Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Interspecific competition among different species of insect parasitoids may affect the establishment or efficacies of these species in biological control of targeted pests. The endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and the ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang, two gregarious larval parasito...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The braconid, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a very destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We have identified and synthesized seven male-produced compounds. A flight tunnel bioassay identified t...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Field-cages were used to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-sea...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Three hymenopteran parasitoids introduced from China are currently being released in Michigan and surrounding states in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmare, an Asian beetle species responsible for widespread mortality of Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North A...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Oobius agrili is a solitary egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and can be responsible for 50-60% of EAB egg mortality in its native range. O. agrili has been released for biological control of EAB in the US since 2007; however, current methods to monitor its establishme...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Understanding interspecific competition among insect parasitoids is important in designing classical biological control programs that involve multiple species introductions. Spathius galinae, a new idiobiont ectoparasitoid from the Russian Far East, is currently being considered for introduction to ...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...
Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith
2015-06-01
Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215
Yang-Yang Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: A Brilliant Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Xi-Wen; Chen, Yang-Yang
C. N. Yang and C. P. Yang in 1969 (J. Math. Phys. 10, 1115 (1969)) for the first time proposed a rigorous approach to the thermodynamics of the one-dimensional system of bosons with a delta-function interaction. This paper was a breakthrough in exact statistical mechanics, after C. N. Yang (Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 1312 (1967)) published his seminal work on the discovery of the Yang-Baxter equation in 1967. Yang and Yang's brilliant method yields significant applications in a wide range of fields of physics. In this communication, we briefly introduce the method of the Yang-Yang equilibrium statistical mechanics and demonstrate a fundamental application of the Yang-Yang method for the study of thermodynamics of the Lieb-Liniger model with strong and weak interactions in a whole temperature regime. We also consider the equivalence between the Yang-Yang's thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equation and the thermodynamics of the ideal gas with the Haldane's generalized exclusion statistics.
Finite mass gravitating Yang monopoles
Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram
2008-12-15
We show that gravity cures the infrared divergence of the Yang monopole when a proper definition of conserved quantities in curved backgrounds is used, i.e. the gravitating Yang monopole in cosmological Einstein theory has a finite mass in generic even dimensions (including time). In addition, we find exact Yang-monopole type solutions in the cosmological Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-Yang-Mills theory and briefly discuss their properties.
Balakin, A. B.; Zayats, A. E.; Sushkov, S. V.
2007-04-15
We discuss exact solutions of a three-parameter nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills model, which describe the wormholes of a new type. These wormholes are considered to be supported by the SU(2)-symmetric Yang-Mills field, nonminimally coupled to gravity, the Wu-Yang ansatz for the gauge field being used. We distinguish between regular solutions, describing traversable nonminimal Wu-Yang wormholes, and black wormholes possessing one or two event horizons. The relation between the asymptotic mass of the regular traversable Wu-Yang wormhole and its throat radius is analyzed.
Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi
2014-06-01
Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651
Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J
2014-08-01
Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418
Yang-Yang equilibrium statistical mechanics: A brilliant method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Xi-Wen; Chen, Yang-Yang
2016-03-01
Yang and Yang in 1969 [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1115 (1969)] for the first time proposed a rigorous approach to the thermodynamics of the one-dimensional system of bosons with a delta-function interaction. This paper was a breakthrough in exact statistical mechanics, after Yang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 1312 (1967)] published his seminal work on the discovery of the Yang-Baxter equation in 1967. Yang and Yang’s brilliant method yields significant applications in a wide range of fields of physics. In this paper, we briefly introduce the method of the Yang-Yang equilibrium statistical mechanics and demonstrate a fundamental application of the Yang-Yang method for the study of thermodynamics of the Lieb-Liniger model with strong and weak interactions in a whole temperature regime. We also consider the equivalence between the Yang-Yang’s thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equation and the thermodynamics of the ideal gas with the Haldane’s generalized exclusion statistics.
Gauging Quantum Groups: Yang-Baxter Joining Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yong-Shi
This review is an expansion of my talk at the conference on Sixty Years of Yang-Mills Theory. I review and explain the line of thoughts that lead to a recent joint work with Hu and Geer [Hu et al., arXiv:1502.03433] on the construction, exact solutions and ubiquitous properties of a class of quantum group gauge models on a honey-comb lattice. Conceptually the construction achieves a synthesis of the ideas of Yang-Baxter equations with those of Yang-Mills theory. Physically the models describe topological anyonic states in 2D systems.
Gauging quantum groups: Yang-Baxter joining Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yong-Shi
2016-02-01
This review is an expansion of my talk at the conference on Sixty Years of Yang-Mills Theory. I review and explain the line of thoughts that lead to a recent joint work with Hu and Geer [Hu et al., arXiv:1502.03433] on the construction, exact solutions and ubiquitous properties of a class of quantum group gauge models on a honey-comb lattice. Conceptually the construction achieves a synthesis of the ideas of Yang-Baxter equations with those of Yang-Mills theory. Physically the models describe topological anyonic states in 2D systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya
2016-04-01
We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.
Experimental Observation of Lee-Yang Zeros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xinhua; Zhou, Hui; Wei, Bo-Bo; Cui, Jiangyu; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Ren-Bao
2015-01-01
Lee-Yang zeros are points on the complex plane of physical parameters where the partition function of a system vanishes and hence the free energy diverges. Lee-Yang zeros are ubiquitous in many-body systems and fully characterize their thermodynamics. Notwithstanding their fundamental importance, Lee-Yang zeros have never been observed in experiments, due to the intrinsic difficulty that they would occur only at complex values of physical parameters, which are generally regarded as unphysical. Here we report the first observation of Lee-Yang zeros, by measuring quantum coherence of a probe spin coupled to an Ising-type spin bath. The quantum evolution of the probe spin introduces a complex phase factor and therefore effectively realizes an imaginary magnetic field. From the measured Lee-Yang zeros, we reconstructed the free energy of the spin bath and determined its phase transition temperature. This experiment opens up new opportunities of studying thermodynamics in the complex plane.
Braces and the Yang-Baxter Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cedó, Ferran; Jespers, Eric; Okniński, Jan
2014-04-01
Several aspects of relations between braces and non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation are discussed and many consequences are derived. In particular, for each positive integer n a finite square-free multipermutation solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with multipermutation level n and an abelian involutive Yang-Baxter group is constructed. This answers a problem of Gateva-Ivanova and Cameron. It is proved that finite non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation whose associated involutive Yang-Baxter group is abelian are multipermutation solutions. Earlier the authors proved this with the additional square-free hypothesis on the solutions. It is also proved that finite square-free non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions associated to a left brace are multipermutation solutions.
Mass gap in Yang's theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2015-06-01
The quantization of a curvature-squared model of gravity, in the affine form proposed by Yang, is reconsidered in the path integral formulation. Due to its inherent Weyl invariance, sharing this with internal Yang-Mills fields, it or some of its topological generalizations are still a possible route to quantum gravity. Instanton type solutions with double duality properties exhibit a "vacuum degeneracy", i.e. a bifurcation into distinct classical Einsteinian backgrounds. For linearized fields, this conclusively induces a mass gap in the graviton spectrum, a feature which is an open problem in the quantization of internal Yang-Mills fields.
Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.
1979-01-01
We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.
The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yablon, Jay R.
2014-03-01
The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory. The mass gap is filled from finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbation tensor containing vacuum excitations. This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a ``steroidal'' minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to source currents through an infinite recursive nesting. Based on combining classical Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons. Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with viewing Dirac's gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime. Finally, with aid from the ``steroidal'' view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration. This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.
Yin and yang surfaces: an evolutionary perspective.
Legge, David
2014-12-01
A search of the Chinese medicine literature reveals several conflicting explanations of the division of the body into yin and yang surfaces. This paper attempts to clarify this basic concept and reconcile the differing descriptions of it through an exploration of material from other disciplines. A remarkable similarity exists between the surfaces on the human body that are defined by the pathways of the yin and yang meridians and those that have evolved from the ventral and the dorsal aspects of early vertebrate structure. Many of the evolutionary changes described have parallels in our embryological development and are evident in the underlying anatomy of our limbs. The degree of convergence between the two descriptions strongly supports the definition of the yin and yang surfaces as those traversed by the yin and yang meridians. It also goes a long way towards reconciling the conflicting definitions found in the literature. Finding a solution to this question of yin and yang surfaces that is based on anatomy and evolutionary theories has several advantages. It can throw light on differences in the clinical effects of points on the yin and yang meridians and enable the identification of anomalies in the pathways of the main meridian network. PMID:25499561
Yang/Qi Invigoration: An Herbal Therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome with Yang Deficiency?
Wong, Hoi Shan; Chen, Jihang; Ko, Kam Ming
2015-01-01
According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, Yang and Qi are driving forces of biological activities in the human body. Based on the crucial role of the mitochondrion in energy metabolism, we propose an extended view of Yang and Qi in the context of mitochondrion-driven cellular and body function. It is of interest that the clinical manifestations of Yang/Qi deficiencies in TCM resemble those of chronic fatigue syndrome in Western medicine, which is pathologically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. By virtue of their ability to enhance mitochondrial function and its regulation, Yang- and Qi-invigorating tonic herbs, such as Cistanches Herba and Schisandrae Fructus, may therefore prove to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome with Yang deficiency. PMID:25763095
Yang-Baxter deformations of Minkowski spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Takuya; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2015-10-01
We study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime. The Yang-Baxter sigma model description was originally developed for principal chiral models based on a modified classical Yang-Baxter equation. It has been extended to coset curved spaces and models based on the usual classical Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, for flat space, there is the obvious problem that the standard bilinear form degenerates if we employ the familiar coset Poincaré group/Lorentz group. Instead we consider a slice of AdS5 by embedding the 4D Poincaré group into the 4D conformal group SO(2, 4) . With this procedure we obtain metrics and B-fields as Yang-Baxter deformations which correspond to well-known configurations such as T-duals of Melvin backgrounds, Hashimoto-Sethi and Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich backgrounds, the T-dual of Grant space, pp-waves, and T-duals of dS4 and AdS4. Finally we consider a deformation with a classical r-matrix of Drinfeld-Jimbo type and explicitly derive the associated metric and B-field which we conjecture to correspond to a new integrable system.
Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herscovich, Estanislao
2013-06-01
We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, for p ≥ 3, or p = 2 and q ≥ 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ≥ 3 and s ≥ 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.
Yang-Mills for Historians and Philosophers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crease, R. P.
The phrase "Yang-Mills" can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the "Pauli snag," or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.
Yang-Mills for historians and philosophers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crease, R. P.
2016-01-01
The phrase “Yang-Mills” can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the “Pauli snag,” or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.
Einstein-Yang-Mills theory: Asymptotic symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnich, Glenn; Lambert, Pierre-Henry
2013-11-01
Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four-dimensional asymptotically flat case.
Yang-Baxter {breve R} matrix, entanglement and Yangian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gangcheng; Xue, Kang; Sun, Chunfang; Du, Guijiao
2012-12-01
We present a method to construct "X" form unitary Yang-Baxter {breve R} matrices, which act on the tensor product space {Vi^{j1}⊗ V_{i+1}^{j2}} . We can obtain a set of entangled states for (2 j 1 + 1) × (2 j 2 + 1)-dimensional system with these Yang-Baxter {breve R} matrices. By means of Yang-Baxter approach, a 8 × 8 Yang-Baxter Hamiltonian is constructed. Yangian symmetry and Yangian generators as shift operators for this Yang-Baxter system are investigated in detail.
Yang-Baxter deformations of Minkowski spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jun-ichi, Sakamoto
2016-01-01
We discuss Yang-Baxter sigma deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime proposed recently. To avoid the degeneracy of the standard bilinear form associated with the familiar coset ISO(1,3)/SO(1,3), we consider a slice of AdS5 in Poincaré coordinates by embedding the 4D Poincaré group into the 4D conformal group SO(2,4). With this procedure we present the metrics and B-fields as Yang-Baxter deformations which correspond to well-known backgrounds such as T-duals of Melvin backgrounds, Hashimoto-Sethi and Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich backgrounds, pp-waves, and T-duals of dS4 and AdS4. Finally we consider a deformation with a classical r-matrix of Drinfeld-Jimbo type and explicitly derive the associated metric and B-field.
Gravitino interactions from Yang-Mills theory
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Engelund, Oluf Tang
2010-05-15
We fabricate gravitino vertex interactions, using as only input on-shell Yang-Mills amplitudes and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye gauge theory/gravity relations, aiming to achieve a better understanding of Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorizations for gravitinos at an off-shell Lagrangian level. A useful by-product of this analysis is simpler tree-level Feynman rules for gravitino scattering than in traditional gauges. All results are explicitly verified until five-point scattering.
C. N. Yang on Teaching and Research in Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yu; Waxman, David
2016-04-01
This document is based on five conversations between Prof. C. N. Yang and others in Beijing in 1986. In the conversations, Yang gave his views on the state and development of physics at that time, and the relationship between physics and philosophy. The conversations also contain Yang’s reminiscences on the creation of Yang-Mills theory and his advice to young people, especially those in China.
Grassmann extensions of Yang-Baxter maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grahovski, G. G.; Konstantinou-Rizos, S.; Mikhailov, A. V.
2016-04-01
In this paper we show that there are explicit Yang-Baxter (YB) maps with Darboux-Lax representation between Grassman extensions of algebraic varieties. Motivated by some recent results on noncommutative extensions of Darboux transformations, we first derive a Darboux matrix associated with the Grassmann-extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation, and then we deduce novel endomorphisms of Grassmann varieties, which possess the YB property. In particular, we present ten-dimensional maps which can be restricted to eight-dimensional YB maps on invariant leaves, related to the Grassmann-extended NLS and DNLS equations. We consider their vector generalisations.
Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
Peskin, M.E.
1997-02-01
These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.
YANG-MILLS FIELDS AND THE LATTICE.
CREUTZ,M.
2004-05-18
The Yang-Mills theory lies at the heart of our understanding of elementary particle interactions. For the strong nuclear forces, we must understand this theory in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. I discuss some of the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.
Redescription of Dardjilingia Yang (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from India.
Salini, S
2016-01-01
The genus Dardjilingia Yang, 1936 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Lestonocorini), comprising a single species, Dardjilingia nigriventris Yang, 1936, is redescribed and illustrated, including the descriptions of male and female genitalia for the first time. The genus Dardjilingia is removed from the present tribe Lestonocorini. PMID:27470843
Yang-Mills connections valued on the octonionic algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Restuccia, A.; Veiro, J. P.
2016-05-01
We consider a formulation of Yang-Mills theory where the gauge field is valued on an octonionic algebra and the gauge transformation is the group of automorphisms of it. We show, under mild assumptions, that the only possible gauge formulations are the usual su(2) or u(1) Yang-Mills theories.
Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yu
2014-06-01
In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.
Quantum Yang-Mills Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasechnik, Roman
2016-02-01
In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein--Yang--Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang--Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann--Lema\\'itre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua compensation arising from leading-order graviton-mediated corrections to the QCD ground state.
Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Feussner, Kirstin; Zierer, Wolfgang; Rabinovych, Valentyna; Klebl, Franz; Feussner, Ivo; Sauer, Norbert
2011-05-01
The 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) or Yang cycle is a set of reactions that recycle MTA to Met. In plants, MTA is a byproduct of polyamine, ethylene, and nicotianamine biosynthesis. Vascular transcriptome analyses revealed phloem-specific expression of the Yang cycle gene 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE KINASE1 (MTK1) in Plantago major and Arabidopsis thaliana. As Arabidopsis has only a single MTK gene, we hypothesized that the expression of other Yang cycle genes might also be vascular specific. Reporter gene studies and quantitative analyses of mRNA levels for all Yang cycle genes confirmed this hypothesis for Arabidopsis and Plantago. This includes the Yang cycle genes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE1 and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1. We show that these two enzymes are sufficient for the conversion of methylthioribose-1-phosphate to 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In bacteria, fungi, and animals, the same conversion is catalyzed in three to four separate enzymatic steps. Furthermore, comparative analyses of vascular and nonvascular metabolites identified Met, S-adenosyl Met, and MTA preferentially or almost exclusively in the vascular tissue. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the Yang cycle in higher plants and demonstrate that the Yang cycle works primarily in the vasculature. Finally, expression analyses of polyamine biosynthetic genes suggest that the Yang cycle in leaves recycles MTA derived primarily from polyamine biosynthesis. PMID:21540433
Soluble Model Fluids with Complete Scaling and Yang-Yang Features.
Cerdeiriña, Claudio A; Orkoulas, Gerassimos; Fisher, Michael E
2016-01-29
Yang-Yang (YY) and singular diameter critical anomalies arise in exactly soluble compressible cell gas (CCG) models that obey complete scaling with pressure mixing. Thus, on the critical isochore ρ=ρ(c), C(μ)≔-Td(2)μ/dT(2) diverges as |t|^(-α) when t∝T-T(c)→0^(-) while ρ(d)-ρ(c)∼|t|^(2β) where ρ(d)(T)=1/2[ρ(liq)+ρ(gas)]. When the discrete local CCG cell volumes fluctuate freely, the YY ratio R(μ)=C(μ)/C(V) may take any value -∞
Curving Yang-Mills-Higgs gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotov, Alexei; Strobl, Thomas
2015-10-01
We present a Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) gauge theory in which structure constants of the gauge group may depend on Higgs fields. The data of the theory are encoded in the bundle E →M , where the base M is the target space of Higgs fields and fibers carry information on the gauge group. M is equipped with a metric g and E carries a connection ∇. If ∇ is flat, R∇=0 , there is a local field redefinition which gives back the standard YMH gauge theory. If R∇≠0 , one obtains a new class of gauge theories. In this case, contrary to the standard wisdom of the YMH theory, the space (M ,g ) may have no isometries. We build a simple example which illustrates this statement.
Band structure in Yang-Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachas, Constantin; Tomaras, Theodore
2016-05-01
We show how Yang-Mills theory on S3 × ℝ can exhibit a spectrum with continuous bands if coupled either to a topological 3-form gauge field, or to a dynamical axion with heavy Peccei-Quinn scale. The basic mechanism consists in associating winding histories to a bosonic zero mode whose role is to convert a circle in configuration space into a helix. The zero mode is, respectively, the holonomy of the 3-form field or the axion momentum. In these models different θ sectors coexist and are only mixed by (non-local) volume operators. Our analysis sheds light on, and extends Seiberg's proposal for modifying the topological sums in quantum field theories. It refutes a recent claim that B + L violation at LHC is unsuppressed.
Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.
2015-10-01
In these lectures we review how symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of ‘Yang-Mills squared’. We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality. Lecture delivered by M. J. Duff.
The Yin and Yang of Inflammation
Blackman, Marcia A.; Yates, Jennifer L.; Spencer, Cody M.; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E.; Cooper, Andrea M.; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.
2015-01-01
Inflammation is an essential protective part of the body’s response to infection, yet many diseases are the product of inflammation. For example, inflammation can lead to autoimmune disease and tissue damage, and is a key element in chronic health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and also drives changes associated with aging. Animal models of infectious and chronic disease are important tools with which to dissect the pathways whereby inflammatory responses are initiated and controlled. Animal models therefore provide a prism through which the role of inflammation in health and disease can be viewed, and are important means by which to dissect mechanisms and identify potential therapies to be tested in the clinic. A meeting, “The Yin and Yang of Inflammation” was organized by Trudeau Institute and was held April 4–6′ 2014. The main goal was to bring together experts from biotechnology and academic organizations to examine and describe critical pathways in inflammation and place these pathways within the context of human disease. A group of ~80 scientists met for three days of intense formal and informal exchanges. A key focus was to stimulate interactions between basic research and industry. PMID:25323997
Synchronization schemes for coupled identical Yang-Yang type fuzzy cellular neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yonghui; Yang, Zijiang; Han, Maoan
2009-09-01
This paper proposes an adaptive procedure to the problem of synchronization for a class of coupled identical Yang-Yang type fuzzy cellular neural networks (YYFCNN) with time-varying delays. Based on the simple adaptive controller, a set of sufficient conditions are developed to guarantee the synchronization of the coupled YYFCNN with time-varying delays. The results are much different from previous ones. It is proved that two coupled identical YYFCNN with time-varying delays can achieve synchronization by enhancing the coupled strength dynamically. In addition, this kind of controller is simple to be implemented and it is fairly robust against the effect of weak noise in the given time series. The approaches are based on using the invariance principle of functional differential equations, constructing a general Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing a linear matrix inequality (LMI). An illustrative example and its simulations show the feasibility of our results. Finally, an application is given to show how to apply the presented synchronization scheme of YYFCNN to secure communication.
Path integral regularization of pure Yang-Mills theory
Jacquot, J. L.
2009-07-15
In enlarging the field content of pure Yang-Mills theory to a cutoff dependent matrix valued complex scalar field, we construct a vectorial operator, which is by definition invariant with respect to the gauge transformation of the Yang-Mills field and with respect to a Stueckelberg type gauge transformation of the scalar field. This invariant operator converges to the original Yang-Mills field as the cutoff goes to infinity. With the help of cutoff functions, we construct with this invariant a regularized action for the pure Yang-Mills theory. In order to be able to define both the gauge and scalar fields kinetic terms, other invariant terms are added to the action. Since the scalar fields flat measure is invariant under the Stueckelberg type gauge transformation, we obtain a regularized gauge-invariant path integral for pure Yang-Mills theory that is mathematically well defined. Moreover, the regularized Ward-Takahashi identities describing the dynamics of the gauge fields are exactly the same as the formal Ward-Takahashi identities of the unregularized theory.
Yang-Mills Theory and Fermionic Path Integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In my talk I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this talk are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.
Yang-Mills theory and fermionic path integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2016-01-01
The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In this brief review I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this review are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.
Center vortex model for Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory
Engelhardt, M.; Sperisen, B.
2006-12-15
The question whether the center vortex picture of the strongly interacting vacuum can encompass the infrared dynamics of both SU(2) as well as Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory is addressed. These two theories contain the same center vortex degrees of freedom, and yet exhibit deconfinement phase transitions of different order. This is argued to be caused by the effective action governing the vortices being different in the two cases. To buttress this argument, a random vortex world-surface model is constructed which reproduces available lattice data characterizing Sp(2) Yang-Mills confinement properties. A new effective action term which can be interpreted in terms of a vortex stickiness serves to realize a first-order deconfinement phase transition, as found in Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory. Predictions are given for the behavior of the spatial string tension at finite temperatures.
Generalized Yang-Mills actions from Dirac operator determinants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langmann, Edwin
2001-11-01
We consider the quantum effective action of Dirac fermions on four-dimensional flat Euclidean space coupled to external vector- and axial Yang-Mills fields, i.e., the logarithm of the (regularized) determinant of a Dirac operator on flat R4 twisted by generalized Yang-Mills fields. According to physics folklore, the logarithmic divergent part of this effective action in the pure vector case is proportional to the Yang-Mills action. We present a simple explicit computation proving this fact and extending it to the chiral case. We use an efficient computation method for quantum effective actions which is based on calculation rules for pseudo-differential operators and which yields an expansion of the logarithm of Dirac operators in local and quasi-gauge invariant polynomials of decreasing scaling dimension.
Yang-Baxter invariance of the Nappi-Witten model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyono, Hideki; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-04-01
We study Yang-Baxter deformations of the Nappi-Witten model with a prescription invented by Delduc, Magro and Vicedo. The deformations are specified by skew-symmetric classical r-matrices satisfying (modified) classical Yang-Baxter equations. We show that the sigma-model metric is invariant under arbitrary deformations (while the coefficient of B-field is changed) by utilizing the most general classical r-matrix. Furthermore, the coefficient of B-field is determined to be the original value from the requirement that the one-loop β-function should vanish. After all, the Nappi-Witten model is the unique conformal theory within the class of the Yang-Baxter deformations preserving the conformal invariance.
