to E. coli-induced virulence and alterations within the peritoneum, a mixed peritonitis model of E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and sterile fecal adjuvant was used. Three transformed E. coli strains were utilized: one strongly secretes active hemolysin (WAF 270), a second secretes active hemolysin but a reduced amount (WAF 260), and the third does not produce hemolysin (WAF 108). After an equal inoculum of each of the three strains, WAF 270 produced a markedly increased lethality and an increased recovery of both E. coli and B. fragilis from the host relative to the other strains. Changes in the intraperitoneal pH, degree of erythrocyte lysis, and recruitment and viability of leukocytes within the peritoneum following the induction of peritonitis differed significantly between the strongly hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains. Induction of peritonitis with WAF 270 caused a pronounced decrease in intraperitoneal pH, lysis of most of the intraperitoneal erythrocytes, and a marked decrease in recoverable viable leukocytes compared to WAF 108. Thus, hemolysin production by E. coli within the peritoneum may alter not only the host's ability to control the hemolytic strain itself but also other organisms. PMID:10603385

  2. The Spaceflight Revolution Revisted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2002-01-01

    There are two models of the future of spaceflight, and there are two theories of how that future might be achieved. The first model of spaceflight assumes that we have already achieved most of what is worth achieving in space, whereas the second imagines it will be possible to build a truly interplanetary civilization in which most human beings live elsewhere than on Earth. The first theory holds that progress comes incrementally from the inexorable working of free markets and political systems, whereas the second believes that revolutionary transformations must sometimes be accomplished by social movements that transcend the ordinary institutions and motivations of mundane existence.

  3. Auditory and Vestibular Issues Related to Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Richard W.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Human spaceflight provides unique opportunities to study human vestibular and auditory systems. This session will discuss 1) vestibular adaptive processes reflected by pronounced perceptual and motor coordination problems during, and after, space missions; 2) vestibular diagnostic and rehabilitative techniques (used to promote recovery after living in altered gravity environments) that may be relevant to treatment of vestibular disorders on earth; and 3) unique acoustical challenges to hearing loss prevention and crew performance during spaceflight missions.

  4. Phylogenetic and Functional Alterations in Bacterial Community Compositions in Broiler Ceca as a Result of Mannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. PMID:25769823

  5. Phylogenetic and functional alterations in bacterial community compositions in broiler ceca as a result of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, A; de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R A

    2015-05-15

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. PMID:25769823

  6. Human cognitive performance in spaceflight and analogue environments.

    PubMed

    Strangman, Gary E; Sipes, Walter; Beven, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Maintaining intact cognitive performance is a high priority for space exploration. This review seeks to summarize the cumulative results of existing studies of cognitive performance in spaceflight and analogue environments. We focused on long-duration (>21 d) studies for which no review has previously been conducted. There were 11 published studies identified for long-duration spaceflight (N = 42 subjects) as well as 21 shorter spaceflight studies (N = 70 subjects). Overall, spaceflight cognitive studies ranged from 6-438 d in duration. Some 55 spaceflight analogue studies were also identified, ranging from 6 to 520 d. The diverse nature of experimental procedures and protocols precluded formal meta-analysis. In general, the available evidence fails to strongly support or refute the existence of specific cognitive deficits in low Earth orbit during long-duration spaceflight, which may be due in large part to small numbers of subjects. The studies consistently suggest that novel environments (spaceflight or other) induce variable alterations in cognitive performance across individuals, consistent with known astronaut experiences. This highlights the need to better quantify the magnitude and scope of this interindividual variability, and understand its underlying factors, when predicting in-flight cognitive functioning for extended periods. PMID:25245904

  7. Soil Fungal:Bacterial Ratios Are Linked to Altered Carbon Cycling.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ashish A; Chowdhury, Somak; Schlager, Veronika; Oliver, Anna; Puissant, Jeremy; Vazquez, Perla G M; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Griffiths, Robert I; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B) ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C) storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm (13)C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other). Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived (13)C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual (13)C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the F:B dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the F:B dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential. PMID:27555839

  8. Soil Fungal:Bacterial Ratios Are Linked to Altered Carbon Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ashish A.; Chowdhury, Somak; Schlager, Veronika; Oliver, Anna; Puissant, Jeremy; Vazquez, Perla G. M.; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Griffiths, Robert I.; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B) ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C) storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm 13C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other). Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived 13C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual 13C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the F:B dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the F:B dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential. PMID:27555839

  9. Spaceflight Associated Apoptosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichiki, Albert T.; Gibson, Linda A.; Allebban, Zuhair

    1996-01-01

    Lymphoid tissues have been shown to atrophy in rats flown on Russian spaceflights. Histological examination indicated evidence for cell degradation. Lymphoid tissues from rats flown on Spacelab Life Sciences-2 mission were analyzed for apoptosis by evidence of fragmented lymphocytes, which could be engulfed by macrophages, or DNA strand breaks using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Apoptosis was not detected in the thymus and spleen collected inflight or from the synchronous ground rats but was detected in the thymus, spleen and inguinal lymph node of the flight animals on recovery. These results indicate that the apoptosis observed in the lymphatic tissues of the rats on recovery could have been induced by the gravitational stress of reentry, corroborating the findings from the early space-flight observations.

  10. Cardiovascular responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular system's adaptive changes during and after spaceflight are discussed. Cephalic fluid shifts are demonstrated by photographs along with calf girth and leg volume changes. Inflight measurements show an increase in average resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure, and a sympathetic-parasympathetic neural imbalance. Postflight findings include a small but reversible decrease in the left ventricular muscle mass. Since 1980, NASA's research has emphasized cardiovascular deconditioning and countermeasures: hemodynamic changes, endocrine and neurohumoral aspects, etiologic factors, and lower body negative pressure devices. Though human beings acclimate to the space environment, questions concerning the immediate and long-term aspects of spaceflight need to be answered for adequate planning of extended space missions.

  11. Exercise thermoregulation - Possible effects of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in thermoregulation during spaceflight could result in an inability to tolerate ambient conditions or exercise tasks that were readily tolerated preflight. Weightlessness may alter heat production by changing metabolic rate, circadian rhythms of heat production, or work efficiency. It may impair heat loss by reducing convective and evaporative heat exchange. In addition, crewmembers may become less fit, less heat acclimated, hypohydrated, or have altered thermal sensitivity. Three scenarios are described: exercise conditioning in the mid deck, EVA, and emergency egress. Each scenario is discussed in terms of potential thermal challenges and possible consequences on crew performance.

  12. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jonscher, Karen R.; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Suhalim, Jeffrey L.; Orlicky, David J.; Potma, Eric O.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Levi, Moshe; Friedman, Jacob E.; Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27097220

  13. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Jonscher, Karen R; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Suhalim, Jeffrey L; Orlicky, David J; Potma, Eric O; Ferguson, Virginia L; Bouxsein, Mary L; Bateman, Ted A; Stodieck, Louis S; Levi, Moshe; Friedman, Jacob E; Gridley, Daila S; Pecaut, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27097220

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1-L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P < 0.05). The dissipation rates of tri-, tetrachlorinated biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the Rhodococcus-like bphC gene was 2-3 orders of magnitude more than that of Pseudomonas-like bphC gene, and was found responded positively to AMF. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequenced by the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform indicated that AMF hyphae altered bacterial community compositions. The phylum Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominated in the soil, while Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales were dominated at the order level. Taxa from the Comamonadaceae responded positively to AMF and trichlorinated biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  15. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1–L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P < 0.05). The dissipation rates of tri-, tetrachlorinated biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the Rhodococcus-like bphC gene was 2–3 orders of magnitude more than that of Pseudomonas-like bphC gene, and was found responded positively to AMF. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequenced by the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform indicated that AMF hyphae altered bacterial community compositions. The phylum Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominated in the soil, while Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales were dominated at the order level. Taxa from the Comamonadaceae responded positively to AMF and trichlorinated biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  16. Long-term nitrogen amendment alters the diversity and assemblage of soil bacterial communities in tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Coolon, Joseph D; Jones, Kenneth L; Todd, Timothy C; Blair, John M; Herman, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes are altering the environmental conditions and the biota of ecosystems worldwide. In many temperate grasslands, such as North American tallgrass prairie, these changes include alteration in historically important disturbance regimes (e.g., frequency of fires) and enhanced availability of potentially limiting nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Such anthropogenically-driven changes in the environment are known to elicit substantial changes in plant and consumer communities aboveground, but much less is known about their effects on soil microbial communities. Due to the high diversity of soil microbes and methodological challenges associated with assessing microbial community composition, relatively few studies have addressed specific taxonomic changes underlying microbial community-level responses to different fire regimes or nutrient amendments in tallgrass prairie. We used deep sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to explore the effects of contrasting fire regimes and nutrient enrichment on soil bacterial communities in a long-term (20 yrs) experiment in native tallgrass prairie in the eastern Central Plains. We focused on responses to nutrient amendments coupled with two extreme fire regimes (annual prescribed spring burning and complete fire exclusion). The dominant bacterial phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and made up 80% of all taxa quantified. Chronic nitrogen enrichment significantly impacted bacterial community diversity and community structure varied according to nitrogen treatment, but not phosphorus enrichment or fire regime. We also found significant responses of individual bacterial groups including Nitrospira and Gammaproteobacteria to long-term nitrogen enrichment. Our results show that soil nitrogen enrichment can significantly alter bacterial community diversity, structure, and individual taxa abundance, which have important

  17. Long-Term Nitrogen Amendment Alters the Diversity and Assemblage of Soil Bacterial Communities in Tallgrass Prairie

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Timothy C.; Blair, John M.; Herman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes are altering the environmental conditions and the biota of ecosystems worldwide. In many temperate grasslands, such as North American tallgrass prairie, these changes include alteration in historically important disturbance regimes (e.g., frequency of fires) and enhanced availability of potentially limiting nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Such anthropogenically-driven changes in the environment are known to elicit substantial changes in plant and consumer communities aboveground, but much less is known about their effects on soil microbial communities. Due to the high diversity of soil microbes and methodological challenges associated with assessing microbial community composition, relatively few studies have addressed specific taxonomic changes underlying microbial community-level responses to different fire regimes or nutrient amendments in tallgrass prairie. We used deep sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to explore the effects of contrasting fire regimes and nutrient enrichment on soil bacterial communities in a long-term (20 yrs) experiment in native tallgrass prairie in the eastern Central Plains. We focused on responses to nutrient amendments coupled with two extreme fire regimes (annual prescribed spring burning and complete fire exclusion). The dominant bacterial phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and made up 80% of all taxa quantified. Chronic nitrogen enrichment significantly impacted bacterial community diversity and community structure varied according to nitrogen treatment, but not phosphorus enrichment or fire regime. We also found significant responses of individual bacterial groups including Nitrospira and Gammaproteobacteria to long-term nitrogen enrichment. Our results show that soil nitrogen enrichment can significantly alter bacterial community diversity, structure, and individual taxa abundance, which have important

  18. The Effects of Spaceflight and a Spaceflight Analog on Neurocognitive Perfonnance: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.; Erdeniz, B.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We are conducting ongoing experiments in which we are performing structural and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging to identify the relationships between changes in neurocognitive function and neural structural alterations following a six month International Space Station mission and following 70 days exposure to a spaceflight analog, head down tilt bedrest. Our central hypothesis is that measures of brain structure, function, and network integrity will change from pre to post intervention (spaceflight, bedrest). Moreover, we predict that these changes will correlate with indices of cognitive, sensory, and motor function in a neuroanatomically selective fashion. Our interdisciplinary approach utilizes cutting edge neuroimaging techniques and a broad ranging battery of sensory, motor, and cognitive assessments that will be conducted pre flight, during flight, and post flight to investigate potential neuroplastic and maladaptive brain changes in crewmembers following long-duration spaceflight. Success in this endeavor would 1) result in identification of the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight-induced changes in behavior, and 2) identify whether a return to normative behavioral function following re-adaptation to Earth's gravitational environment is associated with a restitution of brain structure and function or instead is supported by substitution with compensatory brain processes. With the bedrest study, we will be able to determine the neural and neurocognitive effects of extended duration unloading, reduced sensory inputs, and increased cephalic fluid distribution. This will enable us to parse out the multiple mechanisms contributing to any spaceflight-induced neural structural and behavioral changes that we observe in the flight study. In this presentation I will discuss preliminary results from six participants who have undergone the bed rest protocol. These individuals show decrements in balance and functional mobility

  19. The green alga Dicytosphaeria ocellata and its organic extracts alter natural bacterial biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Jennifer M; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-04-01

    Surfaces immersed in the marine environment are under intense fouling pressure by a number of invertebrates and algae. The regulation of this fouling can often be attributed to the bacterial biofilm that quickly develops on the surface of any available substratum in the ocean. The bacterial community composition on the surface of the green alga Dictyosphaeria ocellata was investigated and compared to those found on two other green algae, Batophora oerstedii and Cladophoropsis macromeres, and on a reference surface from three sites along the Florida Keys. Although the bacterial community composition of D. ocellata was not consistent across the sites, it was significantly different from the other algae and the reference surface at two of the three sites tested. Methanol extracts of D. ocellata significantly affected the abundance of bacteria and composition of the bacterial community on Phytagel™ plates when compared to solvent controls, suggesting that the alga regulates the bacterial community by producing active metabolites. PMID:21512919

  20. Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls

  1. The bearable lightness of being: bones, muscles, and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    Bones and muscles support and move the body. Tendons link the two tissues and serve as a mechanism for transfer of forces from muscle to bone. These three tissues interact and respond to periods of activity or inactivity with appropriate alterations in structure and strength. There is substantial evidence that an environment devoid of mechanical stress on the skeleton (such as reduced gravitational forces during spaceflight, a "microgravity environment") produces direct effects on bone structure and function. There is little agreement concerning the biologic mechanisms for these atrophic changes. Changes in fluid balance and distribution coincident to spaceflight also affect muscles and bones by an unknown mechanism. Tendon-bone junctions are presumed to be spared from the effects of spaceflight. However, recent evidence from rodents suggests that spaceflight profoundly effects both the skeleton and the tendon-bone junctions. These effects include cortical bone resorption, which undermines the Sharpey's fibers that anchor the tendon to the bone matrix. The challenge to biomedical scientists is to devise methods for protecting spaceflight crews from these atrophic changes; such protection would allow for longer and more extensive spaceflights.

  2. Alteration of Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity After Short-Term Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Darvish, Leili; Abounajmi, Mohammad; Zarei, Samira; Zare, Tahereh; Taheri, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources. Objectives In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones. Materials and Methods This is an in vitro case-control study, performed at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran in 2014. All experiments were carried out using Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group A, isolated from hospitalized patients. The bacterial strains were obtained from the Persian Type Culture Collection, IROST, Iran (Klebsiella pneumonia PTCC 1290) and Bacteriology Department of Shahid Faghihi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus group A). The bacteria in culture plates were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a MyLab70XVG sonography system for 5 minutes. Then, the bacteria were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 35°C for 18 hours. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and the inhibition zone in both control and exposed groups were measured. Three replicate agar plates were used for each test and the inhibition zones of the plates were recorded. Results Compared with the results obtained from unexposed bacteria, statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found in some strains after short-term exposure. In particular, we found major differences (making antibiotic-resistant bacteria susceptible or vice versa) in the diameters of

  3. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jenny R. . E-mail: jur6@cdc.gov; Young, Shih-Houng; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M.

    2007-06-15

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 10{sup 4} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses.

  4. Spaceflight environment induces mitochondrial oxidative damage in ocular tissue.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao W; Pecaut, Michael J; Stodieck, Louis S; Ferguson, Virginia L; Bateman, Ted A; Bouxsein, Mary; Jones, Tamako A; Moldovan, Maria; Cunningham, Christopher E; Chieu, Jenny; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-10-01

    A recent report shows that more than 30% of the astronauts returning from Space Shuttle missions or the International Space Station (ISS) were diagnosed with eye problems that can cause reduced visual acuity. We investigate here whether spaceflight environment-associated retinal damage might be related to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135), and within 3-5 h of landing, the spaceflight and ground-control mice, similarly housed in animal enclosure modules (AEMs) were euthanized and their eyes were removed for analysis. Changes in expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, mitochondrial and endothelial cell biology were examined. Apoptosis in the retina was analyzed by caspase-3 immunocytochemical analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein, an oxidative specific marker for lipid peroxidation were also measured. Evaluation of spaceflight mice and AEM ground-control mice showed that expression of several genes playing central roles in regulating the mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway were significantly altered in mouse ocular tissue after spaceflight compared to AEM ground-control mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of several genes, which are responsible for regulating the production of reactive oxygen species were also significantly up-regulated in spaceflight samples compared to AEM ground-control mice. Further more, the level of HNE protein was significantly elevated in the retina after spaceflight compared to controls. Our results also revealed that spaceflight conditions induced significant apoptosis in the retina especially inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) compared to AEM ground controls. The data provided the first evidence that spaceflight conditions induce oxidative damage that results in mitochondrial apoptosis in the retina. This data suggest

  5. Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael; Evans, James; Ellis, Jordan; Schimmels, John; Roberts, Timothy; Rios-Reyes, Leonel; Scheeres, Daniel; Bladt, Jeff; Lawrence, Dale; Piggott, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (S5) toolkit provides solar-sail designers with an integrated environment for designing optimal solar-sail trajectories, and then studying the attitude dynamics/control, navigation, and trajectory control/correction of sails during realistic mission simulations. Unique features include a high-fidelity solar radiation pressure model suitable for arbitrarily-shaped solar sails, a solar-sail trajectory optimizer, capability to develop solar-sail navigation filter simulations, solar-sail attitude control models, and solar-sail high-fidelity force models.

  6. Photochemical alteration of dissolved organic matter and the subsequent effects on bacterial carbon cycling and diversity.

    PubMed

    Lønborg, Christian; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Hernando-Morales, Victor; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Teira, Eva; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón

    2016-05-01

    The impact of solar radiation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from 3 different sources (seawater, eelgrass leaves and river water) and the effect on the bacterial carbon cycling and diversity were investigated. Seawater with DOM from the sources was first either kept in the dark or exposed to sunlight (4 days), after which a bacterial inoculum was added and incubated for 4 additional days. Sunlight exposure reduced the coloured DOM and carbon signals, which was followed by a production of inorganic nutrients. Bacterial carbon cycling was higher in the dark compared with the light treatment in seawater and river samples, while higher levels were found in the sunlight-exposed eelgrass experiment. Sunlight pre-exposure stimulated the bacterial growth efficiency in the seawater experiments, while no impact was found in the other experiments. We suggest that these responses are connected to differences in substrate composition and the production of free radicals. The bacterial community that developed in the dark and sunlight pre-treated samples differed in the seawater and river experiments. Our findings suggest that impact of sunlight exposure on the bacterial carbon transfer and diversity depends on the DOM source and on the sunlight-induced production of inorganic nutrients. PMID:26940087

  7. Genomic response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selch, Florian; Higashibata, Akira; Imamizo-Sato, Mari; Higashitani, Atsushi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    On Earth, it is common to employ laboratory animals such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to help understand human health concerns. Similar studies in Earth orbit should help understand and address the concerns associated with spaceflight. The “International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment FIRST” (ICE FIRST), was carried out onboard the Dutch Taxiflight in April of 2004 by an international collaboration of laboratories in France, Canada, Japan and the United States. With the exception of a slight movement defect upon return to Earth, the result of altered muscle development, no significant abnormalities were detected in spaceflown C. elegans. Work from Japan revealed apoptosis proceeds normally and work from Canada revealed no significant increase in the rate of mutation. These results suggest that C. elegans can be used to study non-lethal responses to spaceflight and can possibly be developed as a biological sensor. To further our understanding of C. elegans response to spaceflight, we examined the gene transcription response to the 10 days in space using a near full genome microarray analysis. The transcriptional response is consistent with the observed normal developmental timing, apoptosis, DNA repair, and altered muscle development. The genes identified as altered in response to spaceflight are enriched for genes known to be regulated, in C. elegans, in response to altered environmental conditions (Insulin and TGF-β regulated). These results demonstrate C. elegans can be used to study the effects of altered gravity and suggest that C. elegans responds to spaceflight by altering the expression of at least some of the same metabolic genes that are altered in response to differing terrestrial environments.

  8. Overview of spaceflight immunology studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R

    1993-09-01

    The effects of spaceflight and analogues of spaceflight are discussed here and in nine accompanying articles. In this summary we present spaceflight studies with human subjects, animal subjects, and cell cultures and we review ground-based systems used to model the observed effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Human paradigms include bed rest, academic or psychological stress, physical stress, hypobaric or high altitude stress, and confinement. Animal models include antiorthostatic and orthostatic suspension, hypobarism, and confinement. The ten manuscripts in this collection were selected to provide a summary that should give the reader an overview of the various activities of spaceflight immunology researchers throughout the history of space travel. This manuscript identifies the major contributors to the study of spaceflight immunology, explains what types of studies have been conducted, and how they have changed over the years. Also presented is a discussion of the unusual limitations associated with spaceflight research and the efforts to develop appropriate ground-based surrogate model systems. Specific details, data, and mechanistic speculations will be held to a minimum, because they will be discussed in depth in the other articles in the collection. PMID:8371047

  9. Overview of spaceflight immunology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight and analogues of spaceflight are discussed here and in nine accompanying articles. In this summary we present spaceflight studies with human subjects, animal subjects, and cell cultures and we review ground-based systems used to model the observed effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Human paradigms include bed rest, academic or psychological stress, physical stress, hypobaric or high altitude stress, and confinement. Animal models include antiorthostatic and orthostatic suspension, hypobarism, and confinement. The ten manuscripts in this collection were selected to provide a summary that should give the reader an overview of the various activities of spaceflight immunology researchers throughout the history of space travel. This manuscript identifies the major contributors to the study of spaceflight immunology, explains what types of studies have been conducted, and how they have changed over the years. Also presented is a discussion of the unusual limitations associated with spaceflight research and the efforts to develop appropriate ground-based surrogate model systems. Specific details, data, and mechanistic speculations will be held to a minimum, because they will be discussed in depth in the other articles in the collection.

  10. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  11. Chronic N-amended soils exhibit an altered bacterial community structure in Harvard Forest, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Turlapati, Swathi A; Minocha, Rakesh; Bhiravarasa, Premsai S; Tisa, Louis S; Thomas, William K; Minocha, Subhash C

    2013-02-01

    At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments × two horizons × five subplots) collected from untreated (control), low N-amended (50 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N-amended (150 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) plots. A total of 1.3 million sequences were processed using qiime. Although Acidobacteria represented the most abundant phylum based on the number of sequences, Proteobacteria were the most diverse in terms of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UniFrac analyses revealed that the bacterial communities differed significantly among soil horizons and treatments. Microsite variability among the five subplots was also evident. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of normalized OTU data followed by permutational manova further confirmed these observations. Richness indicators and indicator species analyses revealed higher bacterial diversity associated with N amendment. Differences in bacterial diversity and community composition associated with the N treatments were also observed at lower phylogenetic levels. Only 28-35% of the 6 936 total OTUs identified were common to three treatments, while the rest were specific to one treatment or common to two. PMID:22974374

  12. Dietary format alters fecal bacterial populations in the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N; Young, Wayne; Kittelmann, Sandra; Kerr, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of short-term (5-week) exposure to wet or dry diets on fecal bacterial populations in the cat were investigated. Sixteen mixed-sex, neutered, domestic short-haired cats (mean age = 6 years; mean bodyweight = 3.4 kg) were randomly allocated to wet or dry diets in a crossover design. Fecal bacterial DNA was isolated and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated and analyzed by 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Cats fed dry diets had higher abundances (P < 0.05) of Actinobacteria (16.5% vs. 0.1%) and lower abundances of Fusobacteria (0.3% vs. 23.1%) and Proteobacteria (0.4% vs. 1.1%) compared with cats fed the wet diet. Of the 46 genera identified, 30 were affected (P < 0.05) by diet, with higher abundances of Lactobacillus (31.8% vs. 0.1%), Megasphaera (23.0% vs. 0.0%), and Olsenella (16.4% vs. 0.0%), and lower abundances of Bacteroides (0.6% vs. 5.7%) and Blautia (0.3% vs. 2.3%) in cats fed the dry diet compared with cats fed the wet diet. These results demonstrate that short-term dietary exposure to diet leads to large shifts in fecal bacterial populations that have the potential to affect the ability of the cat to process macronutrients in the diet. PMID:23297252

  13. Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2008-01-01

    As we approach the end of the first 50 years of human space travel, much has been learned about adaptation to microgravity and the risks associated with extended-duration space exploration. As the frequency and duration of flights grew, nutrition issues became more critical and the questions to be answered became more complex: What are the nutrient requirements for space travelers? Can nutrients be used as tools to mitigate the negative effects of space travel on humans? How does nutrition interrelate with other physiological systems (such as muscle, bone, and cardiovascular system) and their adaptation to microgravity? Much research has been done over the decades in both actual spaceflight and ground-based analogs. We review here much of what is known, and highlight areas of ongoing research and concerns for future exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. PMID:19004188

  14. Effects of spaceflight on trabecular bone in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Alterations in trabecular bone were observed in growing male Wistar rats after 18.5 days of orbital flight on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite. Spaceflight induced a decreased mass of mineralized tissue and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses. The osteoblast population appeared to decline immediately adjacent to the growth cartilage-metaphyseal junction, but osteoclast numbers were unchanged. These results suggested that bone formation may have been inhibited during spaceflight, but resorption remained constant. With the exception of trabecular bone mass in the proximal tibia, the observed skeletal changes returned to normal during a 29-day postflight period.

  15. Phenotypic and gene expression responses of E. coli to antibiotics during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zea, Luis

    Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics has been shown in vitro to be reduced during spaceflight; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this outcome are not fully understood. In particular, it is not yet clear whether this observed response is due to increased drug resistance (a microbial defense response) or decreased drug efficacy (a microgravity biophysical mass transport effect). To gain insight into the differentiation between these two potential causes, an investigation was undertaken onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014 termed Antibiotic Effectiveness in Space-1 (AES-1). For this purpose, E. coli was challenged with two antibiotics, Gentamicin Sulfate and Colistin Sulfate, at concentrations higher than those needed to inhibit growth on Earth. Phenotypic parameters (cell size, cell envelope thickness, population density and lag phase duration) and gene expression were compared between the spaceflight samples and ground controls cultured in varying levels of drug concentration. It was observed that flight samples proliferated in antibiotic concentrations that were inhibitory on Earth, growing on average to a 13-fold greater concentration than matched 1g controls. Furthermore, at the highest drug concentrations in space, E. coli cells were observed to aggregate into visible clusters. In spaceflight, cell size was significantly reduced, translating to a decrease in cell surface area to about one half of the ground controls. Smaller cell surface area can in turn proportionally reduce the rate of antibiotic molecules reaching the cell. Additionally, it was observed that genes --- in some cases more than 2000 --- were overexpressed in space with respect to ground controls. Up-regulated genes include poxB, which helps catabolize glucose into organic acids that alter acidity around and inside the cell, and the gadABC family genes, which confer resistance to extreme acid conditions. The next step is to characterize the mechanisms behind

  16. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  17. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†

    PubMed Central

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems. PMID:19707620

  18. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon. PMID:26841945

  19. Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance arterial function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Ground studies indicate that spaceflight may diminish vascular contraction. To examine that possibility, vascular function was measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats immediately after an 18-day shuttle flight. Isolated mesenteric resistance arterial responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were measured using wire myography within 17 h of landing. After flight, maximal contraction to norepinephrine was attenuated (P < 0.001) as was relaxation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001) and sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05). At high concentrations, acetylcholine caused vascular contraction in vessels from flight animals but not in vessels from vivarium control animals (P < 0.05). The results are consistent with data from ground studies and indicate that spaceflight causes both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent alterations in vascular function. The resulting decrement in vascular function may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight.

  20. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic–inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of

  1. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of alpha

  2. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    PubMed Central

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  3. Human spaceflight: science or spectacle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, David

    2009-11-01

    On 20 July 1969 NASA's Apollo11 mission landed on the surface of the Moon. Apollo was done, to paraphrase US President John F Kennedy, because it was hard, and human spaceflight still remains very hard. Indeed, since the sixth and final Apollo lunar landing in December 1972, all of human spaceflight has been constrained to low Earth orbit - just a few hundred miles above the ground.

  4. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  5. Media Ion Composition Controls Regulatory and Virulence Response of Salmonella in Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, James W.; Ott, C. Mark; Quick, Laura; Davis, Richard; zu Bentrup, Kerstin Höner; Crabbé, Aurélie; Richter, Emily; Sarker, Shameema; Barrila, Jennifer; Porwollik, Steffen; Cheng, Pui; McClelland, Michael; Tsaprailis, George; Radabaugh, Timothy; Hunt, Andrea; Shah, Miti; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra; Hing, Steve; Parra, Macarena; Dumars, Paula; Norwood, Kelly; Bober, Ramona; Devich, Jennifer; Ruggles, Ashleigh; CdeBaca, Autumn; Narayan, Satro; Benjamin, Joseph; Goulart, Carla; Rupert, Mark; Catella, Luke; Schurr, Michael J.; Buchanan, Kent; Morici, Lisa; McCracken, James; Porter, Marc D.; Pierson, Duane L.; Smith, Scott M.; Mergeay, Max; Leys, Natalie; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M.; Gorie, Dominic; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The spaceflight environment is relevant to conditions encountered by pathogens during the course of infection and induces novel changes in microbial pathogenesis not observed using conventional methods. It is unclear how microbial cells sense spaceflight-associated changes to their growth environment and orchestrate corresponding changes in molecular and physiological phenotypes relevant to the infection process. Here we report that spaceflight-induced increases in Salmonella virulence are regulated by media ion composition, and that phosphate ion is sufficient to alter related pathogenesis responses in a spaceflight analogue model. Using whole genome microarray and proteomic analyses from two independent Space Shuttle missions, we identified evolutionarily conserved molecular pathways in Salmonella that respond to spaceflight under all media compositions tested. Identification of conserved regulatory paradigms opens new avenues to control microbial responses during the infection process and holds promise to provide an improved understanding of human health and disease on Earth. PMID:19079590

  6. Permeable Reactive Barriers Designed To Mitigate Eutrophication Alter Bacterial Community Composition and Aquifer Redox Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Kenly A; Foreman, Kenneth H; Weisman, David; Bowen, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) consist of a labile carbon source that is positioned to intercept nitrate-laden groundwater to prevent eutrophication. Decomposition of carbon in the PRB drives groundwater anoxic, fostering microbial denitrification. Such PRBs are an ideal habitat to examine microbial community structure under high-nitrate, carbon-replete conditions in coastal aquifers. We examined a PRB installed at the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Falmouth, MA. Groundwater within and below the PRB was depleted in oxygen compared to groundwater at sites upgradient and at adjacent reference sites. Nitrate concentrations declined from a high of 25 μM upgradient and adjacent to the barrier to <0.1 μM within the PRB. We analyzed the total and active bacterial communities filtered from groundwater flowing through the PRB using amplicons of 16S rRNA and of the 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes collected from the PRB showed that the total bacterial community had high relative abundances of bacteria thought to have alternative metabolisms, such as fermentation, including candidate phyla OD1, OP3, TM7, and GN02. In contrast, the active bacteria had lower abundances of many of these bacteria, suggesting that the bacterial taxa that differentiate the PRB groundwater community were not actively growing. Among the environmental variables analyzed, dissolved oxygen concentration explained the largest proportion of total community structure. There was, however, no significant correlation between measured environmental parameters and the active microbial community, suggesting that controls on the active portion may differ from the community as a whole. PMID:26231655

  7. Permeable Reactive Barriers Designed To Mitigate Eutrophication Alter Bacterial Community Composition and Aquifer Redox Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Kenly A.; Foreman, Kenneth H.; Weisman, David

    2015-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) consist of a labile carbon source that is positioned to intercept nitrate-laden groundwater to prevent eutrophication. Decomposition of carbon in the PRB drives groundwater anoxic, fostering microbial denitrification. Such PRBs are an ideal habitat to examine microbial community structure under high-nitrate, carbon-replete conditions in coastal aquifers. We examined a PRB installed at the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Falmouth, MA. Groundwater within and below the PRB was depleted in oxygen compared to groundwater at sites upgradient and at adjacent reference sites. Nitrate concentrations declined from a high of 25 μM upgradient and adjacent to the barrier to <0.1 μM within the PRB. We analyzed the total and active bacterial communities filtered from groundwater flowing through the PRB using amplicons of 16S rRNA and of the 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes collected from the PRB showed that the total bacterial community had high relative abundances of bacteria thought to have alternative metabolisms, such as fermentation, including candidate phyla OD1, OP3, TM7, and GN02. In contrast, the active bacteria had lower abundances of many of these bacteria, suggesting that the bacterial taxa that differentiate the PRB groundwater community were not actively growing. Among the environmental variables analyzed, dissolved oxygen concentration explained the largest proportion of total community structure. There was, however, no significant correlation between measured environmental parameters and the active microbial community, suggesting that controls on the active portion may differ from the community as a whole. PMID:26231655

  8. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  9. Skeletal responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of gravity in the determination of bone structure is elucidated by observations in adult humans and juvenile animals during spaceflight. The primary response of bone tissue to microgravity is at the interface of the mineral and matrix in the process of biomineralization. This response is manifested by demineralization or retarded growth in some regions of the skeleton and hypermineralization in others. The most pronounced effects are seen in the heelbone and skull, the most distally located bones relative to the heart. Ground based flight simulation models that focus on changes in bone structure at the molecular, organ, and whole body levels are described and compared to flight results. On Earth, the morphologic and compositional changes in the unloaded bones are very similar to changes during flight; however, the ground based changes appear to be more transient. In addition, a redistribution of bone mineral in gravity-dependent bones occurs both in space and during head down positioning on Earth. Longitudinal data provided considerable information on the influence of endocrine and muscular changes on bone structure after unloading.

  10. Bion-11 Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program, in support of the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office at NASA Ames Research Center developed a suite of bioinstrumentation hardware for use on the Joint US/Russian Bion I I Biosatellite Mission (December 24, 1996 - January 7, 1997). This spaceflight included 20 separate experiments that were organized into a complimentary and interrelated whole, and performed by teams of US, Russian, and French investigators. Over 40 separate parameters were recorded in-flight on both analog and digital recording media for later analysis. These parameters included; Electromyogram (7 ch), Electrogastrogram, Electrooculogram (2 ch), ECG/EKG, Electroencephlogram (2 ch), single fiber firing of Neurovestibular afferent nerves (7 ch), Tendon Force, Head Motion Velocity (pitch & yaw), P02 (in vivo & ambient), temperature (deep body, skin, & ambient), and multiple animal and spacecraft performance parameters for a total of 45 channels of recorded data. Building on the close cooperation of previous missions, US and Russian engineers jointly developed, integrated, and tested the physiologic instrumentation and data recording system. For the first time US developed hardware replaced elements of the Russian systems resulting in a US/Russian hybrid instrumentation and data system that functioned flawlessly during the 14 day mission.