Qubit representations of the braid groups from generalized Yang-Baxter matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasquez, Jennifer F.; Wang, Zhenghan; Wong, Helen M.
2016-04-01
Generalized Yang-Baxter matrices sometimes give rise to braid group representations. We identify the exact images of some qubit representations of the braid groups from generalized Yang-Baxter matrices obtained from anyons in the metaplectic modular categories.
Qubit representations of the braid groups from generalized Yang-Baxter matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasquez, Jennifer F.; Wang, Zhenghan; Wong, Helen M.
2016-07-01
Generalized Yang-Baxter matrices sometimes give rise to braid group representations. We identify the exact images of some qubit representations of the braid groups from generalized Yang-Baxter matrices obtained from anyons in the metaplectic modular categories.
First analysis of anisotropic flow with Lee-Yang zeros
Bastid, N.; Barret, V.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Lopez, X.; Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Delalija, M.; Gaspariae, I.; Korolija, M.
2005-07-01
We report on the first analysis of directed and elliptic flow with the new method of Lee-Yang zeros. Experimental data are presented for Ru+Ru reactions at 1.69A GeV measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI. The results obtained with several methods, based on the event-plane reconstruction, on Lee-Yang zeros, and on multiparticle cumulants (up to fifth order) applied for the first time at SIS energies, are compared. They show conclusive evidence that azimuthal correlations between nucleons and composite particles at this energy are largely dominated by anisotropic flow.
Yang-Mills radiation in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyulassy, M.; McLerran, L.
1997-10-01
The classical Yang-Mills radiation computed in the McLerran-Venugopalan model is shown to be equivalent to the gluon bremsstrahlung distribution to lowest (g6) order in pQCD. The classical distribution is also shown to match smoothly onto the conventional pQCD minijet distribution at a scale k2⊥~χ, characteristic of the initial parton transverse density of the system. The atomic number and energy dependence of χ is computed from available structure function information. The limits of applicability of the classical Yang-Mills description of nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are discussed.
New Elliptic Solutions of the Yang-Baxter Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chicherin, D.; Derkachov, S. E.; Spiridonov, V. P.
2016-07-01
We consider finite-dimensional reductions of an integral operator with the elliptic hypergeometric kernel describing the most general known solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with a rank 1 symmetry algebra. The reduced R-operators reproduce at their bottom the standard Baxter's R-matrix for the 8-vertex model and Sklyanin's L-operator. The general formula has a remarkably compact form and yields new elliptic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation based on the finite-dimensional representations of the elliptic modular double. The same result is also derived using the fusion formalism.
The Yang-Baxter relation and gauge invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashaev, Rinat
2016-04-01
Starting from a quantum dilogarithm over a Pontryagin self-dual LCA group A, we construct an operator solution of the Yang-Baxter equation generalizing the solution of the Faddeev-Volkov model. Based on a specific choice of a subgroup B\\subset A and by using the Weil transformation, we also give a new non-operator interpretation of the Yang-Baxter relation. That allows us to construct a lattice QFT-model of IRF-type with gauge invariance under independent B-translations of local ‘spin’ variables. Dedicated to Professor Rodney Baxter on the occasion of his 75th birthday.
New Elliptic Solutions of the Yang-Baxter Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chicherin, D.; Derkachov, S. E.; Spiridonov, V. P.
2016-02-01
We consider finite-dimensional reductions of an integral operator with the elliptic hypergeometric kernel describing the most general known solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with a rank 1 symmetry algebra. The reduced R-operators reproduce at their bottom the standard Baxter's R-matrix for the 8-vertex model and Sklyanin's L-operator. The general formula has a remarkably compact form and yields new elliptic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation based on the finite-dimensional representations of the elliptic modular double. The same result is also derived using the fusion formalism.
Hamiltonian flow in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Leder, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel
2011-01-15
We derive a new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge. The flow equations for the static gluon and ghost propagators are solved under the assumption of ghost dominance within different diagrammatic approximations. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach and the reliability of the approximations is discussed.
Wormhole solution in coupled Yang-Mills--axion system
Das, A. Department of Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 ); Maharana, J. )
1990-01-15
We show that wormhole solutions arise naturally in the effective action, resulting from a heterotic string theory, in which Einstein gravity is coupled to the antisymmetric tensor and an SU(2) Yang-Mills field. The Peccei-Quinn scale in this case gets related to the string tension which is natural in any string compactification.
ℤ3 parafermionic chain emerging from Yang-Baxter equation
Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin
2016-01-01
We construct the 1D parafermionic model based on the solution of Yang-Baxter equation and express the model by three types of fermions. It is shown that the parafermionic chain possesses both triple degenerate ground states and non-trivial topological winding number. Hence, the parafermionic model is a direct generalization of 1D Kitaev model. Both the and model can be obtained from Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, to show the algebra of parafermionic tripling intuitively, we define a new 3-body Hamiltonian based on Yang-Baxter equation. Different from the Majorana doubling, the holds triple degeneracy at each of energy levels. The triple degeneracy is protected by two symmetry operators of the system, ω-parity P and emergent parafermionic operator Γ, which are the generalizations of parity PM and emergent Majorana operator in Lee-Wilczek model, respectively. Both the parafermionic model and can be viewed as SU(3) models in color space. In comparison with the Majorana models for SU(2), it turns out that the SU(3) models are truly the generalization of Majorana models resultant from Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26902999
Perturbation Theory of Massive Yang-Mills Fields
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Veltman, M.
1968-08-01
Perturbation theory of massive Yang-Mills fields is investigated with the help of the Bell-Treiman transformation. Diagrams containing one closed loop are shown to be convergent if there are more than four external vector boson lines. The investigation presented does not exclude the possibility that the theory is renormalizable.
ℤ3 parafermionic chain emerging from Yang-Baxter equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin
2016-02-01
We construct the 1D parafermionic model based on the solution of Yang-Baxter equation and express the model by three types of fermions. It is shown that the parafermionic chain possesses both triple degenerate ground states and non-trivial topological winding number. Hence, the parafermionic model is a direct generalization of 1D Kitaev model. Both the and model can be obtained from Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, to show the algebra of parafermionic tripling intuitively, we define a new 3-body Hamiltonian based on Yang-Baxter equation. Different from the Majorana doubling, the holds triple degeneracy at each of energy levels. The triple degeneracy is protected by two symmetry operators of the system, ω-parity P and emergent parafermionic operator Γ, which are the generalizations of parity PM and emergent Majorana operator in Lee-Wilczek model, respectively. Both the parafermionic model and can be viewed as SU(3) models in color space. In comparison with the Majorana models for SU(2), it turns out that the SU(3) models are truly the generalization of Majorana models resultant from Yang-Baxter equation.
Non-Abelian strings in supersymmetric Yang-Mills
Shifman, M.
2012-09-26
I give a broad review of novel phenomena discovered in certain Yang-Mills theories: non-Abelian strings and confined monopoles. Then I explain how these phenomena allow one to study strong dynamics of gauge theories in four dimensions from two-dimensional models emerging on the string world sheet.
Quantum Chromodynamics -- The Perfect Yang-Mills Gauge Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, David
David Gross: My talk today is about the most beautiful of all Yang-Mills Theories (non-Abelian gauge theories), the theory of the strong nuclear interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD. We are celebrating 60 years of the publication of a remarkable paper which introduced the concept of non-Abelian local gauge symmetries, now called the Yang-Mills theory, to physics. In the introduction to this paper it is noted that the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is not consistent with the concept of localized fields. This sentence has drawn attention over the years because the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is consistent, it is just not satisfactory. The authors, Yang and Mills, introduced a more satisfactory notion of local symmetry which did not require one to rotate (in isotopic spin space) the whole universe at once to achieve the symmetry transformation. Global symmetries are thus are similar to `action at a distance', whereas Yang-Mills theory is manifestly local...
ℤ3 parafermionic chain emerging from Yang-Baxter equation.
Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin
2016-01-01
We construct the 1D ℤ3 parafermionic model based on the solution of Yang-Baxter equation and express the model by three types of fermions. It is shown that the ℤ3 parafermionic chain possesses both triple degenerate ground states and non-trivial topological winding number. Hence, the ℤ3 parafermionic model is a direct generalization of 1D ℤ2 Kitaev model. Both the ℤ2 and ℤ3 model can be obtained from Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, to show the algebra of parafermionic tripling intuitively, we define a new 3-body Hamiltonian H123 based on Yang-Baxter equation. Different from the Majorana doubling, the H123 holds triple degeneracy at each of energy levels. The triple degeneracy is protected by two symmetry operators of the system, ω-parity P [formula in text] and emergent parafermionic operator Γ, which are the generalizations of parity PM and emergent Majorana operator in Lee-Wilczek model, respectively. Both the ℤ3 parafermionic model and H123 can be viewed as SU(3) models in color space. In comparison with the Majorana models for SU(2), it turns out that the SU(3) models are truly the generalization of Majorana models resultant from Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26902999
Some remarks on representations of Yang-Mills algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herscovich, Estanislao
2015-01-01
In this article, we present some new properties of representations of Yang-Mills algebras. We first show that any free Lie algebra with m generators is a quotient of the Yang-Mills algebra 𝔶𝔪(n) on n generators, for n ≥ 2m. We derive from this that any semisimple Lie algebra and even any affine Kac-Moody algebra is a quotient of 𝔶𝔪(n) for n ≥ 4. Combining this with previous results on representations of Yang-Mills algebras given in [Herscovich and Solotar, Ann. Math. 173(2), 1043-1080 (2011)], one may obtain solutions to the Yang-Mills equations by differential operators acting on sections of twisted vector bundles on the affine space of dimension n ≥ 4 associated to representations of any semisimple Lie algebra. We also show that this quotient property does not hold for n = 3, since any morphism of Lie algebras from 𝔶𝔪(3) to 𝔰𝔩(2, k) has in fact solvable image.
Yang-Baxter equations with two Planck constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, A.; Olshanetsky, M.; Zotov, A.
2016-01-01
We consider Yang-Baxter equations arising from its associative analog and study the corresponding exchange relations. They generate finite-dimensional quantum algebras which have the form of coupled {{GL}}(N) Sklyanin elliptic algebras. Then we proceed to a natural generalization of the Baxter-Belavin quantum R-matrix to the case {{Mat}}{(N,{{C}})}\\otimes 2\\otimes {{Mat}}{(M,{{C}})}\\otimes 2. It can be viewed as symmetric form of {{GL}}({NM}) R-matrix in the sense that the Planck constant and the spectral parameter enter (almost) symmetrically. Such type (symmetric) R-matrices are also shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter like quadratic and cubic equations.
On matrix model formulations of noncommutative Yang-Mills theories
Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Hirata, Tomoyoshi; Hanada, Masanori
2008-11-15
We study the stability of noncommutative spaces in matrix models and discuss the continuum limit which leads to the noncommutative Yang-Mills theories. It turns out that most noncommutative spaces in bosonic models are unstable. This indicates perturbative instability of fuzzy R{sup D} pointed out by Van Raamsdonk and Armoni et al. persists to nonperturbative level in these cases. In this sense, these bosonic noncommutative Yang-Mills theories are not well-defined, or at least their matrix model formulations studied in this paper do not work. We also show that noncommutative backgrounds are stable in a supersymmetric matrix model deformed by a cubic Myers term, though the deformation itself breaks supersymmetry.
(Super)Yang-Mills at finite heavy-quark density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Tarrío, Javier
2015-02-01
We study the gravitational duals of d-dimensional Yang-Mills theories with d ≤ 6 in the presence of an density of heavy quarks, with N the number of colors. For concreteness we focus on maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills, but our results apply to a larger class of theories with or without supersymmetry. The gravitational solutions describe renormalization group flows towards infrared scaling geometries characterized by fixed dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents. The special case d = 5 yields an geometry upon uplifting to M-theory. We discuss the multitude of physical scales that separate different dynamical regimes along the flows, as well as the validity of the supergravity description. We also present exact black brane solutions that encode the low-temperature thermodynamics.
Yang-Mills generalization of the geometrical collective model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosensteel, George; Sparks, Nick
2015-04-01
The geometrical or Bohr-Mottelson model is generalized and recast as a Yang-Mills theory. The gauge symmetry determines conservation of Kelvin circulation. The circulation commutes with the Hamiltonian when it is the sum of the kinetic energy and a potential that depends only on deformation. The conventional Bohr-Mottelson model is the special case of circulation zero, and wave functions are complex-valued. In the generalization, any quantized value of the circulation is allowed, and the wave functions are vector-valued. The Yang-Mills formulation introduces a new coupling between the geometrical and intrinsic degrees of freedom. The coupling appears in the covariant derivative term of the collective kinetic energy. This kind of coupling is sometimes called ``magnetic'' because of the analogy with electrodynamics.
HYM-flation: Yang-Mills cosmology with Horndeski coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davydov, E.; Gal'tsov, D.
2016-02-01
We propose new mechanism for inflation using classical SU (2) Yang-Mills (YM) homogeneous and isotropic field non-minimally coupled to gravity via Horndeski prescription. This is the unique generally and gauge covariant ghost-free YM theory with the curvature-dependent action leading to second-order gravity and Yang-Mills field equations. We show that its solution space contains de Sitter boundary to which the trajectories are attracted for some finite time, ensuring the robust inflation with a graceful exit. The theory can be generalized to include the Higgs field leading to two-steps inflationary scenario, in which the Planck-scale YM-generated inflation naturally prepares the desired initial conditions for the GUT-scale Higgs inflation.
C. N. Yang Discusses Physics in People's Republic of China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
Before the cultural revolution started in 1966, high-energy theorists in the People's Republic of China were very active, according to Chen Ning Yang, who recently returned from a month-long visit there. He learned that in 1965 or 1966 Chinese theorists had developed a theory of "stration" (for strata) that very much parallels the quark theory, which was proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and by George Zweig in 1964...
SL(2, r) Yang-Mills Theory on a Circle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bengtsson, Ingemar; Hallin, Joakim
The kinematic of SL(2, ℝ) Yang-Mills theory on a circle is considered, for reasons that are spelt out. The gauge transformations exhibit hyperbolic fixed points, and this results in a physical configuration space with a non-Hausdorff “network” topology. The ambiguity encountered in canonical quantization is then much more pronounced than in the compact case and cannot be resolved through the kind of appeal made to group theory in that case.
A superspace formulation of Yang-Mills theory on sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Deguchi, Shinichi
2010-05-01
A superspace approach to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism for the Yang-Mills theory on an n-dimensional unit sphere S1n is developed in a manifestly covariant manner based on the rotational supersymmetry characterized by the supergroup OSp(n +1∣2). This is done by employing an (n +2)-dimensional unit supersphere S1n∣2 parametrized by n commutative and two anticommutative coordinate variables so that it includes S1n as a subspace and realizes the OSp(n +1∣2) supersymmetry. In this superspace formulation, referred to as the supersphere formulation, the so-called horizontality condition is concisely expressed in terms of the rank-3 field strength tensor of a Yang-Mills superfield on S1n∣2. The supersphere formulation completely covers the BRST gauge-fixing procedure for the Yang-Mills theory on S1n provided by us [R. Banerjee and S. Deguchi, Phys. Lett. B 632, 579 (2006); arXiv:hep-th/0509161]. Furthermore, this formulation admits the (massive) Curci-Ferrari model defined on S1n, describing the gauge-fixing and mass terms on S1n together as a mass term on S1n∣2.
Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification
Simic, Dusan; Unsal, Mithat; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2011-08-12
We introduce field theory techniques through which the deconfinement transition of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory can be moved to a semi-classical domain where it becomes calculable using two-dimensional field theory. We achieve this through a double-trace deformation of toroidally compactified Yang-Mills theory on R{sup 2} x S{sub L}{sup 1} x S{sub {beta}}{sup 1}. At large N, fixed-L, and arbitrary {beta}, the thermodynamics of the deformed theory is equivalent to that of ordinary Yang-Mills theory at leading order in the large N expansion. At fixed-N, small L and a range of {beta}, the deformed theory maps to a two-dimensional theory with electric and magnetic (order and disorder) perturbations, analogs of which appear in planar spin-systems and statistical physics. We show that in this regime the deconfinement transition is driven by the competition between electric and magnetic perturbations in this two-dimensional theory. This appears to support the scenario proposed by Liao and Shuryak regarding the magnetic component of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC.
Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinne, Oliver
2014-12-01
We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.
CP Symmetry, Lee-Yang zeros and Phase Transitions
Aguado, M.; Asorey, M.
2011-05-23
We analyze the analytic properties of {theta}-vacuum in QCD and its connection with spontaneous symmetry breaking of CP symmetry. A loss of analyticity in the {theta}-vacuum energy density can only be due to the accumulation of Lee-Yang zeros at some real values of {theta}. In the case of first order transitions these singularities are always associated to and cusp singularities and never to or cusps, which in the case {theta} = 0 are incompatible with the Vafa-Witten diamagnetic inequality This fact provides a key missing link in the Vafa-Witten proof of parity symmetry conservation in vector-like gauge theories like QCD. The argument is very similar to that used in the derivation of Bank-Casher formula for chiral symmetry breaking. However, the and behavior does not exclude the existence of a first phase transition at {theta} = {pi}, where a and cusp singularity is not forbidden by any inequality; in this case the topological charge condensate is proportional to the density of Lee-Yang zeros at {theta} = {pi}. Moreover, Lee-Yang zeros could give rise to a second order phase transition at {theta} = 0, which might be very relevant for the interpretation of the anomalous behavior of the topological susceptibility in the CP{sup 1} sigma model.
Yang-Mills condensate as dark energy: A nonperturbative approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino; Zhang, Yang; Antolini, Claudia
2016-02-01
Models based on the Yang-Mills condensate (YMC) have been advocated for in the literature and claimed as successful candidates for explaining dark energy. Several variations on this simple idea have been considered, the most promising of which are reviewed here. Nevertheless, the previously attained results relied heavily on the perturbative approach to the analysis of the effective Yang-Mills action, which is only adequate in the asymptotically free limit, and were extended into a regime, the infrared limit, in which confinement is expected. We show that if a minimum of the effective Lagrangian in θ =-Fμν aFa μ ν/2 exists, a YMC forms that drives the Universe toward an accelerated de Sitter phase. The details of the models depend weakly on the specific form of the effective Yang-Mills Lagrangian. Using nonperturbative techniques mutated from the functional renormalization-group procedure, we finally show that the minimum in θ of the effective Lagrangian exists. Thus, a YMC can actually take place. The nonperturbative model has properties similar to the ones in the perturbative model. In the early stage of the Universe, the YMC equation of state has an evolution that resembles the radiation component, i.e., wy→1 /3 . However, in the late stage, wy naturally runs to the critical state with wy=-1 , and the Universe transitions from a matter-dominated into a dark energy dominated stage only at latest time, at a redshift whose value depends on the initial conditions that are chosen while solving the dynamical system.
Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe
Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek
2013-02-21
According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.
MONOPOLES AND DYONS IN THE PURE EINSTEIN YANG MILLS THEORY
HOSOTANI,Y.; BJORAKER,J.
1999-08-16
In the pure Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions there exist monopole and dyon solutions. The spectrum of the solutions is discrete in asymptotically flat or de Sitter space, whereas it is continuous in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The solutions are regular everywhere and specified with their mass, and non-Abelian electric and magnetic charges. In asymptotically anti-de Sitter space a class of monopole solutions have no node in non-Abelian magnetic fields, and are stable against spherically symmetric perturbations.
Neumann domination for the Yang-Mills heat equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charalambous, Nelia; Gross, Leonard
2015-07-01
Long time existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Yang-Mills heat equation have been proven over a compact 3-manifold with boundary for initial data of finite energy. In the present paper, we improve on previous estimates by using a Neumann domination technique that allows us to get much better pointwise bounds on the magnetic field. As in the earlier work, we focus on Dirichlet, Neumann, and Marini boundary conditions. In addition, we show that the Wilson Loop functions, gauge invariantly regularized, converge as the parabolic time goes to infinity.
Transport coefficients in Yang-Mills theory and QCD.
Christiansen, Nicolai; Haas, Michael; Pawlowski, Jan M; Strodthoff, Nils
2015-09-11
We calculate the shear-viscosity-over-entropy-density ratio η/s in Yang-Mills theory from the Kubo formula using an exact diagrammatic representation in terms of full propagators and vertices using gluon spectral functions as external input. We provide an analytic fit formula for the temperature dependence of η/s over the whole temperature range from a glueball resonance gas at low temperatures, to a high-temperature regime consistent with perturbative results. Subsequently, we provide a first estimate for η/s in QCD. PMID:26406822
Infrared propagators of Yang-Mills theory from perturbation theory
Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas
2010-11-15
We show that the correlation functions of ghosts and gluons for the pure Yang-Mills theory in Landau gauge can be accurately reproduced for all momenta by a one-loop calculation. The key point is to use a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. The agreement with lattice simulation is excellent in d=4. The one-loop calculation also reproduces all the characteristic features of the lattice simulations in d=3 and naturally explains the peculiarities of the propagators in d=2.
Yang-Mills theories at high energy accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sterman, George
2016-03-01
I will begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy accelerators.
Yang-Mills Theories at High Energy Accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sterman, George
I will begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy accelerators.
Ward identity implies recursion relations in Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gang
2012-07-01
The Ward identity in gauge theory constrains the behavior of the amplitudes. We discuss the Ward identity for amplitudes with a pair of shifted lines with complex momenta. This will induce a recursion relation identical to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relations at the finite poles of the complexified amplitudes. Furthermore, according to the Ward identity, it is also possible to transform the boundary term into a simple form, which can be obtained by a new recursion relation. For the amplitude with one off-shell line in pure Yang-Mills theory, we find this technique is effective for obtaining the amplitude even when there are boundary contributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Jong-Ping
Within Yang-Mills gravity with translation group T(4) in flat space-time, the invariant action involving quadratic translation gauge-curvature leads to quadrupole radiations, which are shown to be consistent with experiments. The radiation power turns out to be the same as that in Einstein's gravity to the second-order approximation. We also discuss an interesting physical reason for the accelerated cosmic expansion based on the long-range Lee-Yang force of Ub(1) gauge field associated with the established conservation law of baryon number. We show that the Lee-Yang force can be related to a linear potential ∝ r, provided the gauge field satisfies a fourth-order differential equation in flat space-time. Furthermore, we consider an experimental test of the Lee-Yang force related to the accelerated cosmic expansion. The necessity of generalizing Lorentz transformations for accelerated frames of reference and accelerated Wu-Doppler effects are briefly discussed.
Shifman, M.
2015-03-15
We discuss similarities and differences between the resurgence program in quantum mechanics and the operator product expansion in strongly coupled Yang-Mills theories. In N = 1 super-Yang-Mills theories, renormalons are peculiar and are not quite similar to renormalons in QCD.
Fermion actions extracted from lattice super Yang-Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misumi, Tatsuhiro
2013-12-01
We revisit 2D = (2, 2) super Yang-Mills lattice formulation (Sugino model) to investigate its fermion action with two (Majorana) fermion flavors and exact chiral-U(1) R symmetry. We show that the reconcilement of chiral symmetry and absence of further species-doubling originates in the 4D clifford algebra structure of the action, where 2D two flavors are spuriously treated as a single 4D four-spinor with four 4D gamma matrices introduced into kinetic and Wilson terms. This fermion construction based on the higher-dimensional clifford algebra is extended to four dimensions in two manners: (1) pseudo-8D sixteen-spinor treatment of 4D four flavors with eight 8D gamma matrices, (2) pseudo-6D eight-spinor treatment of 4D two flavors with five out of six 6D gamma matrices. We obtain 4D four-species and two-species lattice fermions with unbroken subgroup of chiral symmetry and other essential properties. We discuss their relations to staggered and Wilson twisted-mass fermions. We also discuss their potential feedback to 4D super Yang-Mills lattice formulations.
Yang-Mills vacuum: An attempt of lattice loop calculus
Furmanski, W.; Kolawa, A.
1985-01-01
An attempt is made to derive and to solve the Schrodinger equation in the low energy region (vacuum, first excitation, etc.) of the Yang-Mills theory on the lattice. The complete orthonormal basis in the physical Hilbert space is constructed by classifying independent solutions of Gauss's law. Loops of electric flux are chosen as elementary variables. The loop space Hamiltonian is derived, an ansatz is made for the low energy wave functionals and the Schrodinger equation is solved in the (truncated) loop basis. The resulting physical picture for the Yang-Mills vacuum in the cross-over region is that of, still quite dilute, gas of fluctuating loops. Definite candidate for the confining force emerges: the repulsive non-abelian loop-loop interaction (rather weak but persistent) generates an effective external field (''external pressure'') prohibiting unbounded loop size fluctuations. The negative sign (repulsion) is universal for all compact groups. Preliminary numerical results, so far mainly of illustrative character, are presented. 8 refs., 22 figs.
An ancient Chinese wisdom for metabolic engineering: Yin-Yang.
Wu, Stephen G; He, Lian; Wang, Qingzhao; Tang, Yinjie J
2015-01-01
In ancient Chinese philosophy, Yin-Yang describes two contrary forces that are interconnected and interdependent. This concept also holds true in microbial cell factories, where Yin represents energy metabolism in the form of ATP, and Yang represents carbon metabolism. Current biotechnology can effectively edit the microbial genome or introduce novel enzymes to redirect carbon fluxes. On the other hand, microbial metabolism loses significant free energy as heat when converting sugar into ATP; while maintenance energy expenditures further aggravate ATP shortage. The limitation of cell "powerhouse" prevents hosts from achieving high carbon yields and rates. Via an Escherichia coli flux balance analysis model, we further demonstrate the penalty of ATP cost on biofuel synthesis. To ensure cell powerhouse being sufficient in microbial cell factories, we propose five principles: 1. Take advantage of native pathways for product synthesis. 2. Pursue biosynthesis relying only on pathways or genetic parts without significant ATP burden. 3. Combine microbial production with chemical conversions (semi-biosynthesis) to reduce biosynthesis steps. 4. Create "minimal cells" or use non-model microbial hosts with higher energy fitness. 5. Develop a photosynthesis chassis that can utilize light energy and cheap carbon feedstocks. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis can be used to quantify both carbon and energy metabolisms. The fluxomics results are essential to evaluate the industrial potential of laboratory strains, avoiding false starts and dead ends during metabolic engineering. PMID:25889067
Massive Yang-Mills model and diffractive scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forshaw, J. R.; Papavassiliou, J.; Parrinello, C.
1999-04-01
We argue that the massive Yang-Mills model of Kunimasa and Goto, Slavnov, and Cornwall, in which massive gauge vector bosons are introduced in a gauge-invariant way without resorting to the Higgs mechanism, may be useful for studying diffractive scattering of strongly interacting particles. With this motivation, we perform in this model explicit calculations of S-matrix elements between quark states, at the tree level, one loop, and two loops, and discuss issues of renormalizability and unitarity. In particular, it is shown that the S-matrix element for quark scattering is renormalizable at one-loop order, and is only logarithmically non-renormalizable at two loops. The discrepancies in the ultraviolet regime between the one-loop predictions of this model and those of massless QCD are discussed in detail. In addition, some of the similarities and differences between the massive Yang-Mills model and theories with a Higgs mechanism are analyzed at the level of the S matrix. Finally, we briefly discuss the high-energy behavior of the leading order amplitude for quark-quark elastic scattering in the diffractive region. The above analysis sets up the stage for carrying out a systematic computation of the higher order corrections to the two-gluon exchange model of the Pomeron using massive gluons inside quantum loops.
An ancient Chinese wisdom for metabolic engineering: Yin-Yang
Wu, Stephen G.; He, Lian; Wang, Qingzhao; Tang, Yinjie J.
2015-03-20
In ancient Chinese philosophy, Yin-Yang describes two contrary forces that are interconnected and interdependent. This concept also holds true in microbial cell factories, where Yin represents energy metabolism in the form of ATP, and Yang represents carbon metabolism. Current biotechnology can effectively edit the microbial genome or introduce novel enzymes to redirect carbon fluxes. On the other hand, microbial metabolism loses significant free energy as heat when converting sugar into ATP; while maintenance energy expenditures further aggravate ATP shortage. The limitation of cell “powerhouse” prevents hosts from achieving high carbon yields and rates. Via an Escherichia coli flux balance analysis model, we further demonstrate the penalty of ATP cost on biofuel synthesis. To ensure cell powerhouse being sufficient in microbial cell factories, we propose five principles: 1. Take advantage of native pathways for product synthesis. 2. Pursue biosynthesis relying only on pathways or genetic parts without significant ATP burden. 3. Combine microbial production with chemical conversions (semi-biosynthesis) to reduce biosynthesis steps. 4. Create “minimal cells” or use non-model microbial hosts with higher energy fitness. 5. Develop a photosynthesis chassis that can utilize light energy and cheap carbon feedstocks. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis can be used to quantify both carbon and energy metabolisms. The fluxomics results are essential to evaluate the industrial potential of laboratory strains, avoiding false starts and dead ends during metabolic engineering
An ancient Chinese wisdom for metabolic engineering: Yin-Yang
Wu, Stephen G.; He, Lian; Wang, Qingzhao; Tang, Yinjie J.
2015-03-20
In ancient Chinese philosophy, Yin-Yang describes two contrary forces that are interconnected and interdependent. This concept also holds true in microbial cell factories, where Yin represents energy metabolism in the form of ATP, and Yang represents carbon metabolism. Current biotechnology can effectively edit the microbial genome or introduce novel enzymes to redirect carbon fluxes. On the other hand, microbial metabolism loses significant free energy as heat when converting sugar into ATP; while maintenance energy expenditures further aggravate ATP shortage. The limitation of cell “powerhouse” prevents hosts from achieving high carbon yields and rates. Via an Escherichia coli flux balance analysismore » model, we further demonstrate the penalty of ATP cost on biofuel synthesis. To ensure cell powerhouse being sufficient in microbial cell factories, we propose five principles: 1. Take advantage of native pathways for product synthesis. 2. Pursue biosynthesis relying only on pathways or genetic parts without significant ATP burden. 3. Combine microbial production with chemical conversions (semi-biosynthesis) to reduce biosynthesis steps. 4. Create “minimal cells” or use non-model microbial hosts with higher energy fitness. 5. Develop a photosynthesis chassis that can utilize light energy and cheap carbon feedstocks. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis can be used to quantify both carbon and energy metabolisms. The fluxomics results are essential to evaluate the industrial potential of laboratory strains, avoiding false starts and dead ends during metabolic engineering« less
Wong, Hoi Shan; Leung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Wing Man; Ko, Kam Ming
2014-01-01
In the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, many Yang-tonic herbs have been used for retarding the decline in bodily function and delaying the onset of age-related diseases. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that Yang-invigorating herbs/formulations protect against oxidative injury in various organs and also extend the median lifespan in mice. This lifespan extension was associated with an upregulation of cellular antioxidant status including that of mitochondria whose functional capacity is also increased by “Yang-invigorating” herbs/formulations. In this paper, we propose that triterpenes and phytosterols, which are ubiquitously found in Yang-tonic herbs, may be the chemical entities responsible for enhancing mitochondrial functional and antioxidant capacity and thus the “Yang-invigorating” action. The biochemical mechanism underlying this “Yang-invigorating” action may involve a sustained production of low levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to an increased activity of the electron transport chain, with the possible involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling. The increase in mitochondrial functional capacity can retard the decline in bodily function during aging, whereas the mitochondrial ROS production is instrumental in eliciting a glutathione antioxidant response via redox-sensitive signaling pathways, which can delay the onset of age-related diseases. PMID:25610483
From the Anti-Yang Model to the Anti-Snyder Model and Anti-De Sitter Special Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Wei-Jun; Ren, Xin-An
2013-04-01
Based on Yang's quantized space-time model, a complete Yang model from (5+1)-dimensional space with Minkowski signature is discussed using the projective geometry method and Dirac procedure. We introduce an anti-Yang model and an anti-Snyder model to discuss the duality relations between the anti-Snyder model and anti-de Sitter special relativity.
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.; Lutz, W.
2008-08-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.
New insights on non-perturbative Yang-Mills
Aguilar, Arlene C.
2010-11-12
In this talk we review some recent results on the infrared properties of the gluon and ghost propagators in pure Yang-Mills theories. These results are obtained from the corresponding Schwinger-Dyson equation formulated in a special truncation scheme, which preserves gauge invariance. The presence of massless poles in the three gluon vertex triggers the generation of a dynamical gluon mass (Schwinger mechanism in d = 4), which gives rise to an infrared finite gluon propagator and ghost dressing function. As a byproduct of this analysis we calculate the Kugo-Ojima function, required for the definition of the non-perturbative QCD effective charge within the pinch technique framework. We show that the numerical solutions of these non-perturbative equations are in very good agreement with the results of SU(3) lattice simulations.
Covariant gauges without Gribov ambiguities in Yang-Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Tresmontant, A.
2014-06-01
We propose a one-parameter family of nonlinear covariant gauges which can be formulated as an extremization procedure that may be amenable to lattice implementation. At high energies, where the Gribov ambiguities can be ignored, this reduces to the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauges. We further propose a continuum formulation in terms of a local action which is free of Gribov ambiguities and avoids the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. This involves an averaging over Gribov copies with a nonuniform weight, which introduces a new gauge-fixing parameter. We show that the proposed gauge-fixed action is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and we provide explicit expressions of the renormalization factors at one loop. We discuss the possible implications of the present proposal for the calculation of Yang-Mills correlators.
Solvable relativistic hydrogenlike system in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.
Caron-Huot, Simon; Henn, Johannes M
2014-10-17
The classical Kepler problem, as well as its quantum mechanical version, the hydrogen atom, enjoys a well-known hidden symmetry, the conservation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector, which makes these problems superintegrable. Is there a relativistic quantum field theory extension that preserves this symmetry? In this Letter we show that the answer is positive: in the nonrelativistic limit, we identify the dual conformal symmetry of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory with the well-known symmetries of the hydrogen atom. We point out that the dual conformal symmetry offers a novel way to compute the spectrum of bound states of massive W bosons in the theory. We perform nontrivial tests of this setup at weak and strong coupling and comment on the possible extension to arbitrary values of the coupling. PMID:25361249
Yang-Mills Gauge Theory and Higgs Particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan
Motivated by the experimental data on the Higgs particle from the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN, the standard model, which is a Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory with the group U(1) × SU (2) × SU (3), is augmented by scalar quarks and scalar leptons without changing the gauge group and without any additional Higgs particle. Thus there is fermion-boson symmetry between these new particles and the known quarks and leptons. In a simplest scenario, the cancellation of the quadratic divergences in this augmented standard model leads to a determination of the masses of all these scalar quarks and scalar leptons. All these masses are found to be less than 100 GeV/c2, and the right-handed scalar neutrinos are especially light. Alterative procedures are given with less reliance on the experimental data, leading to the same conclusions.
Yang-Mills gauge theory and Higgs particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan
2015-12-01
Motivated by the experimental data on the Higgs particle from the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN, the standard model, which is a Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory with the group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3), is augmented by scalar quarks and scalar leptons without changing the gauge group and without any additional Higgs particle. Thus there is fermion-boson symmetry between these new particles and the known quarks and leptons. In a simplest scenario, the cancellation of the quadratic divergences in this augmented standard model leads to a determination of the masses of all these scalar quarks and scalar leptons. All these masses are found to be less than 100 GeV/c2, and the right-handed scalar neutrinos are especially light. Alterative procedures are given with less reliance on the experimental data, leading to the same conclusions.
Instanton Effective Action in Deformed Super Yang-Mills Theories
Nakajima, Hiroaki; Ito, Katsushi; Sasaki, Shin
2008-11-23
We study the ADHM construction of instantons in N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory deformed in constant Ramond-Ramond (R-R) 3-form field strength background in type IIB superstrings. We compare the deformed instanton effective action with the effective action of fractional D3/D(-1) branes at the orbifold singularity of C{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} in the same R-R background. We find discrepancy between them at the second order in deformation parameters, which comes from the coupling of the translational zero modes of the D(-1)-branes to the R-R background. We improve the deformed action by adding a term with spacetime dependent gauge coupling such that the action reproduces the effective action of the fractional branes.
Yang-Mills Gauge Theory and the Higgs Boson Family
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Ngee-Pong
The gauge symmetry principles of the Yang-Mills field of 1954 provide the solid rock foundation for the Standard Model of particle physics. To give masses to the quarks and leptons, however, SM calls on the solitary Higgs field using a set of mysterious complex Yukawa coupling matrices. We enrich the SM by reducing the Yukawa coupling matrices to a single Yukawa coupling constant, and endowing it with a family of Higgs fields that are degenerate in mass. The recent experimental discovery of the Higgs resonance at 125.09±0.21 GeV does not preclude this possibility. Instead, it presents an opportunity to explore the interference effects in background events at the LHC. We present a study based on the maximally symmetric Higgs potential in a leading hierarchy scenario.
Yang-Mills gauge theory and the Higgs boson family
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Ngee-Pong
2016-01-01
The gauge symmetry principles of the Yang-Mills field of 1954 provide the solid rock foundation for the Standard Model of particle physics. To give masses to the quarks and leptons, however, SM calls on the solitary Higgs field using a set of mysterious complex Yukawa coupling matrices. We enrich the SM by reducing the Yukawa coupling matrices to a single Yukawa coupling constant, and endowing it with a family of Higgs fields that are degenerate in mass. The recent experimental discovery of the Higgs resonance at 125.09 ± 0.21 GeV does not preclude this possibility. Instead, it presents an opportunity to explore the interference effects in background events at the LHC. We present a study based on the maximally symmetric Higgs potential in a leading hierarchy scenario.
Generalized Nariai solutions for Yang-type monopoles
Diaz, Pablo; Segui, Antonio
2007-09-15
A detailed study of the geometries that emerge by a gravitating generalized Yang monopole in even dimensions is carried out, in particular, those which present black hole and cosmological horizons. This two-horizon system is thermally unstable. The process of thermalization will drive both horizons to coalesce. This limit is what is profusely studied in this paper. It is shown that even though coordinate distance shrinks to zero, physical distance does not. So, there is some remaining space whose geometry has been computed and identified as a generalized Nariai solution. The thermal properties of this new spacetime are then calculated. Topics such as the elliptical relation between radii of spheres in the geometry or a discussion about whether a mass-type term should be present in the line element or not are also included.
Dual superconductivity and vacuum properties in Yang Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Alessandro, A.; D'Elia, M.; Tagliacozzo, L.
2007-07-01
We address, within the dual superconductivity model for color confinement, the question whether the Yang-Mills vacuum behaves as a superconductor of type I or type II. In order to do that we compare, for the theory with gauge group SU(2), the determination of the field penetration depth λ with that of the superconductor correlation length ξ. The latter is obtained by measuring the temporal correlator of a disorder parameter developed by the Pisa group to detect dual superconductivity. The comparison places the vacuum close to the border between type I and type II and marginally on the type II side. We also check our results against the study of directly measurable effects such as the interaction between two parallel flux tubes, obtaining consistent indications for a weak repulsive behaviour. Future strategies to improve our investigation are discussed.
Yang-Lee edge singularity in systems with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadic, B.; Pirc, R.
1988-03-01
We apply renormalization-group methods to study the density of Yang-Lee zeros at the edges of the gap in Ising systems with correlated random-Tc impurities. The impurity correlations are assumed to fall off at large distances as ~R-(d-θ) (θ>0). Both short- and long-range spin interactions decaying as ~R-(d+σ) (0<σ<2) are considered. We find that the edge singularities are described by a new fixed point in the underlying φ3-field model with imaginary coupling and imaginary correlated random fields. We obtain the edge exponents to leading order in the ɛ~ expansion, where ɛ~=dc-d with dc=8+θ for short- and dc=4σ+θ for long-range interactions which do not obey any apparent dimensional reduction rule.
Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.
2016-05-01
Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.
Galactic Rotation Curves from Yang-Mills Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Daniel
2014-03-01
Yang-Mills Gravity (YMG) is a gauge field theory based on the T4 group in flat spacetime. In its macroscopic limit, it modifies the trajectories of classical objects such that it serves as an alternative to General Relativity (GR). Since YMG is relatively new and unknown, a brief review of the general theory is given and a more comprehensive list of references is provided. In the present work, we find that the Schwarzchild-like solution to YMG supports a term like αr with constant α. This translates into an r-term in the effective gravitational potential of classical objects. We use this modified potential to predict the shape of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies, and then use data from SDSS to constrain α, which seems to be a free parameter in YMG. This work was supported the NSF's GK12 Vibes and Waves Fellowship.
Noncommutative (supersymmetric) electrodynamics in the Yang-Feldman formalism
Zahn, Jochen
2010-11-15
We study quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space (NCQED) in the Yang-Feldman formalism. Local observables are defined by using covariant coordinates. We compute the two-point function of the interacting field strength to second order and find the infrared divergent terms already known from computations using the so-called modified Feynman rules. It is shown that these lead to nonlocal renormalization ambiguities. Also new nonlocal divergences stemming from the covariant coordinates are found. Furthermore, we study the supersymmetric extension of the model. For this, the supersymmetric generalization of the covariant coordinates is introduced. We find that the nonlocal divergences cancel. At the one-loop level, the only effect of noncommutativity is then a momentum-dependent field strength normalization. We interpret it as an acausal effect and show that its range is independent of the noncommutativity scale.
Polyakov loop and gluon quasiparticles in Yang-Mills thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggieri, M.; Alba, P.; Castorina, P.; Plumari, S.; Ratti, C.; Greco, V.
2012-09-01
We study the interpretation of lattice data about the thermodynamics of the deconfinement phase of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, in terms of gluon quasiparticles propagating in a background of a Polyakov loop. A potential for the Polyakov loop, inspired by the strong coupling expansion of the QCD action, is introduced; the Polyakov loop is coupled to transverse gluon quasiparticles by means of a gaslike effective potential. This study is useful to identify the effective degrees of freedom propagating in the gluon medium above the critical temperature. A main general finding is that a dominant part of the phase transition dynamics is accounted for by the Polyakov loop dynamics; hence, the thermodynamics can be described without the need for diverging or exponentially increasing quasiparticle masses as T→Tc, at variance respect to standard quasiparticle models.
Yin-Yang-Zhong grid: An overset grid system for a sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Akira
2016-01-01
For numerical simulations inside a sphere, an overset grid system, Yin-Yang-Zhong grid, is proposed. The Yin-Yang-Zhong grid is an extension of the Yin-Yang grid, which is widely used in various simulations in spherical shell geometry. The Yin-Yang grid is itself an overset grid system with two component grids, and a new component grid called Zhong is placed at the center of the Yin-Yang grid. The Zhong grid component is constructed on Cartesian coordinates. Parallelization is intrinsically embedded in the Yin-Yang-Zhong grid system because the Zhong grid points are defined with cuboid blocks that are decomposed domains for parallelization. The computational efficiency approaches the optimum as the process number increases. Quantitative test simulations are performed for a diffusion problem in a sphere with the Yin-Yang-Zhong grid. Correct decay rates are obtained by the simulations. Two other tests in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a sphere are also performed. One is an MHD dynamo simulation, and the other is an MHD relaxation simulation in a sphere.
Tests of conformal field theory at the Yang-Lee singularity
Wydro, Tomasz; McCabe, John F.
2009-12-14
This paper studies the Yang-Lee edge singularity of 2-dimensional (2D) Ising model based on a quantum spin chain and transfer matrix measurements on the cylinder. Based on finite-size scaling, the low-lying excitation spectrum is found at the Yang-Lee edge singularity. Based on transfer matrix techniques, the single structure constant is evaluated at the Yang-Lee edge singularity. The results of both types of measurements are found to be fully consistent with the predictions for the (A{sub 4}, A{sub 1}) minimal conformal field theory, which was previously identified with this critical point.
Self-dual Yang-Mills fields in an Einstein universe
Pavlov, A. )
1992-12-01
Instanton solutions of Yang-Mills fields in flat Euclidean space have importance in studying the guage field vacuum. The authors find exact solutions of the self-consistent Einstein-Yang-Mills system of equations. These solutions are self-dual Yang-Mills fields in I[sup 1] [times] S[sup 3] space-time. The self-dual solutions have trivial topology and do not belong to instatons. The results of this study may help in understanding the vacuum structure of the fields under consideration. 4 refs.
Radiating black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory and cosmic censorship
Ghosh, Sushant G.; Dadhich, Naresh
2010-08-15
Exact nonstatic spherically symmetric black-hole solutions of the higher dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills equations for a null dust with Yang-Mills gauge charge are obtained by employing Wu-Yang ansatz, namely, HD-EYM Vaidya solution. It is interesting to note that gravitational contribution of Yang-Mills (YM) gauge charge for this ansatz is indeed opposite (attractive rather than repulsive) that of Maxwell charge. It turns out that the gravitational collapse of null dust with YM gauge charge admits strong curvature shell focusing naked singularities violating cosmic censorship. However, there is significant shrinkage of the initial data space for a naked singularity of the HD-Vaidya collapse due to presence of YM gauge charge. The effect of YM gauge charge on structure and location of the apparent and event horizons is also discussed.
Experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter Equation via NMR interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vind, F. Anvari; Foerster, A.; Oliveira, I. S.; Sarthour, R. S.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Souza, A. M.; Roditi, I.
2016-02-01
The Yang-Baxter equation is an important tool in theoretical physics, with many applications in different domains that span from condensed matter to string theory. Recently, the interest on the equation has increased due to its connection to quantum information processing. It has been shown that the Yang-Baxter equation is closely related to quantum entanglement and quantum computation. Therefore, owing to the broad relevance of this equation, besides theoretical studies, it also became significant to pursue its experimental implementation. Here, we show an experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter equation and verify its validity through a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) interferometric setup. Our experiment was performed on a liquid state Iodotrifluoroethylene sample which contains molecules with three qubits. We use Controlled-transfer gates that allow us to build a pseudo-pure state from which we are able to apply a quantum information protocol that implements the Yang-Baxter equation.
New Contributions to Physics by Prof. C. N. Yang: 2009-2011
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhong-Qi
In a seminal paper of 1967, Professor Chen Ning Yang found the full solution of the one-dimensional Fermi gas with a repulsive delta function interaction by using the Bethe ansatz and group theory. This work with a brilliant discovery of the Yang-Baxter equation has been inspiring new developments in mathematical physics, statistical physics, and many-body physics. Based on experimental developments in simulating many-body physics of one-dimensional systems of ultracold atoms, during a period from 2009 to 2011, Prof. Yang published seven papers on the exact properties of the ground state of bosonic and fermionic atoms with the repulsive delta function interaction and a confined potential to one dimension. Here I would like to share my experience in doing research work fortunately under the direct supervision of Prof. Yang in that period.