  11. Space flight alters bacterial gene expression and virulence and reveals a role for global regulator Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zu Bentrup, K. Höner; Ramamurthy, R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClelland, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Norwood, K.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.; Goulart, C.; Rupert, M.; Stodieck, L.; Stafford, P.; Catella, L.; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; McCracken, J.; Allen, P.; Baker-Coleman, C.; Hammond, T.; Vogel, J.; Nelson, R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the space flight environment has never been accomplished because of significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of space flight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed that 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground-based microgravity culture model. Space flight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during space flight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth. PMID:17901201

  12. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. PMID:26836977

  13. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  14. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  15. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  16. Spaceflight Transcriptomes: Unique Responses to a Novel Environment

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Zupanska, Agata K.; Ostrow, Dejerianne T.; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Li, Jian-Liang; Shanker, Savita; Farmerie, William G.; Amalfitano, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The spaceflight environment presents unique challenges to terrestrial biology, including but not limited to the direct effects of gravity. As we near the end of the Space Shuttle era, there remain fundamental questions about the response and adaptation of plants to orbital spaceflight conditions. We address a key baseline question of whether gene expression changes are induced by the orbital environment, and then we ask whether undifferentiated cells, cells presumably lacking the typical gravity response mechanisms, perceive spaceflight. Arabidopsis seedlings and undifferentiated cultured Arabidopsis cells were launched in April, 2010, as part of the BRIC-16 flight experiment on STS-131. Biologically replicated DNA microarray and averaged RNA digital transcript profiling revealed several hundred genes in seedlings and cell cultures that were significantly affected by launch and spaceflight. The response was moderate in seedlings; only a few genes were induced by more than 7-fold, and the overall intrinsic expression level for most differentially expressed genes was low. In contrast, cell cultures displayed a more dramatic response, with dozens of genes showing this level of differential expression, a list comprised primarily of heat shock–related and stress-related genes. This baseline transcriptome profiling of seedlings and cultured cells confirms the fundamental hypothesis that survival of the spaceflight environment requires adaptive changes that are both governed and displayed by alterations in gene expression. The comparison of intact plants with cultures of undifferentiated cells confirms a second hypothesis: undifferentiated cells can detect spaceflight in the absence of specialized tissue or organized developmental structures known to detect gravity. Key Words: Tissue culture—Microgravity—Low Earth orbit—Space Shuttle—Microarray. Astrobiology 12, 40–56. PMID:22221117

  17. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  18. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  19. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Charlie Y.; Manning, Sara A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J.; Samuels, Amanda N.; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Goulian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role

  20. Evaluating countermeasures in spaceflight analogs.

    PubMed

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-04-15

    Countermeasures are defined as solutions to prevent the undesirable physiologic outcomes associated with spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs provide a valuable opportunity for the evaluation of countermeasures because they allow for the evaluation of more subjects, more experimental control, and are considerably less expensive than actual spaceflight. The various human analogs have differing strengths and weaknesses with respect to the development and evaluation of countermeasures. The human analogs are briefly reviewed with a focus on their suitability for countermeasure evaluation. Bed rest is the most commonly used analog for evaluating countermeasures. While countermeasures are typically developed to target one or maybe two particular physiologic issues, it is increasingly important to evaluate all of the organ systems to discern whether they might be unintended consequences on nontargeted tissues. In preparation for Mars exploration it will be necessary to fully integrate countermeasures to protect all organ systems. The synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple countermeasures needs to be the focus of future work. PMID:26662054

  1. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host. PMID:26463271

  2. Pretreatment of Epithelial Cells with Rifaximin Alters Bacterial Attachment and Internalization Profiles▿

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric L.; Xue, Qiong; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Yi; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2010-01-01

    Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifampin licensed for use in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin reduces the symptoms of enteric infection, often without pathogen eradication and with limited effects on intestinal flora. Epithelial cells (HEp-2 [laryngeal], HCT-8 [ileocecal], A549 [lung], and HeLa [cervical]) were pretreated with rifaximin (or control antibiotics) prior to the addition of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC). EAEC adherence was significantly reduced following rifaximin pretreatment compared to pretreatment with rifampin or doxycycline for three of the four cell lines tested. The rifaximin-mediated changes to epithelial cells were explored further by testing the attachment and internalization of either Bacillus anthracis or Shigella sonnei into A549 or HeLa cells, respectively. The attachment and internalization of B. anthracis were significantly reduced following rifaximin pretreatment. In contrast, neither the attachment nor the internalization of S. sonnei was affected by rifaximin pretreatment of HeLa cells, suggesting that rifaximin-mediated modulation of host cell physiology affected bacteria utilizing distinct attachment/internalization mechanisms differently. In addition, rifaximin pretreatment of HEp-2 cells led to reduced concentrations of inflammatory cytokines from uninfected cells. The study provides evidence that rifaximin-mediated changes in epithelial cell physiology are associated with changes in bacterial attachment/internalization and reduced inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:19858255

  3. Mosquito autogeny in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae): alterations of larval nourishments reservation upon bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf M

    2013-08-01

    The present study recorded mosquito autogeny for the first time amongst Aedes caspius species in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Laboratory rearing showed an obligatory autogenous species of Ae. caspius since it foregoes blood feeding during its first ovarian cycle, even in the presence of the hosts (CD mouse), but produces its second egg batch only if ingested a blood meal. Both morphological and molecular identification confirmed that both autogenous and anautogenous strains belong to the same species of Ae. caspius. Data from biochemical analysis showed significant 2, 1.6, and 1.4 folds higher total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids reserves respectively in the fourth larval instar of the autogenous strain compared to that of the anautogenous ones. In addition, exposing the fourth larval instars of autogenous strain to the infection stress by the mosquito larvicidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki has significantly reduced total carbohydrates, proteins and lipids reserves by 29%, 35%, and 46%, respectively, at 12 h postinfection compared to those of uninfected ones. These reductions in nourishment reserves were more pronounced at 24 h postinfection in the case of proteins and lipids, but not carbohydrates. These results may indicate that bacterial infection is a health stress that significantly reduced nourishments reservation, which may interrupt the success of adult autogeny. However, the impact of infection-induced decline in larval nourishments reservation on successful adult autogeny is still to be investigated. PMID:23955943

  4. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host. PMID:26463271

  5. Animals and spaceflight: from survival to understanding.

    PubMed

    Morey-Holton, E R; Hill, E L; Souza, K A

    2007-01-01

    Animals have been a critical component of the spaceflight program since its inception. The Russians orbited a dog one month after the Sputnik satellite was launched. The dog mission spurred U.S. interest in animal flights. The animal missions proved that individuals aboard a spacecraft not only could survive, but also could carry out tasks during launch, near-weightlessness, and re-entry; humans were launched into space only after the early animal flights demonstrated that spaceflight was safe and survivable. After these humble beginnings when animals preceded humans in space as pioneers, a dynamic research program was begun using animals as human surrogates aboard manned and unmanned space platforms to understand how the unique environment of space alters life. In this review article, the following questions have been addressed: How did animal research in space evolve? What happened to animal development when gravity decreased? How have animal experiments in space contributed to our understanding of musculoskeletal changes and fracture repair during exposure to reduced gravity? PMID:17396002

  6. Tomato mutants altered in bacterial disease resistance provide evidence for a new locus controlling pathogen recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, J M; Barker, S J; Carland, F M; Mehta, A Y; Staskawicz, B J

    1994-01-01

    We have employed a genetic approach to study the resistance of tomato to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. Resistance to P. s. tomato depends upon expression of the Pto locus in tomato, which encodes a protein with similarity to serine/threonine protein kinases and recognizes pathogen strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto. Eleven tomato mutants were isolated with altered resistance to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. We identified mutations both in the Pto resistance locus and in a new locus designated Prf (for Pseudomonas resistance and fenthion sensitivity). The genetic approach allowed us to dissect the roles of these loci in signal transduction in response to pathogen attack. Lines carrying mutations in the Pto locus vary 200-fold in the degree to which they are susceptible to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. The pto mutants retain sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion; this trait segregates with Pto in genetic crosses. This result suggested that contrary to previous hypotheses, the Pto locus controls pathogen recognition but not fenthion sensitivity. Interestingly, mutations in the prf locus result in both complete susceptibility to P. s. tomato and insensitivity to fenthion, suggesting that Prf plays a role in tomato signaling in response to both pathogen elicitors and fenthion. Because pto and prf mutations do not alter recognition of Xanthomonas campestris strains expressing avrBsP, an avirulence gene recognized by all tested tomato cultivars, Prf does not play a general role in disease resistance but possibly functions specifically in resistance against P. s. tomato. Genetic analysis of F2 populations from crosses of pto and prf homozygotes indicated that the Pto and Prf loci are tightly linked. PMID:7911348

  7. The future of manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the future of manned spaceflight in context of past accomplishments and possible future benefits of space exploration. Three technological advances mentioned are a device called the rotating wall vessel, also known as the 'bioreactor,' which allows the study of the growth of cells in three dimensions; the use of microgravity to produce high-quality electronic, magnetic, and superconducting thin films; and mining of helium-3 from the lunar surface for use in future fusion reactions with deuterium. The author then makes recommendations on how NASA should meet the challenges of manned spaceflight.

  8. Animal mdels for the study of the effects of spaceflight on the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    Animal models have been used extensively to study the effects of spaceflight on the immune system. The rat has been the animal used most extensively, but some studies have also been carried out utilizing mice and rhesus monkeys. Hindlimb unloading of rats and mice is a ground-based model that has been utilized to determine the effects of spaceflight-type conditions on the immune systems. The results using this model have shown that hindlimb unloading results in alterations of functional rodent immune responses, including cytokine production, blastogenesis of leukocytes, response of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factors, neutrophil activity, and resistance to infection. Distribution of leukocyte subtypes was not affected by hindlimb unloading. Studies on rats flown in space have demonstrated that exposure to spaceflight results in alterations in cytokine production, alterations in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors, alterations in leukocyte subset distribution, and alterations in natural killer cell function. When pregnant rats were flown in space, although the immune responses of the pregnant mothers were altered by exposure to spaceflight, no effects of spaceflight on the immune responses of the offspring were observed. In one study, rhesus monkeys were flown in space and their immune status was evaluated upon their return to earth. Results of that study showed alterations in the ability of monkey immune cells to produce cytokines, express cytokine receptors, and respond to colony stimulating factor. Therefore, it is clear that exposure to spaceflight results in alterations in immune responses of the test animals. These changes are similar to those observed for humans that have flown in space, and demonstrate that the animal models are appropriate for studying the effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Although use of the hindlimb unloading model on the ground has indicated that exposure to the model also

  9. The Function of the Autonomic Nervous System during Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Mandsager, Kyle Timothy; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite decades of study, a clear understanding of autonomic nervous system activity in space remains elusive. Differential interpretation of fundamental data have driven divergent theories of sympathetic activation and vasorelaxation. Methods This paper will review the available in-flight autonomic and hemodynamic data in an effort to resolve these discrepancies. The NASA NEUROLAB mission, the most comprehensive assessment of autonomic function in microgravity to date, will be highlighted. The mechanisms responsible for altered autonomic activity during spaceflight, which include the effects of hypovolemia, cardiovascular deconditioning, and altered central processing, will be presented. Results The NEUROLAB experiments demonstrated increased sympathetic activity and impairment of vagal baroreflex function during short-duration spaceflight. Subsequent non-invasive studies of autonomic function during spaceflight have largely reinforced these findings, and provide strong evidence that sympathetic activity is increased in space relative to the supine position on Earth. Others have suggested that microgravity induces a state of relative vasorelaxation and increased vagal activity when compared to upright posture on Earth. These ostensibly disparate theories are not mutually exclusive, but rather directly reflect different pre-flight postural controls. Conclusion When these results are taken together, they demonstrate that the effectual autonomic challenge of spaceflight is small, and represents an orthostatic stress less than that of upright posture on Earth. In-flight countermeasures, including aerobic and resistance exercise, as well as short-arm centrifugation have been successfully deployed to counteract these mechanisms. Despite subtle changes in autonomic activity during spaceflight, underlying neurohumoral mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system remain intact and cardiovascular function remains stable during long-duration flight. PMID:25820827

  10. The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism in pregnant rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, K.; Maple, R.; Vyas, C.; Munaim, S.; Darling, A.; Casey, T.; Alberts, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism of 10 pregnant rats was measured on Day 20 of pregnancy and after parturition. Rats were flown on the space shuttle from Day 11 through Day 20 of pregnancy. After their return to earth, glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide increased 43% (P < 0.05), and incorporation into fatty acids increased 300% (P < 0.005) compared to controls. It is unclear whether the enhanced glucose use is due to spaceflight or a response to landing. Casein mRNA and gross histology were not altered at Day 20 of pregnancy. Six rats gave birth (on Day 22 to 23 of pregnancy) and mammary metabolic activity was measured immediately postpartum. The earlier effects of spaceflight were no longer apparent. There was also no difference in expression of beta-casein mRNA. It is clear from these studies that spaceflight does not impair the normal development of the mammary gland, its ability to use glucose, nor the ability to express mRNA for a major milk protein.

  11. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Martin, David S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a spaceflight-associated medical condition consisting of a constellation of symptoms affecting approximately 70 percent of American astronauts who have flown long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS). VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures and has been hypothesized to be related to elevated intracranial pressure secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts. Loss of visual acuity could be a significant threat to crew health and performance and have significant consequences during and post spaceflight. Purpose: The primary objective is to determine whether alterations in vascular compliance are related to the incidence of VIIP. Ocular structural and functional measures and vascular ultrasound of the head and neck were acquired in bed rest subjects completing 10-14 days in 6deg head-down tilt. Specific Aims: To evaluate the effect of age and simulated spaceflight (6 degrees head-down bed rest and sodium ingestion similar to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts) on vascular compliance and on the development of VIIP.

  12. Histomorphometric analysis of rat skeleton following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Doty, S. B.; Maese, A. C.; Walsh, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in orbit for 7 days aboard the space shuttle. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the long bones and lumbar vertebrae of flight rats and compared with data derived from ground-based control rats. Trabecular bone mass was not altered during the 1st wk of weightlessness. Strong trends were observed in flight rats for decreased periosteal bone formation in the tibial diaphysis, reduced osteoblast size in the proximal tibia, and decreased osteoblast surface and number in the lumbar vertebra. For the most part, histological indexes of bone resorption were normal in flight rats. The results indicate that 7 days of weightlessness are not of sufficient duration to induce histologically detectable loss of trabecular bone in rats. However, cortical and trabecular bone formation appear to be diminished during the 1st wk of spaceflight.

  13. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis alters host-bacterial interactions and leads to colonic sensory and motor changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, M; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Martínez, V

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) seem to be a pathogenic component of functional gastrointestinal disorders, mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and might participate in the secretomotor and sensory alterations observed in these patients.We determined if a state antibiotics-induced intestinal dysbiosis is able to modify colonic pain-related and motor responses and characterized the neuro-immune mechanisms implicated in mice. A 2-week antibiotics treatment induced a colonic dysbiosis (increments in Bacteroides spp, Clostridium coccoides and Lactobacillus spp and reduction in Bifidobacterium spp). Bacterial adherence was not affected. Dysbiosis was associated with increased levels of secretory-IgA, up-regulation of the antimicrobial lectin RegIIIγ, and toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 and 7 and down-regulation of the antimicrobial-peptide Resistin-Like Molecule-β and TLR5. Dysbiotic mice showed less goblet cells, without changes in the thickness of the mucus layer. Neither macroscopical nor microscopical signs of inflammation were observed. In dysbiotic mice, expression of the cannabinoid receptor 2 was up-regulated, while the cannabinoid 1 and the mu-opioid receptors were down-regulated. In antibiotic-treated mice, visceral pain-related responses elicited by intraperitoneal acetic acid or intracolonic capsaicin were significantly attenuated. Colonic contractility was enhanced during dysbiosis. Intestinal dysbiosis induce changes in the innate intestinal immune system and modulate the expression of pain-related sensory systems, an effect associated with a reduction in visceral pain-related responses. Commensal microbiota modulates gut neuro-immune sensory systems, leading to functional changes, at least as it relates to viscerosensitivity. Similar mechanisms might explain the beneficial effects of antibiotics or certain probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:25531553

  14. Spaceflight and ageing: reflecting on Caenorhabditis elegans in space.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoko; Honda, Shuji; Narici, Marco; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of space travel continues to capture the imagination. Several competing companies are now promising flights for the general population. Previously, it was recognized that many of the physiological changes that occur with spaceflight are similar to those seen with normal ageing. This led to the notion that spaceflight can be used as a model of accelerated ageing and raised concerns about the safety of individuals engaging in space travel. Paradoxically, however, space travel has been recently shown to be beneficial to some aspects of muscle health in the tiny worm Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is a commonly used laboratory animal for studying ageing. C. elegans displays age-related decline of some biological processes observed in ageing humans, and about 35% of C. elegans' genes have human homologs. Space flown worms were found to have decreased expression of a number of genes that increase lifespan when expressed at lower levels. These changes were accompanied by decreased accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in ageing worms' muscles. Thus, in addition to spaceflight producing physiological changes that are similar to accelerated ageing, it also appears to produce some changes similar to delayed ageing. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that in addition to the previously well-appreciated mechanotransduction changes, neural and endocrine signals are altered in response to spaceflight and that these may have both negative (e.g. less muscle protein) and some positive consequences (e.g. healthier muscles), at least for invertebrates, with respect to health in space. Given that changes in circulating hormones are well documented with age and in astronauts, our view is that further research into the relationship between metabolic control, ageing, and adaptation to the environment should be productive in advancing our understanding of the physiology of both spaceflight and ageing. PMID:24217152

  15. Effects and Responses to Spaceflight in the Mouse Retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Theriot, Corey; Westby, Christian; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Several stress environmental factors are combined in a unique fashion during spaceflight, affecting living beings widely across their physiological systems. Recently, attention has been placed on vision changes in astronauts returning from long duration missions. Alterations include hyperoptic shift, globe flattening, choroidal folds and optic disc edema, which are probably associated with increased intracranial pressure. These observations justify a better characterization of the ocular health risks associated with spaceflight. This study investigates the impact of spaceflight on the biology of the mouse retina. Within a successful tissue sharing effort, eyes from albino Balb/cJ mice aboard STS-133 were collected for histological analysis and gene expression profiling of the retina at 1 and 7 days after landing. Both vivarium and AEM (Animal Enclosure Module) mice were used as ground controls. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage was higher in the flight samples compared to controls on R+1, and decreased on R+7. A trend toward higher oxidative and cellular stress response gene expression was also observed on R+1 compared to AEM controls, and these levels decreased on R+7. Several genes coding for key antioxidant enzymes, namely, heme-oxygenase-1, peroxiredoxin, and catalase, were among those upregulated after flight. Likewise, NF B and TGFbeta1, were upregulated in one flight specimen that overall showed the most elevated oxidative stress markers on R+1. In addition, retinas from vivarium control mice evidenced higher oxidative stress markers, NF B and TGFbeta1, likely due to the more intense illumination in vivarium cages versus the AEM. These preliminary data suggest that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina, which is partially reversible upon return to Earth. Further work is needed to dissect the contribution of the various spaceflight factors (microgravity, radiation) and to

  16. Spaceflight Effects on Neurocognitive Performance: Extent, Longevity and Neural Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; Kofman, I. S.; De Dios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    We are conducting ongoing experiments in which we are performing structural and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging to identify the relationships between changes in neurocognitive function and neural structural alterations following a six month International Space Station mission and following 70 days exposure to a spaceflight analog, head down tilt bedrest. Our central hypothesis is that measures of brain structure, function, and network integrity will change from pre to post intervention (spaceflight, bedrest). Moreover, we predict that these changes will correlate with indices of cognitive, sensory, and motor function in a neuroanatomically selective fashion. Our interdisciplinary approach utilizes cutting edge neuroimaging techniques and a broad ranging battery of sensory, motor, and cognitive assessments that will be conducted pre flight, during flight, and post flight to investigate potential neuroplastic and maladaptive brain changes in crewmembers following long-duration spaceflight. Success in this endeavor would 1) result in identification of the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight-induced changes in behavior, and 2) identify whether a return to normative behavioral function following re-adaptation to Earth's gravitational environment is associated with a restitution of brain structure and function or instead is supported by substitution with compensatory brain processes. Our preliminary findings document brain structural volumetric increases, primarily restricted to sensorimotor regions. Eventual comparison to our bed rest study results will enable us to parse out the multiple mechanisms contributing to any spaceflight-induced neural structural and behavioral changes that we observe as we accumulate more data. In this presentation I will discuss our progress to date with the flight study

  17. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Krauhs, J. M.; Leach, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  18. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Krauhs, J M; Leach, C S

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  19. Efficiency Management in Spaceflight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency in spaceflight is often approached as "faster, better, cheaper - pick two". The high levels of performance and reliability required for each mission suggest that planners can only control for two of the three. True efficiency comes by optimizing a system across all three parameters. The functional processes of spaceflight become technical requirements on three operational groups during mission planning: payload, vehicle, and launch operations. Given the interrelationships among the functions performed by the operational groups, optimizing function resources from one operational group to the others affects the efficiency of those groups and therefore the mission overall. This paper helps outline this framework and creates a context in which to understand the effects of resource trades on the overall system, improving the efficiency of the operational groups and the mission as a whole. This allows insight into and optimization of the controlling factors earlier in the mission planning stage.

  20. Efficiency Management in Spaceflight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency in spaceflight is often approached as “faster, better, cheaper – pick two”. The high levels of performance and reliability required for each mission suggest that planners can only control for two of the three. True efficiency comes by optimizing a system across all three parameters. The functional processes of spaceflight become technical requirements on three operational groups during mission planning: payload, vehicle, and launch operations. Given the interrelationships among the functions performed by the operational groups, optimizing function resources from one operational group to the others affects the efficiency of those groups and therefore the mission overall. This paper helps outline this framework and creates a context in which to understand the effects of resource trades on the overall system, improving the efficiency of the operational groups and the mission as a whole. This allows insight into and optimization of the controlling factors earlier in the mission planning stage.

  1. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  2. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  3. Fractography handbook of spaceflight metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derro, Rebecca J.

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was produced with the intention of providing failure analysts who work with space flight metals a reference of scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractographs of fracture surfaces produced under known condition. The metals and the fracture conditions were chosen to simulate situations that are encountered in spaceflight applications. This includes tensile overload at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature, and fatigue at room temperature.

  4. Engineering plants for spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1999-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass and yield has steadily increased for centuries because of continued improvement in both plant genetics and environmental control. Considerable effort has gone into improving the environment for plant growth in space, but work has only begun to engineer plants for spaceflight. Genetic manipulation offers tremendous potential to improve our ability to study gravitational effects. Genetic manipulation will also be necessary to build an efficient regenerative life support system. We cannot fully characterize plant response to the spaceflight environment without understanding and manipulating their genetic composition. Identification and selection of the existing germplasm is the first step. There are thousands of cultivars of each of our major crop plants, each specifically adapted to a unique environment on our planet. Thousands of additional lines are held in national germplasm collections to maintain genetic diversity. Spaceflight imposes the need to tap this diversity. Existing lines need to be evaluated in the environment that is characteristic of closed-system spaceflight conditions. Many of the plant growth challenges we confront in space can be better solved through genetic change than by hardware engineering. Ten thousand years of plant breeding has demonstrated the value of matching genetics with the environment. For example, providing continuous light can increase plant growth in space, but this often induces calcium deficiencies because Ca is not supplied by guttation during a dark period. This deficiency cannot be eliminated through increased root-zone and foliar Ca applications. It can be solved, in wheat, through genetic selection of lines that do not have the deficiency. Subsequent comparison of lines with and without the Ca deficiency has also helped us understand the nature of the problem.

  5. Thermoregulation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this flight proposal is to investigate human thermoregulatory parameters during exercise in microgravity. The hypothesis to be tested is that microgravity-adopted astronauts will exhibit accentuated increases in their core temperature (excess hyperthermia) during exercise because of altered heat loss responses due to reduced sweating and/or accentuated vasodilation. The specific aims are (1) to compare core and skin temperature responses during moderate exercise before flight and inflight; (2) to determine whether the hypothesized inflight excessive hyperthermia is due to increased heat production, reduced, sweating, impaired peripheral vasodilation, or to some combination of these factors; and (3) to determine whether heat production at an exercise load of 60 percent of the maximal working capacity is similar preflight and inflight. It is expected that the astronauts will exhibit excessive hyperthermia during exposure to microgravity which will be caused by decreased sweating and decreased skin blood flow.

  6. SpaceDock: A Performance Task Platform for Spaceflight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas H.; Strangman, Gary E.; Strauss, Monica S.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary evidence during both short- and long-duration spaceflight indicates that perceptual-motor coordination changes occur and persist in-flight. However, there is presently no in-flight method for evaluating astronaut performance on mission-critical tasks such as docking. We present a portable platform we have developed for attempting and evaluating docking, and describe the results of a pilot study wherein flight novices learned the docking task. Methods: A dual-joystick, six degrees of freedom platform-called SpaceDock-was developed to enable portable, adaptable performance testing in a spaceflight operations setting. Upon this platform, a simplified docking task was created, involving a constant rate of approach towards a docking target and requiring the user to correct translation in two dimensions and attitude orientation along one dimension (either pitch or roll). Ten flight naive subjects performed the task over a 45 min period and all joystick inputs and timings were collected, from which we could successfully reconstruct travel paths, input profiles and relative target displacements. Results: Subjects exhibited significant improvements in docking over the course of the experiment. Learning to compensate for roll-alterations was robust, whereas compensation for pitch-alterations was not in evidence in this population and relatively short training period. Conclusion: The SpaceDock platform can provide a novel method for training and testing subjects, on a spaceflight-relevant task, and can be used to examine behavioral learning, strategy use, and has been adapted for use in brain imaging experiments.

  7. ISS Overview and the Future of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutomski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the International Space Station and the future of spaceflight. Pictures of robotics, planetary exploration, astrobiology, space tourism, and space commercialization are all shown.

  8. Genitourinary issues during spaceflight: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, J A; Jennings, R; Pietryzk, R; Ciftcioglu, N; Stepaniak, P

    2005-12-01

    The genitourinary (GU) system is not uncommonly affected during previous spaceflights. GU issues that have been observed during spaceflight include urinary calculi, infections, retention, waste management, and reproductive. In-flight countermeasures for each of these issues are being developed to reduce the likelihood of adverse sequelae, due to GU issues during exploration-class spaceflight, to begin in 2018 with flights back to the Moon and on to Mars, according to the February 2004 Presendent's Vision for US Space Exploration. With implementation of a robust countermeasures program, GU issues should not have a significant threat for mission impact during future spaceflights. PMID:16391546

  9. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ju-pei; Chen, C. R.; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0–10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4+, TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire. PMID:26787458

  10. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ju-Pei; Chen, C. R.; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0-10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4+, TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire.

  11. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ju-pei; Chen, C R; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0-10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4(+), TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire. PMID:26787458

  12. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  13. Effects of the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions on resistance of mice to infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been well documented in several studies that many immunologic parameters are altered in experimental animals and human subjects who have flown in space. However, it is not fully known whether these immunologic changes could result in increased susceptibility to infection. Hindlimb (antiorthostatic) unloading of rodents has been used successfully to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight on physiologic systems. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice. METHODS: Hindlimb-unloaded, hindlimb-restrained, and control mice were intraperitoneally infected with one 50% lethal dose of K pneumoniae 2 days after suspension. Mortality and bacterial load in several organs were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Unloaded mice showed significantly increased mortality and reduced mean time to death compared with that seen in the control groups. Kinetics of bacterial growth with smaller infective doses revealed that control mice were able to clear bacteria from the organs after 30 hours. In contrast, unloaded mice had continued bacterial growth at the same time point. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that hindlimb unloading might enhance the dissemination of K pneumoniae, leading to increased mortality. The complex physiologic changes observed during hindlimb unloading, including stress, have a key role in the pathophysiology of this infection.

  14. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  15. Analysis of Cell Proliferation in Newt (Pleurodeles waltl) Tissue Regeneration during Spaceflight in Foton M-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, E. A. C.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Yusuf, R.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Grigoryan, N.; Domaratskaya, E.; Poplinskaya, V.; Mitashov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight expe rience musculoskeletal degeneration. It is still not understood if lo nger-term exposures to microgravity induce degeneration in other tiss ues, and if these effects are also observed in neutrally buoyant aqu atic organisms that may be pre-adapted to mechanical unloading. The " Regeneration" experiment conducted collaboratively between Russian an d US scientists for 16 days in the Russian Foton M-2 spaceflight soug ht to test the hypothesis that microgravity alters the proliferation of cells in regenerating tail tissue of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. Our initial results indicate that we successfUlly delivered the proli feration marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxy Uridine (BrdU) during spaceflight, and that it was incorporated in the nuclei of cells in regenerating tis sues. Cells in spaceflight tail regenerates proliferated at a slight ly slower rate and were more undifferentiated than those in ground sy nchronous controls. In addition, the size of regenerating tails from spaceflight was smaller than synchronous controls. However, onboard temperature recordings show that the temperature in spaceflight was a bout 2 C lower than ground synchronous controls, possibly explaining the observed differences. Additional post-facto ground controls at ma tched temperatures will correctly determine the effects of spaceflig ht on regenerative cell proliferation in the newt.

  16. Spaceflight and age affect tibial epiphyseal growth plate histomorphometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, Pauline J.; Durnova, G.

    1992-01-01

    Growth plate histomorphometry of rats flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044, a 14-day spaceflight, was compared with that of control groups. In growth plates of flight animals, there was a significant increase in cell number per column and height of the proliferative zone and a reduction in height and cell number in the hypertrophy/calcification zone. No significant differences were found in matrix organization at the ultrastructural level of flight animals, indicating that although spacefligfht continues to affect bone growth of 15-wk-old rats, extracellular matrix is not altered in the same manner as seen previously in younger animals. All groups showed growth plate characteristics attributed to aging: lack of calcification zone, reduced hypertrophy zone, and unraveling of collagen fibrils. Tail-suspended controls did not differ from other controls in any of the parameters measured. The results suggest that growth plates of older rats are less responsive to unloading by spaceflight or suspension than those of younger rats and provide new evidence about the modifying effect of spaceflight on the growth plate.

  17. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  18. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  19. The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered in ASD. We applied ESI/MS to determine how brain and blood intact phospholipid species were altered during the induction of ASD-like behaviors in rats following intraventricular infusions with the enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid. Animals were infused daily for 8 days, locomotor activity assessed, and animals killed during the induced behaviors. Propionic acid infusions increased locomotor activity. Lipid analysis revealed treatment altered 21 brain and 30 blood phospholipid molecular species. Notable alterations were observed in the composition of brain SM, diacyl mono and polyunsaturated PC, PI, PS, PE, and plasmalogen PC and PE molecular species. These alterations suggest that the propionic acid rat model is a useful tool to study aberrations in lipid metabolism known to affect membrane fluidity, peroxisomal function, gap junction coupling capacity, signaling, and neuroinflammation, all of which may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD. PMID:22747852

  20. Effect of spaceflight on Pseudomonas aeruginosa final cell density is modulated by nutrient and oxygen availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abundant populations of bacteria have been observed on Mir and the International Space Station. While some experiments have shown that bacteria cultured during spaceflight exhibit a range of potentially troublesome characteristics, including increases in growth, antibiotic resistance and virulence, other studies have shown minimal differences when cells were cultured during spaceflight or on Earth. Although the final cell density of bacteria grown during spaceflight has been reported for several species, we are not yet able to predict how different microorganisms will respond to the microgravity environment. In order to build our understanding of how spaceflight affects bacterial final cell densities, additional studies are needed to determine whether the observed differences are due to varied methods, experimental conditions, or organism specific responses. Results Here, we have explored how phosphate concentration, carbon source, oxygen availability, and motility affect the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in modified artificial urine media during spaceflight. We observed that P. aeruginosa grown during spaceflight exhibited increased final cell density relative to normal gravity controls when low concentrations of phosphate in the media were combined with decreased oxygen availability. In contrast, when the availability of either phosphate or oxygen was increased, no difference in final cell density was observed between spaceflight and normal gravity. Because motility has been suggested to affect how microbes respond to microgravity, we compared the growth of wild-type P. aeruginosa to a ΔmotABCD mutant deficient in swimming motility. However, the final cell densities observed with the motility mutant were consistent with those observed with wild type for all conditions tested. Conclusions These results indicate that differences in bacterial final cell densities observed between spaceflight and normal gravity are due to an interplay between

  1. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  2. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  3. Vestibuloocular reflex of rhesus monkeys after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard; Kozlovskaia, Inessa; Raphan, Theodore; Solomon, David; Helwig, Denice; Cohen, Nathaniel; Sirota, Mikhail; Iakushin, Sergei

    1992-01-01

    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of two rhesus monkeys was recorded before and after 14 days of spaceflight. The gain (eye velocity/head velocity) of the horizontal VOR, tested 15 and 18 h after landing, was approximately equal to preflight values. The dominant time constant of the animal tested 15 h after landing was equivalent to that before flight. During nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), the latency, rising time constant, steady-state eye velocity, and phase of modulation in eye velocity and eye position with respect to head position were similar in both monkeys before and after flight. There were changes in the amplitude of modulation of horizontal eye velocity during steady-state OVAR and in the ability to discharge stored activity rapidly by tilting during postrotatory nystagmus (tilt dumping) after flight: OVAR modulations were larger, and tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested on the day of landing and for several days thereafter. If the gain and time constant of the horizontal VOR exchange in microgravity, they must revert to normal soon after landing. The changes that were observed suggest that adaptation to microgravity had caused alterations in way that the central nervous system processes otolith input.

  4. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  5. Fluid volumes changes induced by spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P C

    1979-10-01

    The blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and extracellular fluid volume changes produced in crewmembers during spaceflights of 11-84 days were compared to changes after 14 or 28 days of bedrest. Spaceflight and bedrest produce approximately equal BV changes but the recorded PV change after spaceflight was less. However, the diurnal change in PV may explain the smaller decreases recorded after spaceflight. The cardiovascular deconditioning caused by spaceflight and bedrest was compared using the mean heart rate response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) testing at -50 mmHg pressure. These tests show approximately equal LBNP produced heart rate changes after bedrest and spaceflight. A countermeasure which includes 4 hr of LBNP treatment at -30 mmHg and the ingestion of one l. of saline was studied and found capable of returning the heart rate response and the PV of bedrested subjects to control (prebedrest) levels suggesting that it would be useful to the crewmembers after a spaceflight. PMID:11902176

  6. Effect of actual long-term spaceflight on BDNF, TrkB, p75, BAX and BCL-XL genes expression in mouse brain regions.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, V S; Kulikov, A V; Kondaurova, E M; Tsybko, A S; Kulikova, E A; Krasnov, I B; Shenkman, B S; Sychev, V N; Bazhenova, E Y; Sinyakova, N A; Popova, N K

    2015-01-22

    Mice of C57BL/6J strain were exposed to 1-month spaceflight on Russian biosatellite Bion-M1 to determine the effect of long-term actual spaceflight on the expression of genes involved in the processes of neurogenesis and apoptosis. Specifically, we focused on the genes encoding proapoptotic factor BAX, antiapoptotic factor BCL-XL, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and BDNF receptors TrkB and p75. Spaceflight reduced the expression of the antiapoptotic BCL-XL gene in the striatum and hypothalamus, but increased it in the hippocampus. To estimate environmental stress contribution into spaceflight effects we analyzed spaceflight-responsive genes in mice housed for 1 month on Earth in the same shuttle cabins that were used for spaceflight, and in mice of the laboratory control group. It was shown that 1-month shuttle cabin housing decreased BCL-XL gene expression in the striatum but failed to alter BCL-XL mRNA levels in the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Spaceflight failed to alter the expression of the proapoptotic BAX gene in all investigated brain structures, although the insignificant increase of the BAX mRNA level in the hippocampus of spaceflight mice was found. At the same time, shuttle cabin housing produced insignificant decrease in BAX gene expression in the hippocampus. In contrast to the BCL-XL gene, genes encoding BAX, BDNF as well as TrkB and p75 receptors did not respond to 30-day spaceflight. Thus, long-term spaceflight (1) did not affect the expression of genes encoding BDNF as well as TrkB and p75 receptors, (2) produced dysregulation in genetic control of the neuronal apoptosis, (3) implicated BCL-XL as the risk factor for spaceflight-induced behavioral abnormalities. PMID:25451288

  7. Endocrine relationships during human spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Moldawer, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    Human spaceflight is associated with a chronic loss of protein from muscle. The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in urinary hormone excretion could identify a hormonal role for this loss. Urine samples were collected from the crews of two Life Sciences Space Shuttle missions before and during spaceflight. Data are means +/- SE with the number of subjects in parentheses. The first value is the mean preflight measurement, and the second value is the mean inflight measurement. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) [27.7 +/- 4.4 (9) vs. 25.1 +/- 3.4 (9) ng/day], growth hormone [724 +/- 251 (9) vs. 710 +/- 206 (9) ng/day], insulin-like growth factor I [6.81 +/- 0.62 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.51 (8) nM/day], and C-peptide [44.9 +/- 8.3 (9) vs. 50.7 +/- 10.3 (9) micrograms/day] were unchanged with spaceflight. In contrast, free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine [791 +/- 159 (9) vs. 371 +/- 41 (9) pg/day, P < 0.05], prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) [1, 064 +/- 391 (8) vs. 465 +/- 146 (8) ng/day, P < 0.05], and its metabolite PGE-M [1,015 +/- 98 (9) vs. 678 +/- 105 (9) ng/day, P < 0. 05] were decreased inflight. The urinary excretion of most hormones returned to their preflight levels during the postflight period, with the exception of ACTH [47.5 +/- 10.3 (9) ng/day], PGE2 [1,433 +/- 327 (8) ng/day], PGF2alpha, [2,786 +/- 313 (8) ng/day], and its metabolite PGF-M [4,814 +/- 402 (9) ng/day], which were all increased compared with the preflight measurement (P < 0.05). There was a trend for urinary cortisol to be elevated inflight [55.3 +/- 5. 9 (9) vs. 72.5 +/- 11.1 micrograms/day, P = 0.27] and postflight [82.7 +/- 8.6 (8) micrograms/day, P = 0.13]. The inflight human data support ground-based in vitro work showing that prostaglandins have a major role in modulating the changes in muscle protein content in response to tension or the lack thereof.

  8. Selection for Cu-Tolerant Bacterial Communities with Altered Composition, but Unaltered Richness, via Long-Term Cu Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jeanette; Brandt, Kristian K.; Al-Soud, Waleed A.; Holm, Peter E.; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic metal pollution affects the composition and metal tolerance of soil bacterial communities. However, there is virtually no knowledge concerning the responses of members of specific bacterial taxa (e.g., phyla or classes) to metal toxicity, and contradictory results have been obtained regarding the impact of metals on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. We used tag-coded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to elucidate the impacts of copper (Cu) on bacterial community composition and diversity within a well-described Cu gradient (20 to 3,537 μg g−1) stemming from industrial contamination with CuSO4 more than 85 years ago. DNA sequence information was linked to analysis of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu, as determined by the [3H]leucine incorporation technique, and to chemical characterization of the soil. PICT was significantly correlated to bioavailable Cu, as determined by the results seen with a Cu-specific bioluminescent biosensor strain, demonstrating a specific community response to Cu. The relative abundances of members of several phyla or candidate phyla, including the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrumicrobia, Chloroflexi, WS3, and Planctomycetes, decreased with increasing bioavailable Cu, while members of the dominant phylum, the Actinobacteria, showed no response and members of the Acidobacteria showed a marked increase in abundance. Interestingly, changes in the relative abundances of classes frequently deviated from the responses of the phyla to which they belong. Despite the apparent Cu impacts on Cu resistance and community structure, bioavailable Cu levels did not show any correlation to bacterial OTU richness (97% similarity level). Our report highlights several bacterial taxa responding to Cu and thereby provides new guidelines for future studies aiming to explore the bacterial domain for members of metal-responding taxa. PMID:22904046

  9. Organ-specific remodeling of the Arabidopsis transcriptome in response to spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight presents a novel environment that is outside the evolutionary experience of terrestrial organisms. Full activation of the International Space Station as a science platform complete with sophisticated plant growth chambers, laboratory benches, and procedures for effective sample return, has enabled a new level of research capability and hypothesis testing in this unique environment. The opportunity to examine the strategies of environmental sensing in spaceflight, which includes the absence of unit gravity, provides a unique insight into the balance of influence among abiotic cues directing plant growth and development: including gravity, light, and touch. The data presented here correlate morphological and transcriptome data from replicated spaceflight experiments. Results The transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated organ-specific changes in response to spaceflight, with 480 genes showing significant changes in expression in spaceflight plants compared with ground controls by at least 1.9-fold, and 58 by more than 7-fold. Leaves, hypocotyls, and roots each displayed unique patterns of response, yet many gene functions within the responses are related. Particularly represented across the dataset were genes associated with cell architecture and growth hormone signaling; processes that would not be anticipated to be altered in microgravity yet may correlate with morphological changes observed in spaceflight plants. As examples, differential expression of genes involved with touch, cell wall remodeling, root hairs, and cell expansion may correlate with spaceflight-associated root skewing, while differential expression of auxin-related and other gravity-signaling genes seemingly correlates with the microgravity of spaceflight. Although functionally related genes were differentially represented in leaves, hypocotyls, and roots, the expression of individual genes varied substantially across organ types, indicating that there is no single

  10. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. PMID:26486414

  11. Software Engineering for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides world-class products, leadership, and technical expertise in software engineering, processes, technology, and systems management for human spaceflight. The branch contributes to major NASA programs (e.g. ISS, MPCV/Orion) with in-house software development and prime contractor oversight, and maintains the JSC Engineering Directorate CMMI rating for flight software development. Software engineering teams work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements. They seek to infuse automation and autonomy into missions, and apply new technologies to flight processor and computational architectures. This presentation will provide an overview of key software-related projects, software methodologies and tools, and technology pursuits of interest to the JSC Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch.

  12. Cortical reorganization in an astronaut's brain after long-duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Demertzi, Athena; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Jeurissen, Ben; Pechenkova, Ekaterina; Di Perri, Carol; Litvinova, Liudmila; Amico, Enrico; Rumshiskaya, Alena; Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Sijbers, Jan; Sinitsyn, Valentin; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Sunaert, Stefan; Parizel, Paul M; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Laureys, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L

    2016-06-01

    To date, hampered physiological function after exposure to microgravity has been primarily attributed to deprived peripheral neuro-sensory systems. For the first time, this study elucidates alterations in human brain function after long-duration spaceflight. More specifically, we found significant differences in resting-state functional connectivity between motor cortex and cerebellum, as well as changes within the default mode network. In addition, the cosmonaut showed changes in the supplementary motor areas during a motor imagery task. These results highlight the underlying neural basis for the observed physiological deconditioning due to spaceflight and are relevant for future interplanetary missions and vestibular patients. PMID:25963710

  13. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  14. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  15. David Lasser: An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the prospects of human spaceflight. Yet his involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he soon moved on to pursue a distinguished career in the cause of workers rights. In lieu of an oral history, the author corresponded with Mr. Lasser on a regular basis in the years before his death in 1996 to gather Mr. Lasser's views on human spaceflight activities as viewed from his unique perspective. This paper will document that correspondence with one of America's original spaceflight pioneers.

  16. Cells in Spaceflight: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The center for advanced studies in the Space Life Sciences provides a forum for scientist to think and discuss, often for the first time, the role that gravity and aspects of spaceflight may play in fundamental cellular and physiologic processes.

  17. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  18. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  19. The response of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to spaceflight in the international space station.

    PubMed

    Leys, Natalie; Baatout, Sarah; Rosier, Caroline; Dams, Annik; s'Heeren, Catherine; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    2009-08-01

    The survival and behavior of Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34 were tested in space. In three spaceflight experiments, during three separate visits to the 'International Space Station' (ISS), strain CH34 was grown for 10-12 days at ambient temperature on mineral agar medium. Space- and earth-grown cells were compared post-flight by flow cytometry and using 2D-gel protein analysis. Pre-, in- and post-flight incubation conditions and experiment design had a significant impact on the survival and growth of CH34 in space. In the CH34 cells returning from spaceflight, 16 proteins were identified which were present in higher concentration in cells developed in spaceflight conditions. These proteins were involved in a specific response of CH34 to carbon limitation and oxidative stress, and included an acetone carboxylase subunit, fructose biphosphate aldolase, a DNA protection during starvation protein, chaperone protein, universal stress protein, and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase. The reproducible observation of the over-expression of these same proteins in multiple flight experiments, indicated that the CH34 cells could experience a substrate limitation and oxidative stress in spaceflight where cells and substrates are exposed to lower levels of gravity and higher doses of ionizing radiation. Bacterium C. metallidurans CH34 was able to grow normally under spaceflight conditions with very minor to no effects on cell physiology, but nevertheless specifically altered the expression of a few proteins in response to the environmental changes. PMID:19572210

  20. Essential Spaceflight Dynamics and Magnetospherics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschenbakh, B. V.; Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    2002-12-01

    The present book Essential Spaceflight Dynamics and Magnetospherics describes, in the first instance, some of the key aspects of celestial mechanics and spaceflight dynamics. It begins with classical two- and three-body problems illustrative of the aesthetic aspects of applying analytical methods of investigation to celestial mechanics. Then, osculating orbital elements are introduced as well as analysis techniques sufficient to evaluate the influence of various disturbing forces on spacecraft. Next a theory of manoeuvres is outlined and the methodology of making interplanetary trajectory corrections. Ideas involving various approaches to orbital element determinations using measured data are also considered. The forces applied to a spacecraft can result in the development of torques that influence attitude motion and the effects of the most important of these are described in terms of equilibrium positions, periodic motions, steady-state and transient motions. Also considered is the problem of attitude control of a spacecraft using active and/or passive methods of orientation and stabilization. In addition, a more advanced treatment of the development of attitude control systems is provided. A description of the Earth's magnetic and gravitational fields allows clarification of the relationship between natural features of the Earth's environment and the requirements of mission design, orbit construction and approaches to attitude control. A detailed Addendum provides an overview of circumstances on the Sun that render interplanetary space a very hazardous environment for spacecraft and for `man in space'. The influence of this environment on spacecraft performance and survival is then presented, together with an outline of some of the mitigating strategies that can be invoked. A feature of this Addendum is the indication it provides of the challenges that the next generation of space experiments will pose to mission designers. It is accompanied by a separate set of

  1. Effects of 14 days of spaceflight and nine days of recovery on cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The cross-sectional areas and succinate dehydrogenase activities of L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after nine days of recovery. The mean and distribution of the cross-sectional areas were similar to age-matched, ground-based controls for both the spaceflight and for the spaceflight plus recovery groups. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in spaceflight compared to aged-matched control rats, whereas the mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was similar in age-matched control and spaceflight plus recovery rats. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity of neurons with cross-sectional areas between 1000 and 2000 microns2 was lower (between 7 and 10%) in both the spaceflight and the spaceflight plus recovery groups compared to the appropriate control groups. The reduction in the oxidative capacity of a subpopulation of sensory neurons having relatively large cross-sectional areas immediately following spaceflight and the sustained depression for nine days after returning to 1 g suggest that the 0 g environment induced significant alterations in proprioceptive function.

  2. Bioavailability of Promethazine during Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the choice anti-motion sickness medication for treating space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. The side effects associated with PMZ include dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, and impaired psychomotor performance which could impact crew performance and mission operations. Early anecdotal reports from crewmembers indicate that these central nervous system side effects of PMZ are absent or greatly attenuated in microgravity, potentially due to changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics in microgravity. These changes could also affect the therapeutic effectiveness of drugs in general and PMZ, in particular. In this investigation, we examined bioavailability and associated pharmacokinetics of PMZ in astronauts during and after space flight. Methods. Nine astronauts received, per their preference, PMZ (25 or 50 mg as intramuscular injection, oral tablet, or rectal suppository) on flight day one for the treatment of SMS and subsequently collected saliva samples and completed sleepiness scores for 72 h post dose. Thirty days after the astronauts returned to Earth, they repeated the protocol. Bioavailability and PK parameters were calculated and compared between flight and ground. Results. Maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower and time to reach Cmax (tmax) was longer in flight than on the ground. Area under the curve (AUC), a measure of bioavailability, was lower and biological half-life (t1/2) was longer in flight than on the ground. Conclusion. Results indicate that bioavailability of PMZ is reduced during spaceflight. Number of samples, sampling method, and sampling schedule significantly affected PK parameter estimates.

  3. Radiation biodosimetry: Applications for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, W. F.; Miller, A. C.; Grace, M. B.; McLeland, C. B.; Luo, L.; Muderhwa, J. M.; Miner, V. L.; Prasanna, P. G. S.

    The multiparametric dosimetry system that we are developing for medical radiological defense applications could be adapted for spaceflight environments. The system complements the internationally accepted personnel dosimeters and cytogenetic analysis of chromosome aberrations, considered the best means of documenting radiation doses for health records. Our system consists of a portable hematology analyzer, molecular biodosimetry using nucleic acid and antigen-based diagnostic equipment, and a dose assessment management software application. A dry-capillary tube reagent-based centrifuge blood cell counter (QBC Autoread Plus, Beckon Dickinson Bioscience) measures peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes, which could determine radiation dose based on the kinetics of blood cell depletion. Molecular biomarkers for ionizing radiation exposure (gene expression changes, blood proteins) can be measured in real time using such diagnostic detection technologies as miniaturized nucleic acid sequences and antigen-based biosensors, but they require validation of dose-dependent targets and development of optimized protocols and analysis systems. The Biodosimetry Assessment Tool, a software application, calculates radiation dose based on a patient's physical signs and symptoms and blood cell count analysis. It also annotates location of personnel dosimeters, displays a summary of a patient's dosimetric information to healthcare professionals, and archives the data for further use. These radiation assessment diagnostic technologies can have dual-use applications supporting general medical-related care.

  4. Radiation biodosimetry: applications for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, W.; Miller, A.; Grace, M.; Prasanna, P.; Muderhwa, J.

    The multiparametric dosimetry system that we are developing for medical radiological defense applications could be adapted for spaceflight environments. The system complements the internationally accepted cytogenetic analysis of chromosome aberrations, considered the best means of documenting radiation doses for health records. Our system consists of a dose assessment software application, a portable blood cell counter, and molecular biodosimetry using miniaturized equipment. The Biodosimetry Assessment Tool (BAT) software application calculates radiation dose based on a patient's physical signs and symptoms and blood analysis, annotates location of personnel dosimeters, displays a summary of a patient's dosimetric information to healthcare professionals, and archives the data for further use. The dry reagent centrifuge-based blood cell counter (QBC Autoread Plus, Beckon Dickinson Bioscience) measures peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes, which could determine radiation dose based on the kinetics of blood cell depletion. Molecular biomarkers for ionizing radiation exposure (gene expression changes, blood proteins), once dose-dependent targets are identified, optimized, and validated, will make use of miniaturized diagnostic equipment for nucleic acid sequence and antigen-based biosensor detection technologies. These radiation assessment diagnostic technologies can have dual use for other medical related applications. [The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, under work unit AFRRI-01-3, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, under contract GG4661, supported this research.

  5. Fatigue Management in Spaceflight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sleep loss and fatigue remain an issue for crewmembers working on the International Space Station, and the ground crews who support them. Schedule shifts on the ISS are required for conducting mission operations. These shifts lead to tasks being performed during the biological night, and sleep scheduled during the biological day, for flight crews and the ground teams who support them. Other stressors have been recognized as hindering sleep in space; these include workload, thinking about upcoming tasks, environmental factors, and inadequate day/night cues. It is unknown if and how other factors such as microgravity, carbon dioxide levels, or increased radiation, may also play a part. Efforts are underway to standardize and provide care for crewmembers, ground controllers and other support personnel. Through collaborations between research and operations, evidenced-based clinical practice guidelines are being developed to equip flight surgeons with the tools and processes needed for treating circadian desynchrony (and subsequent sleep loss) caused by jet lag and shift work. The proper implementation of countermeasures such as schedules, lighting protocols, and cognitive behavioral education can hasten phase shifting, enhance sleep and optimize performance. This panel will focus on Fatigue Management in Spaceflight Operations. Speakers will present on research-based recommendations and technologies aimed at mitigating sleep loss, circadian desynchronization and fatigue on-orbit. Gaps in current mitigations and future recommendations will also be discussed.

  6. Spaceflight optical disk recorder development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurczyk, Stephen G.; Hines, Glenn D.; Shull, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Mass memory systems based on rewriteable optical disk media are expected to play an important role in meeting the data system requirements for future NASA spaceflight missions. NASA has established a program to develop a high performance (high rate, large capacity) optical disk recorder focused on use aboard unmanned Earth orbiting platforms. An expandable, adaptable system concept is proposed based on disk drive modules and a modular controller. Drive performance goals are 10 gigabyte capacity, 300 megabit/s transfer rate, 10 exp -12 corrected bit error rate, and 150 millisec access time. This performance is achieved by writing eight data tracks in parallel on both sides of a 14 in. optical disk using two independent heads. System goals are 160 gigabyte capacity, 1.2 gigabits/s data rate with concurrent I/O, 250 millisec access time, and two to five year operating life on orbit. The system can be configured to meet various applications. This versatility is provided by the controller. The controller provides command processing, multiple drive synchronization, data buffering, basic file management, error processing, and status reporting. Technology developments, design concepts, current status including a computer model of the system and a Controller breadboard, and future plans for the Drive and Controller are presented.

  7. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  8. Medical Scenarios Relevant to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Hurs, Victor; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Operational Support Team (MOST) was tasked by the JSC Space Medicine and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) to incorporate medical simulation into 1) medical training for astronaut-crew medical officers (CMO) and medical flight control teams and 2) evaluations of procedures and resources required for medical care aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Development of evidence-based medical scenarios that mimic the physiology observed during spaceflight will be needed for the MOST to complete these two tasks. The MOST used a human patient simulator, the ISS-like resources in the Medical Simulation Laboratory (MSL), and evidence from space operations, military operations and medical literature to develop space relevant medical scenarios. These scenarios include conditions concerning airway management, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and mitigating anaphylactic symptoms. The MOST has used these space relevant medical scenarios to develop a preliminary space medical training regimen for NASA flight surgeons, Biomedical Flight Controllers (Biomedical Engineers; BME) and CMO-analogs. This regimen is conducted by the MOST in the MSL. The MOST has the capability to develop evidence-based space-relevant medical scenarios that can help SLSD I) demonstrate the proficiency of medical flight control teams to mitigate space-relevant medical events and 2) validate nextgeneration medical equipment and procedures for space medicine applications.

  9. Human skeletal muscle protein breakdown during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. Excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) in the urine is a useful measurement of myofibrillar protein breakdown. Bed rest, particularly with 6 degrees head-down tilt, is an accepted ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this report were to compare 3-MH excretion from two Life Sciences shuttle missions (duration 9.5 and 15 days, n = 9) and from 17 days of bed rest (n = 7) with 6 degrees head-down tilt. The bed rest study was designed to mimic an actual Life Sciences spaceflight and so incorporated an extensive battery of physiological tests focused on the musculoskeletal system. Results showed that nitrogen retention, based on excretion of nitrogen in the urine, was reduced during both bed rest [from 22 +/- 1 to 1 +/- 5 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 7; P < 0.05)] and spaceflight [from 57 +/- 9 to 19 +/- 3 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 9; P < 0.05)]. 3-MH excretion was unchanged with either bed rest [pre-bed rest 5.30 +/- 0.29 vs. bed rest 5.71 +/- 0.30 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1), n = 7; P = not significant (NS)] or spaceflight [preflight 4.98 +/- 0.37 vs. 4.59 +/- 0.39 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1) in-flight, n = 9; P = NS]. We conclude that 1) 3-MH excretion was unaffected by spaceflight on the shuttle or with bed rest plus exercise, and 2) because protein breakdown (elevated 3-MH) was increased on Skylab but not on the shuttle, it follows that muscle protein breakdown is not an inevitable consequence of spaceflight.

  10. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  11. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces. PMID:23867843

  12. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0-20 cm soil layer vertically and 0-30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and particularly Ca(2+) were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  13. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    implement an overall Risk Management and Analysis process. Currently NASA is drafting spaceflight health standards for neurosensory alterations, space radiation exposure, behavioral health, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular fitness, immunological compromise, bone demineralization, and nutrition.

  14. Spaceflight has compartment- and gene-specific effects on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins in rat femur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, G. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the possibility that the abnormal bone matrix produced during spaceflight may be associated with reduced expression of bone matrix protein genes. To test this possibility, we investigated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight (SLS-2 experiment) on steady-state mRNA levels for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), osteocalcin, osteonectin, and prepro-alpha(1) subunit of type I collagen in the major bone compartments of rat femur. There were pronounced site-specific differences in the steady-state levels of expression of the mRNAs for the three bone matrix proteins and GAPDH in normal weight-bearing rats, and these relationships were altered after spaceflight. Specifically, spaceflight resulted in decreases in mRNA levels for GAPDH (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteocalcin (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteonectin (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis), and collagen (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis) compared with ground controls. There were no changes in mRNA levels for matrix proteins or GAPDH in the shaft and distal epiphysis. These results demonstrate that spaceflight leads to site- and gene-specific decreases in mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that spaceflight-induced decreases in bone formation are caused by concomitant decreases in expression of genes for bone matrix proteins.

  15. Behavioral and health implications of civilian spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Wichman, Harvey A

    2005-06-01

    The current enthusiasm over the prospect of space tourism and the belief among many that such civilian spaceflight is imminent are characterized herein. There are many concerns about screening and certifying passengers for future spaceflight. Efforts by several organizations to propose such screening are cited. The problem with some of these proposals, which treat all types of spaceflight the same, is that they are so restrictive that too few people would be eligible for space travel to have a viable tourism industry. However, not all types of spaceflight are the same, so the distinctions between them need to be clarified. Of the five types of spaceflight described, one is proposed as the most likely to be the first significant phase of space tourism: long-term microgravity flight in low Earth orbit. But because of human problems with long-term exposure to microgravity, this phase requires rather conservative screening and extensive training. However, prior to discussing the passenger issues related to this early phase of space tourism, the reasons why Earth-like gravity, as well as microgravity, must be made available to spacefarers before space tourism can take place on a grand scale need to be explained. Finally, major passenger medical and behavioral issues of the first phase of orbital space tourism-long-term microgravity flight-are discussed. PMID:15943209

  16. Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Feng; Hu, Jie; Gu, Yi-An; Yang, Chun-Lan; Mei, Xin-Lan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun; Friman, Ville-Petri

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)-organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria-is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple

  17. Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Feng; Hu, Jie; Gu, Yi-An; Yang, Chun-Lan; Mei, Xin-Lan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun; Friman, Ville-Petri

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)–organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria—is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer

  18. Morphometric analyses of petioles of seedlings grown in a spaceflight experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christina M; Subramanian, Aswati; Edelmann, Richard E; Kiss, John Z

    2015-11-01

    Gravity is a constant unidirectional stimulus on Earth, and gravitropism in plants involves three phases: perception, transduction, and response. In shoots, perception takes place within the endodermis. To investigate the cellular machinery of perception in microgravity, we conducted a spaceflight study with Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, which were grown in microgravity in darkness using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware during space shuttle mission STS-131. In the 14-day-old etiolated plants, we studied seedling development and the morphological parameters of the endodermal cells in the petiole. Seedlings from the spaceflight experiment (FL) were compared to a ground control (GC), which both were in the BRIC flight hardware. In addition, to assay any potential effects from growth in spaceflight hardware, we performed another control by growing seedlings in Petri dishes in standard laboratory conditions (termed the hardware control, HC). Seed germination was significantly lower in samples grown in flight hardware (FL, GC) compared to the HC. In terms of cellular parameters of endodermal cells, the greatest differences also were between seedlings grown in spaceflight hardware (FL, GC) compared to those grown outside of this hardware (HC). Specifically, the endodermal cells were significantly smaller in seedlings grown in the BRIC system compared to those in the HC. However, a change in the shape of the cell, suggesting alterations in the cell wall, was one parameter that appears to be a true microgravity effect. Taken together, our results suggest that caution must be taken when interpreting results from the increasingly utilized BRIC spaceflight hardware system and that it is important to perform additional ground controls to aid in the analysis of spaceflight experiments. PMID:26376793

  19. NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses a brief history of NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment (CA) activities, an overview of NASA CA process for ISS and Shuttle, and recent examples from Human Spaceflight conjunctions.

  20. Histomorphometric, physical, and mechanical effects of spaceflight and insulin-like growth factor-I on rat long bones.

    PubMed

    Bateman, T A; Zimmerman, R J; Ayers, R A; Ferguson, V L; Chapes, S K; Simske, S J

    1998-12-01

    Previous experiments have shown that skeletal unloading resulting from exposure to microgravity induces osteopenia in rats. In maturing rats, this is primarily a function of reduced formation, rather than increased resorption. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates bone formation by increasing collagen synthesis by osteoblasts. The ability of IGF-I to prevent osteopenia otherwise caused by spaceflight was investigated in 12 rats flown for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle, STS-77. The effect IGF-I had on cortical bone metabolism was generally anabolic. For example, humerus periosteal bone formation increased a significant 37.6% for the spaceflight animals treated with IGF-I, whereas the ground controls increased 24.7%. This increase in humeral bone formation at the periosteum is a result of an increased percent mineralizing perimeter (%Min.Pm), rather than mineral apposition rate (MAR), for both spaceflight and ground control rats. However, IGF-I did inhibit humerus endocortical bone formation in both the spaceflight and ground control rats (38.1% and 39.2%, respectively) by limiting MAR. This effect was verified in a separate ground-based study. Similar histomorphometric results for spaceflight and ground control rats suggest that IGF-I effects occur during normal weight bearing and during spaceflight. Microhardness measurements of the newly formed bone indicate that the quality of the bone formed during IGF-I treatment or spaceflight was not adversely altered. Spaceflight did not consistently change the structural (force-deflection) properties of the femur or humerus when tested in three-point bending. IGF-I significantly increased femoral maximum and fracture strength. PMID:9855461

  1. Spaceflight Operations Services Grid Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Lisotta, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    NASA over the years has developed many types of technologies and conducted various types of science resulting in numerous variations of operations, data and applications. For example, operations range from deep space projects managed by JPL, Saturn and Shuttle operations managed from JSC and KSC, ISS science operations managed from MSFC and numerous low earth orbit satellites managed from GSFC that are varied and intrinsically different but require many of the same types of services to fulfill their missions. Also, large data sets (databases) of Shuttle flight data, solar system projects and earth observing data exist which because of their varied and sometimes outdated technologies are not and have not been fully examined for additional information and knowledge. Many of the applications/systems supporting operational services e.g. voice, video, telemetry and commanding, are outdated and obsolete. The vast amounts of data are located in various formats, at various locations and range over many years. The ability to conduct unified space operations, access disparate data sets and to develop systems and services that can provide operational services does not currently exist in any useful form. In addition, adding new services to existing operations is generally expensive and with the current budget constraints not feasible on any broad level of implementation. To understand these services a discussion of each one follows. The Spaceflight User-based Services are those services required to conduct space flight operations. Grid Services are those Grid services that will be used to overcome, through middleware software, some or all the problems that currently exists. In addition, Network Services will be discussed briefly. Network Services are crucial to any type of remedy and are evolving adequately to support any technology currently in development.

  2. Vitamin K Status in Spaceflight and Ground-Based Models of Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Sara R; Booth, Sarah L; Peterson, James W; Wang, Zuwei; Smith, Scott M

    2011-01-01

    Bone loss is a well-documented change during and after long-duration spaceflight. Many types of countermeasures to bone loss have been proposed, including vitamin K supplementation. The objective of this series of studies was to measure change in vitamin K status in response to microgravity under a variety of spaceflight and spaceflight analog (model) conditions, including long-duration spaceflight studies (n = 15), three bed rest studies (n = 15, 49, and 24), and a 14-day saturation dive (n= 6). In crew members who flew 2–6 months on the International Space Station, in-flight and postflight plasma phylloquinone concentrations were unchanged from the preflight mean. Consistent with this finding, urinary γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA), a measure of vitamin K-dependent protein turnover, did not change in response to flight. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC), a measure of vitamin K function, was generally unchanged in response to flight. Spaceflight findings were corroborated by findings of no changes in phylloquinone, urinary GLA, or %ucOC during or after bed rest in three separate bed rest studies (21–90 days in duration) or after a 14-day saturation dive. The data presented here do not support either a need for vitamin K supplementation during spaceflight or the suggestion of using vitamin K as a bone loss countermeasure in spaceflight. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:21541997

  3. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; Blaser, C.; De La Cruz, L.; Gettelman, G. J.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  4. David Lasser - An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the use of rockets for human spaceflight. His involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he moved on to pursue a distinguished, if turbulent, career in the labor movement. In lieu of an oral history, Mr. Lasser provided his recollections on the pioneering days of rocketry and his thoughts on mankind's destiny in space. This paper provides an overview of Mr. Lasser's life and accomplishments as an American spaceflight visionary, along with a compilation of the information that he graciously provided.

  5. Cellular immunity and lymphokine production during spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantinova, I. V.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Lesniak, A. T.; Shaffar, L.; Mandel, A.; Rykova, M. P.; Antropova, E. N.; Ferrua, B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on changes in cellular immunity and in the production of lymphokine in spacecrews during spaceflights. Measurements were carried out on blood samples collected from 50 cosmonauts before and after spaceflights of different duration, on board Salyut-6, Salyut-7, or Mir. Additional data were obtained from rats flown on board the Cosmos-1667 and Cosmos-1887 biosatellites. The parameters measured included the PHA responsiveness of T lymphocytes, the activity of T-helper cells and of nonspecific T suppressors, the activity of the so-called natural killer lymphocytes, the production of gamma-interferon, and the cell-surface markers. Results showed that the frequency and the extent of changes in the immunologic resistance of subjects depended on the duration of the flight. However, even after the most prolonged (365 days) spaceflight, the changes observed were mostly of a functional character with subsequent rapid return to normal.

  6. Quantitative histochemistry of rat lumbar vertebrae following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eurell, J. A.; Kazarian, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    The histochemical effects of the return to gravity immediately and 6 and 29 days following spaceflight on the bone of rat vertebral bodies were investigated. No significant change in the calcium salt content of the vertebrae was found immediately postflight, although 6 days later it was significantly decreased. The calcium content was found to have returned to normal by 29 days postflight. While postflight collagen content was not significantly altered, keratosulfate was found to be significantly higher in trabecular bone of rats immediately postflight and 6 days postflight. In addition, chondroitin sulfate was found to be increased in vertebral bone on days 6 and 29 postflight. These findings indicate that bone turnover slows in vertebrae during spaceflight allowing bone aging, which support the contention that a form of osteolysis begins immediately upon return to gravity to remove components of old bone at which time mineral levels decrease and levels of chondroitin and keratkosulfates shift. It was found that the osteolysis phase was quickly followed by new bone replacement which was completed before 29 days postspaceflight.

  7. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  8. Host Genetic Background Influences the Response to the Opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Altering Cell-Mediated Immunity and Bacterial Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Rossi, Giacomo; Cigana, Cristina; De Fino, Ida; Iraqi, Fuad A.; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s) may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in the control of P

  9. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Maura; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Rossi, Giacomo; Cigana, Cristina; De Fino, Ida; Iraqi, Fuad A; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s) may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in the control of P

  10. Printed Electronic Devices in Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2004-01-01

    The space environment requires robust sensing, control, and automation, whether in support of human spaceflight or of robotic exploration. Spaceflight embodies the known extremes of temperature, radiation, shock, vibration, and static loads, and demands high reliability at the lowest possible mass. Because printed electronic circuits fulfill all these requirements, printed circuit technology and the exploration of space have been closely coupled throughout their short histories. In this presentation, we will explore the space (and space launch) environments as drivers of printed circuit design, a brief history of NASA's use of printed electronic circuits, and we will examine future requirements for such circuits in our continued exploration of space.

  11. Spaceflight Flow Cytometry: Design Challenges and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, Dimitri; Kao, Shih-Hsin; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2004-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will require analytical technology capable of providing both autonomous medical care to the crew and investigative capabilities to researchers. While several promising candidate technologies exist for further development, flow cytometry is an attractive technology as it offers both crew health and a wide array of biochemistry and immunology assays. While flow cytometry has been widely used for cellular analysis in both clinical and research settings, the requirements for proper operation in spaceflight impose constraints on any instrument designs. The challenges of designing a spaceflight-ready flow cytometer are discussed, as well as some preliminary results using a prototype system.

  12. Water-Limiting Conditions Alter the Structure and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Bacterial Multispecies Communities in the Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

  13. Transcriptomic and proteomic responses of Serratia marcescens to spaceflight conditions involve large-scale changes in metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yajuan; Yuan, Yanting; Liu, Jinwen; Su, Longxiang; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Zhou, Lisha; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting

    2014-04-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight expeditions has been associated with altered microbial responses. This study explores the characterization of Serratia marcescensis grown in a spaceflight environment at the phenotypic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels. From November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011, a strain of S. marcescensis was sent into space for 398 h on the Shenzhou VIII spacecraft, and ground simulation was performed as a control (LCT-SM213). After the flight, two mutant strains (LCT-SM166 and LCT-SM262) were selected for further analysis. Although no changes in the morphology, post-culture growth kinetics, hemolysis or antibiotic sensitivity were observed, the two mutant strains exhibited significant changes in their metabolic profiles after exposure to spaceflight. Enrichment analysis of the transcriptome showed that the differentially expressed genes of the two spaceflight strains and the ground control strain mainly included those involved in metabolism and degradation. The proteome revealed that changes at the protein level were also associated with metabolic functions, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism and the degradation of valine, leucine and isoleucine. In summary S. marcescens showed alterations primarily in genes and proteins that were associated with metabolism under spaceflight conditions, which gave us valuable clues for future research.

  14. Product Assurance for Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Mike

    1995-01-01

    This report contains information about the tasks I have completed and the valuable experience I have gained at NASA. The report is divided into two different sections followed by a program summary sheet. The first section describes the two reports I have completed for the Office of Mission Assurance (OMA). I describe the approach and the resources and facilities used to complete each report. The second section describes my experience working in the Receipt Inspection/Quality Assurance Lab (RI/QA). The first report described is a Product Assurance Plan for the Gas Permeable Polymer Materials (GPPM) mission. The purpose of the Product Assurance Plan is to define the various requirements which are to be met through completion of the GPPM mission. The GPPM experiment is a space payload which will be flown in the shuttle's SPACEHAB module. The experiment will use microgravity to enable production of complex polymeric gas permeable materials. The second report described in the first section is a Fracture Analysis for the Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP). The Fracture Analysis report is a summary of the fracture control classifications for all structural elements of the MEEP. The MEEP hardware consists of four experiment carriers, each of which contains an experiment container holding a passive experiment. The MEEP hardware will be attached to the cargo bay of the space shuttle. It will be transferred by Extravehicular Activity and mounted on the Mir space station. The second section of this report describes my experiences in the RVQA lab. I listed the different equipment I used at the lab and their functions. I described the extensive inspection process that must be completed for spaceflight hardware. Included, at the end of this section, are pictures of most of the equipment used in the lab. There is a summary sheet located at the end of this report. It briefly describes the valuable experience I have gained at NASA this summer and what I will be able to take

  15. TNF-alpha-independent IL-8 expression: alterations in bacterial challenge dose cause differential human monocytic cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Patrone, Julia B; Bish, Samuel E; Stein, Daniel C

    2006-07-15

    We examined the effects of different bacterial doses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on the cytokine response of primary human monocytes. The data indicate that a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) challenge (MOI = 0.1) results in substantial production of IL-8 and other chemokines/cytokines, in the absence of significant TNF-alpha production. Positive control challenges (MOI = 10) induced levels of IL-8 that were comparable to the low MOI challenges, but now induced significant levels of TNF-alpha. Induction of IL-8 expression in low MOI challenges was not mediated by an autocrine response as pretreatment of monocytes with neutralizing Abs against TNF-alpha or IL-1beta had no effect on IL-8 expression. IL-8 induction resulting from gonococcal challenge was shown to require NF-kappaB activation, though this activation was limited by the inoculating dose. These data indicate that IL-8 induction results from direct contact between bacteria and monocytes. Analysis of the overall cytokine profile revealed patterns of expression for growth-regulated oncogene, MCP-1, and IL-6 that were similar to IL-8. Analysis of various MAPKs indicated that low MOI challenges were able to efficiently activate both the ERK and p38 pathways, but in contrast to positive control samples, failed to activate the JNK pathway. A lack of phosphorylated JNK leads to decreased production of AP-1 dimers, transcription factors that are critical for efficient transcription of TNF-alpha. Therefore, we propose a mechanism where a low MOI gonococcal challenge results in diminished AP-1 activity and TNF-alpha production while IL-8 levels remain constant. PMID:16818792

  16. Spaceflight Operations Services Grid (SOSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Thigpen, William W.

    2004-01-01

    environment that incorporates existing and new spaceflight services into a standards-based framework providing current and future NASA programs with cost savings and new and evolvable methods to conduct science. This project will demonstrate how the use of new programming paradigms such as web and grid services can provide three significant benefits to the cost-effective delivery of spaceflight services. They will enable applications to operate more efficiently by being able to utilize pooled resources. They will also permit the reuse of common services to rapidly construct new and more powerful applications. Finally they will permit easy and secure access to services via a combination of grid and portal technology by a distributed user community consisting of NASA operations centers, scientists, the educational community and even the general population as outreach. The approach will be to deploy existing mission support applications such as the Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) and new applications under development, such as the Grid Video Distribution System (GViDS), together with existing grid applications and services such as high-performance computing and visualization services provided by NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG) in the MSFC s Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) HOSC Annex. Once the initial applications have been moved to the grid, a process will begin to apply the new programming paradigms to integrate them where possible. For example, with GViDS, instead of viewing the Distribution service as an application that must run on a single node, the new approach is to build it such that it can be dispatched across a pool of resources in response to dynamic loads. To make this a reality, reusable services will be critical, such as a brokering service to locate appropriate resource within the pool. This brokering service can then be used by other applications such as the TReK. To expand further, if the GViDS application is constructed using a services

  17. Spaceflight Operations Services Grid (SOSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Thigpen, William W.

    2004-01-01

    environment that incorporates existing and new spaceflight services into a standards-based framework providing current and future NASA programs with cost savings and new and evolvable methods to conduct science. This project will demonstrate how the use of new programming paradigms such as web and grid services can provide three significant benefits to the cost-effective delivery of spaceflight services. They will enable applications to operate more efficiently by being able to utilize pooled resources. They will also permit the reuse of common services to rapidly construct new and more powerful applications. Finally they will permit easy and secure access to services via a combination of grid and portal technology by a distributed user community consisting of NASA operations centers, scientists, the educational community and even the general population as outreach. The approach will be to deploy existing mission support applications such as the Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) and new applications under development, such as the Grid Video Distribution System (GViDS), together with existing grid applications and services such as high-performance computing and visualization services provided by NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG) in the MSFC s Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) HOSC Annex. Once the initial applications have been moved to the grid, a process will begin to apply the new programming paradigms to integrate them where possible. For example, with GViDS, instead of viewing the Distribution service as an application that must run on a single node, the new approach is to build it such that it can be dispatched across a pool of resources in response to dynamic loads. To make this a reality, reusable services will be critical, such as a brokering service to locate appropriate resource within the pool. This brokering service can then be used by other applications such as the TReK. To expand further, if the GViDS application is constructed using a services

  18. Enhanced bacterial protein expression during auto-induction obtained by alteration of lac repressor dosage and medium composition.

    PubMed

    Blommel, Paul G; Becker, Katie J; Duvnjak, Petar; Fox, Brian G

    2007-01-01

    The auto-induction method of protein expression in E. coli is based on diauxic growth resulting from dynamic function of lac operon regulatory elements (lacO and LacI) in mixtures of glucose, glycerol, and lactose. The results show that successful execution of auto-induction is strongly dependent on the plasmid promoter and repressor construction, on the oxygenation state of the culture, and on the composition of the auto-induction medium. Thus expression hosts expressing high levels of LacI during aerobic growth exhibit reduced ability to effectively complete the auto-induction process. Manipulation of the promoter to decrease the expression of LacI altered the preference for lactose consumption in a manner that led to increased protein expression and partially relieved the sensitivity of the auto-induction process to the oxygenation state of the culture. Factorial design methods were used to optimize the chemically defined growth medium used for expression of two model proteins, Photinus luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein, including variations for production of both unlabeled and selenomethionine-labeled samples. The optimization included studies of the expression from T7 and T7-lacI promoter plasmids and from T5 phage promoter plasmids expressing two levels of LacI. Upon the basis of the analysis of over 500 independent expression results, combinations of optimized expression media and expression plasmids that gave protein yields of greater than 1000 mug/mL of expression culture were identified. PMID:17506520

  19. The Alteration of Plant Morphology by Small Peptides Released from the Proteolytic Processing of the Bacterial Peptide TENGU1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Kyoko; Honma, Youhei; Komatsu, Ken; Himeno, Misako; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-borne plant pathogenic bacteria that alter host morphology. TENGU, a small peptide of 38 residues, is a virulence factor secreted by phytoplasmas that induces dwarfism and witches’ broom in the host plant. In this study, we demonstrate that plants process TENGU in order to generate small functional peptides. First, virus vector-mediated transient expression demonstrated that the amino-terminal 11 amino acids of TENGU are capable of causing symptom development in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The deletion of the 11th residue significantly diminished the symptom-inducing activity of TENGU, suggesting that these 11 amino acids constitute a functional domain. Second, we found that TENGU undergoes proteolytic processing in vitro, generating peptides of 19 and 21 residues including the functional domain. Third, we observed similar processing of TENGU in planta, and an alanine substitution mutant of TENGU, for which processing was compromised, showed reduced symptom induction activity. All TENGU homologs from several phytoplasma strains possessed similar symptom induction activity and went through processing, which suggests that the processing of TENGU might be related to its function. PMID:23784461

  20. Marked Exacerbation of Orthostatic Intolerance After Long vs. Short-Duration Spaceflight in Veteran Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Reyes, Carlos; Perez, Sondra A.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance following short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence following long-duration spaceflight is unknown. We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after their long-duration (129 - 190 days) spaceflights and compared these data to those obtained during stand tests before and after their previous short-duration missions and also to tilt test data from 20 different short-duration (8 - 16 days) flight astronauts. Five of these six became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights: only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. Five of the twenty astronauts who flew on other short-duration flights, became presyncopal during upright tilt on landing day. Long-duration presyncopal subjects had lower stroke volumes, lower cardiac outputs and higher peripheral vascular resistance than short-duration presyncopal subjects, but their heart rate responses were not different. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after a long but not short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably related to altered autonomic function.

  1. Spaceflight Effects on Virulence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, S.; Goins, T.; Crandell, C.; Richards, C.; Patel, M.; Pyle, B.