Towards the fundamental spectrum of the quantum Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liegener, Klaus; Thiemann, Thomas
2016-07-01
In this work we focus on the quantum Einstein-Yang-Mills sector quantized by the methods of loop quantum gravity. We point out the improved UV behavior of the coupled system as compared to pure quantum Yang-Mills theory on a fixed, classical background spacetime as was considered in a seminal work by Kogut and Susskind. Furthermore, we develop a calculational scheme by which the fundamental spectrum of the quantum Yang-Mills Hamiltonian can be computed in principle and by which one can make contact with the Wilsonian renormalization group, possibly purely within the Hamiltonian framework. Finally, we comment on the relationship of the fundamental spectrum to that of pure Yang-Mills theory on a (flat) classical spacetime.
New contributions to physics by Prof. C. N. Yang: 2009-2011
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhong-Qi
2016-01-01
In a seminal paper of 1967, Professor Chen Ning Yang found the full solution of the one-dimensional Fermi gas with a repulsive delta function interaction by using the Bethe ansatz and group theory. This work with a brilliant discovery of the Yang-Baxter equation has been inspiring new developments in mathematical physics, statistical physics, and many-body physics. Based on experimental developments in simulating many-body physics of one-dimensional systems of ultracold atoms, during a period from 2009 to 2011, Prof. Yang published seven papers on the exact properties of the ground state of bosonic and fermionic atoms with the repulsive delta function interaction and a confined potential to one dimension. Here I would like to share my experience in doing research work fortunately under the direct supervision of Prof. Yang in that period.
Experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter Equation via NMR interferometry.
Vind, F Anvari; Foerster, A; Oliveira, I S; Sarthour, R S; Soares-Pinto, D O; Souza, A M; Roditi, I
2016-01-01
The Yang-Baxter equation is an important tool in theoretical physics, with many applications in different domains that span from condensed matter to string theory. Recently, the interest on the equation has increased due to its connection to quantum information processing. It has been shown that the Yang-Baxter equation is closely related to quantum entanglement and quantum computation. Therefore, owing to the broad relevance of this equation, besides theoretical studies, it also became significant to pursue its experimental implementation. Here, we show an experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter equation and verify its validity through a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) interferometric setup. Our experiment was performed on a liquid state Iodotrifluoroethylene sample which contains molecules with three qubits. We use Controlled-transfer gates that allow us to build a pseudo-pure state from which we are able to apply a quantum information protocol that implements the Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26861686
A euclidean lattice formulation of D = 5 maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Anosh
2016-06-01
We construct lattice action for five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This supersymmetric lattice formulation can be used to explore the non-perturbative regime of the continuum target theory, which has a known gravitational dual.
Experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter Equation via NMR interferometry
Vind, F. Anvari; Foerster, A.; Oliveira, I. S.; Sarthour, R. S.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Souza, A. M.; Roditi, I.
2016-01-01
The Yang-Baxter equation is an important tool in theoretical physics, with many applications in different domains that span from condensed matter to string theory. Recently, the interest on the equation has increased due to its connection to quantum information processing. It has been shown that the Yang-Baxter equation is closely related to quantum entanglement and quantum computation. Therefore, owing to the broad relevance of this equation, besides theoretical studies, it also became significant to pursue its experimental implementation. Here, we show an experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter equation and verify its validity through a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) interferometric setup. Our experiment was performed on a liquid state Iodotrifluoroethylene sample which contains molecules with three qubits. We use Controlled-transfer gates that allow us to build a pseudo-pure state from which we are able to apply a quantum information protocol that implements the Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26861686
Conformally flat Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs solutions with spherical symmetry
Mondaini, R.P.; Santos, N.O.
1983-10-15
We solve the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations in a conformally flat metric with spherical symmetry. Two solutions are obtained corresponding to magnetic monopoles in the Higgs vacuum and outside of it.
Thierry-Mieg, J.
1985-05-14
The reinterpretation of the BRS equations of Quantum Field Theory as the Maurer Cartan equation of a classical principal fiber bundle leads to a simple gauge invariant classification of the anomalies in Yang Mills theory and gravity.
Surface-invariants in 2D classical Yang-Mills theory
Diaz, Rafael; Fuenmayor, E.; Leal, Lorenzo
2006-03-15
We study a method to obtain invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms associated to closed curves in the plane from classical Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions. Taking as starting point the Yang-Mills field coupled to nondynamical particles carrying chromo-electric charge, and by means of a perturbative scheme, we obtain the first two contributions to the on-shell action, which are area-invariants. A geometrical interpretation of these invariants is given.
Composite strings in (2+1)-dimensional anisotropic weakly coupled Yang-Mills theory
Orland, Peter
2008-01-15
The small-scale structure of a string connecting a pair of static sources is explored for the weakly coupled anisotropic SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (2+1) dimensions. A crucial ingredient in the formulation of the string Hamiltonian is the phenomenon of color smearing of the string constituents. The quark-antiquark potential is determined. We close with some discussion of the standard, fully Lorentz-invariant Yang-Mills theory.
A Fortran visualization program for spherical data on a Yin-Yang grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Masato; Kageyama, Akira
2014-04-01
Fortran 90 program to visualize data on the Yin-Yang grid system is developed. The purpose of this study is to provide simulation researchers with a source code as a starting point of their own custom-made visualization tools. A basic but sufficiently diverse set of visualization methods are implemented using a Fortran 90 binding for OpenGL for scalar and vector fields defined or simulated on the Yin-Yang grid.
Yang-Mills Theory at 60: Milestones, Landmarks and Interesting Questions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, Ling-Lie
On the auspicious occasion of celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Yang-Mills theory, and Professor Yang's many other important contributions to physics and mathematics, I will highlight the impressive milestones and landmarks that have been established in the last 60 years, as well as some interesting questions that are worthy of answers from future researches. The paper is written (without equations) for the interest of non-scientists as well as of scientists.
Masslessness of ghosts in equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theories
Golterman, Maarten; Zimmerman, Leah
2005-06-01
We show that the one-loop ghost self-energy in an equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory vanishes at zero momentum. A ghost mass is forbidden by equivariant BRST symmetry, and our calculation confirms this explicitly. The four-ghost self interaction which appears in the equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory is needed in order to obtain this result.
Aβ damages learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease rats with kidney-yang deficiency.
Qi, Dongmei; Qiao, Yongfa; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Huijuan; Cheng, Bin; Qiao, Haifa
2012-01-01
Previous studies demonstrated that Alzheimer's disease was considered as the consequence produced by deficiency of Kidney essence. However, the mechanism underlying the symptoms also remains elusive. Here we report that spatial learning and memory, escape, and swimming capacities were damaged significantly in Kidney-yang deficiency rats. Indeed, both hippocampal Aβ(40) and 42 increases in Kidney-yang deficiency contribute to the learning and memory impairments. Specifically, damage of synaptic plasticity is involved in the learning and memory impairment of Kidney-yang deficiency rats. We determined that the learning and memory damage in Kidney-yang deficiency due to synaptic plasticity impairment and increases of Aβ(40) and 42 was not caused via NMDA receptor internalization induced by Aβ increase. β-Adrenergic receptor agonist can rescue the impaired long-term potential (LTP) in Kidney-yang rats. Taken together, our results suggest that spatial learning and memory inhibited in Kidney-yang deficiency might be induced by Aβ increase and the decrease of β(2) receptor function in glia. PMID:22645624
Kinetic energy for the nuclear Yang-Mills collective model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosensteel, George; Sparks, Nick
2015-10-01
The Bohr-Mottelson-Frankfurt model of nuclear rotations and quadrupole vibrations is a foundational model in nuclear structure physics. The model, also called the geometrical collective model or simply GCM, has two hidden mathematical structures, one Lie group theoretic and the other differential geometric. Although the group structure has been understood for some time, the geometric structure is a new unexplored feature that shares the same mathematical origin as Yang-Mills, viz., a vector bundle with a non-abelian structure group and a connection. Using the de Rham Laplacian ▵ = * d * d from differential geometry for the kinetic energy extends significantly the physical scope of the GCM model. This Laplacian contains a ``magnetic'' term due to the coupling between base manifold rotational and fiber vorticity degrees of freedom. When the connection specializes to irrotational flow, the Laplacian reduces to the Bohr-Mottelson kinetic energy operator. More generally, the connection yields a moment of inertia that is intermediate between the extremes of irrotational flow and rigid body motion.
Yin and Yang of ginseng pharmacology: ginsenosides vs gintonin
Im, Dong-soon; Nah, Seung-yeol
2013-01-01
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic herb that provides many beneficial effects. Pharmacologic studies in the last decades have shown that ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) are primarily responsible for the actions of ginseng. However, the effects of ginseng are not fully explained by ginsenosides. Recently, another class of active ingredients called gintonin was identified. Gintonin is a complex of glycosylated ginseng proteins containing lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) that are the intracellular lipid mitogenic mediator. Gintonin specifically and potently activates the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for LPA. Thus, the actions of ginseng are now also linked to LPA and its GPCRs. This linkage opens new dimensions for ginseng pharmacology and LPA therapeutics. In the present review, we evaluate the pharmacology of ginseng with the traditional viewpoint of Yin and Yang components. Furthermore, we will compare ginsenoside and gintonin based on the modern view of molecular pharmacology in terms of ion channels and GPCRs. PMID:24122014
Yin Yang 1 Promotes Thymocyte Survival by Downregulating p53.
Chen, Liang; Foreman, Daniel P; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Krangel, Michael S
2016-03-15
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a zinc finger protein that functions as a transcriptional activator or repressor and participates in multiple biological processes, including development and tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of YY1 in developing T cells, we used mouse models that depleted YY1 at two distinct stages of thymocyte development. When YY1 was depleted in CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, development to the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive stage was impaired, due to increased apoptosis that prevented expansion of post-β-selection thymocytes. When YY1 was depleted in double-positive thymocytes, they underwent increased cell-autonomous apoptosis in vitro and displayed a shorter lifespan in vivo, as judged by their ability to undergo secondary Vα-to-Jα recombination. Mechanistically, we found that the increased apoptosis in YY1-deficient thymocytes was attributed to overexpression of p53, because concurrent loss of p53 completely rescued the developmental defects of YY1-deficient thymocytes. These results indicated that YY1 functions as a critical regulator of thymocyte survival and that it does so by suppressing the expression of p53. PMID:26843327
Isotropy theorem for cosmological Yang-Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.; Jareño, S. J. Núñez
2013-02-01
We consider homogeneous non-Abelian vector fields with general potential terms in an expanding universe. We find a mechanical analogy with a system of N interacting particles (with N the dimension of the gauge group) moving in three dimensions under the action of a central potential. In the case of bounded and rapid evolution compared to the rate of expansion, we show by making use of a generalization of the virial theorem that for an arbitrary potential and polarization pattern, the average energy-momentum tensor is always diagonal and isotropic despite the intrinsic anisotropic evolution of the vector field. We consider also the case in which a gauge-fixing term is introduced in the action and show that the average equation of state does not depend on such a term. Finally, we extend the results to arbitrary background geometries and show that the average energy-momentum tensor of a rapidly evolving Yang-Mills field is always isotropic and has the perfect fluid form for any locally inertial observer.
Infrared singularities in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory
Alkofer, Reinhard; Huber, Markus Q.; Schwenzer, Kai
2010-05-15
We present a more detailed picture of the infrared regime of Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory. This is done within a novel framework that allows one to take into account the influence of finite scales within an infrared power counting analysis. We find that there are two qualitatively different infrared fixed points of the full system of Dyson-Schwinger equations. The first extends the known scaling solution, where the ghost dynamics is dominant and gluon propagation is strongly suppressed. It features in addition to the strong divergences of gluonic vertex functions in the previously considered uniform scaling limit, when all external momenta tend to zero, also weaker kinematic divergences, when only some of the external momenta vanish. The second solution represents the recently proposed decoupling scenario where the gluons become massive and the ghosts remain bare. In this case we find that none of the vertex functions is enhanced, so that the infrared dynamics is entirely suppressed. Our analysis also provides a strict argument why the Landau-gauge gluon dressing function cannot be infrared divergent.
Recombination of H and He in Yang-Mills Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Daniel
2015-07-01
We investigate some aspects of the thermal history of the early universe according to Yang-Mills Gravity (YMG); a gauge theory of gravity set in flat space-time. Specifically, equations for the ionization fractions of hydrogen and singly ionized helium during the recombination epoch are deduced analytically and then solved numerically. By considering several approximations, we find that the presence of primordial helium and its interaction with Lyman series photons has a much stronger effect on the overall free electron density in YMG than it does in the standard, General Relativity (GR)-based, model. Compared to the standard model, recombination happens over a much larger range of temperatures, although there is still a very sharp temperature of last scattering around 2000 K. The ionization history of the universe is not directly observable, but knowledge of it is necessary for CMB power spectrum calculations. Such calculations will provide another rigorous test of YMG and will be explored in detail in an upcoming paper.
Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers
Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yii-Jeng; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Hu, Wan-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Lin, Yun-Lian
2016-01-01
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs) were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%), while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%). Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC. PMID:27340421
Zou, Zhong-jie; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Gong, Meng-juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang
2013-11-01
To investigate the intervention effects of Morinda officinalis How. on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' induced by hydrocortisone in rats, the metabolic profiles of rat urine were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the trajectory of urinary metabolic phenotype of rats with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' under administration of M. officinalis at different time points. Meanwhile, the intervention effects of M. officinalis on urinary metabolic potential biomarkers associated with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' were also discussed. The experimental results showed that in accordance to the increased time of administration, an obvious tendency was observed that clustering of the treatment group moved gradually closed to that of the control group. Eight potential biomarkers including citrate, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lactate, betaine, sarcosine, alanine and taurine were definitely up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, the effectiveness of M. oficinalis on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' is proved using the established metabonomic method and the regulated metabolic pathways involve energy metabolism, transmethylation and transportation of amine. Meanwhile, the administration of M. officinalis can alleviate the kidney impairment induced by 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'. PMID:24475714
Human gephyrin is encompassed within giant functional noncoding yin-yang sequences
Climer, Sharlee; Templeton, Alan R.; Zhang, Weixiong
2015-01-01
Gephyrin is a highly-conserved gene that is vital for the organization of proteins at inhibitory receptors, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, and other diverse functions. Its specific function is intricately regulated and its aberrant activities have been observed for a number of human diseases. Here we report a remarkable yin-yang haplotype pattern encompassing gephyrin. Yin-yang haplotypes arise when a stretch of DNA evolves to present two disparate forms that bear differing states for nucleotide variations along their lengths. The gephyrin yin-yang pair consists of 284 divergent nucleotide states and both variants vary drastically from their mutual ancestral haplotype, suggesting rapid evolution. Several independent lines of evidence indicate strong positive selection on the region and suggest these high-frequency haplotypes represent two distinct functional mechanisms. This discovery holds potential to deepen our understanding of variable human-specific regulation of gephyrin while providing clues for rapid evolutionary events and allelic migrations buried within human history. PMID:25813846
Gauge-covariant decomposition and magnetic monopole for G (2 ) Yang-Mills field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsudo, Ryutaro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2016-08-01
We provide a gauge-covariant decomposition of the Yang-Mills field with the exceptional gauge group G (2 ), which extends the field decomposition proposed by Cho, Duan-Ge, and Faddeev-Niemi for the S U (N ) Yang-Mills field. As an application of the decomposition, we derive a new expression of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of G (2 ). The resulting new form is used to define gauge-invariant magnetic monopoles in the G (2 ) Yang-Mills theory. Moreover, we obtain the quantization condition to be satisfied by the resulting magnetic charge. The method given in this paper is general enough to be applicable to any semisimple Lie group other than S U (N ) and G (2 ).
Yang-Baxter integrable models in experiments: from condensed matter to ultracold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batchelor, Murray T.; Foerster, Angela
2016-04-01
The Yang-Baxter equation has long been recognised as the masterkey to integrability, providing the basis for exactly solved models which capture the fundamental physics of a number of realistic classical and quantum systems. In this article we provide an introductory survey of the impact of Yang-Baxter integrable models on experiments in condensed matter physics and ultracold atoms. A number of prominent examples are covered, including the hard-hexagon model, the Heisenberg spin chain, the transverse quantum Ising chain, a spin ladder model, the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the Gaudin-Yang Fermi gas and the two-site Bose-Hubbard model. The review concludes by pointing to some other recent developments with promise for further progress.
Cui, N; Shi, Ji; Jia, Tian-Zhu
2013-11-01
To compare the pharmacological effects for tonifying kidney and supporting Yang of different processed products of Morinda officinalis. The oral administration of adenine was performed to establish the kidney-Yang deficiency mice model. Four different processed products, namely M. officinalis, morinda pulp, salt-steamed M. officinalis and licorice-processed M. officinalis, were administered, with Guifu Dihuang pills as the control drug, and mice signs, weight, testicular coefficient, seminal vesicle coefficient, serum testosterone, serum cortisol and serum creatinine as evaluation indexes. The results showed that all of the four processed products of M. officinalis could improve the symptoms of the kidney-Yang deficient mice. Among them, salt-steamed M. officinalis had the most significant effect, which was followed by licorice-processed M. officinalis, morinda pulp and M. officinalis. PMID:24558872
Some Comments on the String Singularity of the Yang-Mills-Higgs Theory
Lim, Kok-Geng; Teh, Rosy
2010-07-07
We are going to make use of the regulated polar angle which had been introduced by Boulware et al.. to show that in the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory when the magnetic monopole is carried by the gauge field, the Higgs field does not carry the monopole and vice versa. In the Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, our solution shows that when the parameter {epsilon} {ne} 0, the monopole is carried by the gauge field and there is a string singularity in the gauge field. When the parameter {epsilon} {yields} 0, the monopole is transferred from the gauge field to the Higgs field and the string singularity disappeared. The solution is only singular at the origin, that is at r = 0 as it becomes the Wu-Yang monopole.
Using computer algebra for Yang-Baxterization applied to quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2006-05-01
Using Computer Algebra Software (Mathematica and Maple), the recently introduced topic of Yang- Baxterization applied to quantum computing, is explored from the mathematical and computational views. Some algorithms of computer algebra were elaborated with the aim to make the calculations to obtain some of results that were originally presented in the paper by Shang-Kauffman-Ge. Also certain new results about computational Yang-baxterization are presented. We obtain some Hamiltonians for hypothetical physical systems which can be realized within the domain of spin chains and certain diffusion process. We conclude that it is possible to have real physical systems on which implement, via Yang-baxterization, the standard quantum gates with topological protection. Finally some lines for future research are deligned.
Karanikas, A.I.; Ktorides, C.N.
1987-02-15
We confront the general problem posed by nonperturbative calculations in non-Abelian gauge theories, pertaining to the Wilson loop operator, away from strong coupling. We adopt a nonperturbatively regularized formulation of Yang-Mills theories in the continuum which has already been discussed in the preceding paper. We study, in particular, Yang-Mills duality, within our regularized context, with respect to the full SU(N) group and not simply its center Z/sub N/. We further show that, from the present viewpoint, duality emerges through a distinction between the regularization length on one hand and the scale by which the Yang-Mills system is observed on the other. Finally, we are able to derive a Makeenko-Migdal-type equation for finite N.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Kun; Pang, Jinglong
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on the study of topological features in teleportation-based quantum computation and aims at presenting a detailed review on teleportation-based quantum computation (Gottesman and Chuang in Nature 402: 390, 1999). In the extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach, we clearly show that such topological features bring about the fault-tolerant construction of both universal quantum gates and four-partite entangled states more intuitive and simpler. Furthermore, we describe the Yang-Baxter gate by its extended Temperley-Lieb configuration and then study teleportation-based quantum circuit models using the Yang-Baxter gate. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach and the Yang-Baxter gate approach. With these research results, we propose a worthwhile subject, the extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach, for physicists in quantum information and quantum computation.
[Medical doctor Lee Hyeon Yang's writings in Gokcheongsago].
Hur, Kyoungjin
2008-12-01
Medical doctors in the Chosun Dynasty read Chinese literature of high level in order to take the medical civil service examination, but there are not many extant writings of theirs except some medical books. Middle class people's selections of poems such as Haedongyuju, Sodaepungyo, Pungyosokseon and Pungyosamseon were published, and among the list of the writers, those who were identified as medical doctors were Park Gun, Baek Heung jeon, Shin Myeong hee, Shin Hee myeong, Oh Chang ryeol, Yoo Dong yeok, etc. Even their works are not many, and this suggests that doctors' writing was not active except for medical books. Lee Hyeon yang (1783-1852), the author of Gokcheongsago, was born the only son of Lee Jaewoo (1750-1808), an acupuncturist at the Lee family from Ansan, which was an influential middleclass family. His pen name was changed from Gokcheong to Anrakwa, Yongheon and Gyeongsudang, and for each pen name, he wrote a foreword explaining the origin of the name and his resolution. The Lee family from Ansan produced 20 medical officials through eight generations from Lee Yoon yeong in the 7th generation to Lee Myeong ryun in the 15th generation. He learned medicine, his family occupation, diligently and passed the medical civil service examination in 1803 when he was 21. In addition, he studied Confucian scriptures enthusiastically and left many writing along with medical books. Based on the forewords in his anthology Gokcheongsago, there are eight writings of his as follows in chronological order: Suseongpyeongam (1798), Cheongimiyo (1799), Euihakjeongwon (1801), Gwangjebiyo(five volumes, 1810), Wonbyeonggiyo (1819), Bonchojeongeui(1826), Euiyakcheongji (1838), and Yeonghwaji (1843). He wrote not only medical books but also traditional Chinese texts in different styles. In the 180pages transcription, he as a medical doctor showed various writing styles based on Confucianism including 22 prologues and epilogues, 9 diaries, discussions and opinions, 2 biographies
String theories as the adiabatic limit of Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Alexander D.
2015-08-01
We consider Yang-Mills theory with a matrix gauge group G on a direct product manifold M =Σ2×H2 , where Σ2 is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold and H2 is a two-dimensional open disc with the boundary S1=∂H2 . The Euler-Lagrange equations for the metric on Σ2 yield constraint equations for the Yang-Mills energy-momentum tensor. We show that in the adiabatic limit, when the metric on H2 is scaled down, the Yang-Mills equations plus constraints on the energy-momentum tensor become the equations describing strings with a world sheet Σ2 moving in the based loop group Ω G =C∞(S1,G )/G , where S1 is the boundary of H2. By choosing G =Rd -1 ,1 and putting to zero all parameters in Ω Rd -1 ,1 besides Rd -1 ,1 , we get a string moving in Rd -1 ,1 . In another paper of the author, it was described how one can obtain the Green-Schwarz superstring action from Yang-Mills theory on Σ2×H2 while H2 shrinks to a point. Here we also consider Yang-Mills theory on a three-dimensional manifold Σ2×S1 and show that in the limit when the radius of S1 tends to zero, the Yang-Mills action functional supplemented by a Wess-Zumino-type term becomes the Green-Schwarz superstring action.
LC-MS-Based Quality Assessment of a Traditional Chinese Medicine YANG XIN Formulation.
Almalki, Ahmad J; Zaher, Ahmed; Simithy, Johayra; Keller, William J; Tripp, Matt; Calderón, Angela I
2016-08-01
YANG XIN is a traditional Chinese medicine formulation used for nervous fatigue and consists of a proprietary blend of concentrated extracts from 18 plant ingredients. The 18 constituent plant ingredients, YANG XIN capsules, and formulations 2014-005_1 A and 1B were extracted by consecutive 24-hour macerations with dichloromethane followed by methanol. Metabolite separation was carried out through LC-MS in 40 minutes. Data acquisitions for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were collected under (±) ESI modes and (+) APCI mode using full spectrum scan analysis.A total of 18 analytical markers were identified by LC-MS for YANG XIN formulations based on accurate mass measurements, molecular formula, double bond equivalent, MFG score, and error (ppm) of the measurement. Aditionally, a comparison of the data with previously reported results for the compounds, followed by identity confirmation with standard compounds, was performed. Seventeen analytical markers representing 17 plant ingredients in the different YANG XIN formulations were quantified for the first time. The YANG XIN capsules and the 2014-005_1B formulation were similar to each other and different from the 2014-005_1 A formulation based on the fact that both YANG XIN capsules and the 2014-005_1B formulation contain the same analytical markers. This method provides good linearity (r(2) > 0.9945), intraday precision (R. S. D. < 3.9 %), interday precision (R. S. D. < 5.6 %), accuracy (99.2-101 %), recovery (145.7 %), limit of detection (0.0011-0.0732 µg/mL), and limit of quantitation (0.0038-0.2441 µg/mL). PMID:27124240
Hamiltonian Approach to Yang-Mills Theory in Coulomb Gauge--Revisited
Reinhardt, Hugo; Campagnari, Davide R.; Leder, Markus; Burgio, Giuseppe; Quandt, Markus; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel
2011-05-24
I briefly review results obtained within the variational Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge and confront them with recent lattice data. The variational approach is extended to non-Gaussian wave functionals including three- and four-gluon kernels in the exponential of the vacuum wave functional and used to calculate the three-gluon vertex. A new functional renormalization group flow equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge is solved for the gluon and ghost propagator under the assumption of ghost dominance. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach.
Dynamics of Euclideanized Einstein-Yang-Mills systems with arbitrary gauge groups
Bertolami, O.; Picken, R.F. ); Maurao, J.M. ); Volobujev, I.P. )
1991-09-30
This paper describes the dynamics of euclideanized SO(4)-symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) systems with arbitrary compact gauge groups K. For the case of SO(n) and SU(n) gauge groups and simple embeddings of the isotropy group in K, the authors show that in the resulting dynamical system, the Friedmann equation decouples from the Yang-Mills equations. Furthermore, the latter can be reduced to a system of two second-order differential equations. This allows the authors to find a broad class of instanton (wormhole) solutions of the EYM equations. These solutions are not afflicted by the giant-wormhole catastrophe.
Orbifold singularities, Lie algebras of the third kind (LATKes), and pure Yang-Mills with matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedmann, Tamar
2011-02-01
We discover the unique, simple Lie algebra of the third kind, or LATKe, that stems from codimension 6 orbifold singularities and gives rise to a new kind of Yang-Mills theory which simultaneously is pure and contains matter. The root space of the LATKe is one-dimensional and its Dynkin diagram consists of one point. The uniqueness of the LATKe is a vacuum selection mechanism. [ {c} {The World in a Point?}{Blow-up of} C^3/Z_3| {Dynkin diagram of the LATKe}bullet {Pure Yang-Mills with matter}
A Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.
2014-10-01
We study spherically symmetric solutions of an SO(5) Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions. The Chern-Simons densities are defined in terms of both Yang-Mills fields and a five-component isomultiplet Higgs. The SO(3) × SO(2) solutions are analyzed in a systematic way, by employing numerical methods. These finite energy configurations possess both electric and magnetic global charges, differing radically, however, from Julia-Zee dyons. When two or more of these Chern-Simons densities are present in the Lagrangian, solutions with vanishing electric charge but nonvanishing electrostatic potential may exist.
Hamiltonian Approach to Yang-Mills Theory in Coulomb Gauge—Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhardt, Hugo; Campagnari, Davide R.; Leder, Markus; Burgio, Giuseppe; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Quandt, Markus; Weber, Axel
2011-05-01
I briefly review results obtained within the variational Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge and confront them with recent lattice data. The variational approach is extended to non-Gaussian wave functionals including three- and four-gluon kernels in the exponential of the vacuum wave functional and used to calculate the three-gluon vertex. A new functional renormalization group flow equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge is solved for the gluon and ghost propagator under the assumption of ghost dominance. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach.
Strongly coupled large N spectrum of two matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction
Cook, Martin N. H.; Rodrigues, Joao P.
2008-09-15
We consider the large N spectrum of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction. In a framework where one of the matrices is treated exactly and the other is treated as a creation operator impurity, the difference equation associated with the Yang-Mills interaction is derived and solved exactly for two impurities. In this case, the full string tension corrected spectrum depends on two momenta. For a specific value of one of these momenta, the spectrum has the same structure as that of giant magnon bound states. States with general number of impurities are also discussed.
Integrable amplitude deformations for N =4 super Yang-Mills and ABJM theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bargheer, Till; Huang, Yu-Tin; Loebbert, Florian; Yamazaki, Masahito
2015-01-01
We study Yangian-invariant deformations of scattering amplitudes in 4d N =4 super Yang-Mills theory and 3d N =6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory. In particular, we obtain the deformed Graßmannian integral for 4d N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, both in momentum and momentum-twistor space. For 3d ABJM theory, we initiate the study of deformed scattering amplitudes. We investigate general deformations of on-shell diagrams, and find the deformed Graßmannian integral for this theory. We furthermore introduce the algebraic R-matrix construction of deformed Yangian invariants for ABJM theory.
- criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Xu, Wei; Yue, Rui-Hong
2015-02-01
We study the - critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.
5D radiating black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, S. G.
2011-10-01
We derive nonstatic spherically symmetric solutions of a null fluid, in five dimension (5D), to Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) equations with the coupling of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) combination of quadratic curvature terms, namely, 5D EYMGB radiating black hole solution. It is shown that, in the limit, we can recover known radiating black hole solutions. The spherically symmetric known 5D static black hole solutions are also retrieved. The effect of the GB term and Yang-Mills (YM) gauge charge on the structure and location of horizons, of the 5D radiating black hole, is also discussed.
Easier Said than Done: Rejoinder on Sijtsma and on Green and Yang
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.
2016-01-01
The main points of Sijtsma and Green and Yang in Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice (34, 4) are that reliability, internal consistency, and unidimensionality are distinct and that Cronbach's alpha may be problematic. Neither of these assertions are at odds with Davenport, Davison, Liou, and Love in the same issue. However, many authors…
Hamiltonian Dyson-Schwinger and FRG Flow Equations of Yang-Mills Theory in Coulomb Gauge
Reinhardt, Hugo; Leder, Markus; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel
2011-05-23
A new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge is presented and solved for the static gluon and ghost propagators under the assumption of ghost dominance. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach.
Center-stabilized Yang-Mills Theory:Confinement and Large N Volume Independence
Unsal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.; /Washington U., Seattle
2008-03-21
We examine a double trace deformation of SU(N) Yang-Mills theory which, for large N and large volume, is equivalent to unmodified Yang-Mills theory up to O(1/N{sup 2}) corrections. In contrast to the unmodified theory, large N volume independence is valid in the deformed theory down to arbitrarily small volumes. The double trace deformation prevents the spontaneous breaking of center symmetry which would otherwise disrupt large N volume independence in small volumes. For small values of N, if the theory is formulated on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} with a sufficiently small compactification size L, then an analytic treatment of the non-perturbative dynamics of the deformed theory is possible. In this regime, we show that the deformed Yang-Mills theory has a mass gap and exhibits linear confinement. Increasing the circumference L or number of colors N decreases the separation of scales on which the analytic treatment relies. However, there are no order parameters which distinguish the small and large radius regimes. Consequently, for small N the deformed theory provides a novel example of a locally four-dimensional pure gauge theory in which one has analytic control over confinement, while for large N it provides a simple fully reduced model for Yang-Mills theory. The construction is easily generalized to QCD and other QCD-like theories.
Emergent 5-Dimensional Black Hole from Weakly Interacting 4-Dimensional Super Yang-Mills Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, Soo-Jong
2005-12-01
We demonstrate five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole emerges as dual geometry holographic to weakly interacting N = 4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory. We first note that an ideal probe of the dual geometry is the Yang-Mills instanton, probing point by point in spacetime. We then study instanton moduli space at finite temperature by adopting Hitchin's proposal that geometry of the moduli space is definable by Fisher-Rao ``information geometry''. In Yang-Mills theory, the information metric is measured by a novel class of gauge-invariant, nonlocal operators in the instanton sector. We show that the moduli space metric exhibits (1) asymptotically anti-de Sitter, (2) horizon at radial distance set by the Yang-Mills temperature, and (3) after Wick rotation of the moduli space to the Lorentzian signature, a singularity at the origin. We argue that the dual geometry emerges even for rank of gauge groups of order unity and for weak 't Hooft coupling.
Comparing Yin-Yang, the Chinese symbol of creation, with Ouroboros of Greek alchemy.
Mahdihassan, S
1989-01-01
The universe was early divided into Earth below and Heaven above. These, two as one, gave the idea of opposites but forming a unity. Each opposite was assumed to be powerful and so was their final unity. For creation of the universe they projected reproduction to conceive creation. Now reproduction results in the union of two opposites as male and female. Correspondingly, the Chinese believed Light and Darkness, as the ideal opposites, when united, yielded creative energy. The two opposites were further conceived as matter and energy which became dual-natured but as one. The two opposites were yin-yang and their unity was called Chhi. Yin-Yang was treated separately in Chinese cosmology which consisted of five cosmic elements. Since Chinese alchemy did reach Alexandria probably the symbol Yin-Yang, as dual-natured, responsible for creation, was transformed into a symbol called Ouroboros. It is a snake and as such as symbol of soul. Its head and anterior portion is red, being the colour of blood as soul; its tail and posterior half is dark, representing body. Ouroboros here is depicted white and black, as soul and body, the two as "one which is all." It is cosmic soul, the source of all creation. Ouroboros is normally depicted with its anterior half as black but it should be the reverse as shown here. With the name Chemeia taken to Kim-Iya, the last word would take Ouroboros to Yin-Yang. PMID:2633627
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Challifour, John L.; Timko, Edward J.
2016-06-01
Using a Krein indefinite metric in Fock space, the Hamiltonian for cut-off models of canonically quantized Higgs-Yang-Mills fields interpolating between the Gupta-Bleuler-Feynman and Landau gauges is shown to be essentially maximal accretive and essentially Krein selfadjoint.
Real-time dynamics of a hot Yang-Mills theory: a numerical analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Krasnitz, A.
2002-03-01
We discuss recent results obtained from simulations of high temperature, classical, real time dynamics of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory at temperatures of the order of the electroweak scale. Measurements of gauge covariant and gauge invariant autocorrelations of the fields indicate that the ASY-Bödecker scenario is irrelevant at these temperatures.
Real-time dynamics of a hot Yang-Mills theory: a numerical analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Krasnitz, A.
We discuss recent results obtained from simulations of high temperature, classical, real time dynamics of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory at temperatures of the order of the electroweak scale. Measurements of gauge covariant and gauge invariant autocorrelations of the fields indicate that the ASY-Bödecker scenario is irrelevant at these temperatures.
Bonus Yangian Symmetry for the Planar S Matrix of N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Beisert, Niklas; Schwab, Burkhard U. W.
2011-06-10
Recent developments in the determination of the planar S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills are closely related to its Yangian symmetry. Here we provide evidence for a yet unobserved additional symmetry: the Yangian level-one helicity operator.
Two-loop five-point all-plus helicity Yang-Mills amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunbar, David C.; Perkins, Warren B.
2016-04-01
We recompute the recently derived two-loop five-point all-plus Yang-Mills amplitude using unitarity and recursion. Recursion requires augmented recursion to determine the subleading pole. Using these methods, the simplicity of this amplitude is understood.
Construction of an effective Yang-Mills Lagrangian with manifest BCJ duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolotti, Mathias; Weinzierl, Stefan
2013-07-01
The BCJ decomposition is a highly non-trivial property of gauge theories. In this paper we systematically construct an effective Lagrangian, whose Feynman rules automatically produce the BCJ numerators. The effective Lagrangian contains non-local terms. The difference between the standard Yang-Mills Lagrangian and the effective Lagrangian simplifies to zero.
Self-dual solutions of Yang-Mills theory on Euclidean AdS space
Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram
2009-05-15
We find nontrivial, time-dependent solutions of the (anti) self-dual Yang-Mills equations in the four-dimensional Euclidean anti-de Sitter space. In contrast to the Euclidean flat space, the action depends on the moduli parameters and the charge can take any noninteger value.
The Yin-Yang of Cytokinin Homeostasis and Drought Acclimation/Adaptation.
Li, Weiqiang; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan
2016-07-01
Increasing evidence has shown that cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant drought acclimation/adaptation through a multistep phosphorelay pathway. Recent progress has allowed us to suggest a yin-and-yang-type relationship between CK homeostasis and acclimation/adaptation responses that modulates plant fitness and yields stability under drought through a complex network involving crosstalk with abscisic acid (ABA). PMID:27270336
Emergent 5-Dimensional Black Hole from Weakly Interacting 4-Dimensional Super Yang-Mills Gas
Rey, Soo-Jong
2005-12-02
We demonstrate five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole emerges as dual geometry holographic to weakly interacting N = 4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory. We first note that an ideal probe of the dual geometry is the Yang-Mills instanton, probing point by point in spacetime. We then study instanton moduli space at finite temperature by adopting Hitchin's proposal that geometry of the moduli space is definable by Fisher-Rao 'information geometry'. In Yang-Mills theory, the information metric is measured by a novel class of gauge-invariant, nonlocal operators in the instanton sector. We show that the moduli space metric exhibits (1) asymptotically anti-de Sitter (2) horizon at radial distance set by the Yang-Mills temperature, and (3) after Wick rotation of the moduli space to the Lorentzian signature, a singularity at the origin. We argue that the dual geometry emerges even for rank of gauge groups of order unity and for weak 't Hooft coupling.
Explicit non-Abelian monopoles and instantons in SU(N) pure Yang-Mills theory
Popov, Alexander D.
2008-06-15
It is well known that there are no static non-Abelian monopole solutions in pure Yang-Mills theory on Minkowski space R{sup 3,1}. I show that such solutions exist in SU(N) gauge theory on the spaces R{sup 2}xS{sup 2} and RxS{sup 1}xS{sup 2} with Minkowski signature (-+++). In the temporal gauge they are solutions of pure Yang-Mills theory on TxS{sup 2}, where T is R or S{sup 1}. Namely, imposing SO(3) invariance and some reality conditions, I consistently reduce the Yang-Mills model on the above spaces to a non-Abelian analog of the {phi}{sup 4} kink model whose static solutions give SU(N) monopole (-antimonopole) configurations on the space R{sup 1,1}xS{sup 2} via the above-mentioned correspondence. These solutions can also be considered as instanton configurations of Yang-Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions. The kink model on RxS{sup 1} admits also periodic sphaleron-type solutions describing chains of n kink-antikink pairs spaced around the circle S{sup 1} with arbitrary n>0. They correspond to chains of n static monopole-antimonopole pairs on the space RxS{sup 1}xS{sup 2} which can also be interpreted as instanton configurations in 2+1 dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature (thermal time circle). I also describe similar solutions in Euclidean SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 1}xS{sup 3} interpreted as chains of n instanton-anti-instanton pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivashchuk, V. D.; Melnikov, V. N.
2014-01-01
In the framework of 10-dimensional "Friedmann-Calabi-Yau" cosmology of superstring origin we show that the time variation of either Newton's gravitational constant or Yang-Mills one is unavoidable in the present epoch.
Ren, Jian-Ning
2013-02-01
To explore the mechanism of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian" and clinical application of treating insomnia with acupoints in qiao meridian as the main points. From meridian theory, intersection between stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and yang-qiao meridian is through Chengqi (ST 1). Qiao meridian for sleep is mainly because it is connected with eyes through the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang. For Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming is intersected with the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang in Jingming (BL 1), and intersected with yin and yang qiao meridian beside the mouth and under the eye, once functional disorder of the stomach, it can affect qi movements of the whole body and give rise to various pathological changes that cause insomnia. Meanwhile examples are given to explain the clinical application of treating subborn insomnia with corresponding acupoint of stomach and yang-qiao meridian. PMID:23620952
Wang, L. C.
1980-01-01
Bäecklund Transformations (BT) and the derivation of local conservation laws are first reviewed in the classic case of the Sine-Gordon equation. The BT, conservation laws (local and nonlocal), and the inverse-scattering formulation are discussed for the chiral and the self-dual Yang-Mills fields. Their possible applications to the loop formulation for the Yang-Mills fields are mentioned. 55 references, 1 figure.
On the monotonic and conservative transport on overset/Yin-Yang grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zerroukat, M.; Allen, T.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we outline a simple and a general methodology to achieve positivity, monotonicity and mass conservation with transport schemes on general overset grids. The main feature of the approach is its reduced complexity, which simplifies the use of higher-order schemes and higher dimensions on general grids and in particular for overset grids. The method also does not degrade substantially the order of the overall scheme despite the extra constraints of monotonicity and conservation. The approach is applied to achieve mass conservation with semi-Lagrangian schemes and its performance is analyzed using simple one-dimensional overlapping grids and a two-dimensional spherical Yin-Yang grid. The Yin-Yang grid is a special overset grid for the sphere and it is of a special interest in the atmospheric modeling community, as it is one of the grids that may resolve the scaling issue of existing longitude-latitude-grid based atmospheric models on massively parallel machines.
Solving the ghost-gluon system of Yang-Mills theory on GPUs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopfer, Markus; Alkofer, Reinhard; Haase, Gundolf
2013-04-01
We solve the ghost-gluon system of Yang-Mills theory using graphics processing units (GPUs). Working in the Landau gauge, we use the Dyson-Schwinger formalism for the mathematical description, as this approach is well suited to directly benefit from the computing power of the GPUs. With the help of a Chebyshev expansion for the dressing functions and a subsequent appliance of a Newton-Raphson method, the non-linear system of coupled integral equations is linearized. The resulting Newton matrix is generated in parallel using OpenMPI and CUDA™. Our results show that it is possible to cut down the run time by two orders of magnitude as compared to a sequential version of the code. This makes the proposed techniques well suited for Dyson-Schwinger calculations on more complicated systems where the Yang-Mills sector of QCD serves as a starting point. In addition, the computation of Schwinger functions using GPU devices is studied.
Violation of Lee-Yang circle theorem for Ising phase transitions on complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnytska, M.; Berche, B.; Holovatch, Yu.; Kenna, R.
2015-09-01
The Ising model on annealed complex networks with degree distribution decaying algebraically as p(K)∼ K-λ has a second-order phase transition at finite temperature if λ>3 . In the absence of space dimensionality, λ controls the transition strength; classical mean-field exponents apply for λ >5 but critical exponents are λ-dependent if λ < 5 . Here we show that, as for regular lattices, the celebrated Lee-Yang circle theorem is obeyed for the former case. However, unlike on regular lattices where it is independent of dimensionality, the circle theorem fails on complex networks when λ < 5 . We discuss the importance of this result for both theory and experiments on phase transitions and critical phenomena. We also investigate the finite-size scaling of Lee-Yang zeros in both regimes as well as the multiplicative logarithmic corrections which occur at λ=5 .
Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin
2015-01-01
A new realization of doubling degeneracy based on emergent Majorana operator Γ presented by Lee-Wilczek has been made. The Hamiltonian can be obtained through the new type of solution of Yang-Baxter equation, i.e. -matrix. For 2-body interaction, gives the “superconducting” chain that is the same as 1D Kitaev chain model. The 3-body Hamiltonian commuting with Γ is derived by 3-body -matrix, we thus show that the essence of the doubling degeneracy is due to . We also show that the extended Γ′-operator is an invariant of braid group BN for odd N. Moreover, with the extended Γ′-operator, we construct the high dimensional matrix representation of solution to Yang-Baxter equation and find its application in constructing 2N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for odd N. PMID:25631987
An operator approach to the rational solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qiang; Bai, Chengming
2010-04-01
Motivated by the study of the operator forms of the constant classical Yang-Baxter equation given by Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kupershmidt and others, we try to construct the rational solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation with parameters by means of certain linear operators. The fact that the rational solutions of the CYBE for the simple complex Lie algebras can be interpreted in term of certain linear operators motivates us to give the notion of -operators such that these linear operators are the -operators associated to the adjoint representations. Such a study can be generalized to the Lie algebras with nondegenerate symmetric invariant bilinear forms. Furthermore we give a construction of a rational solution of CYBE from an -operator associated to the coadjoint representation and an arbitrary representation with a trivial product in the representation space, respectively.
Nonperturbative construction of massive Yang-Mills fields without the Higgs field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2013-01-01
In order to understand the so-called decoupling solution for gluon and ghost propagators in QCD, we give a nonperturbative construction of a massive vector field describing a non-Abelian massive spin-one particle, which has the correct physical degrees of freedom and is invariant under a modified Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin transformation, in a massive Yang-Mills model without the Higgs field, i.e., the Curci-Ferrari model. The resulting non-Abelian massive vector boson field is written by using a nonlinear but local transformation from the original fields in the Curci-Ferrari model. As an application, we write down a local mass term for the Yang-Mills field and a dimension-two condensate, which are exactly invariant under the modified Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin transformation, Lorentz transformation, and color rotation.
Physical unitarity for a massive Yang-Mills theory without the Higgs field: A perturbative treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Suzuki, Kenta; Fukamachi, Hitoshi; Nishino, Shogo; Shinohara, Toru
2013-01-01
In a series of papers, we examine the physical unitarity in a massive Yang-Mills theory without the Higgs field in which the color gauge symmetry is not spontaneously broken and kept intact. For this purpose, we use a new framework proposed in the previous paper Kondo [arXiv:1208.3521] based on a nonperturbative construction of a non-Abelian field describing a massive spin-one vector boson field, which enables us to perform the perturbative and nonperturbative studies on the physical unitarity. In this paper, we present a new perturbative treatment for the physical unitarity after giving the general properties of the massive Yang-Mills theory. Then we reproduce the violation of physical unitarity in a transparent way. This paper is a preliminary work to the subsequent papers in which we present a nonperturbative framework to propose a possible scenario of restoring the physical unitarity in the Curci-Ferrari model.
[The Yin and Yang movement in the cosmology of Chinese medicine].
Coutinho, Bernardo Diniz; Dulcetti, Pérola Goretti Sichero
2015-01-01
After being developed in the East, based on Taoist cosmology, Chinese medicine has been practiced in the West based on scientific foundations and biomedical paradigms. Some traditional elements of this philosophy were abandoned, such as the theory of Yin and Yang, knowledge that is essential for understanding the health-disease process resulting from the circulation of the body's energy flow. This article studies the movement of the dual elements of Yin and Yang in Chinese medical teaching, seeking to understand how this line of thought developed and how it has contributed towards establishing a system of diagnosis and therapy. The methodology employed was to analyze literature on the subject, based on theoretical references to Taoist thought and traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26331645
Structural support of a yin-yang magnet for a tandem mirror reactor with thermal barriers
Erickson, J.L.; Ojalvo, I.U.; Myall, J.O.
1980-01-01
This report contains a comprehensive summary covering work performed by Grumman Aerospace Corporation, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, on the TMP yin-yang coils. The yin-yang coil pair used for our analysis has a major arc radius of 2.7 m and a minor arc radius of 1.18 m, compared with 2.5 m and 0.75 m for the MFTF. The maximum field on the present conductor is 9.05 Tesla. This magnetic field is created by, and interacts with, a conductor current which produces a 360 million Newton total force, tending to separate the parallel lobes of the major arcs.