    2008-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found in the environment. It is known to infect the immunocompromised. The organism has about 25 virulence genes that play different roles in disease processes. Several exotoxin proteins may be produced, including ExoA, ExoS, ExoT and ExoY, and other virulence factors. In spaceflight, possible increased expression of P. aeruginosa virulence proteins could increase health risks for spaceflight crews who experience decreased immunity. Cultures of P. aeruginosa strains PA01 and PA103 grown on orbit on Shuttle Endeavour flight STS-123 vs. static ground controls were used for analysis. The production of ETA was quantitated using an ELISA procedure. Results showed that while flight cultures of PA103 produced slightly more ETA than corresponding ground controls, the opposite was found for PA01. While it appears that spaceflight has little effect on ETA, stimulation of other virulence factors could cause increased virulence of this organism in space flight. Similar increased virulence in spaceflight has been observed for other bacteria. This is important because astronauts may be more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  2. Structure of potato tubers formed during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croxdale, J.; Cook, M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) explants, consisting of a leaf, axillary bud, and small stem segment, were used as a model system to study the influence of spaceflight on the formation of sessile tubers from axillary buds. The explants were flown on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-73, 20 October to 5 November 1995) in the ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight package, which provided a controlled environment for plant growth. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the precisely ordered tissues of tubers formed on Earth with those formed during spaceflight. The structure of tubers produced during spaceflight was similar to that of tubers produced in a control experiment. The size and shape of tubers, the geometry of tuber tissues, and the distribution of starch grains and proteinaceous crystals were comparable in tubers formed in both environments. The shape, surface texture, and size range of starch grains from both environments were similar, but a greater percentage of smaller starch grains formed in spaceflight than on Earth. Since explant leaves must be of given developmental age before tubers form, instructions regarding the regular shape and ordered tissue geometry of tubers may have been provided in the presence of gravity. Regardless of when the signalling occurred, gravity was not required to produce a tuber of typical structure.

  3. Regulation of Blood Volume During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfrey, Clarence P.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on erythropoiesis and blood volume in the rat were studied during the 14-day NASA Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) Shuttle mission. Measurements included red blood cell mass (RBCM), plasma volume (PV), iron utilization and iron utilization in response to an injection of erythropoietin. Red blood cell (RBC) survival, splenic sequestration and erythrocyte morphology were also evaluated. At landing, the RBCM adjusted for body weight was significantly lower in the flight animals than in the ground controls. While the PV was also decreased, the change was not statistically significant. Incorporation of iron into circulating RBCs was normal when measured after five days of spaceflight and the rat responded normally to the single in-flight injection of erythropoietin. No change in RBC morphology could be attributed to spaceflight. A normal survival was found for the RBC population that was represented by Cr-51 labeled RBCS. These results demonstrate that rats, like humans, return from spaceflight with a decreased RBCM and total blood volume.

  4. Crewmember Performance before, during, and after Spaceflight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thomas H.; Hienz, Robert D.; Zarcone, Troy J.; Wurster, Richard M.; Brady, Joseph V.

    2005-01-01

    The development of technologies for monitoring the welfare of crewmembers is a critical requirement for extended spaceflight. Behavior analytic methodologies provide a framework for studying the performance of individuals and groups, and brief computerized tests have been used successfully to examine the impairing effects of sleep, drug, and…

  5. Spaceflight and the Mouse Eye: Results from Experiments on Shuttle Missions STS-133 and STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Theriot, Corey A.; Ponce, Claudia Prospero; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Vision alterations associated with globe flattening, chorodial folds and papilledema, shown in some crew members returning from long duration missions. Hypothesis: Ocular neuroanatomical changes observed in the VIIP syndrome are accompanied by retinal changes at the molecular and cellular level that may affect retinal health and physiology. Objective: Investigate evidence of ocular (retinal) changes associated with spaceflight: (1) histological markers of cellular death and damage (2) molecular markers of oxidative stress (3) gene expression markers of stress

  6. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of a risk of visual impairment and intracranial pressure increase as a result of spaceflight has directed our attention and research efforts to the eye. While the alterations observed in astronauts returning from long duration missions include reportable vision and neuroanatomical changes observed by non-invasive methods, other effects and subsequent tissue responses at the molecular and cellular level can only be studied by accessing the tissue itself. As a result of this need, several studies are currently taking place that use animal models for eye research within the HHC Element. The implementation of these studies represents a significant addition to the capabilities of the biomedical research laboratories within the SK3 branch at JSC.

  7. Molecular aspects of stress-gene regulation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Spaceflight-associated stress has been the topic of investigation since the first terrestrial organisms were exposed to this unique environment. Organisms that evolved under the selection pressures of earth-normal environments can perceive spaceflight as a stress, either directly because gravity influences an intrinsic biological process, or indirectly because of secondary effects imparted by spaceflight upon environmental conditions. Different organisms and even different organs within an organism adapt to a spaceflight environment with a diversity of tactics. Plants are keenly sensitive to gravity for directed development, and are also sensitive to other stresses associated with closed-system spaceflight environments. Within the past decade, the tools of molecular biology have begun to provide a sophisticated evaluation of spaceflight-associated stress and the genetic responses that accompany metabolic adaptation to spaceflight.

  8. Spaceflight and clinorotation cause cytoskeleton and mitochondria changes and increases in apoptosis in cultured cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Lewis, M. L.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2001-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex network of fibers that is sensitive to environmental factors including microgravity and altered gravitational forces. Cellular functions such as transport of cell organelles depend on cytoskeletal integrity; regulation of cytoskeletal activity plays a role in cell maintenance, cell division, and apoptosis. Here we report cytoskeletal and mitochondria alterations in cultured human lymphocyte (Jurkat) cells after exposure to spaceflight and in insect cells of Drosophila melanogaster (Schneider S-1) after exposure to conditions created by clinostat rotation. Jurkat cells were flown on the space shuttle in Biorack cassettes while Schneider S-1 cells were exposed to altered gravity forces as produced by clinostat rotation. The effects of both treatments were similar in the different cell types. Fifty percent of cells displayed effects on the microtubule network in both cell lines. Under these experimental conditions mitochondria clustering and morphological alterations of mitochondrial cristae was observed to various degrees after 4 and 48 hours of culture. Jurkat cells underwent cell divisions during exposure to spaceflight but a large number of apoptotic cells was also observed. Similar results were obtained in Schneider S-1 cells cultured under clinostat rotation. Both cell lines displayed mitochondria abnormalities and mitochondria clustering toward one side of the cells which is interpreted to be the result of microtubule disruption and failure of mitochondria transport along microtubules. The number of mitochondria was increased in cells exposed to altered gravity while cristae morphology was severely affected indicating altered mitochondria function. These results show that spaceflight as well as altered gravity produced by clinostat rotation affects microtubule and mitochondria organization and results in increases in apoptosis. Grant numbers: NAG 10-0224, NAG2-985. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emily M; Yoshida, Miya C; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-03-15

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  10. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emily M.; Yoshida, Miya C.; Candelario, Tara Lynne T.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  11. Effect Of Spaceflight On Microbial Gene Expression And Virulence: Preliminary Results From Microbe Payload Flown On-Board STS-115

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; HonerzuBentrup, K,; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Ott, C. M.; Nelman-Gonzalez M.; Schurr, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stodieck, L.; Hing, S.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson

  12. Adaptation of the Skeletal System during Long-duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Lang, Thomas F.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Vico, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    exceeds spaceflight exposure but for which the restoration of whole bone strength remains an open issue and may involve structural alteration; and 4. Display risk factors for bone loss -- such as the negative calcium balance and down-regulated calcium-regulating hormones in response to bone atrophy -- that can be compounded by the constraints of conducting mission operations (inability to provide essential nutrients and vitamins). The full characterization of the skeletal response to mechanical unloading in space is not complete. In particular, countermeasures used to date have been inadequate and it is not yet known whether more appropriate countermeasures can prevent the changes in bone that have been found in previous flights, knowledge gaps related to the effects of prolonged (greater than or equal to 6 months) space exposure and to partial gravity environments are substantial, and longitudinal measurements on crew members after spaceflight are required to assess the full impact on skeletal recovery.

  13. Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This symposium reflects on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, its role over the next four decades and beyond. The topics include: 1) Perspectives on the Past Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; 2) The Experience of Spaceflight; 3) Perspectives on the Next Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; and 4) The International Space Station and the Future of Human Spaceflight.

  14. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance in Astronants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2014-01-01

    1. Project Overview Visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) is a spaceflight-associated medical condition affecting at least a third of American astronauts who have flown International Space Station (ISS) missions. VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures. In some astronauts, eye-related changes do not revert back to the preflight state upon return to Earth. Our team will study some of the possible causes for this syndrome. This will be achieved by reviewing previous astronaut data for factors that may predispose astronauts to higher rates of developing this syndrome or greater severity of symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct 3 separate experiments that will characterize vessels in the head and neck and measure the effects of the experimental conditions on ocular structures and function. 2. Technical Summary The primary objective of this study is to determine whether vascular compliance is altered by spaceflight and whether such adaptations are related to the incidence of the VIIP. In particular, we will measure ocular parameters and vascular compliance in vessels of the head and neck in astronauts who have no spaceflight experience (Ground), in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight (Flight), and in bed rest subjects with conditions similar to spaceflight (Bed Rest). Additionally, we will analyze astronaut data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) archives to determine which factors might be predictive of the development of VIIP (Data Mining). The project will be conducted in four separate, but related parts. Hypothesis The central hypothesis of this proposal is that exposure to the spaceflight environment aboard the ISS may lead to development of the VIIP syndrome (increased intracranial pressure and impaired visual acuity) and that this may be related to alterations in venous and/or arterial compliance in the head and neck. Specific Aims 1. To determine whether

  15. Hydrocortisone and ACTH levels in manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Campbell, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    The plasma hydrocortisone, plasma ACTH, and urinary hydrocortisone values were recorded for each man of the crews of Apollo flights eight through fifteen, 30, 14, and 5 days before flight, immediately after spaceflight recovery, and on future days until the return of most variables to preflight values. The plasma and urinary preflight hydrocortisone values were significantly higher than the postflight values. This result is discussed in terms of three possible explanations: (1) the adrenal-cortical function is suppressed during spaceflight; (2) the activity in flight may amount to stressful exercise, which tests have shown can cause a decrease in plasma adrenocortical hormones; and (3) the in-flight work-rest cycles may be such as to affect the circadian periodicity of the pituitary-adrenal function.

  16. Spaceflight osteoporosis: current state and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, R; Nicole, L; Guido, A; Pizzol, D

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the established major consequences of long-duration spaceflights in astronauts seriously undermining their health after their returning on Earth. Indeed, astronauts typically lose more bone mass during one month than postmenopausal women on Earth lose in one year. To date, countermeasures mainly consist in exercise and supplementation while pharmacological treatment as those used in postmenopausal women are not routine. However, it is evident that exercise and supplementation alone are not enough to maintain bone homeostasis. In this paper we describe the current countermeasures for bone loss during long-term spaceflight, review the modern treatment which are successfully employed to prevent osteoporosis on Earth and that could be quickly used also for astronauts and finally focus on the recent cellular and molecular understanding of bone homeostasis which might provide the basis for the development of future targeted therapies. PMID:26494042

  17. Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

    1982-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

  18. Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.

    PubMed

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible. PMID:26796759

  19. Cosmos 1129 - Spaceflight and bone changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1980-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during spaceflight were determined to be a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, and a decreased trabecular bone volume and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  20. Response of carausius morosus to spaceflight environment

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, G.; Bucker, H.; Facius, R.; Horneck, G. ); Ruther, W. ); Beaujean, R. ); Heinrich, W. )

    1989-05-15

    Already during the early biosatellite program, a synergistic action of radiation and spaceflight factors---probably microgravity---was observed in disturbances of development of Dropsophila larvae, such as chromosome translocations and body anomalies. Radiation was applied by an onboard source of gamma-radiation. The synergism was supposed to be due to an increase in chromosome breakage followed by a loss or exchange of genetic information.

  1. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length) was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting that other tropisms (such as

  2. Presyncopal/Non-Presyncopal Outcomes of Post Spaceflight Stand Tests are Consistent from Flight to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. S.; Meck, J. V.

    2004-01-01

    The overall prevalence of orthostatic hypotension after short duration (6-18 d) spaceflight is 20% with existing countermeasures. However, it is not known if the outcomes of stand tests for orthostatic tolerance are consistent within individuals on subsequent flights, or if first time fliers are more (or less) likely to experience orthostatic hypotension and presyncope than are veteran astronauts. Fifty astronauts were studied retrospectively. Stand test data, which had been collected before and after spaceflight, were compared from at least two flights for each astronaut. For twenty-five of these astronauts, their first flight in this database was also their first time to fly into space. For the remaining 25, their first flight in this database was their second, third or fourth flight, as data were available. No subject became presyncopal during preflight testing. Of the 50 subjects, 45 (90%) had the same outcome on their first and second fligh ts of this study. Of 14 subjects on whom we had data from a third mission, 12 had the same stand test outcome on all three flights (86% same outcome across three flights). There was no correlation between flight duration and orthostatic tolerance (r = 0.39). These data support the idea that astronauts are predisposed to orthostatic tolerance/intolerance after spaceflight and that this predisposition is not altered by subsequent flights. Flight durations within this data set did not alter the likelihood of orthostatic intolerance and rookie fliers were no more likely to experience orthostatic intolerance than were veteran astronauts.

  3. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  4. Urolithiasis and Genitourinary Systems Issues for Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Pietryzk, Robert; Sams, C.; Stepaniak, Phillip; Whitson, P.

    2008-09-01

    Genitourinary medical events have shown to be an issue for both short duration and long duration spaceflight, and are anticipated to also be a potential issue for future exploration missions as well. This is based on actual historical pre-, in- and post-flight medical events, as well as assessment of what future flight challenges lay ahead. For this study, retrospective record review, as well as prospective studies of ultrasound and contingency management procedure development, and oral urinary stone prophylaxis were conducted. Results showed that the incidence of prior urinary calculi in- and post-flight was a risk driver for development of on-orbit countermeasures, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic methods for a possible in-flight calculus contingency. Oral potassium citrate and bisphosphonate preparations show promise for prophylaxis in spaceflight risk reduction. We conclude that a properly developed approach of selection, monitoring, and preventive medicine with effective countermeasures, along with early imaging diagnosis and minimally-invasive contingency intervention, should prevent issues such as urinary calculi from having a significant mission impact for exploration-class spaceflight.

  5. CCSDS - Advancing Spaceflight Technology for International Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, Mike; Kiely, Aaron; Yeh, Penshu; Gerner, Jean-Luc; Calzolari, Gian-Paolo; Gifford, Kevin; Merri, Mario; Weiss, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has been developing data and communications standards since 1982, with the objective of providing interoperability for enabling international collaboration for spaceflight missions. As data and communications technology has advanced, CCSDS has progressed to capitalize on existing products when available and suitable for spaceflight, and to develop innovative new approaches when available products fail. The current scope of the CCSDS architecture spans the end-to-end data architecture of a spaceflight mission, with ongoing efforts to develop and standardize cutting-edge technology. This manuscript describes the overall architecture, the position of CCSDS in the standards and international mission community, and some CCSDS processes. It then highlights in detail several of the most interesting and critical technical areas in work right now, and how they support collaborative missions. Special topics include: Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), Asynchronous Message Service (AMS), Multispectral/Hyperspectral Data Compression (MHDC), Coding and Synchronization, Onboard Wireless, Spacecraft Monitor and Control, Navigation, Security, and Time Synchronization/Correlation. Broad international participation in development of CCSDS standards is encouraged.

  6. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  7. Spaceflight of HUVEC: An Integrated eXperiment- SPHINX Onboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versari, S.; Maier, J. A. M.; Norfini, A.; Zolesi, V.; Bradamante, S.

    2013-02-01

    The spaceflight orthostatic challenge can promote in astronauts inadequate cardiovascular responses defined as cardiovascular deconditioning. In particular, disturbance of endothelial functions are known to lead to altered vascular performances, being the endothelial cells crucial in the maintenance of the functional integrity of the vascular wall. In order to evaluate whether weightlessness affects endothelial functions, we designed, developed, and performed the experiment SPHINX - SPaceflight of HUVEC: an INtegrated eXperiment - where HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were selected as a macrovascular cell model system. SPHINX arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) onboard Progress 40P, and was processed inside Kubik 6 incubator for 7 days. At the end, all of the samples were suitably fixed and preserved at 6°C until return on Earth on Soyuz 23S.

  8. Effects of a 1-wk spaceflight on morphological and mechanical properties of growing bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, S. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Zernicke, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    The morphological and mechanical responses of tibia and humerus were assessed in growing male rats after a 1-wk spaceflight aboard NASA Spacelab 3. In contrast to flights of longer duration, changes in middiaphysial cross-sectional morphology were minimal. Inhibition of longitudinal growth was not found in the tibia but was apparent in the humerus. The normal age-related increase in tibial middiaphysial density was not observed in the flight animals. Three-point bending tests indicated that a 1-wk spaceflight impeded the maturation of bone strength and stiffness, with the effects more pronounced in the tibia than in the humerus. Material property alterations in bone thus overshadowed morphological factors in determining the bone's mechanical response. It is likely that deprivation of normal weight-bearing loads was a major factor contributing to the observed changes, but endocrine and other local factors must also be considered.

  9. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced T cell, granulocyte, NK and monocyte function have all been reported following both long and short duration spaceflight, however these data indicate crews are generally not experiencing inflammatory or adaptive immune activation during spaceflight. There appear to be varied individual crew responses, and specific relationships between cytokines and markers of iron status and muscle turnover that warrant further evaluation. Increases in growth factors and chemokines may indicate other types of adaptation occurring during spaceflight, such as attempts to overcome diminished immunocyte function.

  10. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Circadian Regulation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the regular environmental circadian cues in addition to stringent and demanding operational schedules are two main factors that undoubtedly impact sleep patterns and vigilant performance in the astronaut crews during spaceflight. Most research is focused on the behavioral aspects of the risk of circadian desynchronization, characterized by fatigue and health and performance decrement. A common countermeasure for circadian re-entrainment utilizes blue-green light to entrain the circadian clock and mitigate this risk. However, an effective countermeasure targeting the photoreceptor system requires that the basic circadian molecular machinery remains intact during spaceflight. The molecular clock consists of sets of proteins that perform different functions within the clock machinery: circadian oscillators (genes whose expression levels cycle during the day, keep the pass of cellular time and regulate downstream effector genes), the effector or output genes (those which impact the physiology of the tissue or organism), and the input genes (responsible for sensing the environmental cues that allow circadian entrainment). The main environmental cue is light. As opposed to the known photoreceptors (rods and cones), the non-visual light stimulus is received by a subset of the population of retinal ganglion cells called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) that express melanopsin (opsin 4 -Opn4-) as the photoreceptor. We hypothesize that spaceflight may affect ipRGC and melanopsin expression, which may be a contributing cause of circadian disruption during spaceflight. To answer this question, eyes from albino Balb/cJ mice aboard STS-133 were collected for histological analysis and gene expression profiling of the retina at 1 and 7 days after landing. Both vivarium and AEM (animal enclosure module) mice were used as ground controls. Opn4 expression was analyzed by real time RT/qPCR and retinal sections were stained for Opn4

  12. Sleep Environment Recommendations for Future Spaceflight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin; Caddick, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence demonstrates that astronauts experience sleep loss and circadian desynchronization during spaceflight. Ground-based evidence demonstrates that these conditions lead to reduced performance, increased risk of injuries and accidents and short and long-term health consequences. Many of the factors contributing to these conditions relate to the habitability of the sleep environment. Noise, inadequate temperature and airflow, and inappropriate lighting and light pollution have each been associated with sleep loss and circadian misalignment during spaceflight operations and on Earth. As NASA prepares to send astronauts on long-duration, deep space missions, it is critical that the habitability of the sleep environment provide adequate mitigations for potential sleep disruptors. We conducted a comprehensive literature review summarizing optimal sleep hygiene parameters for lighting, temperature, airflow, humidity, comfort, intermittent and erratic sounds, and privacy and security in the sleep environment. We reviewed the design and use of sleep environments in a wide range of cohorts including among aquanauts, expeditioners, pilots, military personnel and ship operators. We also reviewed the specifications and sleep quality data arising from every NASA spaceflight mission, beginning with Gemini. Finally, we conducted structured interviews with individuals experienced in sleeping in non-traditional spaces including oilrig workers, Navy personnel, astronauts, and expeditioners. We also interviewed the engineers responsible for the design of the sleeping quarters presently deployed on the International Space Station. We found that the optimal sleep environment is cool, dark, quiet, and is perceived as safe and private. There are wide individual differences in the preferred sleep environment; therefore modifiable sleeping compartments are necessary to ensure all crewmembers are able to select personalized configurations for optimal sleep. A sub-optimal sleep

  13. Altered expression of the CCN genes in the lungs of mice in response to cigarette smoke exposure and viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Fabien; Thibault, Virginie C; Kearley, Jennifer; Petit-Courty, Agnès; Vallet, Amandine; Guillon, Antoine; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Humbles, Alison A; Courty, Yves

    2016-07-15

    The CCN proteins are key signaling and regulatory molecules involved in many biological functions and contribute to malignant and non-malignant lung diseases. Despite the high morbidity and mortality of the lung respiratory infectious diseases, there is very little data related to the expression of the CCNs during infection. We investigated in mice the pulmonary mRNA expression levels of five CCNs (1 to 5) in response to influenza A virus (IAV) and bacterial agents (Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)). IAV, NTHi, LPS or LTA were instilled intranasally into mice. Mice were also exposed for 4days or 8weeks to cigarette smoke alone or prior infection to IAV in order to determine if CS modifies the CCN response to a viral infection. All challenges induced a robust inflammation. The mRNA expression of CCN1, CCN2 and CCN3 was decreased after short exposure to CS whereas prolonged exposure altered the expression of CCN1, CCN3 and CCN4. Influenza A virus infection increased CCN1, 2, 4 and 5 mRNA levels but expression of CCN3 was significantly decreased. Acute CS exposure prior infection had little effect on the expression of CCN genes but prolonged exposure abolished the IAV-dependent induction. Treatment with LPS or LTA and infection with NTHi revealed that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria rapidly modulate the expression of the CCN genes. Our findings reveal that several triggers of lung inflammation influence differently the CCN genes. CCN3 deserves special attention since its mRNA expression is decreased by all the triggers studied. PMID:27080955

  14. The Ethics of Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoloth, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

  15. Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

  16. Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone loss is a well-documented change during and after long-duration spaceflight. Many types of countermeasures to bone loss have been proposed, including vitamin K supplementation. The objective of this series of studies was to measure change in vitamin K status in response to microgravity under a ...

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Circadian Regulation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, S. B.; Boyle, R.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of both vertebrates and invertebrates follows internal rhythms coordinated in phase with the 24-hour daily light cycle. This circadian clock is governed by a central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. However, peripheral circadian clocks or oscillators have been identified in most tissues. How the central and peripheral oscillators are synchronized is still being elucidated. Light is the main environmental cue that entrains the circadian clock. Under the absence of a light stimulus, the clock continues its oscillation in a free-running condition. In general, three functional compartments of the circadian clock are defined. The vertebrate retina contains endogenous clocks that control many aspects of retinal physiology, including retinal sensitivity to light, neurohormone synthesis (melatonin and dopamine), rod disk shedding, signalling pathways and gene expression. Neurons with putative local circadian rhythm generation are found among all the major neuron populations in the mammalian retina. In the mouse, clock genes and function are more localized to the inner retinal and ganglion cell layers. The photoreceptor, however, secrete melatonin which may still serve a an important circadian signal. The reception and transmission of the non-visual photic stimulus resides in a small subpopulation (1-3%) or retinal ganglion cells (RGC) that express the pigment melanopsin (Opn4) and are called intrisically photoreceptive RGC (ipRGC). Melanopsin peak absorption is at 420 nm and all the axons of the ipRGC reach the SCN. A common countermeasure for circadian re-entrainment utilizes blue-green light to entrain the circadian clock and mitigate the risk of fatigue and health and performance decrement due to circadian rhythm disruption. However, an effective countermeasure targeting the photoreceptor system requires that the basic circadian molecular machinery remains intact during spaceflight. We hypothesize that spaceflight may affect ip

  18. Summary of biological spaceflight experiments with cells.

    PubMed

    Dickson, K J

    1991-07-01

    Numerous biological experiments with cells have been conducted in space, and the importance of these experiments and this area of study is continually becoming evident. This contribution is a compilation of available information about spaceflight experiments with cells for the purpose of providing a single source of information for those interested in space gravitational cell biology. Experiments focused on a study of the effects of gravity and its absence on cells, cell function, and basic cellular processes have been included. Experiments include those involving viruses, bacteriophage, unicellular organisms, lower fungi, and animal and plant cell and tissue cultures, but exclude experiments with cells that were carried on a flight as part of a whole organism and later removed for study, and experiments with fertilized eggs. In addition, experiments in biotechnology, in which the microgravity environment is employed to study cell purification, cell fusion, protein crystallization, and similar processes, have not been included. Spaceflight experiments conducted by scientists from the U.S., U.S.S.R., and other countries and flown onboard sounding rockets (TEXUS, MAXUS, Consort), biosatellites (Biosatellite II, Cosmos), and various crewed spacecraft including the space shuttle (STS) and Soyuz, and space stations (Salyut, Mir) have been included, as well as high altitude balloon flights. Balloon flights are not spaceflights but can and are used as controls for the effects of space radiation, since organisms carried on balloons may be exposed to some of the same radiation as those taken into space, yet continue to be exposed to Earth's gravitational force. Parabolic flights on aircraft during which periods of microgravity of less than a minute are achieved have arbitrarily been excluded, because even though numerous experiments have been conducted, few results have been published. PMID:11537177

  19. Spaceflight Nutrition Research: Platforms and Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding human adaptation to weightlessness requires research in either the true microgravity environment or iii a ground-based model. Over the years, many flight platforms have been available, and many ground models have emerged for both human and animal studies of the effects of spaceflight on physiology. In this review, we provide a brief description of these models and the main points to be considered when choosing a model. We do not intend to provide a comprehensive overview of each platform or model, but rather to provide the reader with an overview of the options available for space nutrition research, and the relative merits and/or drawbacks of each.

  20. Calcium and Bone Metabolism During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to understand and counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after space station or exploration missions lasting months or years, respectively. Until its deorbit in 2001 , the Mir Space Station provided a valuable platform for long-duration space missions and life sciences research. Long-duration flights are critical for studying bone loss, as the 2- to 3-week Space Shuttle flights are not long enough to detect changes in bone mass. This review will describe human spaceflight data, focusing on biochemical surrogates of bone and calcium metabolism. This subject has been reviewed previously. 1-

  1. Energy metabolism of Macaca mulatta during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Stein, T. P.; Dotsenko, M. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The mean daily energy expenditure rates of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined during spaceflight on the joint U.S./Russian Bion 11 mission by the doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H218O) method. Control values were obtained from two studies performed under flight-like conditions (n = 4). The mean inflight energy expenditure for the two Bion 11 monkeys was 81.3 kcal/kg/day, which was higher than that seen previously. The average energy expenditure (77.6 +/- 4.4 kcal/kg/day) for the four ground control monkeys was slightly lower than had been measured previously.

  2. Living aloft: Human requirements for extended spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Akins, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    Human psychological and social adjustment to space is investigated. Studies and experiences bearing on human performance capability, psychological well being, and social organization, as they relate to space, were identified and assessed, and suggestions offered as to where further research could ease the Earth/space transition. Special emphasis was given to the variables of crew size, crew diversity, and mission duration, all of which can be expected to increase in future spaceflight. By providing a conceptual framework in which issues and related information can be integrated, the hope is to aid in discovering those conditions under which future space travelers can flourish.

  3. Oxidant damage during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Leskiw, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess oxidant damage during and after spaceflight and to compare the results against bed rest with 6 degrees head-down tilt. We measured the urinary excretion of the F(2) isoprostane, 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OH DG) before, during, and after long-duration spaceflight (4-9 mo) on the Russian space station MIR, short-duration spaceflight on the shuttle, and 17 days of bed rest. Sample collections on MIR were obtained between 88 and 186 days in orbit. 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and 8-OH DG are markers for oxidative damage to membrane lipids and DNA, respectively. Data are mean +/- SE. On MIR, isoprostane levels were decreased inflight (96. 9 +/- 11.6 vs. 76.7 +/- 14.9 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05, n = 6) due to decreased dietary intake secondary to impaired thermoregulation. Isoprostane excretion was increased postflight (245.7 +/- 55.8 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.01). 8-OH DG excretion was unchanged with spaceflight and increased postflight (269 +/- 84 vs 442 +/- 180 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). On the shuttle, 8-OH DG excretion was unchanged in- and postflight, but 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) excretion was decreased inflight (15.6 +/- 4.3 vs 8.0 +/- 2.7 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). No changes were found with bed rest, but 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) was increased during the recovery phase (48.9 +/- 23.0 vs 65.4 +/- 28.3 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). The changes in isoprostane production were attributed to decreased production of oxygen radicals from the electron transport chain due to the reduced energy intake inflight. The postflight increases in the excretion of the products of oxidative damage were attributed to a combination of an increase in metabolic activity and the loss of some host antioxidant defenses inflight. We conclude that 1) oxidative damage was decreased inflight, and 2) oxidative damage was increased postflight.

  4. Human Spaceflight and American Society: The Record So Far

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a look at the historical Apollo Program and it's comparisons to NASA's human spaceflight program today. The author gives three examples of how audacity began with the Apollo Program and explains how human spaceflight must continue with this audacity to do new things and take on large missions.

  5. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  6. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  7. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Prolactin Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Avery, L.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental modification of rat pituitary prolactin cell function during and after spaceflight. This study was done to evaluate the effects of microgravity on prolactin (PRL) cells of the male rat pituitary gland. We used the identical passive closed-vial cell culture system that was described for the culture of growth hormone cells (W C. Hymer, R. E. Grindeland, T. Salada, P. Nye, E. Grossman, and R Lane). After an 8-day spaceflight, all flight media (containing released PRL), as well as extracts (containing intracellular PRL), contained significantly lower amounts of immunoreactive PRL than their corresponding ground control samples. On the other hand, these same samples, when assessed for their biological activities by two different in vitro lymphocyte assays, yielded disparate results that may reflect posttranslational modifications to the hormone molecule. Other data showed that: (1) the apparent molecular weights of released PRL molecules were not altered by microgravity; but (2) the region from which the PRL cells came (dorsal or ventral) made a significant difference in the amount and activity of PRL released from the flight cells. Because there is much current interest in the role that PRL may play in the regulation of the immune system and because changes in both cellular and humoral immunity accompany spaceflight, this study could help define future microgravity research in this area.

  8. Effect of spaceflight on the non-weight-bearing bones of rat skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Russell, J. E.; Winter, F.; Tran Van, P.; Vignery, A.; Baron, R.; Rosenberg, G. D.; Walker, W. V.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the integrated growth and remodeling of nonweight-bearing bones (the mandibles, teeth, and ribs) were studied. Rats prelabeled with tetracycline to mark the surfaces of bone and tooth formation were subjected to spaceflight conditions for 18.5 days, followed by further injections of tetracycline on days 6 and 29 postflight.Results show that spaceflight conditions did not alter the rate of periosteal bone formation in the ribs and regions of the mandibles covered by masticatory muscles, although bone formation-calcification rates were found to be impaired at those sites in the jaw that had no contiguous muscle (molar region). The remodeling activity on the alveolar bone around the buccal roots of the molar teeth was found to be significantly reduced. While total Ca, P, and hydroxyproline concentrations in the jaws, incisors, and ribs were normal after spaceflight, it was determined that weightless conditions caused a delay in the maturation of bone mineral and matrix in the jaws. These anomalies were found to be corrected by 29 days postflight. These results indicate that most of the nonweight-bearing bones of the rat skeleton are at risk to the effects of weightlessness.

  9. Research on sleep, circadian rhythms and aging - Applications to manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Chiasera, August J.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    1991-01-01

    Disorders of sleep and circadian rhythmicity are characteristic of both advancing age and manned spaceflight. Sleep fragmentation, reduced nocturnal sleep tendency and sleep efficiency, reduced daytime alertness, and increased daytime napping are common to both of these conditions. Recent research on the pathophysiology and treatment of disrupted sleep in older people has led to a better understanding of how the human circadian pacemaker regulates the timing of the daily sleep-wake cycle and how it responds to the periodic changes in the light-dark cycle to which we are ordinarily exposed. These findings have led to new treatments for some of the sleep disorders common to older individuals, using carefully timed exposure to bright light and darkness to manipulate the phase and/or amplitude of the circadian timing system. These insights and treatment approaches have direct applications in the design of countermeasures allowing astronauts to overcome some of the challenges which manned spaceflight poses for the human circadian timing system. We have conducted an operational feasibility study on the use of scheduled exposure to bright light and darkness prior to launch in order to facilitate adaptation of the circadian system of a NASA Space Shuttle crew to the altered sleep-wake schedule required for their mission. The results of this study illustrate how an understanding of the properties of the human circadian timing system and the consequences of circadian disruption can be applied to manned spaceflight.

  10. Raman spectroscopy of murine bone in response to simulated spaceflight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandair, Gurjit S.; Bateman, Ted A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Astronauts exposed to spaceflight conditions can lose 1-2% of their bone mineral density per month from the weight-bearing portions of the skeletal system. Low bone mineral density, termed osteopenia, is the result of decreased bone formation and/or increased bone resorption. In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used to examine if the physicochemical composition of murine femurs is altered in response to simulated spaceflight conditions (hindlimb suspension). Female C57BL/6J mice, aged 53 days, were divided into ground control and simulated spaceflight groups for a period of 12 days, modeling the experiment profile of mice flown on Space Shuttle flight STS-108. After the study, the mice were sacrificed and femur specimens harvested. Mid-diaphysis sections were probed using near-infrared Raman microscopy. Spectra were collected at various anatomical sites (anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior quadrants) and/or cortical locations (periosteal, midosteal, and endosteal). Chemometric recovery of spectra was employed to reduce signal contributions from the epoxy embedding agent. Mean values for mineralization, carbonation, crystallinity, and other parameters associated with the matrix were estimated. Correlations between mineralization and carbonation were observed, despite the small absolute changes between the two groups. We present more detailed analysis of this data and comment on the prospects for Raman spectroscopic evaluation of bone quality in hindlimb suspended (HLS) specimens.

  11. Reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus in astronauts during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Tyring, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 71 astronauts was investigated, using polymerase chain reaction. A significantly greater (P<.0001) shedding frequency was found in urine samples from astronauts before spaceflight (10.6%) than in urine from the healthy control subject group (1.2%). Two of 4 astronauts studied during spaceflight shed CMV in urine. A significant increase (P<.0001) in CMV antibody titer, compared with baseline values, was also found 10 days before spaceflight. CMV antibody titer was further increased (P<.001) 3 days after landing, compared with 10 days before the mission. Significant increases in stress hormones were also found after landing. These results demonstrate that CMV reactivation occurred in astronauts before spaceflight and indicate that CMV may further reactivate during spaceflight.

  12. Differences in fungal and bacterial physiology alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling: synthesizing effects of microbial community structure using the Fungi and Bacteria (FAB) model. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C. V.; Waring, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    Most biogeochemical models of soil carbon and nitrogen cycling include a simplified representation of the soil microbial community as a single pool, despite good evidence that shifts in the composition or relative abundance of microbial taxa can affect process rates. Incorporating a more realistic depiction of the microbial community in these models may increase their predictive accuracy, but this must be balanced against the feasibility of modeling the enormous diversity present in soil. We propose that explicitly including two major microbial functional groups with distinct physiologies, fungi and bacteria, will improve model predictions. To this end, we created the fungi and bacteria (FAB) model, building off previous enzyme-driven biogeochemical models that explicitly represent microbial physiology. We compared this model to a complementary biogeochemical model that does not include microbial community structure (';single-pool'). We also performed a cross-ecosystem meta-analysis of fungi-to-bacteria ratios to determine if model predictions of community structure matched empirical data. There were large differences in process rates and pool sizes between the single-pool and FAB models. In the FAB model, inorganic N pools were reduced by 5-95% depending on the soil C:N ratio due to bacterial immobilization of fungal mineralization products. This nitrogen subsidy also increased microbial biomass at some C:N ratios. Although there were changes in some components of respiration, particularly overflow respiration, there was no net effect of community structure on total respiration fluxes. The FAB model predicted a breakpoint in the relationship between the ratio of fungi to bacteria and soil C:N, after which the fungi-to-bacteria ratio should begin to increase. Break-point analysis of the meta-analysis data set revealed a consistent pattern and matched the slope of the change in F:B with soil C:N, but not the precise breakpoint. We argue that including microbial

  13. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  14. Anesthesia during and Immediately after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seubert, Christoph N.; Price, Catherine; Janelle, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing presence of humans in space and long-duration manned missions to the Moon or Mars pose novel challenges to the delivery of medical care. Even now, cumulative person-days in space exceed 80 years and preparations for a return to the Moon are actively underway. Medical care after an emergent de-orbit or an accident during a non-nominal landing must not only address the specific disease or injuries but also the challenges posed by physiologic adaptations to microgravity. In the highly autonomous situation of a long-term space mission the situation is even more complex, because personnel, equipment, specific training, and clinical experience are by definition limited. To summarize our current knowledge specifically for anesthetic care during and immediately after spaceflight, we will review physiologic adaptations to microgravity with particular emphasis on the resulting anesthetic risks, discuss veterinary experiences with anesthesia in weightlessness or in animals adapted to microgravity, describe current research that pertains to anesthesia and spaceflight and point out unresolved questions for future investigation.

  15. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Sulzman, F M; Ferraro, J S; Fuller, C A; Moore-Ede, M C; Klimovitsky, V; Magedov, V; Alpatov, A M

    1992-03-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer. PMID:1523235

  16. A NASA Applied Spaceflight Environments Office Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Xapsos, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is launching a bold and ambitious new space initiative. A significant part of this new initiative includes exploration of new worlds, the development of more innovative technologies, and expansion our presence in the solar system. A common theme to this initiative is the exploration of space beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). As currently organized, NASA does not have an Agency-level office that provides coordination of space environment research and development. This has contributed to the formation of a gap between spaceflight environments knowledge and the application of this knowledge for multi-program use and for use outside NASA. This paper outlines a concept to establish a NASA-level Applied Spaceflight Environments (ASE) office that will provide coordination and funding for sustained multi-program support in three technical areas that have demonstrated these needs through customer requests. These technical areas are natural environments characterization and modeling, materials and systems analysis and test, and operational space environments modeling. Additionally the ASE office will serve as an entry point of contact for external users who wish to take advantage of data and assets associated with space environments, including space weather. This paper will establish the need for the ASE, discuss a concept for organizational structure and outline the scope in the three technical areas.

  17. The Next Spaceflight Solar Irradiance Sensor: TSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; Richard, Erik

    2016-05-01

    The Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) will continue measurements of the solar irradiance with improved accuracies and stabilities over extant spaceflight instruments. The two TSIS solar-observing instruments include the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) for measuring total- and spectral- solar-irradiance, respectively. The former provides the net energy powering the Earth’s climate system while the latter helps attribute where that energy is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and surface. Both spaceflight instruments are assembled and being prepared for integration on the International Space Station. With operations commencing in late 2017, the TSIS is intended to overlap with NASA’s ongoing SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission, which launched in 2003 and contains the first versions of both the TIM and SIM instruments, as well as with the TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE), which began total solar irradiance measurements in 2013. We summarize the TSIS’s instrument improvements and intended solar-irradiance measurements.

  18. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Ferraro, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.; Klimovitsky, V.; Magedov, V.; Alpatov, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer.

  19. Antibody responses to bacteriophage phi X-174 in human subjects exposed to the antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, W. T.; Lugg, D. J.; Rosenblatt, H. M.; Nickolls, P. M.; Sharp, R. M.; Reuben, J. M.; Ochs, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that exposure to long-term spaceflight conditions (stress, isolation, sleep disruption, containment, microbial contamination, and solar radiation) or to ground-based models of spaceflight will alter human immune responses, but specific antibody responses have not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether exposure to the 8-month Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight would alter human antibody responses. METHODS: During the 1999 Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions, 11 adult study subjects at Casey, Antarctica, and 7 control subjects at Macquarie Island, sub-Antarctica, received primary and secondary immunizations with the T cell-dependent neoantigen bacteriophage phi X-174. Periodic plasma samples were analyzed for specific antibody function. RESULTS: All of the subjects from Casey, Antarctica, cleared bacteriophage phi X-174 normally by 1 week after primary immunization, and all had normal primary and secondary antibody responses, including immunologic memory amplification and switch from IgM to IgG antibody production. One subject showed a high normal pattern, and one subject had a low normal pattern. The control subjects from Macquarie Island also had normal immune responses to bacteriophage phi X-174. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support the hypothesis that de novo specific antibody responses of subjects become defective during the conditions of the Antarctic winter-over. Because the Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight lacks the important factors of microgravity and solar radiation, caution must be used in interpreting these data to anticipate normal antibody responses in long-term spaceflight.

  20. Increased postflight carotid artery stiffness and inflight insulin resistance resulting from 6-mo spaceflight in male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Richard L; Robertson, Andrew D; Arbeille, Philippe; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Rush, James W E; Fraser, Katelyn S; Greaves, Danielle K

    2016-03-01

    Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo. Carotid artery distensibility coefficient (P = 0.005) and β-stiffness index (P = 0.006) reflected 17-30% increases in arterial stiffness when measured within 38 h of return to Earth compared with preflight. Spaceflight-by-sex interaction effects were found with greater changes in β-stiffness index in women (P = 0.017), but greater changes in pulse wave transit time in men (P = 0.006). Several blood biomarkers were changed from preflight to inflight, including an increase in an index of insulin resistance (P < 0.001) with a spaceflight-by-sex term suggesting greater change in men (P = 0.034). Spaceflight-by-sex interactions for renin (P = 0.016) and aldosterone (P = 0.010) indicated greater increases in women than men. Six-month spaceflight caused increased arterial stiffness. Altered hydrostatic arterial pressure gradients as well as changes in insulin resistance and other biomarkers might have contributed to alterations in arterial properties, including sex differences between male and female astronauts. PMID:26747504

  1. Increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon in nutrient-rich aquatic systems stimulates carbon consumption but does not alter bacterial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Hornick, T.; Kayler, Z. E.; Bahr, A.; Zwirnmann, E.; Grossart, H.-P.; Premke, K.

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations - mainly of terrestrial origin - are increasing worldwide in inland waters. The biodegradability of the DOC varies depending on quantity and chemical quality. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main consumers of DOC and thus determine DOC temporal dynamics and availability for higher trophic levels. It is therefore crucial to understand the processes controlling the bacterial turnover of additional allochthonous and autochthonous DOC in aquatic systems. Our aim was to study bacterial carbon (C) turnover with respect to DOC quantity and chemical quality using both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources. We incubated a natural bacterial community with allochthonous C (13C-labeled beech leachate) and increased concentrations and pulses (intermittent occurrence of organic matter input) of autochthonous C (algae lysate). We then determined bacterial carbon consumption, activities, and community composition together with the carbon flow through bacteria using stable C isotopes. The chemical analysis of single sources revealed differences in aromaticity and fractions of low and high molecular weight substances (LMWS and HMWS, respectively) between allochthonous and autochthonous C sources. In parallel to these differences in chemical composition, we observed a higher availability of allochthonous C as evidenced by increased DOC consumption and bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE) when solely allochthonous C was provided. In treatments with mixed sources, rising concentrations of added autochthonous DOC resulted in a further, significant increase in bacterial DOC consumption from 52 to 68% when nutrients were not limiting. This rise was accompanied by a decrease in the humic substances (HS) fraction and an increase in bacterial biomass. Stable C isotope analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and respired dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supported a preferential assimilation of autochthonous C and respiration of the

  2. The Effect of Spaceflight on the Ultrastructure of the Cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.; Martinelli, Giorgio P.

    2003-01-01

    In weightlessness, astronauts and cosmonauts may experience postural illusions as well as motion sickness symptoms known as the space adaptation syndrome. Upon return to Earth, they have irregularities in posture and balance. The adaptation to microgravity and subsequent re-adaptation to Earth occurs over several days. At the cellular level, a process called neuronal plasticity may mediate this adaptation. The term plasticity refers to the flexibility and modifiability in the architecture and functions of the nervous system. In fact, plastic changes are thought to underlie not just behavioral adaptation, but also the more generalized phenomena of learning and memory. The goal of this experiment was to identify some of the structural alterations that occur in the rat brain during the sensory and motor adaptation to microgravity. One brain region where plasticity has been studied extensively is the cerebellar cortex-a structure thought to be critical for motor control, coordination, the timing of movements, and, most relevant to the present experiment, motor learning. Also, there are direct as well as indirect connections between projections from the gravity-sensing otolith organs and several subregions of the cerebellum. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the ultrastructural (the structure within the cell) architecture of rat cerebellar cortex occur during the early period of adaptation to microgravity, as the cerebellum adapts to the absence of the usual gravitational inputs. The results show ultrastructural evidence for neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system of adult rats after 24 hours of spaceflight. Qualitative studies conducted on tissue from the cerebellar cortex (specifically, the nodulus of the cerebellum) indicate that ultrastructural signs of plasticity are present in the cerebellar zones that receive input from the gravity-sensing organs in the inner ear (the otoliths). These changes are not observed in this region in cagematched

  3. Joint inflight biomedical experiments performed during the ASTP spaceflight. [bacteriological experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Rogers, T. D.; Brower, M. E.; Kropp, K.

    1976-01-01

    Two joint inflight biomedical experiments were conducted during the unique Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) spaceflight. One experiment evaluated rhythmicity of spore production of Streptomyces levoris. The other evaluated components of the infectious disease process by measuring alteration in: (1) the composition of the microbial population inhabiting USA and USSR crewmembers and spacecraft; (2) the ability of each crewmember's defense mechanism to resist infection; and (3) the ability of certain microorganisms to originate infections. These two experiments are described and the major results discussed.

  4. Modification of reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Musgrave, M. E.; Matthews, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    Reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. Columbia plants was investigated under spaceflight conditions on shuttle mission STS-51. Plants launched just prior to initiation of the reproductive phase developed flowers and siliques during the 10-d flight. Approximately 500 flowers were produced in total by the 12 plants in both the ground control and spaceflight material, and there was no significant difference in the number of flowers in each size class. The flower buds and siliques of the spaceflight plants were not morphologically different from the ground controls. Pollen viability tests immediately post-flight using fluorescein diacetate indicated that about 35% of the pollen was viable in the spaceflight material. Light-microscopy observations on this material showed that the female gametophytes also had developed normally to maturity. However, siliques from the spaceflight plants contained empty, shrunken ovules, and no evidence of pollen transfer to stigmatic papillae was found by light microscopy immediately post-flight or by scanning electron microscopy on fixed material. Short stamen length and indehiscent anthers were observed in the spaceflight material, and a film-like substance inside the anther that connected to the tapetum appeared to restrict the release of pollen from the anthers. These observations indicate that given appropriate growing conditions, early reproductive development in A. thaliana can occur normally under spaceflight conditions. On STS-51, reproductive development aborted due to obstacles in pollination or fertilization.

  5. Spaceflight affects postnatal development of the aortic wall in rats.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; O-ishi, Hirotaka; Katahira, Kiyoaki; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  6. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  7. Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Yates, B J; Kerman, I A

    1998-11-01

    Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors in the periphery. Recent studies have demonstrated that signals from vestibular otolith organs play an important role in regulating blood pressure during changes in posture in a 1-g environment. Because spaceflight results in plastic changes in the vestibular otolith organs and in the processing of inputs from otolith receptors, it is possible that another contributing factor to postflight orthostatic hypotension is alterations in the gain of vestibular influences on cardiovascular control. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, although controlled studies will be required to determine the relationship between changes in the vestibular system and orthostatic hypotension following exposure to microgravity. PMID:9795146

  8. Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, B. J.; Kerman, I. A.

    1998-01-01

    Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors in the periphery. Recent studies have demonstrated that signals from vestibular otolith organs play an important role in regulating blood pressure during changes in posture in a 1-g environment. Because spaceflight results in plastic changes in the vestibular otolith organs and in the processing of inputs from otolith receptors, it is possible that another contributing factor to postflight orthostatic hypotension is alterations in the gain of vestibular influences on cardiovascular control. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, although controlled studies will be required to determine the relationship between changes in the vestibular system and orthostatic hypotension following exposure to microgravity. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Virtual reality: Avatars in human spaceflight training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterlund, Jeffrey; Lawrence, Brad

    2012-02-01

    With the advancements in high spatial and temporal resolution graphics, along with advancements in 3D display capabilities to model, simulate, and analyze human-to-machine interfaces and interactions, the world of virtual environments is being used to develop everything from gaming, movie special affects and animations to the design of automobiles. The use of multiple object motion capture technology and digital human tools in aerospace has demonstrated to be a more cost effective alternative to the cost of physical prototypes, provides a more efficient, flexible and responsive environment to changes in the design and training, and provides early human factors considerations concerning the operation of a complex launch vehicle or spacecraft. United Space Alliance (USA) has deployed this technique and tool under Research and Development (R&D) activities on both spacecraft assembly and ground processing operations design and training on the Orion Crew Module. USA utilizes specialized products that were chosen based on functionality, including software and fixed based hardware (e.g., infrared and visible red cameras), along with cyber gloves to ensure fine motor dexterity of the hands. The key findings of the R&D were: mock-ups should be built to not obstruct cameras from markers being tracked; a mock-up toolkit be assembled to facilitate dynamic design changes; markers should be placed in accurate positions on humans and flight hardware to help with tracking; 3D models used in the virtual environment be striped of non-essential data; high computational capable workstations are required to handle the large model data sets; and Technology Interchange Meetings with vendors and other industries also utilizing virtual reality applications need to occur on a continual basis enabling USA to maintain its leading edge within this technology. Parameters of interest and benefit in human spaceflight simulation training that utilizes virtual reality technologies are to

  10. Review of Human Cognitive Performance in Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Bevan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Human space exploration is inherently hazardous, particularly for lon g duration (LD) missions (22 days or longer). Maintenance of cognitive functioning is essential, but flight environments pose numerous pote ntial risks to the brain and cognitive performance (eg, radiation, to xins, chronic stress, sleep deprivation, hypercarbia, fluid shifts, h ormone imbalances, and injury). There have been persistent anecdotal reports of cognitive deficits during missions, but an up?-to-date rev iew of the evidence for such changes has remained unavailable. Method s: We identified and reviewed English language publications found via electronic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, Inspec, the NASA Technical Report Server, and the Defense Technical Information Center, plus rec ursive searches of publication bibliographies. Search terms included the word cognition, cognitive, or performance along with spaceflight, flight, mission, or closely related terms. Results: Inter?-study variability precluded meta?-analysis. Some 32 published studies involving cognitive assessment during spaceflight were identified, involving a total of 110 participants (mean: 3.4 participants per study). The lo ngest?-duration study spanned 438 days, with six additional studies i nvolving flight durations of 90 days, and 11 more studies involved fl ight durations exceeding 21 days. The available evidence failed to st rongly support or refute the existence of cognitive deficits in LD sp aceflight, in part due to inadequate power or control conditions. Evi dence of increased variability in cognitive performance during spacef light, both within and between individuals, was common. Discussion: T hese results represent a negative finding based on small numbers of s ubjects for any given cognitive function. The increased variability within and (particularly) between individuals highlights the potential danger of generalizing from case studies. A mismatch therefore remain s between anecdotal reports describing

  11. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Woolley, Christine M; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O; Searles, Stephen C; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A; Ott, C Mark; Wilson, James W; Pierson, Duane L; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M; Hyman, Linda E; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  12. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  13. Spaceflight Enhances Cell Aggregation and Random Budding in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Christine M.; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O.; Searles, Stephen C.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Pierson, Duane L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M.; Hyman, Linda E.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans–induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  14. Psychosocial value of space simulation for extended spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.

    1997-01-01

    There have been over 60 studies of Earth-bound activities that can be viewed as simulations of manned spaceflight. These analogs have involved Antarctic and Arctic expeditions, submarines and submersible simulators, land-based simulators, and hypodynamia environments. None of these analogs has accounted for all the variables related to extended spaceflight (e.g., microgravity, long-duration, heterogeneous crews), and some of the stimulation conditions have been found to be more representative of space conditions than others. A number of psychosocial factors have emerged from the simulation literature that correspond to important issues that have been reported from space. Psychological factors include sleep disorders, alterations in time sense, transcendent experiences, demographic issues, career motivation, homesickness, and increased perceptual sensitivities. Psychiatric factors include anxiety, depression, psychosis, psychosomatic symptoms, emotional reactions related to mission stage, asthenia, and postflight personality, and marital problems. Finally, interpersonal factors include tension resulting from crew heterogeneity, decreased cohesion over time, need for privacy, and issues involving leadership roles and lines of authority. Since future space missions will usually involve heterogeneous crews working on complicated objectives over long periods of time, these features require further study. Socio-cultural factors affecting confined crews (e.g., language and dialect, cultural differences, gender biases) should be explored in order to minimize tension and sustain performance. Career motivation also needs to be examined for the purpose of improving crew cohesion and preventing subgrouping, scapegoating, and territorial behavior. Periods of monotony and reduced activity should be addressed in order to maintain morale, provide meaningful use of leisure time, and prevent negative consequences of low stimulation, such as asthenia and crew member withdrawal

  15. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this NASA Short-Duration Bioastronautics Investigation (SDBI) was to assess spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Many previous studies have investigated this phenomenon post-flight, and found altered distribution and function of the peripheral leukocyte populations. Alterations in cytokine production profiles have also been reported. Unfortunately, post-flight data may be altered by the stress associated with high-G re-entry and readaptation to unit gravity following deconditioning. Therefore, the current study collected blood and saliva samples from crewmembers immediately before landing, and returned those samples to Earth for terrestrial analysis. Assays include peripheral comprehensive immunophenotype, T cell function, cytokine profiles, viral-specific immunity, latent viral reactivation (EBV, CMV, VZV), and stress hormone measurements. A total of 18 short duration crewmembers completed the study and the final data will be presented.

  16. Technology assessment of human spaceflight - Combining philosophical and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, J.; Hoevelmann, G. H.

    1992-08-01

    A transutilitarian rationale is proposed for assessing human spaceflight that is based on objectives for these endeavors and ethical norms of conduct. Specific attention is given to: presupposed/tacit reasons for including man in spaceflight and the restricted notion of rational/justifiable activity. It is shown that economic rationale is insufficient and unsuitable as a means for assessing manned spaceflight, and transutilitarian objectives are compiled that contribute to the motivation for manned flight. The transutilitarian motivations include: pioneering uncharted territory, enhancing national prestige, establishing space-related autonomy, promoting international cooperation, and enhancing science and the quality of human life.

  17. Spaceflight payload design flight experience G-408

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgin, William W.; Looft, Fred J.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert; Dixon, Anthony G.; Roberti, Dino; Labonte, Robert; Moschini, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute's first payload of spaceflight experiments flew aboard Columbia, STS-40, during June of 1991 and culminated eight years of work by students and faculty. The Get Away Special (GAS) payload was installed on the GAS bridge assembly at the aft end of the cargo bay behind the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) laboratory. The Experiments were turned on by astronaut signal after reaching orbit and then functioned for 72 hours. Environmental and experimental measurements were recorded on three cassette tapes which, together with zeolite crystals grown on orbit, formed the basis of subsequent analyses. The experiments were developed over a number of years by undergraduate students meeting their project requirements for graduation. The experiments included zeolite crystal growth, fluid behavior, and microgravity acceleration measurement in addition to environmental data acquisition. Preparation also included structural design, thermal design, payload integration, and experiment control. All of the experiments functioned on orbit and the payload system performed within design estimates.

  18. Cerebrovascular autoregulation: lessons learned from spaceflight research.

    PubMed

    Blaber, Andrew P; Zuj, Kathryn A; Goswami, Nandu

    2013-08-01

    This review summarizes our current understanding of cerebral blood flow regulation with exposure to microgravity, outlines potential mechanisms associated with post-flight orthostatic intolerance, and proposes future directions for research and linkages with cerebrovascular disorders found in the general population. It encompasses research from cellular mechanisms (e.g. hind limb suspension: tissue, animal studies) to whole body analysis with respect to understanding human responses using space analogue studies (bed rest, parabolic flight) as well as data collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Recent evidence indicates that cerebrovascular autoregulation may be impaired in some astronauts leading to increased susceptibility to syncope upon return to a gravitational environment. The proposed review not only provides insights into the mechanisms of post-flight orthostatic intolerance, but also increases our understanding of the mechanisms associated with pathophysiological conditions (e.g. unexplained syncope) with clinical applications in relation to postural hypotension or intradialytic hypotension. PMID:23132388

  19. Dynamics of weight loss during prolonged spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Leonard, J. I.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Data from three Skylab flights lasting 28, 59, and 84 days are used to study changes in body composition occurring during extended spaceflight. The analysis includes pre- and postflight measurements used to compute lean body mass and body fat losses for an entire mission using previously accepted methods based on total body water, potassium, and density, and also includes the daily metabolic balances in order to provide an estimate of the time course of the changes in water, protein, and fat. The analytical approach is explained and the results presented, including a summary of changes in lean body mass and changes in weight loss and tissue components. It is concluded that little more than half of the weight loss observed during the missions can be attributed to loss in lean body mass, the remainder being derived from fat stores.

  20. Formation and vesiculation of biomembranes during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claassen, Dale E.; Van Twest, Jacqueline S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Shuttle flight, sounding rocket flight, and parabolic flight experiments demonstrate the formation of bilayer membrane vesicles (liposomes) in reduced gravity, following the dilution of detergent from detergent-phospholipid mixed micelles. The reduction in detergent concentration initiates assembly of bilayer membrane sheets, which are sensitive to solution disturbances. An increase in disturbances by forced dilution results in small diameter liposomes (less than 150 nm), in both ground and flight samples. In the absence of forced dilution, liposomes remain small at 1-g, but exhibit much larger diameters at 0-g (1000-2000 nm). Our spaceflight data reveal that membrane assembly and vesiculation are strongly influenced by gravity-induced solution disturbances (e.g., convection currents), which limit vesicle diameter.

  1. Artificial gravity for long duration spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the fundamental physical properties of gravitational and centrifugal forces, describes the physiological changes that result from long-term exposure to the nearly gravity-free environment of space, and explores the nature of these changes. The paper then cites currently employed and advanced techniques that can be used to prevent some of these changes. Following this review, the paper examines the potential use of artificial gravity as the ultimate technique to maintain terrestrial levels of physiological functioning in space, and indicates some of the critical studies that must be conducted and some of the trade-offs that must be made before artificial gravity can intelligently be used for long duration spaceflight.

  2. A broadbased actuator concept for spaceflight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    An electromechanical actuator is applicable to a variety of spaceflight requirements. Characterized by high torque and a small output step angle, the device is comprised of a coaxial, symmetrical arrangement in which a cup type harmonic drive is directly coupled to a pancake configuration drive motor. The motor, with its dual stator driving a common rotor, is one illustration of the concept of selective redundacy. Selective redundancy promotes the idea that redundancy, to be effective, must not compromise inherent design simplicity nor introduce new failure modes. The usefulness of the actuator is exemplified by its selection for a broad range of positioning and driving applications including TDRSS gimbal drives, Space Telescope deployment and latching machanisms, and Space Telescope secondary mirror drive, as well as others.

  3. Formation and vesiculation of biomembranes during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claasen, Dale E.; van Twest, Jacqueline S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-08-01

    Shuttle flight, sounding rocket flight, and parabolic flight experiments demonstrate the formation of bilayer membrane vesicles (liposomes) in reduced gravity, following the dilution of detergent from detergent-phospholipid mixed micelles. The reduction in detergent concentration initiates assembly of bilayer membrane sheets, which are sensitive to solution distrubances. An increase in distrubances by forced dilution results in small diameter liposomes (< 150 nm), in both ground and flight samples. In the absence of forced dilution, liposomes remain small at 1-g, but exhibit much larger diameters at 0-g (1000-2000 nm). Our spaceflight data reveal that membrane assembly and vesiculation are strongly influenced by gravity-induced solution disturbances (e.g., convection currents), which limit vesicle diameter.

  4. Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas P.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a 7-day spaceflight (aboard NASA's SL-3) on the size and the metabolism of single fibers from several rat muscles was investigated along with the specificity of these responses as related to the muscle type and the size of fibers. It was found that the loss of mass after flight was varied from 36 percent in the soleus to 15 percent in the extensor digitorum longus. Results of histochemical analyses showed that the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in muscles of flight-exposed rats was maintained at the control levels, whereas the alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was either maintained or increased. The analyses of the metabolic profiles of ATPase, SDH, and GPD indicated that, in some muscles, there was an increase in the poportion of fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.

  5. Therapeutic effectiveness of medications taken during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    1992-01-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness of medications during spaceflight is considered in light of extensive anecdotal and experimental evidence. Attention is given to a range of medications for space motion sickness, sleeplessness, and physical discomfort. About 70 individual cases are reviewed in which crewmembers used such medications as: (1) scopolamine hydrobromide, dextroamphetamine sulfate, and promethazine hydrochloride for motion sickness; (2) metoclopramide hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride for bowel motility; and (3) aspirin and acetaminophen for headache and back pain. The effectiveness of orally ingested medications for space motion sickness is shown to be very low, while promethazine hydrochloride is effective when administered intramuscularly. The medications for pain are shown to be generally effective, and the use of sleep-inducing medications is limited by potentially detrimental performance effects.

  6. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  7. Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillaman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight study analyzes risk management in large enterprises and how to effectively communicate risks across organizations. The Calysto Risk Management tool developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center's SharePoint team is used and referenced throughout the study. Calysto is a web-base tool built on Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The risk management process at NASA is examined and incorporated in the study. Using risk management standards from industry and specific organizations at the Kennedy Space Center, three methods of communicating and elevating risk are examined. Each method describes details of the effectiveness and plausibility of using the method in the Calysto Risk Management Tool. At the end of the study suggestions are made for future renditions of Calysto.

  8. An unprecedented alteration in mode of action of IsCT resulting its translocation into bacterial cytoplasm and inhibition of macromolecular syntheses.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jitendra K; Kathuria, Manoj; Kumar, Amit; Mitra, Kalyan; Ghosh, Jimut K

    2015-01-01

    IsCT, a 13-residue, non-cell-selective antimicrobial peptide is comprised of mostly hydrophobic residues and lesser cationic residues. Assuming that placement of an additional positive charge in the non-polar face of IsCT could reduce its hydrophobic interaction, resulting in its reduction of cytotoxicity, an analog, I9K-IsCT was designed. Two more analogs, namely, E7K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT, were designed to investigate the impact of positive charges in the polar face as well as polar and non-polar faces at a time. These amino acid substitutions resulted in a significant enhancement of therapeutic potential of IsCT. IsCT and E7K-IsCT seem to target bacterial membrane for their anti-bacterial activity. However, I9K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT inhibited nucleic acid and protein syntheses in tested E. coli without perturbing its membrane. This was further supported by the observation that NBD-IsCT localized onto bacterial membrane while NBD-labeled I9K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT translocated into bacterial cytoplasm. Interestingly, IsCT and E7K-IsCT were significantly helical while I9K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT were mostly unstructured with no helix content in presence of mammalian and bacterial membrane-mimetic lipid vesicles. Altogether, the results identify two novel cell-selective analogs of IsCT with new prototype amino acid sequences that can translocate into bacterial cytoplasm without any helical structure and inhibit macromolecular syntheses. PMID:25773522

  9. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID) occurs during spaceflight and may represent specific clinical risks for exploration-class missions. An appropriate ground analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation would offer a platform for ground-evaluation of various potential countermeasures. This study evaluated the NASA Undersea Mission Operations ( NEEMO ), consisting of 14 day undersea deployment at the Aquarius station, as an analog for SAID. Sixteen Aquanauts from missions NEEMO-12, 13 and 14 participated in the study. RESULTS Mid-mission alterations leukocyte distribution occurred, including granulocytosis and elevations in central-memory CD8+ T-cells. General T cell function was reduced during NEEMO missions in roughly 50% of subjects. Secreted cytokines profiles were evaluated following whole blood stimulation with CD3/CD28 (T cells) or LPS (monocytes). T cell production of IFNg, IL-5, IL-10, IL-2, TNFa and IL-6 were all reduced before and during the mission. Conversely, monocyte production of TNFa, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1b and IL-8 were elevated during mission, moreso at the MD-14 timepoint. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen and early antigen were increased in approximately 40% of the subjects. Changes in EBV tetramer-positive CD8+ T-cells exhibited a variable pattern. Antibodies against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) were marginally increased during the mission. Herpesvirus reactivation was determined by PCR. EBV viral load was generally elevated at L-6. Higher levels of salivary EBV were found during the NEEMO mission than before and after as well as than the healthy controls. No VZV or CMV was found in any pre, during and after NEEMO mission or control samples. Plasma cortisol was elevated at L-6. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, L-6 may be too near to mission start to be an appropriate baseline measurement. The general immune changes in leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production, virus specific

  10. Reduction in Dynamic Visual Acuity Reveals Gaze Control Changes Following Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris; Lawrence, Emily L.; Mulavara Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes adaptive changes in eye-head coordination that can lead to altered gaze control. This could affect postflight visual acuity during head and body motion. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in dynamic visual acuity after long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) data from 14 astro/cosmonauts were collected after long-duration (6 months) spaceflight. The difference in acuity between seated and walking conditions provided a metric of change in the subjects ability to maintain gaze fixation during self-motion. In each condition, a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm was used to display Landolt ring optotypes at a size that was near each subject s acuity threshold. Verbal responses regarding the orientation of the gap were recorded as the optotypes appeared sequentially on a computer display 4 meters away. During the walking trials, subjects walked at 6.4 km/h on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: A decrement in mean postflight DVA was found, with mean values returning to baseline within 1 week. The population mean showed a consistent improvement in DVA performance, but it was accompanied by high variability. A closer examination of the individual subject s recovery curves revealed that many did not follow a pattern of continuous improvement with each passing day. When adjusted on the basis of previous long-duration flight experience, the population mean shows a "bounce" in the re-adaptation curve. CONCLUSION: Gaze control during self-motion is altered following long-duration spaceflight and changes in postflight DVA performance indicate that vestibular re-adaptation may be more complex than a gradual return to normal.

  11. Dragon paves the way for new spaceflight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The success of the first private mission to the International Space Station (ISS) has opened up a new era in commercial spaceflight after SpaceX's Dragon capsule splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean on 31 May.

  12. The Effect of Spaceflight on Cartilage Cell Cycle and Differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Stephen B.; Stiner, Dalina; Telford, William G.

    2000-01-01

    In vivo studies have shown that spaceflight results in loss of bone and muscle. In an effort to understand the mechanisms of these changes, cell cultures of cartilage, bone and muscle have been subjected to spaceflight to study the microgravity effects on differentiated cells. However it now seems possible that the cell differentiation process itself may be the event(s) most affected by spaceflight. For example, osteoblast-like cells have been shown to have reduced cellular activity in microgravity due to an underdifferentiated state (Carmeliet, et al, 1997). And reduced human lymphocyte growth in spaceflight was related to increased apoptosis (Lewis, et al, 1998). Which brings us to the question of whether reduced cellular activity in space is due to an effect on the differentiated cell, an effect on the cell cycle and cell proliferation, or an effect on cell death. This question has not been specifically addressed on previous flights and was the question behind die present study.

  13. Responses of motor and sensory neurons of rodents to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    Spinal motoneurons innervating skeletal muscles comprised predominantly of high oxidative fibers, i.e. slow oxidative and fast oxidative glycolytic, have higher oxidative enzyme activities than motoneurons innervating skeletal muscles comprised primarily of low oxidative fibers, i.e. fast glycolytic. These findings suggest that there is a close relationship between the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of a motoneuron and of the muscle fibers that it innervates. Since some skeletal muscles become faster and less oxidative after 4-14 days of spaceflight, it might be expected that oxidative enzyme activities in some motoneurons also may decrease after spaceflight. In addition, there is significant muscular atrophy after even short spaceflights and, therefore, it may be expected that some motoneurons associated with these muscles also would atrophy. In the present paper, we examine the issue of whether spaceflight induces changes in the oxidative enzyme activity and/or size of spinal motoneurons.

  14. Spaceflight Safety on the North Coast of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Havenhill, Maria T.; Terlep, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    Spaceflight Safety (SFS) engineers at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) are responsible for evaluating the microgravity fluids and combustion experiments, payloads and facilities developed at NASA LeRC which are manifested for spaceflight on the Space Shuttle, the Russian space station Mir, and/or the International Space Station (ISS). An ongoing activity at NASA LeRC is the comprehensive training of its SFS engineers through the creation and use of safety tools and processes. Teams of SFS engineers worked on the development of an Internet website (containing a spaceflight safety knowledge database and electronic templates of safety products) and the establishment of a technical peer review process (known as the Safety Assurance for Lewis Spaceflight Activities (SALSA) review).

  15. Effect of spaceflight on periosteal bone formation in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for 18.5 days aboard the Soviet COSMOS 1129 biological satellite. Tetracycline was administered before and after spaceflight to label areas of bone formation. An inhibition of periosteal bone formation occurred during spaceflight in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, but this defect was corrected during the postflight period. The increased extent of arrest lines at these skeletal sites suggested that periosteal bone formation may have even ceased during spaceflight. The rib exhibited a small but nonsignificant decrease in periosteal bone formation. Endosteal bone resorption was not affected markedly by spaceflight conditions. The observed inhibition of periosteal bone formation may be a result of mechanical unloading, but endocrine factors cannot be ruled out.

  16. Artifically inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was inserted into the very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) Md5 bacterial artificial chromosome clone. The insertion site was nearly identical to the REV LTR that was naturally inserted into the JM/102W strain of MDV fo...

  17. The next phase of life-sciences spaceflight research

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, Timothy; Nemoto, Kanako; Hashizume, Toko; Mori, Chihiro; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Fukui, Keiji; Yamazaki, Takashi; Higashibata, Akira; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that the effectiveness of RNAi interference (RNAi) for inhibiting gene expression is maintained during spaceflight in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and argued for the biomedical importance of this finding. We also successfully utilized green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins to monitor changes in GPF localization during flight. Here we discuss potential applications of RNAi and GFP in spaceflight studies and the ramifications of these experiments for the future of space life-sciences research. PMID:22446523

  18. A model for plasma volume changes during short duration spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John E.

    1989-01-01

    It is well established that plasma volume decreases during spaceflight and simulated weightlessness (bedrest). The decrement in plasma volume is thought to contribute to the orthostatic intolerance that has been observed in some crew members following spaceflight. To date, no studies have evaluated the effectiveness of fluid countermeasures of varying osmolality in the restoration of plasma volume and orthostatic tolerance in a controlled study. The overall objectives of this project were to: (1) provide a model that would rapidly and safely produce a fluid loss comparable to that which occurs during short duration spaceflight; and (2) design a study that would determine the optimal drink solution to restore orthostatic tolerance and describe the mechanism(s) whereby orthostatic tolerance is restored. In summary, Lasix can be used as a way of simulating the plasma volume changes that occur during short duration spaceflight. The total loss of plasma is comparable to spaceflight. Lasix is fast acting, and has relatively few side effects. The present design for evaluating the optimal fluid countermeasures will have important implications in restoring orthostatic tolerance and function in the latter stages of spaceflight when it is essential for safe operation of the spacecraft.

  19. Effects of spaceflight and simulated weightlessness on longitudinal bone growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Zhang, M.; Evans, G. L.; Westerlind, K. C.; Cavolina, J. M.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    Indirect measurements have suggested that spaceflight impairs bone elongation in rats. To test this possibility, our laboratory measured, by the fluorochrome labeling technique, bone elongation that occurred during a spaceflight experiment. The longitudinal growth rate (LGR) in the tibia of rats in spaceflight experiments (Physiological Space Experiments 1, 3, and 4 and Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment 3) and in two models of skeletal unloading (hind-limb elevation and unilateral sciatic neurotomy) were calculated. The effects of an 11 day spaceflight on gene expression of cartilage matrix proteins in rat growth plates were also determined by northern analysis and are reported for the first time in this study. Measurements of longitudinal growth indicate that skeletal unloading generally did not affect LGR, regardless of age, strain, gender, duration of unloading, or method of unloading. There was, however, one exception with 34% suppression in LGR detected in slow-growing, ovariectomized rats skeletally unloaded for 8 days by hind-limb elevation. This detection of reduced LGR by hind-limb elevation is consistent with changes in steady-state mRNA levels for type II collagen (-33%) and for aggrecan (-53%) that were detected in rats unloaded by an 11 day spaceflight. The changes detected in gene expression raise concern that spaceflight may result in changes in the composition of extracellular matrix, which could have a negative impact on conversion of growth-plate cartilage into normal cancellous bone by endochondral ossification.

  20. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Barber, L.B.; Aiken, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  1. Fault Management Techniques in Human Spaceflight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hagan, Brian; Crocker, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses human spaceflight fault management operations. Fault detection and response capabilities available in current US human spaceflight programs Space Shuttle and International Space Station are described while emphasizing system design impacts on operational techniques and constraints. Preflight and inflight processes along with products used to anticipate, mitigate and respond to failures are introduced. Examples of operational products used to support failure responses are presented. Possible improvements in the state of the art, as well as prioritization and success criteria for their implementation are proposed. This paper describes how the architecture of a command and control system impacts operations in areas such as the required fault response times, automated vs. manual fault responses, use of workarounds, etc. The architecture includes the use of redundancy at the system and software function level, software capabilities, use of intelligent or autonomous systems, number and severity of software defects, etc. This in turn drives which Caution and Warning (C&W) events should be annunciated, C&W event classification, operator display designs, crew training, flight control team training, and procedure development. Other factors impacting operations are the complexity of a system, skills needed to understand and operate a system, and the use of commonality vs. optimized solutions for software and responses. Fault detection, annunciation, safing responses, and recovery capabilities are explored using real examples to uncover underlying philosophies and constraints. These factors directly impact operations in that the crew and flight control team need to understand what happened, why it happened, what the system is doing, and what, if any, corrective actions they need to perform. If a fault results in multiple C&W events, or if several faults occur simultaneously, the root cause(s) of the fault(s), as well as their vehicle-wide impacts, must be

  2. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  3. Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Steven J. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    At a May 1981 "Proseminar in Space History"held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in Washington, DC, historians came together to consider the state of the discipline of space history. It was an historic occasion. The community of scholars interested in the history of spaceflight was not large; previously, well-meaning but untrained aficionados consumed with artifacts had dominated the field, to the exclusion of the larger context. At a fundamental level, this proseminar represented a "declaration of independence" for what might be called the "new aerospace history." In retrospect, it may be interpreted as marking the rise of space history as a recognizable subdiscipline within the field of U.S. history. Bringing together a diverse collection of scholars to review the state of the art in space history, this proseminar helped in a fundamental manner to define the field and to chart a course for future research. Its participants set about the task of charting a course for collecting, preserving, and disseminating the history of space exploration within a larger context of space policy and technology. In large measure, the course charted by the participants in this 1981 proseminar aided in advancing a very successful agenda of historical research, writing, and understanding of space history. Not every research project has yielded acceptable results, nor can it be expected to do so, but the sum of the effort since 1981 has been impressive. The opportunities for both the exploration of space and for recording its history have been significant. Both endeavors are noble and aimed at the enhancement of humanity. Whither the history of spaceflight? Only time will tell. But there has been an emergent "new aerospace history" of which space history is a central part that moves beyond an overriding concern for the details of the artifact to emphasize the broader role of the spacecraft. More importantly, it emphasizes the whole technological

  4. RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuble, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this technology is to provide improved calibration and measurement sensitivity to the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) radiometer. While RF switches have been used in the past to calibrate microwave radiometers, the switch used on SMAP employs several techniques uniquely tailored to the instrument requirements and passive remote-sensing in general to improve radiometer performance. Measurement error and sensitivity are improved by employing techniques to reduce thermal gradients within the device, reduce insertion loss during antenna observations, increase insertion loss temporal stability, and increase rejection of radar and RFI (radio-frequency interference) signals during calibration. The two legs of the single-pole double-throw reference switch employ three PIN diodes per leg in a parallel-shunt configuration to minimize insertion loss and increase stability while exceeding rejection requirements at 1,413 MHz. The high-speed packaged diodes are selected to minimize junction capacitance and resistance while ensuring the parallel devices have very similar I-V curves. Switch rejection is improved by adding high-impedance quarter-wave tapers before and after the diodes, along with replacing the ground via of one diode per leg with an open circuit stub. Errors due to thermal gradients in the switch are reduced by embedding the 50-ohm reference load within the switch, along with using a 0.25-in. (approximately equal to 0.6-cm) aluminum prebacked substrate. Previous spaceflight microwave radiometers did not embed the reference load and thermocouple directly within the calibration switch. In doing so, the SMAP switch reduces error caused by thermal gradients between the load and switch. Thermal issues are further reduced by moving the custom, highspeed regulated driver circuit to a physically separate PWB (printed wiring board). Regarding RF performance, previous spaceflight reference switches have not employed high-impedance tapers to improve

  5. Neuroendocrine and immune system responses with spaceflights.

    PubMed

    Tipton, C M; Greenleaf, J E; Jackson, C G

    1996-08-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldosterone, and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flights data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  6. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  7. Review of primary spaceflight-induced and secondary reloading-induced changes in slow antigravity muscles of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, D. A.