Yangian symmetry of smooth Wilson loops in super Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Dennis; Münkler, Hagen; Plefka, Jan; Pollok, Jonas; Zarembo, Konstantin
2013-11-01
We show that appropriately supersymmetrized smooth Maldacena-Wilson loop operators in super Yang-Mills theory are invariant under a Yangian symmetry Y [(2, 2|4)] built upon the manifest superconformal symmetry algebra of the theory. The existence of this hidden symmetry is demonstrated at the one-loop order in the weak coupling limit as well as at leading order in the strong coupling limit employing the classical integrability of the dual AdS5 × S 5 string description. The hidden symmetry generators consist of a canonical non-local second order variational derivative piece acting on the superpath, along with a novel local path dependent contribution. We match the functional form of these Yangian symmetry generators at weak and strong coupling and find evidence for an interpolating function. Our findings represent the smooth counterpart to the Yangian invariance of scattering superamplitudes dual to light-like polygonal super Wilson loops in the super Yang-Mills theory.
Hedgehogs in Wilson loops and phase transition in SU(2) Yang Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belavin, V. A.; Chernodub, M. N.; Kozlov, I. E.
2006-08-01
We suggest that the gauge-invariant hedgehog-like structures in the Wilson loops are physically interesting degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills theory. The trajectories of these "hedgehog loops" are closed curves corresponding to center-valued (untraced) Wilson loops and are characterized by the center charge and winding number. We show numerically in the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory that the density of hedgehog structures in the thermal Wilson-Polyakov line is very sensitive to the finite-temperature phase transition. The (additively normalized) hedgehog line density behaves like an order parameter: The density is almost independent of the temperature in the confinement phase and changes substantially as the system enters the deconfinement phase. In particular, our results suggest that the (static) hedgehog lines may be relevant degrees of freedom around the deconfinement transition and thus affect evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.
New perspectives on an old problem: The bending of light in Yang-Mills gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cottrell, Kazuo Ota; Hsu, Jong-Ping
Yang-Mills gravity with electromagnetism predicts, in the geometric optics limit, a value for the deflection of light by the sun which agrees closely with the reanalysis of Eddington's 1919 optical measurements done in 1979. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, on the other hand, agrees very closely with measurements of the deflection of electromagnetic waves made in the range of radio frequencies. Since both General Relativity and Yang-Mills gravity with electromagnetism in the geometric optics limit make predictions for the optical region which fall within experimental uncertainty, it becomes important to consider the possibility of the existence of a frequency dependence in the measurement results for the deflection of light, in order to determine which theory more closely describes nature...
On the Yang-Lee and Langer singularities in the O(n) loop model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Kostov, Ivan
2012-01-01
We use the method of 'coupling to 2d QG' to study the analytic properties of the universal specific free energy of the O(n) loop model in a complex magnetic field. We compute the specific free energy on a dynamical lattice using the correspondence with a matrix model. The free energy has a pair of Yang-Lee edges on the high-temperature sheet and a Langer-type branch cut on the low-temperature sheet. Our result confirms a conjecture by A Zamolodchikov and Al Zamolodchikov about the decay rate of the metastable vacuum in the presence of Liouville gravity and gives strong evidence about the existence of a weakly metastable state and a Langer branch cut in the O(n) loop model on a flat lattice. Our results are compatible with the Fonseca-Zamolodchikov conjecture that the Yang-Lee edge appears as the nearest singularity under the Langer cut.
Kuerkcueoglu, Seckin
2010-11-15
We consider a U(2) Yang-Mills theory on MxS{sub F}{sup 2}, where M is an arbitrary noncommutative manifold, and S{sub F}{sup 2} is a fuzzy sphere spontaneously generated from a noncommutative U(N) Yang-Mills theory on M, coupled to a triplet of scalars in the adjoint of U(N). Employing the SU(2)-equivariant gauge field constructed in [D. Harland and S. Kurkcuoglu, Nucl. Phys. B 821, 380 (2009).], we perform the dimensional reduction of the theory over the fuzzy sphere. The emergent model is a noncommutative U(1) gauge theory coupled adjointly to a set of scalar fields. We study this model on the Groenewald-Moyal plane M=R{sub {theta}}{sup 2} and find that, in certain limits, it admits noncommutative, non-Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Somerfield vortex as well as flux-tube (fluxon) solutions and discuss some of their properties.
Quantum Metamorphosis of a Conformal Transformation in D3-Brane Yang-Mills Theory
Jevicki, A.; Kazama, Y.; Yoneya, T.
1998-12-01
We show how the linear special conformal transformation in four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory is metamorphosed into the nonlinear and field-dependent transformation for the collective coordinates of Dirichlet 3-branes, which agrees with the transformation law for the space-time coordinates in the anti{endash}de Sitter (AdS) space-time. Our result provides a new and strong support for the conjectured relation between AdS{sub 5}{times} S{sup 5} supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory (SYM). Furthermore, our work sheds elucidating light on the nature of the AdS/SYM correspondence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
A nonperturbative definition of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills by the plane wave matrix model
Shimasaki, Shinji
2008-11-23
We propose a nonperturbative definition of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills(SYM). We realize N = 4 SYM on RxS{sup 3} as the theory around a vacuum of the plane wave matrix model. Our regularization preserves 16 supersymmetries and the gauge symmetry. We perform the one-loop calculation to give evidence that in the continuum limit the superconformal symmetry is restored.
Four-loop dressing phase of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory
Beisert, N.; McLoughlin, T.; Roiban, R.
2007-08-15
We compute the dilatation generator in the su(2) sector of planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. We use the known world-sheet scattering matrix to constrain the structure of the generator. The remaining few coefficients can be computed directly from Feynman diagrams. This allows us to confirm previous conjectures for the leading contribution to the dressing phase which is proportional to {zeta}(3)
Perturbation theory in the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge
Campagnari, Davide R.; Reinhardt, Hugo; Weber, Axel
2009-07-15
We study the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge in Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory. The static gluon and ghost propagator as well as the potential between static color sources are calculated to one-loop order. Furthermore, the one-loop {beta} function is calculated from both the ghost-gluon vertex and the static potential and found to agree with the result of covariant perturbation theory.
Solution to the nonlinear field equations of ten dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver
2015-09-01
In this paper, we present a formal solution to the nonlinear field equations of ten-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory. It is assembled from products of linearized superfields which have been introduced as multiparticle superfields in the context of superstring perturbation theory. Their explicit form follows recursively from the conformal field theory description of the gluon multiplet in the pure spinor superstring. Furthermore, superfields of higher-mass dimensions are defined and their equations of motion are spelled out.
Number of gauge singlets in supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics
Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2007-10-15
We calculate generating functions for a number of U(N) (SU(N)) singlets in Fock space in several space dimensions. The motivation to find the explicit form of the functions is from the numerical approach applied to supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, based on Fock space. Incidentally the functions give many important insights into the quantum mechanical models based on U(N)(SU(N)) gauge group.
Research on Remote Sensing recognition features of Yuan Yang Terraces in Yunnan Province (China)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Lai, ZiLi; Yang, Wei
2016-04-01
Yuan Yang terraces is one of the most famous terraces in China, and it was successfully listed in the world heritage list at the 37th world heritage convention. On the one hand, Yuan Yang terraces retain more soil and water, to reduce both hydrological connectivity and erosion, and to support irrigation. On the other hand, It has the important tourism value, bring the huge revenue to local residents. In order to protect and make use of Yuan Yang terraces better, This study analyzed the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of terraces:(1) Through visual interpretation, the study recognized the terraces based on the spatial adjusted remote sensing image (2010 Geoeye-1 with resolution of 1m/pix), and extracted topographic feature (elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) based on the digital elevation model with resolution of 20m/pix. The terraces cover a total area of about 11.58Km2, accounted for 24.4% of the whole study area. The terraces appear at range from 1400m to 1800m in elevation, 10°to 20°in slope, northwest to northeast in aspect; (2) Using the method of weight of evidence, this study assessed the importance of different topographic feature. The results show that the sort of importance: elevation>slope>aspect; (3) The study counted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of terraces throughout the year, based on the landsat-5 image with resolution of 30m/pix. The results show that the changes of terraces' NDVI are bigger than other stuff (e.g. forest, road, house, etc.). Those work made a good preparations for establishing the dynamic remote sensing monitoring system of Yuan Yang terraces.
Euclidean wormhole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in diverse dimensions
Yoshida, K.; Hirenzaki, S. ); Shiraishi, K. )
1990-09-15
We solve the Euclidean Einstein equations with non-Abelian gauge fields of sufficiently large symmetry in various dimensions. In higher-dimensional spaces, we find the solutions which are similar to so-called scalar wormholes. In four-dimensional space-time, we find singular wormhole solutions with infinite Euclidean action. Wormhole solutions in the three-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a Chern-Simons term are also constructed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassetto, Antonio; DePol, Giancarlo; Torrielli, Alessandro; Vian, Federica
2005-05-01
We present an investigation on the invariance properties of noncommutative Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions under area preserving diffeomorphisms. Stimulated by recent remarks by Ambjorn, Dubin and Makeenko who found a breaking of such an invariance, we confirm both on a fairly general ground and by means of perturbative analytical and numerical calculations that indeed invariance under area preserving diffeomorphisms is lost. However a remnant survives, namely invariance under linear unimodular tranformations.
Exact Spectrum of Planar N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory: Konishi Dimension at Any Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro
2010-05-01
We compute the full dimension of the Konishi operator in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory for a wide range of couplings, from weak to strong coupling regime, and predict the subleading terms in its strong coupling asymptotics. For this purpose we solve numerically the integral form of the AdS/CFT Y-system equations for the exact energies of excited states proposed by us and A. Kozak.
Variational Approach to Yang-Mills Theory with non-Gaussian Wave Functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campagnari, Davide R.; Reinhardt, Hugo
2011-05-01
A general method for treating non-Gaussian wave functionals in quantum field theory is presented and applied to the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge in order to include a three-gluon kernel in the exponential of the vacuum wave functional. The three-gluon vertex is calculated using the propagators found in the variational approach with a Gaussian trial wave functional as input.
Multiscale Monte Carlo equilibration: Pure Yang-Mills theory
Endres, Michael G.; Brower, Richard C.; Orginos, Kostas; Detmold, William; Pochinsky, Andrew V.
2015-12-29
In this study, we present a multiscale thermalization algorithm for lattice gauge theory, which enables efficient parallel generation of uncorrelated gauge field configurations. The algorithm combines standard Monte Carlo techniques with ideas drawn from real space renormalization group and multigrid methods. We demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for pure Yang-Mills gauge theory for both heat bath and hybrid Monte Carlo evolution, and show that it ameliorates the problem of topological freezing up to controllable lattice spacing artifacts.
Scattering equations and matrices: from Einstein to Yang-Mills, DBI and NLSM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye
2015-07-01
The tree-level S-matrix of Einstein's theory is known to have a representation as an integral over the moduli space of punctured spheres localized to the solutions of the scattering equations. In this paper we introduce three operations that can be applied on the integrand in order to produce other theories. Starting in d + M dimensions we use dimensional reduction to construct Einstein-Maxwell with gauge group U(1) M . The second operation turns gravitons into gluons and we call it "squeezing". This gives rise to a formula for all multi-trace mixed amplitudes in Einstein-Yang-Mills. Dimensionally reducing Yang-Mills we find the S-matrix of a special Yang-Mills-Scalar (YMS) theory, and by the squeezing operation we find that of a YMS theory with an additional cubic scalar vertex. A corollary of the YMS formula gives one for a single massless scalar with a ϕ 4 interaction. Starting again from Einstein's theory but in d + d dimensions we introduce a "generalized dimensional reduction" that produces the Born-Infeld theory or a special Galileon theory in d dimensions depending on how it is applied. An extension of Born-Infeld formula leads to one for the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) theory. By applying the same operation to Yang-Mills we obtain the U( N ) non-linear sigma model (NLSM). Finally, we show how the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations naturally follow from our formulation and provide additional connections among these theories. One such relation constructs DBI from YMS and NLSM.
The Polarization Tensor of the Massless Mode in Yang-Mills Thermodynamics
Schwarz, Markus
2011-09-22
We discuss the constraints on energy-momentum transfers in local vertices in the effective theory for the deconfining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. Subsequently, we apply these constraints to the computation of the polarization tensor of the massless mode on the one-loop level. The resulting gap equation for the sought-after screening function is solved numerically. We discuss and interpret our results.
Integrability and maximally helicity violating diagrams in n=4 supersymmetric yang-mills theory.
Brandhuber, Andreas; Penante, Brenda; Travaglini, Gabriele; Young, Donovan
2015-02-20
We apply maximally helicity violating (MHV) diagrams to the derivation of the one-loop dilatation operator of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the SO(6) sector. We find that in this approach the calculation reduces to the evaluation of a single MHV diagram in dimensional regularization. This provides the first application of MHV diagrams to an off-shell quantity. We also discuss other applications of the method and future directions. PMID:25763951
[Healthcare in marriage and pregnancy in Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun].
Wang, Ying-ying; Qu, Jian-feng; Yang, Jin-sheng
2010-01-01
Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun is a monograph of life-cultivation, written by Wang Gui of the Yuan Dynasty. Wang Gui held that life-cultivation should start from marriage and pregnancy, so paid great attention to them. His thoughts reflected on marriage at an appropriate age, pregnancy at a selected time, emphasizing the health of the foetus, the priority of enriching the mind, timely care of pregnant women, etc. All of these reflect the ancient concepts of eugenics. PMID:20403257
Associative Yang-Baxter equation for quantum (semi-)dynamical R-matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sechin, Ivan; Zotov, Andrei
2016-05-01
In this paper we propose versions of the associative Yang-Baxter equation and higher order R-matrix identities which can be applied to quantum dynamical R-matrices. As is known quantum non-dynamical R-matrices of Baxter-Belavin type satisfy this equation. Together with unitarity condition and skew-symmetry it provides the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and a set of identities useful for different applications in integrable systems. The dynamical R-matrices satisfy the Gervais-Neveu-Felder (or dynamical Yang-Baxter) equation. Relation between the dynamical and non-dynamical cases is described by the IRF (interaction-round-a-face)-Vertex transformation. An alternative approach to quantum (semi-)dynamical R-matrices and related quantum algebras was suggested by Arutyunov, Chekhov, and Frolov (ACF) in their study of the quantum Ruijsenaars-Schneider model. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we prove that the ACF elliptic R-matrix satisfies the associative Yang-Baxter equation with shifted spectral parameters. Second, we directly prove a simple relation of the IRF-Vertex type between the Baxter-Belavin and the ACF elliptic R-matrices predicted previously by Avan and Rollet. It provides the higher order R-matrix identities and an explanation of the obtained equations through those for non-dynamical R-matrices. As a by-product we also get an interpretation of the intertwining transformation as matrix extension of scalar theta function likewise R-matrix is interpreted as matrix extension of the Kronecker function. Relations to the Gervais-Neveu-Felder equation and identities for the Felder's elliptic R-matrix are also discussed.
The Infrared Behaviour of the Pure Yang-Mills Green Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pène, O.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.
2012-10-01
We review the infrared properties of the pure Yang-Mills correlators and discuss recent results concerning the two classes of low-momentum solutions for them reported in literature, i.e. decoupling and scaling solutions. We will mainly focus on the Landau gauge and pay special attention to the results inferred from the analysis of the Dyson-Schwinger equations of the theory and from " quenched" lattice QCD. The results obtained from properly interplaying both approaches are strongly emphasized.
Critical Wavelike Behaviour in Stringy Gravity with Yang Mills Source and Cosmological Constant
Slagter, Reinoud J.; Masselink, Derk
2006-11-03
We investigate numerically the behaviour of the self-gravitating coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills system on an axially symmetric five dimensional space time, with and without the Gauss-Bonnet term. We observe that the critical behaviour at the threshold of black hole formation is present in the 5-dimensional model and depends critically on the value of the cosmological constant and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling.
String scattering in flat space and a scaling limit of Yang-Mills correlators
Okuda, Takuya; Penedones, Joao
2011-04-15
We use the flat space limit of the AdS/CFT correspondence to derive a simple relation between the 2{yields}2 scattering amplitude of massless string states in type IIB superstring theory on ten-dimensional Minkowski space and a scaling limit of the N=4 super Yang-Mills four-point functions. We conjecture that this relation holds nonperturbatively and at arbitrarily high energy.
[Analysis on the part of local medicinal herbs in Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes)].
Zhang, Jun-Ke
2010-09-01
Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes) are historical notes written by a scholar of the Qing dynasty: Liu Xian-ting. This book recorded much medical content of the people. Doing simple research and analysis on the name, physical nature and effectiveness of the Lobular Pyrolae, Kai Wood (Chinese pistache), Huanglian snakes (a snake habitat with Coptis grass) and other native herbs can contribute to understanding the evolution of the medicinal herbs. PMID:21163084
Reductions of self-dual Yang-Mills fields and classical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarty, S.; Ablowitz, M. J.; Clarkson, P. A.
1990-08-01
One-dimensional reductions of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations yield various classical systems depending on the choice of the Lie algebra associated with the self-dual fields. Included are the Euler-Arnold equations for rigid bodies in n dimensions, the Kovalevskaya top, and a generalization of the Nahm equation which is related to a classical third-order differential equation possessing a movable natural boundary in the complex plane.
Yang-Mills theory at 60: Milestones, landmarks and interesting questions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, Ling-Lie
2015-12-01
On the auspicious occasion of celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Yang-Mills theory, and Professor Yang’s many other important contributions to physics and mathematics, I will highlight the impressive milestones and landmarks that have been established in the last 60 years, as well as some interesting questions that still lie before us. The paper is written (without equations) for the interest of non-scientists as well as of scientists.
Topologically massive Yang-Mills: A Hamilton-Jacobi constraint analysis
Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.
2014-04-15
We analyse the constraint structure of the topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in instant-form and null-plane dynamics via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The complete set of hamiltonians that generates the dynamics of the system is obtained from the Frobenius’ integrability conditions, as well as its characteristic equations. As generators of canonical transformations, the hamiltonians are naturally linked to the generator of Lagrangian gauge transformations.
On the stability of dyons and dyonic black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolan, Brien C.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-02-01
We investigate the stability of four-dimensional dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of {su}(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter space. We prove that, in a neighbourhood of the embedded trivial (Schwarzschild-)anti-de Sitter solution, there exist non-trivial dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the field equations which are stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of the metric and non-Abelian gauge field.
Supergravitons from one loop perturbative N=4 super Yang-Mills theory
Janik, Romuald A.; Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2008-04-15
We determine the partition function of (1/16)BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) at weak coupling at the one-loop level in the planar limit. This partition function is significantly different from the one computed at zero coupling. We find that it coincides precisely with the partition function of a gas of (1/16)BPS supergravitons in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}.
Asymptotically flat, stable black hole solutions in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory.
Brihaye, Yves; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D H
2011-02-18
We construct finite mass, asymptotically flat black hole solutions in d=5 Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. Our results indicate the existence of a second order phase transition between Reissner-Nordström solutions and the non-Abelian black holes which generically are thermodynamically preferred. Some of the non-Abelian configurations are also stable under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations. PMID:21405506
The construction of dual-trace factor in Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Fu, Chih-Hao
2013-07-01
Recently, a BCJ dual of the color-ordered formula for Yang-Mills amplitude was proposed, where the dual-trace factor satisfies cyclic symmetry and KK-relation. In this paper, we present a systematic construction of the dual-trace factor based on its proposed relations to kinematic numerators in dual-DDM form. We show that the construction presented respects relabeling symmetry. In addition, we show that using relabeling symmetry as conditions, the same construction can be solved independently.
Exact Spectrum of Planar N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory: Konishi Dimension at Any Coupling
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro
2010-05-28
We compute the full dimension of the Konishi operator in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory for a wide range of couplings, from weak to strong coupling regime, and predict the subleading terms in its strong coupling asymptotics. For this purpose we solve numerically the integral form of the AdS/CFT Y-system equations for the exact energies of excited states proposed by us and A. Kozak.
Effective metrics in the non-minimal Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory
Balakin, A.B. Dehnen, H. Zayats, A.E.
2008-09-15
We formulate a self-consistent non-minimal five-parameter Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs (EYMH) model and analyse it in terms of effective (associated, color and color-acoustic) metrics. We use a formalism of constitutive tensors in order to reformulate master equations for the gauge, scalar and gravitational fields and reconstruct in the algebraic manner the so-called associated metrics for the Yang-Mills field. Using WKB-approximation we find color metrics for the Yang-Mills field and color-acoustic metric for the Higgs field in the framework of five-parameter EYMH model. Based on explicit representation of these effective metrics for the EYMH system with uniaxial symmetry, we consider cosmological applications for Bianchi-I, FLRW and de Sitter models. We focus on the analysis of the obtained expressions for velocities of propagation of longitudinal and transversal color and color-acoustic waves in a (quasi)vacuum interacting with curvature; we show that curvature coupling results in time variations of these velocities. We show, that the effective metrics can be regular or can possess singularities depending on the choice of the parameters of non-minimal coupling in the cosmological models under discussion. We consider a physical interpretation of such singularities in terms of phase velocities of color and color-acoustic waves, using the terms 'wave stopping' and 'trapped surface'.
Lee-Yang zero distribution of high temperature QCD and the Roberge-Weiss phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagata, Keitaro; Kashiwa, Kouji; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.
2015-05-01
Canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros of QCD at finite density and high temperature are studied. Recent lattice simulations confirm that the free energy of QCD is a quartic function of quark chemical potential at temperature slightly above pseudocritical temperature Tc, as in the case with a gas of free massless fermions. We present analytic derivation of the canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros for this type of free energy using the saddle point approximation. We also perform lattice QCD simulation in a canonical approach using the fugacity expansion of the fermion determinant and carefully examine its reliability. By comparing the analytic and numerical results, we conclude that the canonical partition functions follow the Gaussian distribution of the baryon number, and the accumulation of Lee-Yang zeros of these canonical partition functions exhibit the first-order Roberge-Weiss phase transition. We discuss the validity and applicable range of the result and its implications both for theoretical and experimental studies.
An instability of hyperbolic space under the Yang-Mills flow
Gegenberg, Jack; Day, Andrew C.; Liu, Haitao; Seahra, Sanjeev S.
2014-04-15
We consider the Yang-Mills flow on hyperbolic 3-space. The gauge connection is constructed from the frame-field and (not necessarily compatible) spin connection components. The fixed points of this flow include zero Yang-Mills curvature configurations, for which the spin connection has zero torsion and the associated Riemannian geometry is one of constant curvature. We analytically solve the linearized flow equations for a large class of perturbations to the fixed point corresponding to hyperbolic 3-space. These can be expressed as a linear superposition of distinct modes, some of which are exponentially growing along the flow. The growing modes imply the divergence of the (gauge invariant) perturbative torsion for a wide class of initial data, indicating an instability of the background geometry that we confirm with numeric simulations in the partially compactified case. There are stable modes with zero torsion, but all the unstable modes are torsion-full. This leads us to speculate that the instability is induced by the torsion degrees of freedom present in the Yang-Mills flow.
On Twisted N = 2 5D Super Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Jian; Zabzine, Maxim
2016-01-01
On a five-dimensional simply connected Sasaki-Einstein manifold, one can construct Yang-Mills theories coupled to matter with at least two supersymmetries. The partition function of these theories localises on the contact instantons, however, the contact instanton equations are not elliptic. It turns out that these equations can be embedded into the Haydys-Witten equations (which are elliptic) in the same way the 4D anti-self-dual instanton equations are embedded in the Vafa-Witten equations. We show that under some favourable circumstances, the latter equations will reduce to the former by proving some vanishing theorems. It was also known that the Haydys-Witten equations on product manifolds {M_5 = M_4 × R} arise in the context of twisting the 5D maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. In this paper, we present the construction of twisted N = 2 Yang-Mills theory on Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and more generally on K-contact manifolds. The localisation locus of this new theory thus provides a covariant version of the Haydys-Witten equation.
Deformations of T 1 ,1 as Yang-Baxter sigma models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crichigno, P. Marcos; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2014-12-01
We consider a family of deformations of T 1,1 in the Yang-Baxter sigma model approach. We first discuss a supercoset description of T 1,1, which makes manifest the full symmetry of the space and leads to the standard Sasaki-Einstein metric. Next, we consider three-parameter deformations of T 1,1 by using classical r-matrices satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE). The resulting metric and NS-NS two-form agree exactly with the ones obtained via TsT transformations, and contain the Lunin-Maldacena background as a special case. It is worth noting that for AdS5 × T 1,1 , classical integrability for the full sector has been argued to be lost. Hence our result indicates that the Yang-Baxter sigma model approach is applicable even for non-integrable cosets. This observation suggests that the gravity/CYBE correspondence can be extended beyond integrable cases.
PP-wave string interactions from perturbative Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constable, Neil R.; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Headrick, Matthew; Minwalla, Shiraz; Motl, Lubos; Postnikov, Alexander; Skiba, Witold
2002-07-01
Recently, Berenstein et al. have proposed a duality between a sector of Script N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory with large R-charge J, and string theory in a pp-wave background. In the limit considered, the effective 't Hooft coupling has been argued to be λ' = gYM2N/J2 = 1/(μp+α')2. We study Yang-Mills theory at small λ' (large μ) with a view to reproducing string interactions. We demonstrate that the effective genus counting parameter of the Yang-Mills theory is g22 = J4/N2 = (4πgs)2(μp+α')4, the effective two-dimensional Newton constant for strings propagating on the pp-wave background. We identify g2(λ')1/2 as the effective coupling between a wide class of excited string states on the pp-wave background. We compute the anomalous dimensions of BMN operators at first order in g22 and λ' and interpret our result as the genus one mass renormalization of the corresponding string state. We postulate a relation between the three-string vertex function and the gauge theory three-point function and compare our proposal to string field theory. We utilize this proposal, together with quantum mechanical perturbation theory, to recompute the genus one energy shift of string states, and find precise agreement with our gauge theory computation.
Gauge Invariance and Gauge-Factor Group in Causal Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emmenegger, N.
2001-11-01
In the present work the gauge invariance of causal Yang-Mills theory will be proven with the aid of the gauge-factor group. For that purpose it must be shown, that the operator valued distributions T_n and D_n(ret) occurring in the causal S-matrix construction can be written, after applying the gauge variation d_Q, as a divergence. Since merely local terms lead to gauge destroying expressions, one has to focus on them exclusively. In the first part of the work the local gauge-factor group will be defined in the style of the concept of gauge cohomology theory. It will be shown, that every element out of the so defined factor group under the transformation d_Q leads to a divergence of the entire operator valued distribution d_Q(T_n). In the second part all local terms arising in causal Yang-Mills theory are systematically investigated. Without further restrictions there can be proven, that every local operator valued distribution is an element of the gauge factor group or equal to zero. This concludes the demonstration of gauge invariance of causal Yang-Mills theory.
Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin–Yang Perspective
Huang, Li-Li
2016-01-01
This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin–Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author’s work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a “dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict” was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin–Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent–child, supervisor–subordinate, and friend–friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin–Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work
Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin-Yang Perspective.
Huang, Li-Li
2016-01-01
This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin-Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author's work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a "dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict" was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin-Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent-child, supervisor-subordinate, and friend-friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin-Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work represents the
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2016-01-01
We propose the reformulations of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulations can be combined with the SU (N) extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole with the stability group U (N- 1). This suggests the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement. This should be compared with the maximal option: the restricted field is Abelian and involves only the Abelian magnetic monopoles with the stability group U(1)N-1, just like the Abelian projection. We give some applications of this reformulation, e.g., the stability for the homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation of the Savvidy type, the large N treatment for deriving the dimensional transmutation and understanding the mass gap, and also the numerical simulations on a lattice which are given by Dr. Shibata in a subsequent talk.
A New Reduction of the Self-Dual Yang-Mills Equations and its Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Yan
2016-07-01
Through imposing on space-time symmetries, a new reduction of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations is obtained for which a Lax pair is established. By a proper exponent transformation, we transform the Lax pair to get a new Lax pair whose compatibility condition gives rise to a set of partial differential equations (PDEs). We solve such PDEs by taking different Lax matrices; we develop a new modified Burgers equation, a generalised type of Kadomtsev-Petviasgvili equation, and the Davey-Stewartson equation, which also generalise some results given by Ablowitz, Chakravarty, Kent, and Newman.
Gluon scattering in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory fromweak to strong coupling
Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC
2008-03-25
I describe some recent developments in the understanding of gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the large-N{sub c} limit. These amplitudes can be computed to high orders in the weak coupling expansion, and also now at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT correspondence. They hold the promise of being solvable to all orders in the gauge coupling, with the help of techniques based on integrability. They are intimately related to expectation values for polygonal Wilson loops composed of light-like segments.
Nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators for d=3 Yang-Mills theory
Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.
2010-06-15
We study a manifestly gauge-invariant set of Schwinger-Dyson equations to determine the nonperturbative dynamics of the gluon and ghost propagators in d=3 Yang-Mills theory. The use of the well-known Schwinger mechanism, in the Landau gauge leads to the dynamical generation of a mass for the gauge boson (gluon in d=3), which, in turn, gives rise to an infrared finite gluon propagator and ghost dressing function. The propagators obtained from the numerical solution of these nonperturbative equations are in very good agreement with the results of SU(2) lattice simulations.
Z{sub 2} monopoles in SU(n) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories
Kneipp, Marco A. C.; Liebgott, Paulo J.
2010-02-15
Z{sub n} monopoles are important for the understanding of the Goddard-Nuyts-Olive duality when the scalar field is not in the adjoint representation. We analyze the Z{sub 2} monopole solutions in SU(n) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories spontaneously broken to Spin(n)/Z{sub 2} by a scalar in the nxn representation. We construct explicitly Z{sub 2} monopole asymptotic fields solutions for each of the weights of the defining representation of the dual algebra so(n){sup or.}
From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.
Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J
2009-05-15
We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model. PMID:19518940
Quantum equivalence of noncommutative and Yang-Mills gauge theories in 2D and matrix theory
Ydri, Badis
2007-05-15
We construct noncommutative U(1) gauge theory on the fuzzy sphere S{sub N}{sup 2} as a unitary 2Nx2N matrix model. In the quantum theory the model is equivalent to a non-Abelian U(N) Yang-Mills theory on a two-dimensional lattice with two plaquettes. This equivalence holds in the 'fuzzy sphere' phase where we observe a 3rd order phase transition between weak-coupling and strong-coupling phases of the gauge theory. In the matrix phase we have a U(N) gauge theory on a single point.
Augmented Superfield Approach to Non-Yang Symmetries of Jackiw-Pi Model: Novel Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Saurabh; Kumar, R.
2013-02-01
We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anti-commuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) as well as anti-BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the non-Yang-Mills (NYM) symmetry transformations of (2+1)-dimensional Jackiw-Pi (JP) model within the framework of "augmented" superfield formalism. The Curci-Ferrari (CF) restriction, which is a hallmark of non-Abelian one-form gauge theories, does not appear in this case. One of the novel features of our present investigation is the derivation of proper (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the auxiliary field ρ that cannot be derived by any conventional means.
Vacuum energy of two-dimensional N=(2,2) super Yang-Mills theory
Kanamori, Issaku
2009-06-01
We measure the vacuum energy of two-dimensional N=(2,2) super Yang-Mills theory using lattice simulation. The obtained vacuum energy density is E{sub 0}=0.09(9)((+10/-8))g{sup 2}, where the first error is the systematic and the second is the statistical one, measured in the dimensionful gauge coupling g which governs the scale of the system. The result is consistent with unbroken supersymmetry, although we cannot exclude a possible very small nonzero vacuum energy.
Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimčík, Ctirad
2016-09-01
We prove the conjecture of Sfetsos, Siampos and Thompson that suitable analytic continuations of the Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter sigma models coincide with the recently introduced generalized λ-models. We then generalize this result by showing that the analytic continuation of a generic σ-model of "universal WZW-type" introduced by Tseytlin in 1993 is nothing but the Poisson-Lie T-dual of a generic Poisson-Lie symmetric σ-model introduced by Klimčík and Ševera in 1995.
Gauss' law and nonlinear plane waves for Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsapalis, A.; Politis, E. P.; Maintas, X. N.; Diakonos, F. K.
2016-04-01
We investigate nonlinear plane-wave solutions of the classical Minkowskian Yang-Mills (YM) equations of motion. By imposing a suitable ansatz which solves Gauss' law for the SU(3) theory, we derive solutions which consist of Jacobi elliptic functions depending on an enumerable set of elliptic modulus values. The solutions represent periodic anharmonic plane waves which possess arbitrary nonzero mass and are exact extrema of the nonlinear YM action. Among them, a unique harmonic plane wave with a nontrivial pattern in phase, spin, and color is identified. Similar solutions are present in the SU(4) case, while they are absent from the SU(2) theory.
Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on conformal supergravity backgrounds in ten dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Medeiros, Paul; Figueroa-O'Farrill, José
2016-03-01
We consider bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of ten-dimensional conformal supergravity. Up to local conformal isometry, we classify the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds, determine their conformal symmetry superalgebras and show how they arise as near-horizon geometries of certain half-BPS backgrounds or as a plane-wave limit thereof. We then show how to define Yang-Mills theory with rigid supersymmetry on any supersymmetric conformal supergravity background and, in particular, on the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We conclude by commenting on a striking resemblance between the supersymmetric backgrounds of ten-dimensional conformal supergravity and those of eleven-dimensional Poincaré supergravity.
Towards the large N limit of pure Nu = 1 super Yang-Mills theory.
Maldacena, J; Nuñez, C
2001-01-22
We find the gravity solution corresponding to a large number of Neveu-Schwarz or D5-branes wrapped on a two sphere so that we have pure Nu = 1 super Yang-Mills in the IR. The supergravity solution is smooth, it shows confinement, and it breaks the U(1)(R) chiral symmetry in the appropriate way. When the gravity approximation is valid the masses of glueballs are comparable to the masses of Kaluza-Klein (KK) states on the 5-brane, but if we could quantize strings on this background it looks like we should be able to decouple the KK states. PMID:11177888
The Hamiltonian analysis for Yang-Mills theory on R×S
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Abhishek; Nair, V. P.
2009-07-01
Pure Yang-Mills theory on R×S is analyzed in a gauge-invariant Hamiltonian formalism. Using a suitable coordinatization for the sphere and a gauge-invariant matrix parametrization for the gauge potentials, we develop the Hamiltonian formalism in a manner that closely parallels previous analysis on R. The volume measure on the physical configuration space of the gauge theory, the nonperturbative mass-gap and the leading term of the vacuum wave functional are discussed using a point-splitting regularization. All the results carry over smoothly to known results on R in the limit in which the sphere is de-compactified to a plane.
The Yin and Yang of YY1 in the nervous system.
He, Ye; Casaccia-Bonnefil, Patrizia
2008-08-01
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional protein that can activate or repress gene expression depending on the cellular context. YY1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved between species. However, its role varies in diverse cell types and includes proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. This review will focus on the function of YY1 in the nervous system including its role in neural development, neuronal function, developmental myelination, and neurological disease. The multiple functions of YY1 in distinct cell types are reviewed and the possible mechanisms underlying the cell specificity for these functions are discussed. PMID:18485096
Composite Operators in the Twistor Formulation of N =4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias
2016-07-01
We incorporate gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N =4 super Yang-Mills theory. In this formulation, the interactions of the elementary fields are reorganized into infinitely many interaction vertices and we argue that the same applies to composite operators. To test our definition of the local composite operators in twistor space, we compute several corresponding form factors, thereby also initiating the study of form factors using the position twistor-space framework. Throughout this Letter, we use the composite operator built from two identical complex scalars as a pedagogical example; we treat the general case in a follow-up paper.
Cold-atom quantum simulator for SU(2) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2013-03-22
Non-Abelian gauge theories play an important role in the standard model of particle physics, and unfold a partially unexplored world of exciting physical phenomena. In this Letter, we suggest a realization of a non-Abelian lattice gauge theory-SU(2) Yang-Mills in (1 + 1) dimensions, using ultracold atoms. Remarkably, and in contrast to previous proposals, in our model gauge invariance is a direct consequence of angular momentum conservation and thus is fundamental and robust. Our proposal may serve as well as a starting point for higher-dimensional realizations. PMID:25166817
Five-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.
2012-12-01
Using the method of maximal cuts, we construct the complete D-dimensional integrand of the five-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including nonplanar contributions. In the critical dimension where this amplitude becomes ultraviolet divergent, we present a compact explicit expression for the nonvanishing ultraviolet divergence in terms of three vacuum integrals. This construction provides a crucial step towards obtaining the corresponding amplitude of N=8 supergravity required to resolve the general ultraviolet behavior of supergravity theories.
Composite Operators in the Twistor Formulation of N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory.
Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias
2016-07-01
We incorporate gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. In this formulation, the interactions of the elementary fields are reorganized into infinitely many interaction vertices and we argue that the same applies to composite operators. To test our definition of the local composite operators in twistor space, we compute several corresponding form factors, thereby also initiating the study of form factors using the position twistor-space framework. Throughout this Letter, we use the composite operator built from two identical complex scalars as a pedagogical example; we treat the general case in a follow-up paper. PMID:27419558
On the deconfining limit in (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Yasuhiro
2010-03-01
We consider (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on S×S×R in the framework of a Hamiltonian approach developed by Karabali, Kim and Nair. The deconfining limit in the theory can be discussed in terms of one of the S radii of the torus ( S×S), while the other radius goes to infinity. We find that the limit agrees with the previously known result for a dynamical propagator mass of a gluon. We also make comparisons with numerical data.
Attractor Solution in Coupled Yang-Mills Field Dark Energy Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Wen
We investigate the attractor solution in the coupled Yang-Mills field dark energy models with the general interaction term, and obtain the constraint equations for the interaction if the attractor solution exists. The research also shows that, if the attractor solution exists, the equation of state of dark energy must evolve from wy > 0 to wy ≤ -1, which is slightly suggested by the observation. At the same time, the total equation of state in the attractor solution is wtot = -1, the universe is a de Sitter expansion, and the cosmic big rip is naturally avoided. These features are all independent of the interacting forms.
Symmetric blocking and renormalization in lattice N=4 super Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giedt, Joel; Catterall, Simon
2015-04-01
The form of the long distance effective action of the twisted lattice N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory depends on having a real space renormalization group transformation that preserves the original lattice properties, both the symmetries and the geometric interpretation of the fields. We have found such a transformation and have exhibited its behavior through a preliminary Monte Carlo renormalization group calculation. Other results regarding the number of counterterms are also obtained by considering rescalings of the lattice fields. Supported by Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics Grants DE-FG02-08ER41575 and SC0009998.
Battle of the sexes game analysis using Yang-Baxter operator as quantum gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López R., Juan M.
2012-06-01
The Battle of the Sexes game is analyzed from quantum game theory using quantum initial states as possible strategies for two players. Quantum circuits are presented as schemes of development proposing also the use of Yang-Baxter operators as quantum gates in the circuits. This formalism is implemented using a Computer Algebra Software (CAS) due to its complex and long mathematical treatment. Payoff matrices of the players are given as the results for each case shown. Biology and finances applications are also proposed.
A complete two-loop, five-gluon helicity amplitude in Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badger, Simon; Mogull, Gustav; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal
2015-10-01
We compute the integrand of the full-colour, two-loop, five-gluon scattering amplitude in pure Yang-Mills theory with all helicities positive, using generalized unitarity cuts. Tree-level BCJ relations, satisfied by amplitudes appearing in the cuts, allow us to deduce all the necessary non-planar information for the full-colour amplitude from known planar data. We present our result in terms of irreducible numerators, with colour factors derived from the multi-peripheral colour decomposition. Finally, the leading soft divergences are checked to reproduce the expected infrared behaviour.
Landau-Yang theorem and decays of a Z' boson into two Z bosons.
Keung, Wai-Yee; Low, Ian; Shu, Jing
2008-08-29
We study the decay of a Z' boson into two Z bosons by extending the Landau-Yang theorem to a parent particle decaying into two Z bosons. For a spin-1 parent the theorem predicts that (1) there are only two possible couplings and (2) the normalized differential cross section depends on kinematics only through a phase shift in the azimuthal angle between the two decay planes of the Z boson. When the parent is a Z' the two possible couplings are anomaly induced and CP violating, respectively. At the CERN Large Hadron Collider their effects could be disentangled when both Z bosons decay leptonically. PMID:18851602
Rota-Baxter operators on sl(2,{C)} and solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Jun; Bai, Chengming; Guo, Li
2014-02-01
We explicitly determine all Rota-Baxter operators (of weight zero) on sl(2,{C)} under the Cartan-Weyl basis. For the skew-symmetric operators, we give the corresponding skew-symmetric solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation in sl(2,{C)}, confirming the related study by Semenov-Tian-Shansky. In general, these Rota-Baxter operators give a family of solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation in the six-dimensional Lie algebra sl(2,{C)}ltimes _{ad^{ast }} sl(2,{C)}^{ast }. They also give rise to three-dimensional pre-Lie algebras which in turn yield solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation in other six-dimensional Lie algebras.
Rota-Baxter operators on sl (2,C) and solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation
Pei, Jun; Bai, Chengming; Guo, Li
2014-02-15
We explicitly determine all Rota-Baxter operators (of weight zero) on sl (2,C) under the Cartan-Weyl basis. For the skew-symmetric operators, we give the corresponding skew-symmetric solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation in sl (2,C), confirming the related study by Semenov-Tian-Shansky. In general, these Rota-Baxter operators give a family of solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation in the six-dimensional Lie algebra sl (2,C)⋉{sub ad{sup *}} sl (2,C){sup *}. They also give rise to three-dimensional pre-Lie algebras which in turn yield solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation in other six-dimensional Lie algebras.
Ko, Kam Ming; Leung, Hoi Yan
2007-01-01
Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging. PMID:17386115
Yang-Baxter sigma models and Lax pairs arising from κ-Poincaré r-matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borowiec, Andrzej; Kyono, Hideki; Lukierski, Jerzy; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-04-01
We study Yang-Baxter sigma models with deformed 4D Minkowski spacetimes arising from classical r-matrices associated with κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra. These classical κ-Poincaré r-matrices describe three kinds of deformations: 1) the standard deformation, 2) the tachyonic deformation, and 3) the light-cone deformation. For each deformation, the metric and two-form B-field are computed from the associated r-matrix. The first two deformations, related to the modified classical Yang-Baxter equation, lead to T-duals of dS4 and AdS4, respectively. The third deformation, associated with the homogeneous classical Yang-Baxter equation, leads to a time-dependent pp-wave background. Finally, we construct a Lax pair for the generalized κ-Poincaré r-matrix that unifies the three kinds of deformations mentioned above as special cases.
Brandhuber, Andreas; Heslop, Paul; Travaglini, Gabriele; Young, Donovan
2015-10-01
It is known that the Yangian of PSU(2,2|4) is a symmetry of the tree-level S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. On the other hand, the complete one-loop dilatation operator in the same theory commutes with the level-one Yangian generators only up to certain boundary terms found by Dolan, Nappi, and Witten. Using a result by Zwiebel, we show how the Yangian symmetry of the tree-level S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory implies precisely the Yangian invariance, up to boundary terms, of the one-loop dilatation operator. PMID:26551805
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2014-06-01
We consider γ-deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring as Yang-Baxter sigma models with classical r-matrices satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE). An essential point is that the classical r-matrices are composed of Cartan generators only and then generate abelian twists. We present examples of the r-matrices that lead to real γ-deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring. Finally we discuss a possible classification of integrable deformations and the corresponding gravity solution in terms of solutions of CYBE. This classification may be called the gravity/CYBE correspondence.
Gao Zhifeng; Zhang Jing
2009-04-15
In this paper, we use the method of calculus of variations to establish the existence of energy-minimizing radially symmetric magnetic monopole solutions in the general (4p-1)-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge field theory developed recently by Radu and Tchrakian. We also show that these solutions are either self-dual or anti-self-dual and, hence, unique. Our study extends the existence work of Belavin, Polyakov, Schwartz, and Tyupin and the equivalence and uniqueness work of Maison in three dimensions and the work of Yang in seven dimensions to the situation of arbitrary (4p-1) dimensions.
Kiyang-yang, a West-African postwar idiom of distress.
de Jong, Joop T; Reis, Ria
2010-06-01
In 1984, a healing cult for young barren women in southern Guinea Bissau developed into a movement, Kiyang-yang, that shook society to its foundations and had national repercussions. "Idiom of distress" is used here as a heuristic tool to understand how Kiyang-yang was able to link war and post-war-related traumatic stress and suffering on both individual and group levels. An individual experience born from a traumatic origin may be generalized into an idiom that diverse sectors of society could embrace for a range of related reasons. We argue that, for an idiom to be understood and appropriated by others, there has to be resonance at the level of symbolic language and shared experiences as well as at the level of the culturally mediated contingent emotions it communicates. We also argue that through its symbolic references to structural causes of suffering, an idiom of distress entails a danger for those in power. It can continue to exist only if its etiology is not exposed or the social suffering it articulates is not eliminated. We finally argue that idioms of distress are not to be understood as discrete diagnostic categories or as monodimensional expressions of "trauma" that can be addressed. PMID:20422270
Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with compressible quark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier
2016-03-01
We construct the gravity dual of three-dimensional, SU(N c) super Yang-Mills theory with N f flavors of dynamical quarks in the presence of a non-zero quark density N q. The supergravity solutions include the backreaction of N c color D2-branes and N f flavor D6-branes with N q units of electric flux on their worldvolume. For massless quarks, the solutions depend non-trivially only on the dimensionless combination ρ = N c 2 N q/ λ 2 N f 4 , with λ = g YM 2 N c the 't Hooft coupling, and describe renormalization group flows between the super Yang-Mills theory in the ultraviolet and a non-relativistic theory in the infrared. The latter is dual to a hyperscaling-violating, Lifshitz-like geometry with dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents z = 5 and θ = 1, respectively. If ρ ≪ 1 then at intermediate energies there is also an approximate AdS4 region, dual to a conformal Chern-Simons-Matter theory, in which the flow exhibits quasi-conformal dynamics. At zero temperature we compute the chemical potential and the equation of state and extract the speed of sound. At low temperature we compute the entropy density and extract the number of low-energy degrees of freedom. For quarks of non-zero mass M q the physics depends non-trivially on ρ and M q N c /λ N f.
Deconfinement phase transition in the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhardt, H.; Campagnari, D.; Heffner, J.