    We have examined the light and electron microscopic properties of hindlimb muscles of rats flown in space for 1-2 weeks on Cosmos biosatellite flights 1887 and 2044 and Space Shuttle missions Spacelab-3, Spacelab Life Sciences-1 and Spacelab Life Sciences-2. Tissues were obtained both inflight and postflight permitting definition of primary microgravity-induced changes and secondary reentry and gravity reloading-induced alterations. Spaceflight causes atrophy and expression of fast fiber characteristics in slow antigravity muscles. The stresses of reentry and reloading reveal that atrophic muscles show increased susceptibility to interstitial edema and ischemic-anoxic necrosis as well as muscle fiber tearing with disruption of contractile proteins. These results demonstrate that the effects of spaceflight on skeletal muscle are multifaceted, and major changes occur both inflight and following return to Earth's gravity.

  8. Norepinephrine content in discrete brain areas and neurohypophysial vasopressin in rats after a 9-d spaceflight (SLS-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fareh, Jeannette; Cottet-Emard, Jean-Marie; Pequignot, Jean-Marc; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Viso, Michel; Vassaux, Didier; Gauquelin, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude

    1993-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) content in discrete brain areas and the vasopressin content in the neurohypophysial system were assessed in rats after a 9-d spaceflight and after a recovery period. The NE content in the locus coeruleus decreased significantly in spaceflight rats, but showed no difference between control and flight animals after a 9-d recovery. These findings were probably due to an acute stress undergone during landing. The NE content was unchanged in the A2 and A5 cell groups. In rats flown aboard SLS-1, the vasopressin content was increased in the posterior pituitary, and was significantly decreased in the hypothalamus. We conclude that the NE depletion in the locus coeruleus and the alteration in vasopressin release were consistent with an acute stress, likely occurring during and/or after landing. These changes tend to mask the actual neuroendocrine modifications caused by microgravity.

  9. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    The risk of visual impairment and elevated intracranial pressure as a result of low-earth orbit microgravity exposure has directed our attention and research efforts to the eye. While the alterations observed in astronauts returning from long duration missions include vision and neuroanatomical changes observed by non-invasive methods, other effects and subsequent tissue responses at the molecular and cellular level can only be studied by accessing the tissue itself. As a result of this need, several studies are currently taking place within the Human and Health Countermeasures Element (HHC) that use animal models for eye research. The rodent eye has many similarities to the human eye, and both rats and mice have historically been used as models of human eye disease, aiding in the identification of the disease genes, elucidation of mechanisms of disease, as well as in the assessment of therapeutic treatments. These studies attempt to answer two central questions in the etiology of possible vision alterations in the environment of space exploration missions. The first is: what effects and response mechanisms take place in the different eye structures at the cellular and molecular level? The second question is directed to elucidate the contribution of the various environmental stressors (radiation, nutrition, fluid shift) to these effects. Collaborative approaches with internal and external investigators have allowed performing these studies in a most cost-effective fashion, providing preliminary data and laying the bases for testing further hypotheses in future and specifically designed animal experiments. From a study centered on the radioadaptive response in mice, we have learned that the retina responds to low and high dose gamma radiation by elevating antioxidant-related genes at early time points (4hrs) and that this response returns to control levels after 1 day post-irradiation. We are expanding this research with another collaborative study that investigates

  10. Developing Personalized Sensorimotor Adaptability Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  11. Congress hears from astronauts about human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    NASA's 15 September announcement of a new Space Launch System (SLS) design, which includes a heavy lift rocket in combination with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) already under development, generally was favorably received at a 22 September congressional hearing on NASA and human spaceflight held by the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. However, witnesses, including Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong, said they remain concerned about America's manned access to space, the nation's leadership in manned space exploration, and what they said is the lack of a clear direction for NASA. Armstrong said the proposal for the new heavy lift vehicle “appears to meet the intent” of a congressional mandate in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, but he also said that the past year has been “frustrating” to NASA observers trying to understand the agency's plans and progress in the area of human space exploration. “The NASA leadership enthusiastically assured the American people that the agency was embarking on an exciting new age of discovery in the cosmos. But the realities of the termination of the shuttle program, the cancellation of existing rocket launcher and spacecraft programs, the layoffs of thousands of aerospace workers, and the outlook for American space activity throughout the next decade were difficult to reconcile with the agency assertions,” Armstrong said.

  12. Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traver, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the some of the known results of spaceflight induced intracranial hypertension. Historical information from Gemini 5, Apollo, and the space shuttle programs indicated that some vision impairment was reported and a comparison between these historical missions and present missions is included. Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, Choroidal Folds, Hyperopic Shifts and Raised Intracranial Pressure has occurred in Astronauts During and After Long Duration Space Flight. Views illustrate the occurrence of Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, and Choroidal Folds. There are views of the Arachnoid Granulations and Venous return, and the question of spinal or venous compliance issues is discussed. The question of increased blood flow and its relation to increased Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is raised. Most observed on-orbit papilledema does not progress, and this might be a function of plateau homeostasis for the higher level of intracranial pressure. There are seven cases of astronauts experiencing in flight and post flight symptoms, which are summarized and follow-up is reviewed along with a comparison of the treatment options. The question is "is there other involvement besides vision," and other Clinical implications are raised,

  13. Making Human Spaceflight as Safe as Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Frederick D.

    2005-01-01

    We articulated the safety hierarchy a little over two years ago, as part of our quest to be the nation s leader in safety and occupational health, and in the safety of the products and services we provide. The safety hierarchy stresses that we are all accountable for assuring that our programs, projects, and operations do not impact safety or health for the public, astronauts and pilots, employees on the ground, and high-value equipment and property. When people are thinking about doing things safely, they re also thinking about doing things right. And for the past couple of years, we ve had some pretty good results. In the time since the failures of the Mars 98 missions that occurred in late 1999, every NASA spacecraft launch has met the success objectives, and every Space Shuttle mission has safely and successfully met all mission objectives. Now I can t say that NASA s safety program is solely responsible for these achievements, but, as we like to say, "mission success starts with safety." In the future, looking forward, we will continue to make spaceflight even safer. That is NASA s vision. That is NASA s duty to both those who will travel into space and the American people who will make the journey possible.

  14. Spaceflight reduces somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass (Poaceae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, B. V.; Tomaszewski, Z. Jr; McDaniel, J. K.; Vasilenko, A.

    1998-01-01

    Somatic embryos initiate and develop from single mesophyll cells in in vitro cultured leaf segments of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Segments were plated at time periods ranging from 21 to 0.9 d (21 h) prior to launch on an 11 d spaceflight (STS-64). Using a paired t-test, there was no significant difference in embryogenesis from preplating periods of 14 d and 21 d. However, embryogenesis was reduced by 70% in segments plated 21 h before launch and this treatment was significant at P=0.0001. The initial cell divisions leading to embryo formation would be taking place during flight in this treatment. A higher ratio of anticlinal:periclinal first cell divisions observed in the flight compared to the control tissue suggests that microgravity affects axis determination and embryo polarity at a very early stage. A similar reduction in zygotic embryogenesis would reduce seed formation and have important implications for long-term space flight or colonization where seeds would be needed either for direct consumption or to grow another generation of plants.

  15. Effects of spaceflight on human calf hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckey, J. C.; Lane, L. D.; Gaffney, F. A.; Levine, B. D.; Moore, W. E.; Wright, S. J.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic microgravity may modify adaptations of the leg circulation to gravitational pressures. We measured resting calf compliance and blood flow with venous occlusion plethysmography, and arterial blood pressure with sphygmomanometry, in seven subjects before, during, and after spaceflight. Calf vascular resistance equaled mean arterial pressure divided by calf flow. Compliance equaled the slope of the calf volume change and venous occlusion pressure relationship for thigh cuff pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg held for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, with 1-min breaks between occlusions. Calf blood flow decreased 41% in microgravity (to 1.15 +/- 0.16 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1)) relative to 1-G supine conditions (1.94 +/- 0.19 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.01), and arterial pressure tended to increase (P = 0.05), such that calf vascular resistance doubled in microgravity (preflight: 43 +/- 4 units; in-flight: 83 +/- 13 units; P < 0.001) yet returned to preflight levels after flight. Calf compliance remained unchanged in microgravity but tended to increase during the first week postflight (P > 0.2). Calf vasoconstriction in microgravity qualitatively agrees with the "upright set-point" hypothesis: the circulation seeks conditions approximating upright posture on Earth. No calf hemodynamic result exhibited obvious mechanistic implications for postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  16. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to

  17. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua; Zhang, Jianping; Gong, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. PMID:26209674

  18. Early administration of probiotics alters bacterial colonization and limits diet-induced gut dysfunction and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Richard H; Siggers, Jayda; Boye, Mette; Thymann, Thomas; Mølbak, Lars; Leser, Thomas; Jensen, Bent B; Sangild, Per T

    2008-08-01

    Following preterm birth, bacterial colonization and enteral formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would beneficially influence early bacterial colonization, thereby reducing the susceptibility to formula-induced gut atrophy, dysfunction, and NEC. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were provided total parenteral nutrition (1.5 d) followed by enteral feeding (2 d) with porcine colostrum (COLOS; n = 5), formula (FORM; n = 9), or formula with probiotics (FORM-P; Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus: L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. pentosus, L. plantarum; n = 13). Clinical NEC scores were reduced (P < 0.05) in FORM-P (2.0 +/- 0.2) and COLOS groups (1.7 +/- 0.5) compared with FORM pigs (3.4 +/- 0.6). Lower NEC scores were associated with elevated intestinal weight, mucosa proportion, villus height, RNA integrity, and brush border aminopeptidase A and N activities, and lower gastric organic acid concentration in the FORM-P and COLOS groups (P < 0.05). Diversity of the mucosa-associated bacteria in the distal small intestine was similar among formula-fed pigs, yet the abundance of specific bacterial groups differed between FORM-P and FORM pigs. FORM-P pigs had lower colonization density of a potential pathogen, Clostridium perfringens, and had commensal Lactobacillus bacteria more closely associated with enterocytes along the villus-crypt axis relative to FORM pigs. These results suggest that probiotic administration immediately after birth promotes the colonization of a beneficial commensal microbiota capable of limiting the formula-induced mucosal atrophy, dysfunction, and pathogen load in preterm neonates, thereby reducing the incidence and severity of NEC. PMID:18641188

  19. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. PMID:26209674

  20. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. PMID:25186082

  1. Effects of spaceflight on polysaccharides of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Tan, Sze-Sze

    2008-12-01

    Freeze-dried samples of four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, FL01, FL03, 2.0016, and 2.1424, were subjected to spaceflight. After the satellite's landing on Earth, the samples were recovered and changes in yeast cell wall were analyzed. Spaceflight strains of all S. cerevisiae strains showed significant changes in cell wall thickness (P < 0.05). One mutant of S. cerevisiae 2.0016 with increased biomass, cell wall thickness, and cell wall glucan was isolated (P < 0.05). The spaceflight mutant of S. cerevisiae 2.0016 showed 46.7%, 62.6%, and 146.0% increment in biomass, cell wall thickness and beta-glucan content, respectively, when compared to the ground strain. Moreover, growth curve analysis showed spaceflight S. cerevisiae 2.0016 had a faster growth rate, shorter lag phase periods, higher final biomass, and higher content of beta-glucan. Genetic stability analysis showed that prolonged subculturing of spaceflight strain S. cerevisiae 2.0016 did not lead to the appearance of variants, indicating that the genetic stability of S. cerevisiae 2.0016 mutant could be sufficient for its exploitation of beta-glucan production. PMID:18797865

  2. Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F

    1999-01-01

    Readers of this review may feel that there is much more that we do not know about space endocrinology than what we know. Several reasons for this state of affairs have been given: 1. the complexity of the field of endocrinology with its still increasing number of known hormones, releasing factors and precursors, and of the interactions between them through various feedback mechanisms 2. the difficulty in separating the microgravity effects from the effects of stress from launch, isolation and confinement during flight, reentry, and postflight re-adaptation 3. the experimental limitations during flight, such as limited number of subjects, limited number of samples, impossibility of collecting triple samples for pulsatile hormones like growth hormone 4. the disturbing effects of countermeasures used by astronauts 5. the inadequacy of postflight samples for conclusions about inflight values 6. limitations of conclusions from animal experiments and space simulation studies The endocrinology field is divided in to nine systems or axes, which are successively reviewed: 1. Rapid bone demineralization in the early phase of spaceflight that, when unopposed, leads to catastrophic effects after three months but that slows down later. The endocrine mechanism, apart from the effect of exercise as a countermeasure, is not yet understood. 2. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved in stress reactions, which complicate our understanding and makes postflight analysis dubious. 3. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, pulsatility poses a problem for obtaining representative values (e.g., for luteinizing hormone). Reproduction of rats in space is possible, but much more needs to be known about this aspect, particularly in women, before the advent of space colonies, but also in males because some evidence for reversible testicular dysfunction in space has been found. 4. The hypothalamic-pituitary-somato-mammotrophic axis involves prolactin and growth hormone. The

  3. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  4. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing. PMID:26358122

  5. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  6. Study protocol to examine the effects of spaceflight and a spaceflight analog on neurocognitive performance: extent, longevity, and neural bases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long duration spaceflight (i.e., 22 days or longer) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether spaceflight also affects other central nervous system functions such as cognition is yet largely unknown, but of importance in consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight. We are therefore conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor and cognitive performance changes. Here we present the protocol of our study. Methods/design This study includes three groups (astronauts, bed rest subjects, ground-based control subjects) for which each the design is single group with repeated measures. The effects of spaceflight on the brain will be investigated in astronauts who will be assessed at two time points pre-, at three time points during-, and at four time points following a spaceflight mission of six months. To parse out the effect of microgravity from the overall effects of spaceflight, we investigate the effects of seventy days head-down tilted bed rest. Bed rest subjects will be assessed at two time points before-, two time points during-, and three time points post-bed rest. A third group of ground based controls will be measured at four time points to assess reliability of our measures over time. For all participants and at all time points, except in flight, measures of neurocognitive performance, fine motor control, gait, balance, structural MRI (T1, DTI), task fMRI, and functional connectivity MRI will be obtained. In flight, astronauts will complete some of the tasks that they complete pre- and post flight, including tasks measuring spatial working memory, sensorimotor adaptation

  7. Effect of a 17 day spaceflight on contractile properties of human soleus muscle fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widrick, J. J.; Knuth, S. T.; Norenberg, K. M.; Romatowski, J. G.; Bain, J. L.; Riley, D. A.; Karhanek, M.; Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Costill, D. L.; Fitts, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    1. Soleus biopsies were obtained from four male astronauts 45 days before and within 2 h after a 17 day spaceflight. 2. For all astronauts, single chemically skinned post-flight fibres expressing only type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) developed less average peak Ca2+ activated force (Po) during fixed-end contractions (0.78 +/- 0. 02 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03 mN) and shortened at a greater mean velocity during unloaded contractions (Vo) (0.83 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.02 fibre lengths s-1) than pre-flight type I fibres. 3. The flight-induced decline in absolute Po was attributed to reductions in fibre diameter and/or Po per fibre cross-sectional area. Fibres from the astronaut who experienced the greatest relative loss of peak force also displayed a reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity. 4. The elevated Vo of the post-flight slow type I fibres could not be explained by alterations in myosin heavy or light chain composition. One alternative possibility is that the elevated Vo resulted from an increased myofilament lattice spacing. This hypothesis was supported by electron micrographic analysis demonstrating a reduction in thin filament density post-flight. 5. Post-flight fibres shortened at 30 % higher velocities than pre-flight fibres at external loads associated with peak power output. This increase in shortening velocity either reduced (2 astronauts) or prevented (2 astronauts) a post-flight loss in fibre absolute peak power (microN (fibre length) s-1). 6. The changes in soleus fibre diameter and function following spaceflight were similar to those observed after 17 days of bed rest. Although in-flight exercise countermeasures probably reduced the effects of microgravity, the results support the idea that ground-based bed rest can serve as a model of human spaceflight. 7. In conclusion, 17 days of spaceflight decreased force and increased shortening velocity of single Ca2+-activated muscle cells expressing type I MHC. The increase in shortening velocity greatly reduced the impact

  8. Heart rate variability and short duration spaceflight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Blaber, Andrew P; Bondar, Roberta L; Kassam, Mahmood S

    2004-01-01

    Background Upon return from space many astronauts experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Research has implicated altered autonomic cardiovascular regulation due to spaceflight with further evidence to suggest that there might be pre-flight autonomic indicators of post-flight orthostatic intolerance. We used heart rate variability (HRV) to determine whether autonomic regulation of the heart in astronauts who did or did not experience post-flight orthostatic intolerance was different pre-flight and/or was differentially affected by short duration (8 – 16 days) spaceflight. HRV data from ten-minute stand tests collected from the 29 astronauts 10 days pre-flight, on landing day and three days post-flight were analysed using coarse graining spectral analysis. From the total power (PTOT), the harmonic component was extracted and divided into high (PHI: >0.15 Hz) and low (PLO: = 0.15 Hz) frequency power regions. Given the distribution of autonomic nervous system activity with frequency at the sinus node, PHI/PTOT was used as an indicator of parasympathetic activity; PLO/PTOT as an indicator of sympathetic activity; and, PLO/PHI as an estimate of sympathovagal balance. Results Twenty-one astronauts were classified as finishers, and eight as non-finishers, based on their ability to remain standing for 10 minutes on landing day. Pre-flight, non-finishers had a higher supine PHI/PTOT than finishers. Supine PHI/PTOT was the same pre-flight and on landing day in the finishers; whereas, in the non-finishers it was reduced. The ratio PLO/PHI was lower in non-finishers compared to finishers and was unaffected by spaceflight. Pre-flight, both finishers and non-finishers had similar supine values of PLO/PTOT, which increased from supine to stand. Following spaceflight, only the finishers had an increase in PLO/PTOT from supine to stand. Conclusions Both finishers and non-finishers had an increase in sympathetic activity with stand on pre-flight, yet only finishers

  9. Effect of a 17 day spaceflight on contractile properties of human soleus muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Widrick, J J; Knuth, S T; Norenberg, K M; Romatowski, J G; Bain, J L W; Riley, D A; Karhanek, M; Trappe, S W; Trappe, T A; Costill, D L; Fitts, R H

    1999-01-01

    Soleus biopsies were obtained from four male astronauts 45 days before and within 2 h after a 17 day spaceflight. For all astronauts, single chemically skinned post-flight fibres expressing only type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) developed less average peak Ca2+ activated force (Po) during fixed-end contractions (0.78 ± 0.02 vs. 0.99 ± 0.03 mN) and shortened at a greater mean velocity during unloaded contractions (Vo) (0.83 ± 0.02 vs. 0.64 ± 0.02 fibre lengths s−1) than pre-flight type I fibres. The flight-induced decline in absolute Po was attributed to reductions in fibre diameter and/or Po per fibre cross-sectional area. Fibres from the astronaut who experienced the greatest relative loss of peak force also displayed a reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity. The elevated Vo of the post-flight slow type I fibres could not be explained by alterations in myosin heavy or light chain composition. One alternative possibility is that the elevated Vo resulted from an increased myofilament lattice spacing. This hypothesis was supported by electron micrographic analysis demonstrating a reduction in thin filament density post-flight. Post-flight fibres shortened at 30 % higher velocities than pre-flight fibres at external loads associated with peak power output. This increase in shortening velocity either reduced (2 astronauts) or prevented (2 astronauts) a post-flight loss in fibre absolute peak power (μN (fibre length) s−1). The changes in soleus fibre diameter and function following spaceflight were similar to those observed after 17 days of bed rest. Although in-flight exercise countermeasures probably reduced the effects of microgravity, the results support the idea that ground-based bed rest can serve as a model of human spaceflight. In conclusion, 17 days of spaceflight decreased force and increased shortening velocity of single Ca2+-activated muscle cells expressing type I MHC. The increase in shortening velocity greatly reduced the impact that impaired force

  10. Spaceflight laser development for future remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.; Harding, David J.; Riris, Haris; Li, Steven X.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Graham R.; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T.; Camp, Jordan B.

    2011-11-01

    At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center we are developing next generation laser transmitters for future spaceflight, remote instruments including a micropulse altimeter for ice-sheet and sea ice monitoring, laser spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric CO2 and an imaging lidar for high resolution mapping of the Earth's surface. These laser transmitters also have applicability to potential missions to other solar-system bodies for trace gas measurements and surface mapping. In this paper we review NASA spaceflight laser transmitters used to acquire measurements in orbit around Mars, Mercury, Earth and the Moon. We then present an overview of our current spaceflight laser programs and describe their intended uses for remote sensing science and exploration applications.

  11. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  12. Neurovestibular Effects of Spaceflight - Considerations for Human Safety and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, E.

    2012-01-01

    From orbital spaceflight we know that astronauts may suffer from sensori-motor problems during the first days in weightlessness, and again upon return to Earth. Symptoms include spatial disorientation, motion illusions, postural imbalance, and motion sickness. Symptoms are typically triggered by head movements, indicating a central role of the vestibular system. TNO research has shown that the same symptoms can be elicited by exposing subjects to hyper-gravity in a human centrifuge. This suggests that not weightlessness itself, but the change in G-load causes vestibular adaptation problems. Suborbital spaceflight will expose participants to a sequence of highly variable G-levels. Hence it can be anticipated that this will affect vestibular functioning, with potential consequences for ride comfort (passengers) and flight safety (crew). We therefore propose to invest in research on the physiological responses to G-load profiles specific for suborbital flights with the purpose to establish comfort and safety guidelines for the commercial spaceflight sector.

  13. Changes in the immune system during and after spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R; Konstantinova, I; Sonnenfeld, G; Jennings, R

    1997-01-01

    The results of immunological analyses before, during and after spaceflight, have established the fact that spaceflight can result in a blunting of the immune mechanisms of human crew members and animal test species. There is some evidence that the immune function changes in short-term flights resemble those occurring after acute stress, while the changes during long-term flights resemble those caused by chronic stress. In addition, this blunting of the immune function occurs concomitant with a relative increase in potentially infectious microorganisms in the space cabin environment. This combination of events results in an increased probability of inflight infectious events. The realization of this probability has been shown to be partially negated by the judicious use of a preflight health stabilization program and other operational countermeasures. The continuation of these countermeasures, as well as microbial and immunological monitoring, are recommended for continued spaceflight safety. PMID:9048132

  14. Changes in the immune system during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Konstantinova, I.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Jennings, R.

    1997-01-01

    The results of immunological analyses before, during and after spaceflight, have established the fact that spaceflight can result in a blunting of the immune mechanisms of human crew members and animal test species. There is some evidence that the immune function changes in short-term flights resemble those occurring after acute stress, while the changes during long-term flights resemble those caused by chronic stress. In addition, this blunting of the immune function occurs concomitant with a relative increase in potentially infectious microorganisms in the space cabin environment. This combination of events results in an increased probability of inflight infectious events. The realization of this probability has been shown to be partially negated by the judicious use of a preflight health stabilization program and other operational countermeasures. The continuation of these countermeasures, as well as microbial and immunological monitoring, are recommended for continued spaceflight safety.

  15. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  16. Experiment K-6-14. Hepatic function in rats after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, A., Jr.; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Jones, D.; Hargrove, J.; Mullins, R.; Popova, I.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical consequences of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, tissue samples from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for hepatic protein, glycogen and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the hepatic glycogen content and HMG-CoA reductase activities of the rats flown on Cosmos 1887, and a decrease in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P sub 450 and the activity of aniline hydroxylase, a cytochrome P sub 450-dependent enzyme. Decreases in these two indices of the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system indicated that spaceflight may compromise the ability of liver to metabolize drugs and toxins. The higher HMG-CoA reductase correlated with elevated levels of serum cholestrol. Other changes included somewhat higher blood glucose, creatinine, SGOT, and much greater alkaline phosphatase and BUN. These results generally support the earlier observation of changes in these parameters (Merrill et al., Am. J. Physiol. 252:R22-R226, 1987). The importance of these alterations in liver function is not known; however, they have the potential to complicate long-term spaceflight.

  17. Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Allaway, Heather C M; Demel, Michael; Golemis, Adrianos; Kindrat, Alexandra N; Melinyshyn, Alexander N; Merali, Tahir; Thirsk, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5-6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70-30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues. PMID:26146839

  18. Hind limb unloading, a model of spaceflight conditions, leads to decreased B lymphopoiesis similar to aging.

    PubMed

    Lescale, Chloé; Schenten, Véronique; Djeghloul, Dounia; Bennabi, Meriem; Gaignier, Fanny; Vandamme, Katleen; Strazielle, Catherine; Kuzniak, Isabelle; Petite, Hervé; Dosquet, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Goodhardt, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Within the bone marrow, the endosteal niche plays a crucial role in B-cell differentiation. Because spaceflight is associated with osteoporosis, we investigated whether changes in bone microstructure induced by a ground-based model of spaceflight, hind limb unloading (HU), could affect B lymphopoiesis. To this end, we analyzed both bone parameters and the frequency of early hematopoietic precursors and cells of the B lineage after 3, 6, 13, and 21 d of HU. We found that limb disuse leads to a decrease in both bone microstructure and the frequency of B-cell progenitors in the bone marrow. Although multipotent hematopoietic progenitors were not affected by HU, a decrease in B lymphopoiesis was observed as of the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) stage with a major block at the progenitor B (pro-B) to precursor B (pre-B) cell transition (5- to 10-fold decrease). The modifications in B lymphopoiesis were similar to those observed in aged mice and, as with aging, decreased B-cell generation in HU mice was associated with reduced expression of B-cell transcription factors, early B-cell factor (EBF) and Pax5, and an alteration in STAT5-mediated IL-7 signaling. These findings demonstrate that mechanical unloading of hind limbs results in a decrease in early B-cell differentiation resembling age-related modifications in B lymphopoiesis. PMID:25376832

  19. Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Gilles; Allaway, Heather C. M.; Demel, Michael; Golemis, Adrianos; Kindrat, Alexandra N.; Melinyshyn, Alexander N.; Merali, Tahir; Thirsk, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5–6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70–30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of “illusory” depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues. PMID:26146839

  20. Re-Adaptation to 1-G of Pregnant Rats Following Exposure to Spaceflight or Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Late-pregnant rat dams were flown on a 9-day Space Shuttle mission or exposed to 1.5, 1.75 or 2-g centrifugation and compared with 1 .O-g vivarium controls. Exposure to altered gravity began on the 11th day and recovery occurred on the 20th day of the dams' 22-day pregnancy. In the 1 st experiment, comparisons were made between Flight (FLT), Synchronous (SYN; identically-housed) and Vivarium (VIV) controls. In the 2nd experiment, comparisons were made between dams centrifuged at 2-G, 1.75-G, 1.5-G, Rotational controls (1.08-G) or Stationary controls (1 G). Within three hours of recovery from either spaceflight or centrifugation, the dams' locomotor behavior was videotaped for 2 min. FLT dams showed dramatically reduced movement relative to both SYN and VIV control conditions, with significantly greater amounts of locomotor activity observed in SYN as compared to VIV dams. Significantly greater locomotor activity was observed in SYN as compared to VIV controls. In the second experiment, no differences were observed between dams exposed either 1, 1.5, 1.75, or 2-G. In both studies, the dams showed similar patterns of hindlimb rearing. Together, these findings provide quantitative evidence for decreased locomotor activity during re-adaptation to 1-g following spaceflight, but not centrifugation.

  1. Comparison of Echocardiographic Measurements Before and After Short and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; South, Donna A.; Wood, Margie L.; Bungo, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Previous echocardiography studies in astronauts before and after short duration (4 - 17 days) missions have demonstrated a decrease in resting left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV), but maintained ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output. Similar studies before and after long duration (129 - 144 days) spaceflight have been rare and their overall results equivocal. The purpose of this work was to compare the echocardiographic measurements (M-mode, 2-D and Doppler) from short duration (n = 13) and long duration (n = 4) crewmembers. Compared to short duration astronauts, long duration crewmembers had a significantly greater percent decrease in EF (+6+/-0.02 vs.-10.5+/-0.03, p = 0.005) and percent fractional shortening (+7+/-0.03 vs. -11+/-0.07, p = 0.0 15), and an increase in LV end systolic volume (-12+/-0.06 vs. +39+/-0.24, p = 0.011). These data suggest a reduction in cardiac function that relates to mission duration. As the changes in blood pressure and circulating blood volume (9% - 12%) are reported to be similar after short and long duration flights, the drop in EF after longer spaceflights is likely due to a decrease in cardiac function rather than altered blood volume.

  2. Next Steps in the Evolution of Human Spaceflight Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmain, Clint; Niemann, Chris; McGregor, Darrell

    2011-01-01

    Train before you fly has always been a watchword at NASA, and consequently, NASA has been conducting training for human spaceflight missions for longer than it has been involved in the actual conduct of human spaceflight missions. Throughout that time, NASA s approach to human spaceflight training has continuously evolved to keep pace with the technology of the modern world, but the approach to training itself has not changed significantly. Today, there are more tools and technologies that enable learning than ever before. This paper intends to review the challenges of human spaceflight training and how modern technology and an updated approach could improve that training. The Spaceflight Training Management Office (DA7) within the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) has been investigating the current training of instructors, flight controllers and astronauts in order to identify where a new approach to training and training management may be necessary to improve the efficacy of the training provided. Through this investigation, the DA7 team has identified potential areas of improvement within International Space Station (ISS) training in a wide range of areas, including the delivery of training, the structure of the training program, the concept of what is considered training, and the management of that training. The ISS is an operational program with an established training paradigm. As such, the implementation of these concepts will be met with several challenges that may prevent or preclude them from being adopted. These challenges include demonstrating return-on-investment (ROI) and overcoming cultural or technological obstacles. This report will delve into the possible improvement areas for training, the future training concepts that are being considered, and the challenges associated with implementation. The paper will include concepts for utilization of Web 2.0 technologies, electronic learning, digital media, and other technologies in the development

  3. The effect of spaceflight on mouse olfactory bulb volume, neurogenesis, and cell death indicates the protective effect of novel environment.

    PubMed

    Latchney, Sarah E; Rivera, Phillip D; Mao, Xiao W; Ferguson, Virginia L; Bateman, Ted A; Stodieck, Louis S; Nelson, Gregory A; Eisch, Amelia J

    2014-06-15

    Space missions necessitate physiological and psychological adaptations to environmental factors not present on Earth, some of which present significant risks for the central nervous system (CNS) of crewmembers. One CNS region of interest is the adult olfactory bulb (OB), as OB structure and function are sensitive to environmental- and experience-induced regulation. It is currently unknown how the OB is altered by spaceflight. In this study, we evaluated OB volume and neurogenesis in mice shortly after a 13-day flight on Space Shuttle Atlantis [Space Transport System (STS)-135] relative to two groups of control mice maintained on Earth. Mice housed on Earth in animal enclosure modules that mimicked the conditions onboard STS-135 (AEM-Ground mice) had greater OB volume relative to mice maintained in standard housing on Earth (Vivarium mice), particularly in the granule (GCL) and glomerular (GL) cell layers. AEM-Ground mice also had more OB neuroblasts and fewer apoptotic cells relative to Vivarium mice. However, the AEM-induced increase in OB volume and neurogenesis was not seen in STS-135 mice (AEM-Flight mice), suggesting that spaceflight may have negated the positive effects of the AEM. In fact, when OB volume of AEM-Flight mice was considered, there was a greater density of apoptotic cells relative to AEM-Ground mice. Our findings suggest that factors present during spaceflight have opposing effects on OB size and neurogenesis, and provide insight into potential strategies to preserve OB structure and function during future space missions. PMID:24744382

  4. The effect of spaceflight on mouse olfactory bulb volume, neurogenesis, and cell death indicates the protective effect of novel environment

    PubMed Central

    Latchney, Sarah E.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Mao, Xiao W.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Space missions necessitate physiological and psychological adaptations to environmental factors not present on Earth, some of which present significant risks for the central nervous system (CNS) of crewmembers. One CNS region of interest is the adult olfactory bulb (OB), as OB structure and function are sensitive to environmental- and experience-induced regulation. It is currently unknown how the OB is altered by spaceflight. In this study, we evaluated OB volume and neurogenesis in mice shortly after a 13-day flight on Space Shuttle Atlantis [Space Transport System (STS)-135] relative to two groups of control mice maintained on Earth. Mice housed on Earth in animal enclosure modules that mimicked the conditions onboard STS-135 (AEM-Ground mice) had greater OB volume relative to mice maintained in standard housing on Earth (Vivarium mice), particularly in the granule (GCL) and glomerular (GL) cell layers. AEM-Ground mice also had more OB neuroblasts and fewer apoptotic cells relative to Vivarium mice. However, the AEM-induced increase in OB volume and neurogenesis was not seen in STS-135 mice (AEM-Flight mice), suggesting that spaceflight may have negated the positive effects of the AEM. In fact, when OB volume of AEM-Flight mice was considered, there was a greater density of apoptotic cells relative to AEM-Ground mice. Our findings suggest that factors present during spaceflight have opposing effects on OB size and neurogenesis, and provide insight into potential strategies to preserve OB structure and function during future space missions. PMID:24744382

  5. Evaluating Failures and near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Studies done in the past have drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents can be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Binary pass/fail launch history is often used for risk, but this also has limitations. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. This paper intends to show how near-miss lessons learned can provide crucial data for any new human spaceflight programs that are interested in sending man into space

  6. Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware: For Human Spaceflight. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Karen S.; Kujala, Rod; Fogt, Vince; Romine, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the structural requirements for human-rated spaceflight hardware including launch vehicles, spacecraft and payloads. These requirements are applicable to Government Furnished Equipment activities as well as all related contractor, subcontractor and commercial efforts. These requirements are not imposed on systems other than human-rated spacecraft, such as ground test articles, but may be tailored for use in specific cases where it is prudent to do so such as for personnel safety or when assets are at risk. The requirements in this document are focused on design rather than verification. Implementation of the requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each structural item for the applicable requirements. The SVP may also document unique verifications that meet or exceed these requirements with NASA Technical Authority approval.

  7. Evaluating Failures and Near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2010-09-01

    Studies done in the past have drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents can be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Binary pass/fail launch history is often used for risk, but this also has limitations. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. This paper intends to show how near-miss lessons learned can provide crucial data for any new human spaceflight programs that are interested in sending man into space.

  8. In Brief: Web site for human spaceflight review committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-06-01

    As part of an independent review of human spaceflight plans and programs, NASA has established a Web site for the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee (http://hsfnasagov). The Web site provides the committee's charter, relevant documents, information about meetings and members, and ways to contact the committee. “The human spaceflight program belongs to everyone. Our committee would hope to benefit from the views of all who would care to contact us,” noted committee chairman Norman Augustine, retired chair and CEO of Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  9. Effects of Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, S. H.; Pibeiro, L. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a spaceflight-associated medical condition consisting of a constellation of symptoms affecting less than 70% of American astronauts who have flown International Space Station (ISS) missions. VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures and is hypothesized to be related to elevated intracranial pressure secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, although other space flight factors (e.g., diet, environmental factors) may contribute. Loss of visual acuity could be a significant threat to crew health and performance during and after an exploration mission and may have implications for years postflight.

  10. A prioritized set of physiological measurements for future spaceflight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A set of desired experimental measurements to be obtained in future spaceflights in four areas of physiological investigation are identified. The basis for identifying the measurements was the physiological systems analysis performed on Skylab data and related ground-based studies. An approach for prioritizing the measurement list is identified and discussed with the use of examples. A prioritized measurement list is presented for each of the following areas; cardiopulmonary, fluid-renal and electrolyte, hematology and immunology, and musculoskeletal. Also included is a list of interacting stresses and other factors present in spaceflight experiments whose effects may need to be quantified.

  11. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C. S.; Hoh, J. F. Y.; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.; Oganov, V. S.; Slocum, G. R.; Bain, J. L. W.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained during Cosmos 2044 bisatellite mission are reviewed and found to be consistent with the results of previous rodent spaceflight experiments. Investigation was carried out of hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to land as possible so that changes induced by spaceflight and early readaptation to weight bearing could be distinguished from the changes that resulted from the two-day postflight period during Cosmos 1887. Results presented pertain to muscle atrophy and fiber type changes, eccentric contraction-like lesions, microcirculatory changes and interstitial edema, and tissue damage.

  12. Altered cell function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1991-01-01

    The paper overviews published results from investigations of changes in basic biological parameters taking place as a result of spaceflight exposure. These include changes in the rates of the DNA, mRNA, and protein biosyntheses; changes in the growth rate of an organism; and alterations in the cytoskeleton structure, differentiation, hormone accumulation, and collagen matrix secretion. These results, obtained both in complex biological organisms and on cultured cells, suggest that a basic cellular function is influenced and changed by microgravity. Many of the above mentioned changes are also found to take place in aging cells.

  13. Spaceflight and Development of Immune Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The objective of the studies contained in this project was to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of pregnant rats and their offspring. The hypothesis was that space flight and the attendant period of microgravity will result in alteration of immunological parameters of both the pregnant rats as well as their offspring carried in utero during the flight. The parameters tested included: production of cytokines, composition of leukocyte sub- populations, response of bone marrow/liver cells to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor, and leukocyte blastogenesis. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection were determined. This yielded useful information for planning studies that could contribute to crew health. Additional information that could eventually prove useful to determine the potential for establishment of a permanent colony in space was obtained.

  14. Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Zwart, S R; Kloeris, V L; Perchonok, M H; Braby, L; Smith, S M

    2009-09-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health. Ground-based evidence indicates that some vitamins may be altered and fatty acids oxidized (and therefore rendered useless, or even dangerous) by long-term storage and by exposure to radiation, both of which will be issues for long-duration exploration missions in space. In this study, the stability of nutrients was investigated in food samples exposed to spaceflight on the Intl. Space Station (ISS). A total of 6 replicates of 5 different space food items, a multivitamin, and a vitamin D supplement were packaged into 4 identical kits and were launched in 2006 on the space shuttle. After 13, 353, 596, and 880 d of spaceflight aboard the ISS, the kits were returned to Earth. Nine replicates of each food item and vitamin, from the same lots as those sent into space, remained in an environmental chamber on Earth to serve as controls at each time point. Vitamins, hexanal, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and amino acids were measured in identical-lot food samples at each time point. After 596 d of spaceflight, differences in intact vitamin concentrations due to duration of storage were observed for most foodstuffs, but generally, nutrients from flight samples did not degrade any faster than ground controls. This study provided the 1st set of spaceflight data for investigation of nutrient stability in the food system, and the results will help NASA design food systems for both ISS and space exploration missions. PMID:19895472

  15. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    IntroductionSalutogenesis and posttraumatic growth represent personal growth and improved functioning as a result of experiencing major challenging events. These developments are not simply resilience (a return to a baseline level of well-being), but positive change in such characteristics as self-understanding, relations with others, personal values, and life goals. Space agencies and space psychologists, primarily concerned with deleterious effects and their countermeasures, have not paid much attention to such beneficial long-term aftereffects of spaceflight. PurposeTo document what changes veterans of the Soviet/Russian space program report as a consequence of their experiences. MethodTwenty retired male cosmonauts Mir and/or ISS cosmonauts filled out relevant self-report questionnaires. Results: Although there was little change in the relative rankings of a list of values, the scale showed an overall increase in the rated importance of all personal values, although only the increase in Self-Direction reached statistical significance. Responses to one of two post-space growth questionnaires based on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were compared to the means of two comparison groups: 152 first-time mothers, and 926 respondents who had experienced various forms of trauma. The cosmonauts reported higher scores on the dimension of New Possibilities when compared to the new mothers and the traumatized group, and higher scores on Personal Strength and Overall PTG compared to the latter. Respondents who had spent more than a year in space, and those who flew on both Mir and ISS, were the most likely to report positive change in the domain Appreciation of Life. The other post-space career questionnaire reflected major changes in Perceptions of the Earth and of Space, and increases on a number of other dimensions, including New Possibilities and Changes in Daily Life, with positive scores that significantly exceeded the original report. DiscussionIt appears

  16. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  17. Mutations in the control of virulence sensor gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after infection in mice lead to clonal bacterial variants with altered gene regulatory activity and virulence.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W; Donahue, Deborah L; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS)/responder (CovR) two-component operon (CovRS) regulates ∼15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS) genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448), containing wild-type (WT) CovRS (5448/CovR+S+), or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS- was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection. PMID:24968349

  18. Mutations in the Control of Virulence Sensor Gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after Infection in Mice Lead to Clonal Bacterial Variants with Altered Gene Regulatory Activity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W.; Donahue, Deborah L.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS)/responder (CovR) two-component operon (CovRS) regulates ∼15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS) genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448), containing wild-type (WT) CovRS (5448/CovR+S+), or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS− was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection. PMID:24968349

  19. Altered Protozoan and Bacterial Communities and Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Monensin-Treated Wastewater from a Dairy Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Surviving predation is a fitness trait of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) that provides ample time for the pathogen to be transported from reservoirs (e.g. dairies and feedlots) to farm produce grown in proximity. Ionophore dietary supplements that inhibit rumen protozoa may provide such a selective advantage for EcO157 to proliferate in lagoons as the pathogen is released along with the undigested supplement as manure washings. This study evaluated the fate of an outbreak strain of EcO157, protozoan and bacterial communities in wastewater treated with monensin. Although total protozoa and native bacteria were unaffected by monensin, the time for 90% decrease in EcO157 increased from 0.8 to 5.1 days. 18S and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of wastewater samples revealed that monensin eliminated almost all colpodean and oligohymenophorean ciliates, probably facilitating the extended survival of EcO157. Total protozoan numbers remained high in treated wastewater as monensin enriched 94% of protozoan sequences undetected with untreated wastewater. Monensin stimulated 30-fold increases in Cyrtohymena citrina, a spirotrichean ciliate, and also biflagellate bicosoecids and cercozoans. Sequences of gram-negative Proteobacteria increased from 1% to 46% with monensin, but gram-positive Firmicutes decreased from 93% to 46%. It is noteworthy that EcO157 numbers increased significantly (P<0.01) in Sonneborn medium containing monensin, probably due to monensin-inhibited growth of Vorticella microstoma (P<0.05), a ciliate isolated from wastewater. We conclude that dietary monensin inhibits ciliate protozoa that feed on EcO157. Feed supplements or other methods that enrich these protozoa in cattle manure could be a novel strategy to control the environmental dissemination of EcO157 from dairies to produce production environments. PMID:23349969

  20. The use of a spaceflight-compatible device to perform WBC surface marker staining and whole-blood mitogenic activation for cytokine detection by flow cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Sams, C. F.

    1999-01-01

    Significant changes have recently been described regarding circulating peripheral immune cells immediately following spaceflight. Existing methods for immunophenotype staining of peripheral blood in terrestrial labs do not meet the constraints for flight on the Space Shuttle. We have recently described the development and use of the Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD), a simple device for staining flow cytometry specimens during spaceflight. When preparing samples with the WBSD, all liquids are safely contained as the cells are moved through staining, lysis and fixation steps. Here we briefly review the use of the WBSD, and then describe another versatile adaptation, a modification to perform intracellular staining of cytokines for detection by flow cytometry. Alterations in cytokine production have been reported both in ground-based simulated microgravity culture and in astronaut samples returning from spaceflight. Data regarding microgravity effects on cytokine production for specific subpopulations of cells is lacking. Flow cytometric cytokine analysis offers the unique ability to perform simultaneous surface marker analysis and positively identity cytokine producing subsets of cells. The utilization of the WBSD provides the ability to perform rapid and routine mitogenic activation during spaceflight coupled with the ability to perform simultaneous surface marker analysis. The only external requirements for this procedure are an in-flight 37-degree incubator and the capacity for 4-degree storage.

  1. Reproductive and Locomotory Capacities of Caenorhabditis elegans Were Not Affected by Simulated Variable Gravities and Spaceflight During the Shenzhou-8 Mission

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Luo, Sang; Liu, Yongding; Li, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Reproduction and locomotion are essential features of animals that help to facilitate their interaction with the surrounding environment. Previous studies have produced inconsistent results on behavioral response to spaceflight by the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in liquid culture. Using standard agar-based nematode growth medium (NGM), we show here that both reproductive and locomotory capacities of C. elegans were not significantly changed by centrifuge-produced hypergravity or clinostat-simulated microgravity. To investigate the effect of actual spaceflight on C. elegans, a nematode test unit was specifically designed to maintain its normal growth on solid NGM slides and to allow automatic RNA fixation on board the Shenzhou-8 spaceflight. We did not detect alteration in either brood size of immediate progenies from postflight nematodes or locomotory behavior, including speed of locomotion, frequency of reversals, and rate of body bends of space-flown nematodes collected directly from nematode test units. Our results provide clear evidence that the nematode test unit is an appropriate apparatus for nematode growth on standard NGM and can be used for on-orbit analysis of C. elegans, including onboard RNA fixation for molecular analysis and real-time video acquisition for behavioral analysis, which are critical for further studies in unmanned spaceflight and outer space exploration. Key Words: Spaceflight—Hypergravity—Microgravity—Caenorhabditis elegans—Behavior—Reproduction. Astrobiology 13, 617–625. PMID:23837604

  2. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  3. Comments on Body Mass Changes During Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Thornton, William

    2015-12-01

    The paper "Body Mass Changes During Long-Duration Spaceflight" allows a comparison of devices, their application, results obtained and their interpretation from the two programs of such studies to date. There were significant differences in all aspects of the two programs which are briefly commented on here. PMID:26630057

  4. Securing Safety - Spaceflight Standards for the Mass Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, G.

    The projected total revenue of the space tourism industry is expected to exceed USD $1 billion by 2021. The vast economic potential of space tourism has fuelled ambitious plans for commercial orbital and suborbital flights, in addition to longer- duration spaceflights on board the International Space Station (ISS) and other planned orbiting habitats. International and national legal frameworks are challenged to provide regulations to ensure minimum standards of spaceflight safety for a high risk activity that aims to enter the mainstream tourism market. Thrown into the mix are various considerations of the number of spaceflight participants per flight, the economic viability of stringent safety standards, the plethora of possible flight vehicles and the compensation mechanism in case of violations of safety regulations. This paper surveys the legal challenges in the regulation of safety in commercial manned spaceflight, including issues of jurisdiction, authorization, licensing and liability. Drawing on analogous developments in other fields of law related to international carriage, a safety regulation framework with minimum international standards is proposed. This proposed framework considers both accident avoidance and emergency response in light of international legal, policy and economic perspectives.

  5. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  6. Effect of spaceflight on natural killer cell activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rykova, Marina P.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Lesniak, A. T.; Taylor, Gerald R.; Meshkov, Dimitrii O.; Mandel, Adrian D.; Medvedev, Andrei E.; Berry, Wallace D.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Konstantinova, Irina V.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on immune cell function were determined in rats flown on Cosmos 2044. Control groups included vivarium, synchronous, and antiorthostatically suspended rats. The ability of natural killer cells to lyse two different target cell lines was determined. Spleen and bone marrow cells obtained from flight rats showed significantly inhibited cytotoxicity for YAC-1 target cells compared with cells from synchronous control rats. This could have been due to exposure of the rats to microgravity. Antiorthostatic suspension did not affect the level of cytotoxicity from spleen cells of suspended rats for YAC-1 cells. On the other hand, cells from rats flown in space showed no significant differences from vivarium and synchronous control rats in cytotoxicity for K-562 target cells. Binding of natural killer cells to K-562 target cells was unaffected by spaceflight. Antiorthostatic suspension resulted in higher levels of cytotoxicity from spleen cells for Cr-51-labeled K-562 cells. The results indicate differential effects of spaceflight on function of natural killer cells. This shows that spaceflight has selective effects on the immune response.

  7. Fastener Retention Requirements and Practices in Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviews the requirements for safety critical fasteners in spaceflight hardware. Included in the presentation are design guidelines and information for Locking Helicoils, key locked inserts and thinwalled inserts, self locking screws and bolts. locknuts, and a locking adhesives, Loctite and Vibratite.

  8. East-west cooperation in manned spaceflights. Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, J.-L.

    After a period of media-supported brilliancy manned spaceflight has become, and will be, more a down-to-earth activity, bringing apparently less return for money. This is a good reason for future cooperation between East and West, particularly between Mir and Freedom Space Stations.

  9. Certain aspects of human metabolism during spaceflights of varying duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigoryev, A. I.; Popova, I. A.; Ushakov, A. S.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative analysis is made of hormone reactions after short and long term spaceflights. Endocrinological indicators from venous blood and daily urine samples of cosmonauts completing flights lasting from 7 to 237 days were examined. No pathological indicators were found in the metabolic shifts in the erythrocytes and disruption of the functional state of their membranes.

  10. Spaceflight-induced Bone Loss: Countermeasures and Their Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2008-01-01

    The learning objectives of this viewgraph presentation are to: (1) Understand the biomedical effects of spaceflight and their associated health risks. (2) Understand how the "Factor of Risk" for fracture can be calculated in the adult skeleton for space travel. and (3) Understand how various countermeasures [CMs] influence the Factor of Risk.

  11. Effects of spaceflight on rat humerus geometry, biomechanics, and biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Zernicke, R. F.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G. N.; Li, K. C.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) on the geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical characteristics of humeri of male specific pathogen-free rats were examined. Humeri of age-matched basal control, synchronous control, and vivarium control rats were contrasted with the flight bones to examine the influence of growth and space environment on bone development. Lack of humerus longitudinal growth occurred during the 12.5 days in spaceflight. In addition, the normal mid-diaphysial periosteal appositional growth was affected; compared with their controls, the spaceflight humeri had less cortical cross-sectional area, smaller periosteal circumferences, smaller anterior-posterior periosteal diameters, and smaller second moments of area with respect to the bending and nonbending axes. The flexural rigidity of the flight humeri was comparable to that of the younger basal control rats and significantly less than that of the synchronous and vivarium controls; the elastic moduli of all four groups, nonetheless, were not significantly different. Generally, the matrix biochemistry of the mid-diaphysial cross sections showed no differences among groups. Thus, the spaceflight differences in humeral mechanical strength and flexural rigidity were probably a result of the differences in humeral geometry rather than material properties.

  12. How Will Astronauts Stay Fit during Long Spaceflights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Devera

    1989-01-01

    Astronauts on lengthy spaceflights must exercise regularly to forestall muscle atrophy and bone loss, but exercise presents unique problems in a weightless environment. All exercise equipment must have a harness or seat belt. Soviet and NASA space exercise plans and experimental ideas are discussed. (Author/SM)

  13. Distance and Size Perception in Astronauts during Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Skinner, Anna; Lathan, Corinna

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight is known to elicit orientation illusions, errors in sensory localization, postural imbalance, changes in vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and space motion sickness. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether an alteration in cognitive visual-spatial processing, such as the perception of distance and size of objects, is also taking place during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Our results show that astronauts on board the International Space Station exhibit biases in the perception of their environment. Objects' heights and depths were perceived as taller and shallower, respectively, and distances were generally underestimated in orbit compared to Earth. These changes may occur because the perspective cues for depth are less salient in microgravity or the eye-height scaling of size is different when an observer is not standing on the ground. This finding has operational implications for human space exploration missions. PMID:25369884

  14. The sympathetic nervous system and the physiologic consequences of spaceflight: a hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Convertino, V. A.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness and the cardiovascular abnormalities on return from space could be due, at least in part, to alterations in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. In this article, the authors review the rationale and evidence for an autonomic mediation of diverse changes that occur with spaceflight, including the anemia and hypovolemia of weightlessness and the tachycardia and orthostatic intolerance on return from space. This hypothesis is supported by studies of two groups of persons known to have low catecholamine levels: persons subjected to prolonged bedrest and persons with syndromes characterized by low circulating catecholamines (Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome and dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency). Both groups exhibit the symptoms mentioned. The increasing evidence that autonomic mechanisms underlie many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness suggests that new pharmacologic approaches (such as administration of beta-blockers and/or sympathomimetic amines) based on these findings may attenuate these unwanted effects.

  15. Distance and Size Perception in Astronauts during Long-Duration Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Gilles; Skinner, Anna; Lathan, Corinna

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight is known to elicit orientation illusions, errors in sensory localization, postural imbalance, changes in vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and space motion sickness. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether an alteration in cognitive visual-spatial processing, such as the perception of distance and size of objects, is also taking place during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Our results show that astronauts on board the International Space Station exhibit biases in the perception of their environment. Objects’ heights and depths were perceived as taller and shallower, respectively, and distances were generally underestimated in orbit compared to Earth. These changes may occur because the perspective cues for depth are less salient in microgravity or the eye-height scaling of size is different when an observer is not standing on the ground. This finding has operational implications for human space exploration missions. PMID:25369884

  16. Spaceflight induces changes in the synaptic circuitry of the postnatal developing neocortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFelipe, J.; Arellano, J. I.; Merchan-Perez, A.; Gonzalez-Albo, M. C.; Walton, K.; Llinas, R.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of the adult pattern of neocortical circuitry depends on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, whose modification during development can lead to alterations in cortical organization and function. We report the effect of 16 days of spaceflight [Neurolab mission; from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P30] on the neocortical representation of the hindlimb synaptic circuitry in rats. As a result, we show, for the first time, that development in microgravity leads to changes in the number and morphology of cortical synapses in a laminar-specific manner. In the layers II/III and Va, the synaptic cross-sectional lengths were significantly larger in flight animals than in ground control animals. Flight animals also showed significantly lower synaptic densities in layers II/III, IV and Va. The greatest difference was found in layer II/III, where there was a difference of 344 million synapses per mm(3) (15.6% decrease). Furthermore, after a 4 month period of re-adaptation to terrestrial gravity, some changes disappeared (i.e. the alterations were transient), while conversely, some new differences also appeared. For example, significant differences in synaptic density in layers II/III and Va after re-adaptation were no longer observed, whereas in layer IV the density of synapses increased notably in flight animals (a difference of 185 million synapses per mm(3) or 13.4%). In addition, all the changes observed only affected asymmetrical synapses, which are known to be excitatory. These results indicates that terrestrial gravity is a necessary environmental parameter for normal cortical synaptogenesis. These findings are fundamental in planning future long-term spaceflights.

  17. Is skeletal muscle ready for long-term spaceflight and return to gravity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    It is now clear that prevention of muscle debilitation during spaceflight will require a broader approach than simple exercise aimed at strengthening of the muscle fibers. The levels of several hormones and receptors are altered by unloading and must be returned to homeostasis. Pharmacotherapy and gene transfer strategies to raise the relative level of structural proteins may minimize the problems faced by astronauts in readapting to Earth-gravity. Up to now, we have only minimally exploited microgravity for advancing our understanding of muscle biology. A research laboratory in the space station with a centrifuge facility (gravity control) is essential for conducting basic research in this field. Microgravity has proven an excellent tool for noninvasively perturbing the synthesis of muscle proteins in the search for molecular signals and gene regulatory factors influencing differentiation, growth, maintenance and atrophy of muscle. Understanding the relation between blood flow and interstitial edema and between workload and subsequent structural failure are but two important problems that require serious attention. The roles of hormones and growth factors in regulating gene expression and their microgravity-induced altered production are other urgent issues to pursue. These types of studies will yield information that advances basic knowledge of muscle biology and offers insights into countermeasure design. This knowledge is likely to assist rehabilitation of diseased or injured muscles in humans on Earth, especially individuals in the more vulnerable aging population and persons participating in strenuous sports. Will the skeletal muscle system be prepared for the increased exposure to microgravity and the return to gravity loading without injury when space station is operational? The answer depends in large part on continued access to space and funding of ground-based models and flight experiments. The previous two decades of spaceflight research have described

  18. Effect of Spaceflight on the Functions of NK and LAK Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight-associated stress alters some aspects of the human immune response. In this study, we determined the effects of 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle on the cytotoxic activity of NK and LAK cells. The subjects of this study were crewmembers of two 10-day shuttle flights. Ten-ml blood specimens were obtained from ten astronauts 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and 3 days after landing. PBMCs were separated from the blood specimens and stored at -800 C. All PBMCs were thawed simultaneously, and the cytotoxic activities of NK and LAK cells were measured by a 4-hour Cr-51 release assay. K562 cells were used to assess NK-cell cytotoxicity. After 4 days of IL-2 activation, the LAK cell cytotoxic activity was determined using K562 and Daudi cells as the target cells. NK-cell cytotoxicity was decreased at landing (p less than 0.0005) in 9/10 astronauts, and in most cases recovered to preflight levels by 3 days after landing; NK-cell cytotoxicity was increased in one astronaut at landing. LAK cytotoxic activity against K562 cells was decreased at landing in 6/10 astronauts (p=0.018), and activity against Daudi cells was decreased in 7/10 astronauts (p=0.01). Phenotyping of PBMCs and LAK cells showed alterations in some surface markers and adhesion molecules (CD1 1 b, CD1 1 c, CD1 1 a, CD1 6, L-Selectin and CD3). Thus spaceflight leads to a decrease in the functions of NK and LAK cells in most astronauts.

  19. Is skeletal muscle ready for long-term spaceflight and return to gravity?

    PubMed

    Riley, D A

    1999-01-01

    It is now clear that prevention of muscle debilitation during spaceflight will require a broader approach than simple exercise aimed at strengthening of the muscle fibers. The levels of several hormones and receptors are altered by unloading and must be returned to homeostasis. Pharmacotherapy and gene transfer strategies to raise the relative level of structural proteins may minimize the problems faced by astronauts in readapting to Earth-gravity. Up to now, we have only minimally exploited microgravity for advancing our understanding of muscle biology. A research laboratory in the space station with a centrifuge facility (gravity control) is essential for conducting basic research in this field. Microgravity has proven an excellent tool for noninvasively perturbing the synthesis of muscle proteins in the search for molecular signals and gene regulatory factors influencing differentiation, growth, maintenance and atrophy of muscle. Understanding the relation between blood flow and interstitial edema and between workload and subsequent structural failure are but two important problems that require serious attention. The roles of hormones and growth factors in regulating gene expression and their microgravity-induced altered production are other urgent issues to pursue. These types of studies will yield information that advances basic knowledge of muscle biology and offers insights into countermeasure design. This knowledge is likely to assist rehabilitation of diseased or injured muscles in humans on Earth, especially individuals in the more vulnerable aging population and persons participating in strenuous sports. Will the skeletal muscle system be prepared for the increased exposure to microgravity and the return to gravity loading without injury when space station is operational? The answer depends in large part on continued access to space and funding of ground-based models and flight experiments. The previous two decades of spaceflight research have described

  20. Inflight Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Responses to Medications Commonly Used in Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Derendorf, H.; Kast, J.; Barger, L.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Researchers do not know if medications act the same in the spaceflight environment as they do on Earth. Aspects of the spaceflight environment (low gravity, radiation exposure, closed environment, stress) have been shown to alter human physiology. Some of these physiological changes could be expected to alter either pharmacokinetics (PK, how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes and excretes administered medications) or pharmacodynamics (PD, receptors or signaling systems that are the targets of medication action). Anecdotal data has suggested that, at least for certain medications or indications, inflight medication efficacy is poor. In order to prepare for exploration missions where speedy evacuation to Earth may not be a possibility, the likelihood of unexpected medication action must be determined. METHODS: This protocol was approved by the JSC IRB. This study will include administration of an antibiotic medication, either alone or in combination with sleep aid. Both study medications are FDA-approved prescription drugs and available for use on the ISS. After (double-blind) drug administration, blood samples will be collected over a period of 8 hours. These samples will be analyzed for content of the administered drug(s) and their metabolites, and pharmacokinetic analyses conducted. At the same time points when blood samples are collected, several measures of sleep/wakefulness and cognitive performance will be collected, including actigraphy, electroencephalography, and the psychomotor vigilance test (with the Cognition [1] suite of tests at certain, key, time points). This protocol will be conducted on crewmember volunteers pre-flight, during flight (post FD42), and post-flight so that flight-ground comparisons can be made for each individual. RESULTS: Results from the "Rx Metabolism" study will provide unique information on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a microgravity environment. This information will allow the medical community

  1. Spaceflight and hindlimb suspension disuse models in mice.

    PubMed

    Milstead, Jeffery R; Simske, Steven J; Bateman, Ted A

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fractures. The microgravity of space creates an extreme environment that provides a model for osteoporosis in humans. This greatly accelerated form of osteopenia results in a 0.5-2% loss of bone mass per month. Rat models for this osteoporosis have been examined on many occasions, but STS-108 was the first Space Shuttle flight to use mice. Data reported to date indicate that spaceflight experiments with mice hold promise in predicting some spaceflight effects on humans. Due to the cost and infrequency of flights, ground-based models have been developed to mimic the deleterious effects of the microgravity environment. Hindlimb suspension is one such localized model. This model removes gravitational loading from the hindlimbs by suspending the animal by its tail to a guy wire that runs lengthwise across the cage. Because mice had not flown before STS-108, a direct comparison of this model's ability to predict spaceflight results has not been examined. The objective of this research is to closely repeat the STS-108 profile, with hindlimb suspension replacing spaceflight. This includes examining the ability of the protein osteoprotegerin, an osteoclast-inhibiting therapeutic, to mitigate the deleterious effects of skeletal unloading. It is expected that the results will lead to better understanding of the mechanisms of mineralization and bone remodeling to aid in development of countermeasures to prevent spaceflight induced osteoporosis and aid the treatment of osteoporosis here on earth. PMID:15133943

  2. Flexor bias of joint position in humans during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Goulet, C.; Boorman, G. I.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to estimate ankle and elbow joint position was tested before, during, and after a 17-day spaceflight. Subjects estimated targeted joint angles during isovelocity (IsoV) joint movements with agonist muscle groups either active or relaxed. These movements included elbow extension (EE) and elbow flexion (EF), and plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) of the ankle. Subjects also estimated these joint positions while moving the dynamometer at their chosen (variable) velocity (VarV) during EE and PF. For IsoV tests, no differences were observed between active and passive movements for either the ankle or elbow. Compared with those of pre-flight test days, estimates of targeted elbow joint angles were approximately 5 degrees to 15 degrees more flexed in-flight, and returned toward the pre-flight values during recovery. The spaceflight effects for the ankle were inconsistent and less prevalent than those for the elbow. The VarV PF test condition for the 120 degrees target angle at the ankle exhibited approximately 5 degrees to 7 degrees more DF target angle estimates in-flight compared with those pre- or post-flight. In contrast, during IsoV PF there was a tendency for ankle estimates to be approximately 2 degrees to 3 degrees more PF after 2-3 days exposure to spaceflight. These data indicate that during spaceflight the perception of elbow extension is greater than actuality, and are consistent with the interpretation that microgravity induced a flexor bias in the estimation of the actual elbow joint position. Moreover, these effects in joint proprioception during spaceflight were observed in individual isolated single-joint movements during tasks in which vestibular function in maintaining posture were minimal.

  3. Structural alteration in the pore motif of the bacterial 20S proteasome homolog HslV leads to uncontrolled protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyong; Lee, Jung Wook; Yoo, Hee Min; Ha, Byung Hak; An, Jun Yop; Jeon, Young Joo; Seol, Jae Hong; Eom, Soo Hyun; Chung, Chin Ha

    2013-08-23

    In all cells, ATP-dependent proteases play central roles in the controlled degradation of short-lived regulatory or misfolded proteins. A hallmark of these enzymes is that proteolytic active sites are sequestered within a compartmentalized space, which is accessible to substrates only when they are fed into the cavity by protein-unfolding ATPases. HslVU is a prototype of such enzymes, consisting of the hexameric HslU ATPase and the dodecameric HslV protease. HslV forms a barrel-shaped proteolytic chamber with two constricted axial pores. Here, we report that structural alterations of HslV's pore motif dramatically affect the proteolytic activities of both HslV and HslVU complexes. Mutations of a conserved pore residue in HslV (Leu88 to Ala, Gly, or Ser) led to a tighter binding between HslV and HslU and a dramatic stimulation of both the proteolytic and ATPase activities. Furthermore, the HslV mutants alone showed a marked increase of basal hydrolytic activities toward small peptides and unstructured proteins. A synthetic peptide of the HslU C-terminal tail further stimulated the proteolytic activities of these mutants, even allowing degradation of certain folded proteins in the absence of HslU. Moreover, expression of the L88A mutant in Escherichia coli inhibited cell growth, suggesting that HslV pore mutations dysregulate the protease through relaxing the pore constriction, which normally prevents essential cellular proteins from random degradation. Consistent with these observations, an X-ray crystal structure shows that the pore loop of L88A-HslV is largely disordered. Collectively, these results suggest that substrate degradation by HslV is controlled by gating of its pores. PMID:23707406

  4. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, C A

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

  5. Genome-wide expression analysis of reactive oxygen species gene network in Mizuna plants grown in long-term spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spaceflight environment have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce oxidative stress in plants, but little is known about the gene expression of the ROS gene network in plants grown in long-term spaceflight. The molecular response and adaptation to the spaceflight environment of Mizuna plants harvested after 27 days of cultivation onboard the International Space Station (ISS) were measured using genome-wide mRNA expression analysis (mRNA-Seq). Results Total reads of transcripts from the Mizuna grown in the ISS as well as on the ground by mRNA-Seq showed 8,258 and 14,170 transcripts up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in the space-grown Mizuna when compared with those from the ground-grown Mizuna. A total of 20 in 32 ROS oxidative marker genes were up-regulated, including high expression of four hallmarks, and preferentially expressed genes associated with ROS-scavenging including thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, and alternative oxidase genes. In the transcription factors of the ROS gene network, MEKK1-MKK4-MPK3, OXI1-MKK4-MPK3, and OXI1-MPK3 of MAP cascades, induction of WRKY22 by MEKK1-MKK4-MPK3 cascade, induction of WRKY25 and repression of Zat7 by Zat12 were suggested. RbohD and RbohF genes were up-regulated preferentially in NADPH oxidase genes, which produce ROS. Conclusions This large-scale transcriptome analysis revealed that the spaceflight environment induced oxidative stress and the ROS gene network activation in the space-grown Mizuna. Among transcripts altered in expression by space conditions, some were common genes response to abiotic and biotic stress. Furthermore, certain genes were exclusively up-regulated in Mizuna grown on the ISS. Surprisingly, Mizuna grew in space normally, as well as on the ground, demonstrating that plants can acclimate to long-term exposure in the spaceflight environment by reprogramming the expression of the ROS gene network. PMID:24393219

  6. Bone marrow mononuclears from murine tibia after spaceflight on biosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena; Roe, Maria; Buravkova, Ludmila; Andrianova, Irina; Goncharova, Elena; Gornostaeva, Alexandra

    Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this is provided by project "BION -M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 30-day flight on biosatellite "BION - M1" and the subsequent 7-day recovery on the quantity, viability, immunophenotype of mononuclears from murine tibia bone marrow. Also the in vitro characterization of functional capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was scheduled. Under the project, the S57black/6 mice were divided into groups: spaceflight/vivarium control, recovery after spaceflight/ vivarium control to recovery. Bone marrow mononuclears were isolated from the tibia and immunophenotyped using antibodies against CD45, CD34, CD90 on a flow cytometer Epics XL (Beckman Coulter). A part of the each pool was frozen for subsequent estimation of hematopoietic colony-forming units (CFU), the rest was used for the evaluation of fibroblast CFU (CFUf) number, MSC proliferative activity and osteogenic potency. The cell number in the flight group was significantly lower than in the vivarium control group. There were no differences in this parameter between flight and control groups after 7 days of recovery. The mononuclears viability was more than 95 percent in all examined groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed no differences in the bone marrow cell immunophenotype (CD45, CD34, CD90.1 (Thy1)), but the flight animals had more large-sized CD45+mononuclears, than the control groups of mice. There was no difference in the CFUf number between groups. After 7 days in vitro the MSC number in flight group was twice higher than in vivarium group, after 10 days - 4 times higher. These data may indicate a higher proliferative activity of MSCs after spaceflight. MSCs showed the same and high alkaline phosphatase activity, both in flight and in the control groups, suggesting no effect of spaceflight factors on early

  7. Practical and clinical nutritional concerns during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seddon, M. R.; Fettman, M. J.; Phillips, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Experience with space exploration to date has raised more questions regarding nutritional requirements for astronauts than it has answered. As mission lengths continue to increase, nutrient imbalances due to alterations in intake, dietary requirements, bioavailability, or excretion, may become more important. Factors adversely affecting intake include those as straightforward as stress and as complex as space-adaptation syndrome. Metabolic alterations induced by shifts in fluid and electrolyte balance, neuroendocrine function, and changes in hepatic protein synthesis and skeletal muscle type that result in nutrient partitioning to different biochemical pathways may also affect dietary requirements. Food processing effects on nutrient stability and digestibility, which apply to limited quantities of our usual diet on Earth, may become more important for diets that contain little fresh food during extended-length missions. Whereas nutrient and water recycling through ecosystems is taken for granted on Earth, specific effects of trace contaminant accumulation will require greater attention for prolonged space flights. Human factors, esthetics, and user-friendly operations will be necessary to facilitate the psychological as well as physiological health of the astronauts.

  8. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight.

  10. The Importance of Multilateral Safety Requirements for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program initially implemented safety requirements in a series of bilateral agreements between NASA and each International Partner. As the program matured and multilateral processes began to be developed, the differences between these bilaterally agreed requirement sets became more significant. Efforts to develop multilateral safety requirements were hampered for many reasons including assessment of national standards used in the bilateral agreements, requirements baselines for existing contracts, and resource limitations to address requirements changes late in the development and operations phases. To avoid similar requirements issues in the future, international safety requirements need to be developed for human spaceflight. This paper will provide the background of the ISS bilateral Safety and Mission Assurance requirements and processes, describe the activities to develop multilateral safety requirements and processes, and give examples of issues that were encountered. Further, the paper will make recommendations regarding the development of international safety requirements for human spaceflight and the safety topics to be addressed.

  11. Studies of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Tom; Pool, Sam

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during space flight have been suspected of contributing to space motion sickness. The horizontal VOR was studied in nine subjects on two space shuttle missions. Active unpaced head oscillation at 0.3 Hz was used as the stimulus to examine the gain and phase of the VOR with and without visual input, as well as the visual suppression of the reflex. No statistically significant changes were noted inflight in the gains or phase shifts of the VOR during any test condition, or between space motion sickness susceptible and nonsusceptible populations. Although VOR suppression was unaffected by spaceflight, the space motion sickness-susceptible group tended to exhibit greater error in the suppression than the nonsusceptible group. It is concluded that at this stimulus frequency, VOR gain is unaffected by space-flight, and any minor individual changes do not seem to contribute to space motion sickness.

  12. Defining Operational Space Suit Requirements for Commercial Orbital Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    As the commercial spaceflight industry transitions from suborbital brevity to orbital outposts, spacewalking will become a major consideration for tourists, scientists, and hardware providers. The challenge exists to develop a space suit designed for the orbital commercial spaceflight industry. The unique needs and requirements of this industry will drive space suit designs and costs that are unlike any existing product. Commercial space tourists will pay for the experience of a lifetime, while scientists may not be able to rely on robotics for all operations and external hardware repairs. This study was aimed at defining space suit operational and functional needs across the spectrum of spacewalk elements, identifying technical design drivers and establishing appropriate options. Recommendations from the analysis are offered for consideration

  13. Response of lymphocytes to a mitogenic stimulus during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Several studies were performed that demonstrate that immunological activities of lymphocytes can be affected by spaceflight or by models that attempt to simulate some aspects of weightlessness. Included among these are the responses of lymphocytes to external stimuli such as mitogens and viruses. When cultures of lymphocytes were flown in space, the ability of the lymphocytes to respond to mitogens was inhibited. Similar results were obtained when lymphocytes from astronauts or animals just returned from space were placed into culture immediately upon return to earth, and when models of hypogravity were used. Lymphocytes placed in culture during spaceflights produced enhanced levels of interferon compared to control cultures. When cultures of lymphocytes were prepared for cosmonauts or rodents immediately upon return to earth, interferon production was inhibited. These results suggest that space flight can have profound effects on lymphocyte function, and that effects on isolated cells may be different from that on cells in the whole organism.

  14. From suborbital space tourism to commercial personal spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Walter

    2010-06-01

    Excellent essays have been recently published on the profitability and the future of space tourism. This paper is intended to supplement the considerations in this field and emphasizes the further potential evolution of commercial personal spaceflights. Indeed, based upon work done at the International Space University (ISU) the oligopolistic character of suborbital space tourism has been linked to marketing and product life cycle (PLC) considerations and has led to the thesis that space tourism as a profitable sector will require a follow-on strategy. Orbital space tourism, on one hand, could become an extension of the PLC but, on the other hand, it is assumed that point-to-point (P2P) commercial space transport will become the long term sustainable market. Without ignoring technical challenges, this paper will mainly concentrate on marketing and commercial aspects of personal spaceflight.

  15. Spaceflight and protein metabolism, with special reference to humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Gaprindashvili, T.

    1994-01-01

    Human space missions have shown that human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. Specific changes include a loss of lean body mass, decreased muscle mass in the calves, decreased muscle strength, and changes in plasma proteins and amino acids. The major muscle loss is believed to be associated with the antigravity (postural) muscle. The most significant loss of protein appears to occur during the first month of flight. The etiology is believed to be multifactorial with contributions from disuse atrophy, undernutrition, and a stress type of response. This article reviews the results of American and Russian space missions to investigate this problem in humans, monkeys, and rats. The relationship of the flight results with ground-based models including bedrest for humans and hindlimb unweighting for rats is also discussed. The results suggest that humans adapt to spaceflight much better than either monkeys or rats.

  16. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  17. Effects of spaceflight on rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Recktenwald, M. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Roy, R. R.; Riazanski, S.; McCall, G. E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Washburn, D. A.; Fanton, J. W.; Edgerton, V. R.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Effects of spaceflight on Rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G. Locomotor performance, activation patterns of the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and tibialis anterior (TA) and MG tendon force during quadrupedal stepping were studied in adult Rhesus before and after 14 days of either spaceflight (n = 2) or flight simulation at 1G (n = 3). Flight simulation involved duplication of the spaceflight conditions and experimental protocol in a 1G environment. Postflight, but not postsimulation, electromyographic (EMG) recordings revealed clonus-like activity in all muscles. Compared with preflight, the cycle period and burst durations of the primary extensors (Sol, MG, and VL) tended to decrease postflight. These decreases were associated with shorter steps. The flexor (TA) EMG burst duration postflight was similar to preflight, whereas the burst amplitude was elevated. Consequently, the Sol:TA and MG:TA EMG amplitude ratios were lower following flight, reflecting a "flexor bias." Together, these alterations in mean EMG amplitudes reflect differential adaptations in motor-unit recruitment patterns of flexors and extensors as well as fast and slow motor pools. Shorter cycle period and burst durations persisted throughout the 20-day postflight testing period, whereas mean EMG returned to preflight levels by 17 days postflight. Compared with presimulation, the simulation group showed slight increases in the cycle period and burst durations of all muscles. Mean EMG amplitude decreased in the Sol, increased in the MG and VL, and was unchanged in the TA. Thus adaptations observed postsimulation were different from those observed postflight, indicating that there was a response unique to the microgravity environment, i.e., the modulations in the nervous system controlling locomotion cannot merely be attributed to restriction of movement but appear to be the result of changes in the interpretation of load-related proprioceptive feedback

  18. Spaceflight effects on biomechanical and biochemical properties of rat vertebrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Salem, G. J.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The biomechanical and biochemical responses of lumbar vertebral bodies during a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) were determined for rapidly growing rats (90-day-old, Czechoslovakian-Wistar). By use of age-matched vivarium controls (normal cage environment) and synchronous controls (simulated flight conditions), as well as a basal control group (killed before lift-off on the 1st day of flight), the combined influences of growth and space-flight could be examined. Centra of the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were compressed to 50% strain at a fast strain rate while immersed in physiological buffer (37 degrees C). The body masses of vivarium and synchronous controls were significantly heavier than either the flight or basal controls. The flight group had an L6 vertebral body compressional stiffness that was 39% less than the vivarium controls, 47% less than the synchronous control, and 16% less than the basal controls. In addition, the average initial maximum load of the flight L6 was 22% less than vivarium controls and 18% less than the synchronous controls, whereas the linear compressional load of the flight group averaged 34% less than the vivarium and 25% less than the synchronous groups. The structural properties of the vertebrae from the 12.5-day-younger basal group closely resembled the flight vertebrae. Calcium, phosphorous, and hydroxyproline concentrations were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the lack of strength and stiffness development in spaceflight, coupled with a smaller proportion of mature hydroxypyridinoline cross-links, suggested that the 12.5 days of spaceflight slowed the maturation of trabecular bone in the vertebral bodies of rapidly growing rats.

  19. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

  20. Shifts in bone marrow cell phenotypes caused by spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M Teresa; Pecaut, Michael J; Gridley, Daila S; Stodieck, Louis S; Ferguson, Virginia; Chapes, Stephen K

    2009-02-01

    Bone marrow cells were isolated from the humeri of C57BL/6 mice after a 13-day flight on the space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-118 to determine how spaceflight affects differentiation of cells in the granulocytic lineage. We used flow cytometry to assess the expression of molecules that define the maturation/activation state of cells in the granulocytic lineage on three bone marrow cell subpopulations. These molecules included Ly6C, CD11b, CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), Ly6G (Gr-1), F4/80, CD44, and c-Fos. The three subpopulations were small agranular cells [region (R)1], larger granular cells (R2), which were mostly neutrophils, and very large, very granular cells (R3), which had properties of macrophages. Although there were no composite phenotypic differences between total bone marrow cells isolated from spaceflight and ground-control mice, there were subpopulation differences in Ly6C (R1 and R3), CD11b (R2), CD31 (R1, R2, and R3), Ly6G (R3), F4/80 (R3), CD44(high) (R3), and c-Fos (R1, R2, and R3). In particular, the elevation of CD11b in the R2 subpopulation suggests neutrophil activation in response to landing. In addition, decreases in Ly6C, c-Fos, CD44(high), and Ly6G and an increase in F4/80 suggest that the cells in the bone marrow R3 subpopulation of spaceflight mice were more differentiated compared with ground-control mice. The presence of more differentiated cells may not pose an immediate risk to immune resistance. However, the reduction in less differentiated cells may forebode future consequences for macrophage production and host defenses. This is of particular importance to considerations of future long-term spaceflights. PMID:19056998

  1. Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Crucian, Brian; Simpson, Richard J; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Chouker, Alexander; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K; Salam, Alex P; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2014-07-01

    Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during spaceflight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize immune dysregulation in astronauts to enable development of a monitoring strategy and validate any necessary countermeasures. Although the International Space Station affords an excellent platform for on-orbit research, access may be constrained by technical, logistical vehicle or funding limitations. Therefore, terrestrial spaceflight analogs will continue to serve as lower cost, easier access platforms to enable basic human physiology studies. Analog work can triage potential in-flight experiments and thus result in more focused on-orbit studies, enhancing overall research efficiency. Terrestrial space analogs generally replicate some of the physiological or psychological stress responses associated with spaceflight. These include the use of human test subjects in a laboratory setting (i.e. exercise, bed rest, confinement, circadian misalignment) and human remote deployment analogs (Antarctica winterover, undersea, etc.) that incorporate confinement, isolation, extreme environment, physiological mission stress and disrupted circadian rhythms. While bed rest has been used to examine the effects of physical deconditioning, radiation and microgravity may only be simulated in animal or microgravity cell culture (clinorotation) analogs. This article will characterize the array of terrestrial analogs for spaceflight immune dysregulation, the current evidence base for each, and interpret the analog catalog in the context of acute and chronic stress. PMID:24462949

  2. The Challenges and Achievements in 50 Years of Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    On April 12, 1961 the era of human spaceflight began with the orbital flight of Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. On May 5, 1961 The United States responded with the launch of Alan Shepard aboard Freedom 7 on the first flight of Project Mercury. The focus of the first 20 years of human spaceflight was developing the fundamental operational capabilities and technologies required for a human mission to the Moon. The Mercury and Gemini Projects demonstrated launch and entry guidance, on-orbit navigation, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and flight durations equivalent to a round-trip to the Moon. Heroes of this epoch included flight directors Chris Kraft, Gene Kranz, and Glynn Lunney along with astronauts like John Young, Jim Lovell, Tom Stafford, and Neil Armstrong. The "Race to the Moon” was eventually won by the United States with the landing of Apollo 11 on July 20, 1969. The Apollo program was truncated at 11 missions and a new system, the Space Shuttle, was developed which became the focus of the subsequent 30 years. Although never able to meet the flight rate or cost promises made in the 1970s, the Shuttle nevertheless left a remarkable legacy of accomplishment. The Shuttle made possible the launch and servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and diverse activities such as life science research and classified national security missions. The Shuttle launched more than half the mass ever put into orbit and its heavy-lift capability and large payload bay enabled the on-orbit construction of the International Space Station. The Shuttle also made possible spaceflight careers for scientists who were not military test pilots - people like me. In this talk I will review the early years of spaceflight and share my experiences, including two missions with HST, from the perspective of a five-time flown astronaut and a senior flight operations manager.

  3. The Human Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, Rose Marie; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Robertson, David

    2003-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important part of the autonomic (or automatic) nervous system. When an individual stands up, the sympathetic nervous system speeds the heart and constricts blood vessels to prevent a drop in blood pressure. A significant number of astronauts experience a drop in blood pressure when standing for prolonged periods after they return from spaceflight. Difficulty maintaining blood pressure with standing is also a daily problem for many patients. Indirect evidence available before the Neurolab mission suggested the problem in astronauts while in space might be due partially to reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. The purpose of this experiment was to identify whether sympathetic activity was reduced during spaceflight. Sympathetic nervous system activity can be determined in part by measuring heart rate, nerve activity going to blood vessels, and the release of the hormone norepinephrine into the blood. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter discharged from active sympathetic nerve terminals, so its rate of release can serve as a marker of sympathetic nervous system action. In addition to standard cardiovascular measurements (heart rate, blood pressure), we determined sympathetic nerve activity as well as norepinephrine release and clearance on four crewmembers on the Neurolab mission. Contrary to our expectation, the results demonstrated that the astronauts had mildly elevated resting sympathetic nervous system activity in space. Sympathetic nervous system responses to stresses that simulated the cardiovascular effects of standing (lower body negative pressure) were brisk both during and after spaceflight. We concluded that, in the astronauts tested, the activity and response of the sympathetic nervous system to cardiovascular stresses appeared intact and mildly elevated both during and after spaceflight. These changes returned to normal within a few days.

  4. Midodrine prevents orthostatic intolerance associated with simulated spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Sundby, G. H.; Rostoft, S.; Sheynberg, N.; Aljuri, N.; Maa, M.; Mukkamala, R.; Sherman, D.; Toska, K.; Yelle, J.; Bloomfield, D.; Williams, G. H.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight.

  5. Exercise as a countermeasure for physiological adaptation to prolonged spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A

    1996-08-01

    Exercise represents the primary countermeasure used during spaceflight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels following prolonged spaceflight. As human spaceflight exposures increase in duration, assessment and development of various effective exercise-based protective procedures become paramount. This must involve improvement in specific countermeasure prescription as well as development of additional approaches that will allow space travelers greater flexibility and medical safety during long flights. Effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiological stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity and understanding of how specific combinations of exercise characteristics e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, mode) can mimic these stimuli and affect the overall process of adaptation to microgravity. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments. Future attention must be directed to improving exercise compliance while minimizing both crew time and the impact of the exercise on life-support resources. PMID:8871910

  6. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  7. Spaceflight Effects on Cytochrome P450 Content in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Moskaleva, Natalia; Moysa, Alexander; Novikova, Svetlana; Tikhonova, Olga; Zgoda, Victor; Archakov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Hard conditions of long-term manned spaceflight can affect functions of many biological systems including a system of drug metabolism. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily plays a key role in the drug metabolism. In this study we examined the hepatic content of some P450 isoforms in mice exposed to 30 days of space flight and microgravity. The CYP content was established by the mass-spectrometric method of selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Significant changes in the CYP2C29, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 contents were detected in mice of the flight group compared to the ground control group. Within seven days after landing and corresponding recovery period changes in the content of CYP2C29 and CYP1A2 returned to the control level, while the CYP2E1 level remained elevated. The induction of enzyme observed in the mice in the conditions of the spaceflight could lead to an accelerated biotransformation and change in efficiency of pharmacological agents, metabolizing by corresponding CYP isoforms. Such possibility of an individual pharmacological response to medication during long-term spaceflights and early period of postflight adaptation should be taken into account in space medicine. PMID:26561010

  8. Exercise as a countermeasure for physiological adaptation to prolonged spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Exercise represents the primary countermeasure used during spaceflight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels following prolonged spaceflight. As human spaceflight exposures increase in duration, assessment and development of various effective exercise-based protective procedures become paramount. This must involve improvement in specific countermeasure prescription as well as development of additional approaches that will allow space travelers greater flexibility and medical safety during long flights. Effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiological stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity and understanding of how specific combinations of exercise characteristics e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, mode) can mimic these stimuli and affect the overall process of adaptation to microgravity. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments. Future attention must be directed to improving exercise compliance while minimizing both crew time and the impact of the exercise on life-support resources.

  9. The application of waste management systems for long duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Oglesby, James M

    2012-01-01

    In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew's living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition. PMID:22316723

  10. Adaptations of human skeletal muscle fibers to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, M. Kathleen; Allen, David L.; Mohajerani, Laleh; Greenisen, Michael C.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1995-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle fibers seem to share most of the same interrelationships among myosin ATPase activity, myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype, mitochondrial enzyme activities, glycolytic enzyme activities, and cross-sectional area (CSA) as found in rat, cat, and other species. One difference seems to be that fast fibers with high mitochrondrial content occur less frequently in humans than in the rat or cat. Recently, we have reported that the type of MHC expressed and the size of the muscle fibers in humans that have spent 11 days in space change significantly. Specifically, about 8% more fibers express fast MHCs and all phenotypes atrophy in the vastus lateralis (VL) post compared to preflight. In the present paper we examine the relationships among the population of myonuclei, MHC type, and CSA of single human muscle fibers before and after spaceflight. These are the first data that define the relationship among the types of MHC expressed, myonuclei number, and myonuclei domain of single fibers in human muscle. We then compare these data to similar measures in the cat. In addition, the maximal torque that can be generated by the knee extensors and their fatigability before and after spaceflight are examined. These data provide some indication of the potential physiologica consequences of the muscle adaptations that occur in humans in response to spaceflight.

  11. Effect of spaceflight on isoflavonoid accumulation in etiolated soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sager, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the potential impact of microgravity on flavonoid biosynthesis, we examined isoflavonoid levels in soybean (Glycine max) tissues generated under both spaceflight and clinorotation conditions. A 6-day Space Shuttle-based microgravity exposure resulted in enhanced accumulation of isoflavone glycosides (daidzin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) in hypocotyl and root tissues, but reduced levels in cotyledons (relative to 1g controls on Earth). Soybean seedlings grown on a horizontally rotating clinostat for 3, 4 and 5 days exhibited (relative to a vertical clinorotation control) an isoflavonoid accumulation pattern similar to the space-grown tissues. Elevated isoflavonoid levels attributable to the clinorotation treatment were transient, with the greatest increase observed in the three-day-treated tissues and smaller increases in the four- and five-day-treated tissues. Differences between stresses presented by spaceflight and clinorotation and the resulting biochemical adaptations are discussed, as is whether the increase in isoflavonoid concentrations were due to differential rates of development under the "gravity" treatments employed. Results suggest that spaceflight exposure does not impair isoflavonoid accumulation in developing soybean tissues and that isoflavonoids respond positively to microgravity as a biochemical strategy of adaptation.

  12. Does Simulated Spaceflight Modify Epigenetic Status During Bone Remodeling?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Nicholas J.; Stevick, Rebecca J.; Tran, Luan H.; Nalavadi, Mohit O.; Almeida, Eduardo A.C.; Globus, Ruth K.; Alwood, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of spaceflight conditions on epigenetics. The term epigenetics describes changes to the genome that can affect expression of a gene without changes to the sequence of DNA. Epigenetic processes are thought to underlie cellular differentiation, where transcription of specific genes occurs in response to key stimuli, and may be heritable - passing from one cell to its daughter cell. We hypothesize that the mechanical environment during spaceflight, namely microgravity-induced weightlessness or exercise regulate gene expression in the osteoblast-lineage cells both to control bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, which continually shapes bone structure throughout life. Similarly we intend to evaluate how radiation regulates these same bone cell activity and differentiation related genes. We further hypothesize that the regulation in bone cell gene expression is at least partially controlled through epigenetic mechanisms of methylation or small non-coding RNA (microRNAs). We have acquired preliminary data suggesting that global genome methylation is modified in response to axial compression of the tibia - a model of exercise. We intend to pursue these hypotheses wherein we will evaluate changes in gene expression and, congruently, changes in epigenetic state in bones from mice subjected to the aforementioned conditions: hindlimb unloading to simulate weightlessness, axial compression of the tibia, or radiation exposure in order to gain insight into the role of epigenetics in spaceflight-induced bone loss.

  13. Genomic response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elgans to spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selch, F.; Szewczyk, N.; Conley, C.

    On Earth it is common practice to employ laboratory animals such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to help understand human health concerns Studies of model organisms in Earth orbit should similarly help understand and address the concerns associated with spaceflight The International Ceonorhabditis elegans Experiment FIRST ICE FIRST was carried out onboard the Dutch Taxiflight in April of 2004 by an international collaboration of laboratories in France Canada Japan and the United States Animals developed normally in flight and returned in good apparent health With the exception of a slight movement defect upon return to Earth no significant abnormalities were detected Work from Japan revealed that apoptosis proceeds normally and work from Canada revealed no significant increase in the rate of mutation in flight These results appear similar to what is observed for humans and suggest that C elegans can be used to study non-lethal responses to spaceflight and can possibly be developed as a biological sensor To further our understanding of C elegans response to spaceflight we examined the gene transcription response using a near full genome microarray analysis Here we will report the transcriptional response of C elegans to the 10 days in space This transcriptional response is consistent with the observed normal development apoptosis and DNA repair Additionally several genes that may be involved in the movement defect have been identified Our presentation will compare the genome response of three independent samples in which stress

  14. Midodrine prevents orthostatic intolerance associated with simulated spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, C D; Mullen, T J; Sundby, G H; Rostoft, S; Sheynberg, N; Aljuri, N; Maa, M; Mukkamala, R; Sherman, D; Toska, K; Yelle, J; Bloomfield, D; Williams, G H; Cohen, R J

    2001-06-01

    Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. PMID:11356789

  15. Reduction of Dietary Acid Load as a Potential Countermeasure for Bone Loss Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Watts, S. M.; Sams, C. F.; Whitson, P. A.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    In several studies we tested the concepts that diet can alter acid-base balance and that reducing the dietary acid load has a positive effect on maintenance of bone. In study 1, (n = 11, 60-90 d bed rest), the renal acid load of the diet was estimated from its chemical composition, and was positively correlated with urinary markers of bone resorption (P less than 0.05); that is, the greater the acid load, the greater the excretion of bone resorption markers. In study 2, in males (n = 8, 30 d bed rest), an estimate of the ratio of nonvolatile acid precursors to base precursors in the diet was positively correlated (P less than 0.05) with markers of bone resorption. In study 3, for 28 d subjects received either a placebo (n = 6) or an essential amino acid supplement (n = 7) that included methionine, a known acid precursor. During bed rest (28 d), urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels in the supplemented group but not the control group (P less than 0.05), and in the supplemented group, urinary pH decreased (P less than 0.05). In study 4, less bone resorption occurred in space crew members who received potassium citrate (n = 6) during spaceflight of 4-6 months than in crew members who received placebo or were not in the study (n = 8) (P less than 0.05). Reducing acid load has the potential to mitigate increased bone resorption during spaceflight, and may serve as a bone loss countermeasure.

  16. Influence of spaceflight on the production of interleukin-3 and interleukin-6 by rat spleen and thymus cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Edwin S.; Koebel, D. Anne; Sonnefeld, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were flown on the 7-day US space shuttle mission STS-54. After flight, the spleen and thymus from each animal were assayed for the capacity to secrete the cytokines interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-6. Spleen and thymus cells were incubated for 48 h in the presence of 5 microgram/ml of concanavalin A or 2 microgram/ml of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to stimulate the production of IL-3 and IL-6. IL-3 activity was measured using the IL-3/colony-stimulating-factor-dependent cell line 32D. IL-6 activity was measured using the IL-6-dependent cell line 7TD1. Spleen and thymus cells harvested from flown rats secreted significantly higher titers of biologically active IL-3 compared with ground control rats. Spaceflight significantly enhanced IL-6 production by thymus, but not spleen, cells. The results of this study demonstrate that spaceflight can enhance the production of certain cytokines by cells of the immune system.

  17. Energy expenditure and balance during spaceflight on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Hoyt, R. W.; Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. E.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to measure human energy expenditure (EE) during spaceflight on a shuttle mission by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; 2) to determine whether the astronauts were in negative energy balance during spaceflight; 3) to use the comparison of change in body fat as measured by the intake DLW EE, 18O dilution, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to validate the DLW method for spaceflight; and 4) to compare EE during spaceflight against that found with bed rest. Two experiments were conducted: a flight experiment (n = 4) on the 16-day 1996 life and microgravity sciences shuttle mission and a 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest study with controlled dietary intake (n = 8). The bed rest study was designed to simulate the flight experiment and included exercise. Two EE determinations were done before flight (bed rest), during flight (bed rest), and after flight (recovery). Energy intake and N balance were monitored for the entire period. Results were that body weight, water, fat, and energy balance were unchanged with bed rest. For the flight experiment, decreases in weight (2.6 +/- 0.4 kg, P < 0.05) and N retention (-2. 37 +/- 0.45 g N/day, P < 0.05) were found. Dietary intake for the four astronauts was reduced in flight (3,025 +/- 180 vs. 1,943 +/- 179 kcal/day, P < 0.05). EE in flight was 3,320 +/- 155 kcal/day, resulting in a negative energy balance of 1,355 +/- 80 kcal/day (-15. 7 +/- 1.0 kcal. kg-1. day-1, P < 0.05). This corresponded to a loss of 2.1 +/- 0.4 kg body fat, which was within experimental error of the fat loss determined by 18O dilution (-1.4 +/- 0.5 kg) and DEXA (-2.4 +/- 0.4 kg). All three methods showed no change in body fat with bed rest. In conclusion, 1) the DLW method for measuring EE during spaceflight is valid, 2) the astronauts were in severe negative energy balance and oxidized body fat, and 3) in-flight energy (E) requirements can be predicted from the equation: E = 1.40 x resting

  18. SHIVA (Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan; Rangel, Roger; Coimbra, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides the description and results of a ground-based experiment designed to support the spaceflight program SHIVA, which started its flight definition in 1998. SHIVA will apply new diagnostic tools and experimental techniques to test the validity of a newly discovered analytical solution to the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid. We have designed a spaceflight experiment with the help of the theoretical model that is optimized for testing the model, and for measuring g, g-jitter, and other microgravity phenomena. Our ongoing, ground-based particle/fluid experiment supports both the experimental and theoretical aspects of the project. The ultimate spaceflight experiment will be similar to the ground-based experiment. The "virtual spaceflight chamber" concept asserts that certain spaceflight experiments can be recorded in holograms in such a manner that having the holograms on earth is optically equivalent to being back in space with unlimited time to conduct the experiment. Properly exploited, this concept can save a significant amount of experiment time in space by effectively bringing the. experiment optically back to earth. SHIVA will accomplish the following: record a large number of holograms of particle fields in space under controlled conditions, extract the precise, three-dimensional position of all of the particles as a function of time, examine the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles, and test these against predictions of the Coimbra-Range1 solution to the general equation of motion. Particle sizes will range from hundreds of microns up to about 2 mm in diameter and will cover a range of densities and fluid viscosities. Forcing functions will be introduced onto the particle field, including at least the following: a) No isolation in the Spacelab vibration environment. b) Isolation from Spacelab. c) Oscillatory motion from 1 to 100 Hz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. d) Convective fields to be

  19. Human spaceflight in the UK: the cost of non-participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Human space exploration is not considered a strategic priority in the United Kingdom at present. However the UK would benefit from participating in human spaceflight, for both scientific and social reasons. From the point of view of medical science there are many parallels between the physiology of spaceflight and terrestrial disease processes, and studies of the response of astronauts to long-duration spaceflight can therefore help in the development of therapeutic strategies on Earth. On the social side, human spaceflight is an attractive vehicle for stimulating the interest of young people in science and engineering, something that must be of value for an aspiring ‘knowledge-based’ economy.

  20. Gravity in mammalian organ development: differentiation of cultured lung and pancreas rudiments during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Hardman, P.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Organ culture of embryonic mouse lung and pancreas rudiments has been used to investigate development and differentiation, and to assess the effects of microgravity on culture differentiation, during orbital spaceflight of the shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-54). Lung rudiments continue to grow and branch during spaceflight, an initial result that should allow future detailed study of lung morphogenesis in microgravity. Cultured embryonic pancreas undergoes characteristic exocrine acinar tissue and endocrine islet tissue differentiation during spaceflight, and in ground controls. The rudiments developing in the microgravity environment of spaceflight appear to grow larger than their ground counterparts, and they may have differentiated more rapidly than controls, as judged by exocrine zymogen granule presence.

  1. Effect of Spaceflight on the Circadian Rhythm, Lifespan and Gene Expression of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kanyan

    2015-01-01

    Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China’s Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern. The expression level and rhythm of major clock genes were also unaffected. However, expression profiling showed differentially regulated output genes of the circadian clock system between space flown and control flies, suggesting that spaceflight affected the circadian output pathway. We also investigated other physiological effects of spaceflight such as lipid metabolism and lifespan, and searched genes significantly affected by spaceflight using microarray analysis. These results provide new information on the effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and lifespan. Furthermore, we showed that studying the effect of spaceflight on gene expression using samples collected at different Zeitgeber time could obtain different results, suggesting the importance of appropriate sampling procedures in studies on the effects of spaceflight. PMID:25798821

  2. Use of genome sequencing to assess nucleotide structure variation of Staphylococcus aureus strains cultured in spaceflight on Shenzhou-X, under simulated microgravity and on the ground.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Han, Na; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Haiyin; Zhang, Xuelin; Su, Longxiang; Liu, Chao; Li, Jia; Chen, Chen; Liu, Changting

    2015-01-01

    The extreme environment of space could affect microbial behavior and may increase the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight. However, the molecular genetic changes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in response to the spaceflight environment have not been fully clarified. In the present study, we determined the draft genome sequences for an ancestral S. aureus strain (LCT-SAO) isolated from a clinical sample and three derivative strains, LCT-SAS, LCT-SAM and LCT-SAG, cultured in parallel during the spaceflight Shenzhou-X, under simulated microgravity and on the ground, respectively. To evaluate the impact of short-term spaceflight on the MRSA strains, comparative genomic analysis was implemented. Genome-based mapping of toxin genes and antibiotic resistance genes confirmed that these strains have the conventional pathogenicity and resistance to drugs, as none of the strains showed significant changes in these regions after culturing in the three different environments; this result suggests that spaceflight may not change bacterial virulence or drug resistance. Thirty-nine strain-specific sequence variants (SVs) were identified throughout the genomes, and the three derivatives exhibited almost the same mutation rates. Fifty-nine percent of SVs were located in the intergenic regions of the genomes, indicating that S. aureus may have an extremely robust repair mechanism responsible for recognizing and repairing DNA replication mismatches. It is noteworthy that strain LCT-SAS, cultured in space, presented the most unique SVs (n=9) and shared the fewest SVs with LCT-SAM (n=5) and LCT-SAG (n=4). Furthermore, we identified 10 potential deletion regions and 2 potential insertion regions, with LCT-SAS appearing more fragile than other strains by this measure. These results suggest that the environment of space is inherently complicated, with multiple variables, and cannot be simulated in a simple manner. Our results represent the first analysis of

  3. Olfactory Environment Design for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, C. S.; Holland, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Smell is usually deemed the least important of the five senses. To contradict this assertion, however, there is no shortage of scientific literature which concludes that olfaction is of very great significance to humans. Odours have been shown to have a variety of effects on humans, and are capable of changing both behaviour and cognitive processing in ways that we are frequently completely unconscious of. Examples of this include alertness, alteration of mood, capacity for ideation and intellectual performance. To date, the design of human spacecraft has concentrated on making their olfactory environments, where possible, `odour neutral' - that is ensuring that all unpleasant and/or offensive odours are removed. Here it suggested that spacecraft (and other extraterrestrial facilities for human inhabitation) might benefit from having their olfactory environments designed to be `odour positive', that is to use odours and olfaction for the positive benefit of their residents. This paper presents a summary of current olfactory research and considers both its positive and negative implications for humans in space. It then discusses `odour positive' design of spacecraft olfactory environments and the possible benefits accruing from this approach before examining its implications for the architecture of spacecraft environmental control systems.

  4. Human Spaceflight Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    I. During each nine-hour shift (or upon request), the Orbital Safety Analyst (OSA) at JSpOC updates the entire tracked catalog with the latest tracking data from the SSN and screens this catalog against NASA s assets. a) For ISS operations, a 72-hour advance screening is performed. b) For Shuttle orbit operations, a 36-hour advance screening is performed. c) If a vehicle is performing a maneuver during the screening period, OSA uses post-reboost-trajectory data supplied by Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H) for screening. II. An automated process is used to detect any conjunctions within 10 x 40 x 40 km box (centered on the vehicle) using Special Perturbation (SP) processing: a) Box dimensions are Radial x Downtrack x Crosstrack. b) Any object found within this box has the tracking tasking level increased to improve (hopefully) its uncertainty in its current and predicted orbital trajectory. c) OSA informs NASA if any object is found inside a 2 x 25 x 25 km box then creates and sends an Orbital Conjunction Message (OCM) to NASA which contains detailed information about the conjunction. d) For Shuttle, the box size used for screening and reporting is altered for special operations (day of rendezvous, launch screening, etc.).

  5. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation, physiological stress and circadian rhythms were assessed during six month spaceflight onboard ISS. Blood and saliva samples were collected early, mid and late in-flight and returned for immediate analysis. Mid-point study data (10 of 17 planned subjects) will be presented. Results: Some shifts in leukocyte distribution occurred during flight, including alterations in CD8+ T cell maturation. General T cell function was consistently reduced early in-flight. Levels CD8+/IFNg+ producing T cells were depressed early in-flight, and immediately upon landing. Persistent mitogen-dependant reductions were observed in IFNg, IL-17a, IL-10, TNFa and IL-6 production. Monocyte production of IL-10 was reduced, whereas IL-8 levels were increased. Levels of mRNA for the TNFa, IL-6 and IFNg were transiently elevated early in-flight, and the dynamics of TNF and IL-6 gene expression were somewhat antagonistic to their corresponding receptors during flight. The number of virus-specific CD8+ T-cells was measured using MHC tetramers, while their function was measured using intracellular cytokine analysis following peptide stimulation. Both the number and function of EBV-specific cells decreased during flight as compared to preflight levels. The number of CMV-specific T-cells generally increased as the mission progressed while their function was variable. Viral (EBV) load in blood was elevated postflight. Anti-EBV VCA antibodies were significantly elevated by R+0; anti-EA antibodies were not significantly elevated at landing; and anti-CMV antibodies were somewhat elevated during flight. Higher levels of salivary EBV DNA were found during flight. VZV DNA reactivation occurred in 50 % of astronauts during flight, continuing for up to 30 days post-flight. CMV was shed in 35 % the in-flight and 30% of postflight urine samples of the crewmembers. There was generally a higher level of cortisol as measured in urine and saliva in the

  6. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  7. Behavioral, Brain Imaging and Genomic Measures to Predict Functional Outcomes Post - Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; DeDios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Goel, R.; Seidler, R. D.; Oddsson, L.; Zanello, S.; Clarke, T.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Reschke, M.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. These alterations may disrupt crewmembers' ability to perform mission critical functional tasks requiring ambulation, manual control and gaze stability. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. For such an approach to succeed, we must develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to foresee, before actual spaceflight, which crewmembers are likely to experience the greatest challenges to their adaptive capacities. The goals of this project are to identify and characterize this set of predictive measures. Our approach includes: 1) behavioral tests to assess sensory bias and adaptability quantified using both strategic and plastic-adaptive responses; 2) imaging to determine individual brain morphological and functional features, using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging, resting state functional connectivity MRI, and sensorimotor adaptation task-related functional brain activation; and 3) assessment of genotypic markers of genetic polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyl transferase, dopamine receptor D2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes and genetic polymorphisms of alpha2-adrenergic receptors that play a role in the neural pathways underlying sensorimotor adaptation. We anticipate that these predictive measures will be significantly correlated with individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability after long-duration spaceflight and exposure to an analog bed rest environment. We will be conducting a

  8. EcAMSat: Effect of Space-Flight on Antibiotic Resistance of a Pathogenic Bacterium and its Genetic Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matin, A. C.; Benoit, M.; Chin. M.; Chinn, T. N.; Cohen, A.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M. B.; Keyhan, M.; Lera, M. P.; Padgen, M. R.; Parra, M. P.; Ricco, A. J.; Singh, R.; Snyder, T.; Spremo, S. M.; Wang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human immune response is compromised in space and incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in astronauts has been reported. We have found that the causative agent of UTI, the uropathogenic Escherichia coli, becomes more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), which is commonly used to treat this disease, under modeled microgravity conditions (MMG), the increase being controlled by the stress response master regulator, ss. While the wild type bacterium becomes virtually invincible under MMG, the strain missing this sigma factor barely survives. We report here preparatory ground work for testing this finding in space flight on a nanosatellite. We have shown that the effect of Gm treatment on culture viability is directly correlated to increased Alamar Blue (AB) reduction; we have identified conditions to keep the experimental elements - the bacterial cultures, Gm, and AB - in a state of viability and potency to permit successful spaceflight experimentation given the necessary constraints. Spaceflight kinetics of AB reduction will be transmitted from the satellite via telemetry. The PharmaSat hardware previously used for space experimentation with yeast was modified to permit studies with bacteria by reducing the filter pore size and increasing fluidics volume to enable more fluid exchanges. Several verification tests have been run using the nanosatellite's flight software and prototype hardware. Cells were grown to stationary phase to induce the ss-controlled stress resistance and treated with Gm. Without Gm, the mutant took longer than the wild type to reduce the AB; this time difference increased almost 8 fold at 55 µg/mL Gm concentration. Thus, using flight hardware the mutant shows similarly increased sensitivity to Gm compared to the wild type to that found in our pilot microtiter plate experiments. Previous inflight experiments have given contradictory results concerning bacterial antibiotic resistance; none has yet explored the involvement of specific genes in this

  9. What Happens to bone health during and after spaceflight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Evans, Harlan J.; Spector, Elisabeth R.; Maddocks, Mary J.; Smith, Scott A.; Shackelford, Linda C.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.

    2006-01-01

    Weightless conditions of space flight accelerate bone loss. There are no reports to date that address whether the bone that is lost during spaceflight could ever be recovered. Spaceinduced bone loss in astronauts is evaluated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Astronauts are routinely scanned preflight and at various time points postflight (greater than or equal to Return+2 days). Two sets of BMD data were used to model spaceflight-induced loss and skeletal recovery in crewmembers following long-duration spaceflight missions (4-6 months). Group I was from astronauts (n=7) who were systematically scanned at multiple time points during the postflight period as part of a research protocol to investigate skeletal recovery. Group II came from a total of 49 sets of preflight and postflight data obtained by different protocols. These data were from 39 different crewmembers some of whom served on multiple flights. Changes in BMD (between pre- and postflight BMD) were plotted as a function of time (days-after-landing); plotted data were fitted to an exponential equation which enabled estimations of i) BMD change at day 0 after landing and ii) the number of days by which 50% of the lost bone is recovered (half-life). These fits were performed for BMD of the lumbar spine, trochanter, pelvis, femoral neck and calcaneus. There was consistency between the models for BMD recovery. Based upon the exponential model of BMD restoration, recovery following long-duration missions appears to be substantially complete in crewmembers within 36 months following return to Earth.

  10. Midodrine as a Countermeasure for Post-Spaceflight Orthostatic Hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Meck, Janice V.; Platts, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    One possible mechanism for post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension, which affects approximately 30% of astronauts after short duration shuttle missions, is inadequate norepinephrine release during upright posture. We performed a two phased study to determine the effectiveness of an alpha1-adrenergic agonist, midodrine, as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension. The first phase of the study examined the landing day orthostatic responses of six veteran astronauts after oral midodrine (10 mg) administered on the ground within approximately two hours of wheel stop. One female crewmember exhibited orthostatic hypotension in a previous flight but not after midodrine. Five male crewmembers, who did not exhibit orthostatic hypotension during previous flights, also did not show signs of orthostatic hypotension after midodrine. Additionally, phase one showed that midodrine did not cause hypertension in these crewmembers. In the second phase of this study, midodrine is ingested inflight (near time of ignition, TIG) and orthostatic responses are determined immediately upon landing via an 80 degree head-up tilt test performed on the crew transport vehicle (CTV). Four of ten crewmembers have completed phase two of this study. Two crewmembers completed the landing day tilt tests, while two tests were ended early due to presyncopal symptoms. All subjects had decreased landing day stroke volumes and increased heart rates compared to preflight. Midodrine appears to have increased total peripheral resistance in one crewmember who was able to complete the landing day tilt test. The effectiveness of midodrine as a countermeasure to immediate post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension has yet to be determined; interpretation is made more difficult due to low subject number and the lack of control subjects on the CTV.

  11. The catecholamine response to spaceflight: role of diet and gender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Compared with men, women appear to have a decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to stress. The two manifestations where the sexual dimorphism has been the most pronounced involve the response of the SNS to fluid shifts and fuel metabolism during exercise. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a similar sexual dimorphism was found in the response to spaceflight. To do so, we compared catecholamine excretion by male and female astronauts from two similar shuttle missions, Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS1, 1991) and 2 (SLS2, 1993) for evidence of sexual dimorphism. To evaluate the variability of the catecholamine response in men, we compared catecholamine excretion from the two SLS missions against the 1996 Life and Microgravity Sciences Mission (LMS) and the 1973 Skylab missions. RESULTS: No gender- or mission-dependent changes were found with epinephrine. Separating out the SLS1/2 data by gender shows that norepinephrine excretion was essentially unchanged with spaceflight in women (98 +/- 10%; n = 3) and substantially decreased with the men (41 +/- 9%; n = 4, P < 0.05). Data are a percentage of mean preflight value +/- SE. Comparisons among males demonstrated significant mission effects on norepinephrine excretion. After flight, there was a transient increase in norepinephrine but no evidence of any gender-specific effects. We conclude that norepinephrine excretion during spaceflight is both mission and gender dependent. Men show the greater response, with at least three factors being involved, a response to microgravity, energy balance, and the ratio of carbohydrate to fat in the diet.

  12. Cardiovascular and sympathetic neural responses to handgrip and cold pressor stimuli in humans before, during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Cox, James F.; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Ray, Chester A.; Smith, Michael L.; Iwase, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsuru; Sugiyama, Yoshiki; Mano, Tadaaki; Zhang, Rong; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C Jr; Cooke, William H.; Robertson, Rose Marie; Baisch, Friedhelm J.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts returning to Earth have reduced orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system and neuromuscular function after spaceflight might contribute to this problem. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs autonomic neural control of sympathetic outflow in response to peripheral afferent stimulation produced by handgrip and a cold pressor test in humans. We studied five astronauts approximately 72 and 23 days before, and on landing day after the 16 day Neurolab (STS-90) space shuttle mission, and four of the astronauts during flight (day 12 or 13). Heart rate, arterial pressure and peroneal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded before and during static handgrip sustained to fatigue at 40 % of maximum voluntary contraction, followed by 2 min of circulatory arrest pre-, in- and post-flight. The cold pressor test was applied only before (five astronauts) and during flight (day 12 or 13, four astronauts). Mean (+/- S.E.M.) baseline heart rates and arterial pressures were similar among pre-, in- and post-flight measurements. At the same relative fatiguing force, the peak systolic pressure and mean arterial pressure during static handgrip were not different before, during and after spaceflight. The peak diastolic pressure tended to be higher post- than pre-flight (112 +/- 6 vs. 99 +/- 5 mmHg, P = 0.088). Contraction-induced rises in heart rate were similar pre-, in- and post-flight. MSNA was higher post-flight in all subjects before static handgrip (26 +/- 4 post- vs. 15 +/- 4 bursts min(-1) pre-flight, P = 0.017). Contraction-evoked peak MSNA responses were not different before, during, and after spaceflight (41 +/- 4, 38 +/- 5 and 46 +/- 6 bursts min(-1), all P > 0.05). MSNA during post-handgrip circulatory arrest was higher post- than pre- or in-flight (41 +/- 1 vs. 33 +/- 3 and 30 +/- 5 bursts min(-1), P = 0.038 and 0.036). Similarly, responses of MSNA and blood pressure

  13. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, Diana; Orr, Martin; Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren; Sandoval, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the need for a shared definitional model of long duration human spaceflight, that would provide a framework and vision to facilitate communication, research and practice In 1956, on the eve of human space travel, Hubertus Strughold first proposed a "simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight" that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Here we describe our preliminary findings and outline potential approaches for the future development of a definition and broader classification system

  14. Technology assessment for Spaceship Two, space tourism, and private spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Randy

    A seven-step technology assessment was conducted to address questions regarding the significance and likely consequences associated with the introduction of Spaceship Two, space tourism, and private spaceflight. Impacts were assessed across four categories: the Role and Functions of Government, Private Industry Factors, Cultural and Societal Impacts, and the Time Frame in which these impacts were anticipated to occur. The technology assessment findings were compared to the results of expert interviews that addressed the sane four categories. The researcher noted that, while there was overwhelming agreement between the technology assessment's primary impacts and the expert interview responses, there were several differences. The technology assessment and interviewees agreed that the federal government would likely be both a regulator and user of private spaceflight. Both agreed that business partnerships would be key in pursuing private spaceflight. There was also consensus that, as market forces come to bear, ticket prices would drop and a larger market and broader passenger demographic would emerge. The technology assessment and experts agreed that an accident, especially one early in the industry's evolution, could be disastrous. Both agreed that private spaceflight can serve as a inspiration to students and be a positive influence in society, and both agreed that the start of passenger flights should take place in the 2010 - 2012 timeframe. Due to the potentially disastrous consequences of an accident, there was agreement between the technology assessment and experts on the value of flight and ground crew training, driven by insurance carriers and federal mandate. Most differences between the technology assessment's findings and the expert interview responses were due to omission, rather than direct disagreement. However, this was not the case in every instance. The most significant difference between the technology assessment and the experts involved the

  15. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  16. Spaceflight tracking and data network operational reliability assessment for Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seneca, V. I.; Mlynarczyk, R. H.