2014-04-01
Recent results obtained for the deconfinement phase transition within the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory are reviewed. Assuming a quasiparticle picture for the grand canonical gluon ensemble the thermal equilibrium state is found by minimizing the free energy with respect to the quasi-gluon energy. The deconfinement phase transition is accompanied by a drastic change of the infrared exponents of the ghost and gluon propagators. Above the phase transition the ghost form factor remains infrared divergent but its infrared exponent is approximately halved. The gluon energy being infrared divergent in the confined phase becomes infrared finite in the deconfined phase. Furthermore, the effective potential of the order parameter for confinement is calculated for SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in the Hamiltonian approach by compactifying one spatial dimension and using a background gauge fixing. In the simplest truncation, neglecting the ghost and using the ultraviolet form of the gluon energy, we recover the Weiss potential. From the full non-perturbative potential (with the ghost included) we extract a critical temperature of the deconfinement phase transition of 269 MeV for the gauge group SU(2) and 283 MeV for SU(3).
A deep non-hydrostatic compressible atmospheric model on a Yin-Yang grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, T.; Zerroukat, M.
2016-08-01
The singularity in the traditional spherical polar coordinate system at the poles is a major factor in the lack of scalability of atmospheric models on massively parallel machines. Overset grids such as the Yin-Yang grid introduced by Kageyama and Sato [1] offer a potential solution to this problem. In this paper a three-dimensional, compressible, non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed and tested on the Yin-Yang grid building on ideas previously developed by the authors on the solution of Elliptic boundary value problems and conservation on overset grids. Using several tests from the literature, it is shown that this model is highly stable (even with little off-centering), accurate, and highly efficient in terms of computational cost. The model also incorporates highly efficient and accurate approaches to achieve positivity, monotonicity and conservative transport, which are paramount requirements for any atmospheric model. The parallel scalability of this model, using in excess of 212 million unknowns and more than 6000 processors, is also discussed and shown to compare favourably with a highly optimised latitude-longitude model in terms of scalability and actual run times.
Non-Gaussianities in the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cè, Marco; Consonni, Cristian; Engel, Georg P.; Giusti, Leonardo
2015-10-01
We study the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with high precision in order to be able to detect deviations from Gaussianity. The computation is carried out on the lattice with high statistics Monte Carlo simulations by implementing a naive discretization of the topological charge evolved with the Yang-Mills gradient flow. This definition is far less demanding than the one suggested from Neuberger's fermions and, as shown in this paper, in the continuum limit its cumulants coincide with those of the universal definition appearing in the chiral Ward identities. Thanks to the range of lattice volumes and spacings considered, we can extrapolate the results for the second and fourth cumulant of the topological charge distribution to the continuum limit with confidence by keeping finite volume effects negligible with respect to the statistical errors. Our best results for the topological susceptibility is t02χ =6.67 (7 )×1 0-4 , where t0 is a standard reference scale, while for the ratio of the fourth cumulant over the second, we obtain R =0.233 (45 ). The latter is compatible with the expectations from the large Nc expansion, while it rules out the θ behavior of the vacuum energy predicted by the dilute instanton model. Its large distance from 1 implies that, in the ensemble of gauge configurations that dominate the path integral, the fluctuations of the topological charge are of quantum nonperturbative nature.
Infrared degrees of freedom of Yang-Mills theory in the Schroedinger representation
Forkel, Hilmar
2006-05-15
We set up a new calculational framework for the Yang-Mills vacuum transition amplitude in the Schroedinger representation. After integrating out hard-mode contributions perturbatively and performing a gauge-invariant gradient expansion of the ensuing soft-mode action, a manageable saddle-point expansion for the vacuum overlap can be formulated. In combination with the squeezed approximation to the vacuum wave functional this allows for an essentially analytical treatment of physical amplitudes. Moreover, it leads to the identification of dominant and gauge-invariant classes of gauge field orbits which play the role of gluonic infrared (IR) degrees of freedom. The latter emerge as a diverse set of saddle-point solutions and are represented by unitary matrix fields. We discuss their scale stability, the associated virial theorem and other general properties including topological quantum numbers and action bounds. We then find important saddle-point solutions (most of them solitons) explicitly and examine their physical impact. While some are related to tunneling solutions of the classical Yang-Mills equation, i.e. to instantons and merons, others appear to play unprecedented roles. A remarkable new class of IR degrees of freedom consists of Faddeev-Niemi type link and knot solutions, potentially related to glueballs.
The Yang-Mills Heat Semigroup on Three-Manifolds with Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charalambous, Nelia; Gross, Leonard
2013-02-01
Long time existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Yang-Mills heat equation is proven over a compact 3-manifold with smooth boundary. The initial data is taken to be a Lie algebra valued connection form in the Sobolev space H 1. Three kinds of boundary conditions are explored, Dirichlet type, Neumann type and Marini boundary conditions. The last is a nonlinear boundary condition, specified by setting the normal component of the curvature to zero on the boundary. The Yang-Mills heat equation is a weakly parabolic nonlinear equation. We use gauge symmetry breaking to convert it to a parabolic equation and then gauge transform the solution of the parabolic equation back to a solution of the original equation. Apriori estimates are developed by first establishing a gauge invariant version of the Gaffney-Friedrichs inequality. A gauge invariant regularization procedure for solutions is also established. Uniqueness holds upon imposition of boundary conditions on only two of the three components of the connection form because of weak parabolicity. This work is motivated by possible applications to quantum field theory.
Yang-Baxter deformations, AdS/CFT, and twist-noncommutative gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2016-03-01
We give an AdS/CFT interpretation to homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the AdS5 ×S5 superstring as noncommutative deformations of the dual gauge theory, going well beyond the canonical noncommutative case. These homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations can be of so-called abelian or jordanian type. While abelian deformations have a clear interpretation in string theory and many already had well understood gauge theory duals, jordanian deformations appear novel on both counts. We discuss the symmetry structure of the deformed string from the uniformizing perspective of Drinfeld twists and indicate that this structure can be realized on the gauge theory side by considering theories on various noncommutative spaces. We then conjecture that these are the gauge theory duals of our strings, modulo subtleties involving singularities. We support this conjecture by a brane construction for two jordanian examples, corresponding to noncommutative spaces with [x- , ⋆xi ] ∼xi (i = 1 , 2). We also discuss κ-Minkowski type deformations of AdS5 ×S5, one of which may be the gravity dual of gauge theory on spacelike κ-Minkowski space.
Towards a consistent noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory: Superfield covariant analysis
Ferrari, A.F.; Girotti, H.O.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Gomes, M.; Rivelles, V.O.; Silva, A.J. da; Petrov, A.Yu.
2004-10-15
Commutative four dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is known to be renormalizable for N=1,2, and finite for N=4. However, in the noncommutative version of the model the UV/IR mechanism gives rise to infrared divergences which may spoil the perturbative expansion. In this work we pursue the study of the consistency of the N=1,2,4 noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group U(N) (NCSYM). We employ the covariant superfield framework to compute the one-loop corrections to the two- and three-point functions of the gauge superfield V. It is found that the cancellation of the harmful UV/IR infrared divergences only takes place in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We argue that this is in agreement with the low energy limit of the open superstring in the presence of an external magnetic field. As expected, the planar sector of the two-point function of the V superfield exhibits UV divergences. They are found to cancel, in the Feynman gauge, for the maximally extended N=4 supersymmetric theory. This gives support to the belief that the N=4 NCSYM theory is UV finite.
Kiyang-yang, a West-African Postwar Idiom of Distress
Reis, Ria
2010-01-01
In 1984, a healing cult for young barren women in southern Guinea Bissau developed into a movement, Kiyang-yang, that shook society to its foundations and had national repercussions. “Idiom of distress” is used here as a heuristic tool to understand how Kiyang-yang was able to link war and post-war-related traumatic stress and suffering on both individual and group levels. An individual experience born from a traumatic origin may be generalized into an idiom that diverse sectors of society could embrace for a range of related reasons. We argue that, for an idiom to be understood and appropriated by others, there has to be resonance at the level of symbolic language and shared experiences as well as at the level of the culturally mediated contingent emotions it communicates. We also argue that through its symbolic references to structural causes of suffering, an idiom of distress entails a danger for those in power. It can continue to exist only if its etiology is not exposed or the social suffering it articulates is not eliminated. We finally argue that idioms of distress are not to be understood as discrete diagnostic categories or as monodimensional expressions of “trauma” that can be addressed. PMID:20422270
Iteration of Planar Amplitudes inMaximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theoryat Three Loops
Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; /Moscow State U.
2005-05-27
We compute the leading-color (planar) three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 4 - 2{epsilon} dimensions, as a Laurent expansion about {epsilon} = 0 including the finite terms. The amplitude was constructed previously via the unitarity method, in terms of two Feynman loop integrals, one of which has been evaluated already. Here we use the Mellin-Barnes integration technique to evaluate the Laurent expansion of the second integral. Strikingly, the amplitude is expressible, through the finite terms, in terms of the corresponding one- and two-loop amplitudes, which provides strong evidence for a previous conjecture that higher-loop planar N = 4 amplitudes have an iterative structure. The infrared singularities of the amplitude agree with the predictions of Sterman and Tejeda-Yeomans based on resummation. Based on the four-point result and the exponentiation of infrared singularities, we give an exponentiated ansatz for the maximally helicity-violating n-point amplitudes to all loop orders. The 1/{epsilon}{sup 2} pole in the four-point amplitude determines the soft, or cusp, anomalous dimension at three loops in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The result confirms a prediction by Kotikov, Lipatov, Onishchenko and Velizhanin, which utilizes the leading-twist anomalous dimensions in QCD computed by Moch, Vermaseren and Vogt. Following similar logic, we are able to predict a term in the three-loop quark and gluon form factors in QCD.
Subleading terms in the collinear limit of Yang-Mills amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R.
2015-11-01
For two massless particles i and j, the collinear limit is a special kinematic configuration in which the particles propagate with parallel four-momentum vectors, with the total momentum P distributed as pi = xP and pj = (1 - x) P, so that sij ≡(pi +pj) 2 =P2 = 0. In Yang-Mills theory, if i and j are among N gauge bosons participating in a scattering process, it is well known that the partial amplitudes associated to the (single trace) group factors with adjacent i and j are singular in the collinear limit and factorize at the leading order into (N - 1)-particle amplitudes times the universal, x-dependent Altarelli-Parisi factors. We give a precise definition of the collinear limit and show that at the tree level, the subleading, non-singular terms are related to the amplitudes with a single graviton inserted instead of two collinear gauge bosons. To that end, we argue that in one-graviton Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes, the graviton with momentum P can be replaced by a pair of collinear gauge bosons carrying arbitrary momentum fractions xP and (1 - x) P.
More on Gribov copies and propagators in Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory
Maas, Axel
2009-01-01
Fixing a gauge in the nonperturbative domain of Yang-Mills theory is a nontrivial problem due to the presence of Gribov copies. In particular, there are different gauges in the nonperturbative regime which all correspond to the same definition of a gauge in the perturbative domain. Gauge-dependent correlation functions may differ in these gauges. Two such gauges are the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge, both corresponding to the perturbative Landau gauge. These, and their numerical implementation, are described and presented in detail. Other choices will also be discussed. This investigation is performed, using numerical lattice gauge theory calculations, by comparing the propagators of gluons and ghosts for the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the propagators are different in the far infrared and even at energy scales of the order of half a GeV. In particular, the finite-volume effects are also modified. This is observed in two and three dimensions. Some remarks on the four-dimensional case are provided as well.
Yangian symmetry of scattering amplitudes in Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, James; Henn, Johannes; Plefka, Jan
2009-05-01
Tree-level scattering amplitudes in Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory have recently been shown to transform covariantly with respect to a `dual' superconformal symmetry algebra, thus extending the conventional superconformal symmetry algebra psu(2,2|4) of the theory. In this paper we derive the action of the dual superconformal generators in on-shell superspace and extend the dual generators suitably to leave scattering amplitudes invariant. We then study the algebra of standard and dual symmetry generators and show that the inclusion of the dual superconformal generators lifts the psu(2,2|4) symmetry algebra to a Yangian. The non-local Yangian generators acting on amplitudes turn out to be cyclically invariant due to special properties of psu(2,2|4). The representation of the Yangian generators takes the same form as in the case of local operators, suggesting that the Yangian symmetry is an intrinsic property of planar Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills, at least at tree level.
Research of Helium Isotopes in Taiwan: The Legacy of Dr. Tsanyao Frank Yang
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Lan, Tefang; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Fu, Ching-Chou; Chuang, Pei-Chuan; Hong, Wei-Li; Walia, Vivek; Chen, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ai-Ti; Chen, Hsiao-Chi; Chiu, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Nian-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Jin-Lun; Kao, Li-Hsin; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Sano, Yuji
2016-04-01
Helium isotope systematics is a powerful proxy to distinguish fluid origins and conveys fruitful geological information. In the past several decades, this robust isotope systematics had offered pivotal knowledge on many key issues in Earth and planetary sciences. It revealed essential geological information of Taiwan as well. Taiwan is located on the junction of two subduction systems-Ryukyu Arc and Luzon Arc. The geotectonic setting is complex and intriguing. Dr. Tsanyao Frank Yang was the pioneer of gas geochemistry studies in Taiwan. He established the first gas geochemistry laboratory in National Taiwan University in 1998 and started exploring all possible research topics on and around this tectonic-active island. In the past two decades, his research covered volcanic/hydrothermal gas studies, volcanic activity monitoring, gas hydrate exploration, soil gas as a tool to locate fault traces, soil gas flux measurement, earthquake precursory, mud volcanoes, low-temperature geochronology and many more. He died of pancreas cancer in March 2015. He was a warm and enthusiastic mentor, a prolific scientist and a great friend. He will always be remembered. Here we present Dr. Yang's achievement on helium isotopes studies in Taiwan throughout his research career. We integrate all the research results from his team and summarize the observations. We will show the distribution of helium isotope ratios in Taiwan and its implications on tectonic settings.
Initial validation of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire for persons with diabetes mellitus
Wong, Yee Chi Peggy; Pang, Mei Che Samantha
2015-01-01
AIM: To initially test for the content validity, comprehensibility, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire (YY-AQ). METHODS: The process of initial validity and reliability test covered: (1) content validation from the findings of 18 multiple-case studies, validated Yin- and Yang-deficiency assessment questionnaires, relevant literatures and registered Chinese medicine practitioners; (2) comprehension with the levels of comprehensibility for each item categorized on a 3-point scale (not comprehensible; moderately comprehensible; highly comprehensible). A minimum of three respondents selecting for each item of moderately or highly comprehensible were regarded as comprehensive; (3) test-retest reliability conducted with a 2-wk interval. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and their 95%CIs were calculated using a two-way random effects model. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test for related samples was adopted to compare the medians of test-retest scores. An ICC value of 0.85 or higher together with P > 0.05, was considered acceptable; and (4) internal consistency of the total items was measured and evaluated by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha (α). A Cronbach’s α of 0.7 or higher was considered to represent good internal consistency. RESULTS: Eighteen Yin-deficiency and 14 Yang-deficiency presentation items were finalized from content validation. Five participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) performed the comprehensibility and test-retest reliability tests. Comprehensibility score level of each presentation item was found to be moderate or high in three out of the five participants. Test-retest reliability showed that the single measure ICC of the total Yin-deficiency presentation items was 0.99 (95%CI: 0.89-0.99) and the median scores on the first and 14th days were 17 (IQR 6.5-27) and 21 (IQR 6-29) (P = 0.144) respectively. The single measure ICC of the total Yang-deficiency presentation
Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Ralf
2014-04-01
A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anti)calorons of scale parameter ρ ˜ |φ|-1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anti)caloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anti)caloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2) vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck) which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center-vortex loops in
Towards the gravity/CYBE correspondence beyond integrability — Yang-Baxter deformations of T1,1 —
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcos Crichigno, P.; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-01-01
Yang-Baxter sigma models, proposed by Klimcik and Delduc-Magro-Vicedo, have been recognized as a powerful framework for studying integrable deformations of two dimensional non-linear sigma models. In this short article, as an important generalization, we review a non-integrable sigma model in the Yang-Baxter sigma model approach based on [arXiv:1406.2249]. In particular, we discuss a family of deformations of the 5D Sasaki-Einstein manifold T1,1, instead of the standard deformations of the 5-sphere S5. For this purpose, we first describe a novel construction of T1,1 as a supercoset, and provide a physical interpretation of this construction from viewpoint of the dual Klebanov-Witten field theory. Secondly, we consider a 3-parameter deformation of T1,1 by using classical r-matrices satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE). The resulting metric and NS-NS two-form completely agree with the ones previously obtained via TsT (T-dual - shift - T-dual) transformations, and contain the Lunin-Maldacena background as a special case. Our result indicates that what we refer to as the gravity/CYBE(Classical Yang-Baxter Equation) correspondence can be extended beyond integrable cosets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isobe, Takeshi; Marini, Antonella
2012-06-01
In this paper, we complete the proof of the existence of multiple solutions (and, in particular, non minimal ones), to the ɛ-Dirichlet problem obtained as a variational problem for the SU(2)ɛ-Yang-Mills functional. This is equivalent to proving the existence of multiple solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the SU(2)-Yang-Mills functional with small boundary data. In the first paper of this series this non-compact variational problem is transformed into the finite-dimensional problem of finding the critical points of the function J_{ɛ }({q}), which is essentially the Yang-Mills functional evaluated on the approximate solutions, constructed via a gluing technique. In the present paper, we establish a Morse theory for J_{ɛ }({q}), by means of Ljusternik-Schnirelmann theory, thus complete the proofs of Theorems 1-3 given by Isobe and Marini ["Small coupling limit and multiple solutions to the Dirichlet Problem for Yang-Mills connections in 4 dimensions - Part I," J. Math. Phys. 53, 063706 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4728211.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2007-04-01
Using the Kauffman-Lomonaco method, some two-qutrits universal quantum gates are derived from the nine-dimensional unitary solutions of the Yang-Baxter equations associated with algebraic structures like the partial transpose operator and the dihedral group, which admit three dimensional representations. The Yang-Baxterization method given by Zhang-Kauffman-Ge is continuously used to obtain two-qutrits quantum gates and certain Hamiltonians for the evolution of the quantum gates are obtained, being such Hamiltonians interpreted as physical Hamiltonians of chain of particles of spin 1. Finally, the generalization for systems of two qudits is presented in the case of Yang-Baxterization of representations of braided monoidal algebra like the BH algebra and the bicolored Birman-Wenzl-Muraki algebra. For these algebras the corresponding two-qudits quantum gates are constructed jointly with the associated Hamiltonians interpreted like physical chains of particles with spin d. It is conjectured that the derived two-qdits quantum gates and the Hamiltonians may be implemented over bi-dimensional lattice systems like anyons systems or more generally over any physical systems ruled by the Yang-Baxter equations.
Nan, Yang; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Aihua; Guan, Yu; Lin, Shanhua; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun
2016-07-15
Kidney yang deficiency syndrome, a diagnostic pattern in Chinese medicine, is similar with clinical features of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. The aim of this present study was to explore low molecular mass differentiating metabolites between control group and model group of kidney yang deficiency rats induced with corticosterone as well as the therapeutic effect of Shen Qi Pill, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula for treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome in China. This study utilized ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization synapt quadrupole time-of-flight high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-SYNAPT-QTOF-HDMS) to identify the underlying biomarkers for clarifying mechanism of Shen Qi Pill in treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome based on metabolite profiling of the serum samples and in conjunction with multivariate and pathway analysis. Meanwhile, blood biochemistry assay and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes in the model group rats. Distinct changes in the pattern of metabolites were observed by UPLC-HDMS. The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their baseline values after treatment with Shen Qi Pill according to the combined with a principal component analysis (PCA) score plots. Altogether, the current metabolomics approach based on UPLC-HDMS and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) demonstrated 27 ions (18 in the negative mode, 9 in the positive mode, 17 ions restored by Shen Qi Pill). These results indicated that effectiveness of Shen Qi Pill in Kidney yang deficiency syndrome rats induced a substantial change in the metabolic profiles by regulating the biomarkers and adjusting the metabolic disorder. It suggested that the metabolomics approach was a powerful approach for elucidation of pathologic changes of Chinese medicine syndrome and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26747643
Gluon scattering in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills at finite temperature
Ito, Katsushi; Iwasaki, Koh; Nastase, Horatiu
2008-11-23
We extend the AdS/CFT prescription of Alday and Maldacena to finite temperature T, defining an amplitude for gluon scattering in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills at strong coupling from string theory. It is defined by a lightlike 'Wilson loop' living at the horizon of the T-dual to the black hole in AdS space. Unlike the zero temperature case, this is different from the Wilson loop contour defined at the boundary of the AdS black hole metric, thus at nonzero T there is no relation between gluon scattering amplitudes and the Wilson loop. We calculate a gauge theory observable that can be interpreted as the amplitude at strong coupling in both cut-off and generalized dimensional regularization.
Lee-Yang cluster expansion approach to the BCS-BEC crossover: BCS and BEC limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakumichi, Naoyuki; Nishida, Yusuke; Ueda, Masahito
2014-03-01
It is shown that a cluster expansion technique, which is usually applied in the high-temperature regime to calcutate virial coefficients, can be applied to evaluate the superfluid transition temperature of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover à la Lee and Yang. The transition temperature is identified with the emergence of the singularity in the sum of a certain infinite series of cluster functions. In the weak-coupling limit, we reproduce the Thouless criterion and the number equation of Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, and hence the transition temperature of the BCS theory. In the strong-coupling limit, we reproduce the transition temperature of BEC of noninteracting tightly bound dimers.
Yin Yang 1 is a critical regulator of B-cell development.
Liu, Huifei; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Shi, Yujiang; Hobeika, Elias; Barteneva, Natasha; Jumaa, Hassan; Pelanda, Roberta; Reth, Michael; Skok, Jane; Rajewsky, Klaus; Shi, Yang
2007-05-15
The role of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in development is largely unknown. Here we show that specific ablation of YY1 in mouse B cells caused a defect in somatic rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus and a block in the progenitor-B-to-precursor-B-cell transition, which was partially rescued by a prerearranged IgH transgene. Three-dimensional DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed an important function for YY1 in IgH locus contraction, a process indispensable for distal V(H) to D(H)J(H) recombination. We provide evidence that YY1 binds the intronic Ei mu enhancer within the IgH locus, consistent with a direct role for YY1 in V(H)D(H)J(H) recombination. These findings identified YY1 as a critical regulator of early B-cell development. PMID:17504937
Orthogonal and symplectic Yangians and Yang-Baxter R-operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, A. P.; Karakhanyan, D.; Kirschner, R.
2016-03-01
Yang-Baxter R operators symmetric with respect to the orthogonal and symplectic algebras are considered in an uniform way. Explicit forms for the spinorial and metaplectic R operators are obtained. L operators, obeying the RLL relation with the orthogonal or symplectic fundamental R matrix, are considered in the interesting cases, where their expansion in inverse powers of the spectral parameter is truncated. Unlike the case of special linear algebra symmetry the truncation results in additional conditions on the Lie algebra generators of which the L operators is built and which can be fulfilled in distinguished representations only. Further, generalized L operators, obeying the modified RLL relation with the fundamental R matrix replaced by the spinorial or metaplectic one, are considered in the particular case of linear dependence on the spectral parameter. It is shown how by fusion with respect to the spinorial or metaplectic representation these first order spinorial L operators reproduce the ordinary L operators with second order truncation.
Phase transitions of an anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma via holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Elliot
2016-07-01
Black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity were previously found that are dual to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with an anisotropic spatial deformation. In the zero temperature limit, these black holes approach a Liftshitz like scaling solution in the IR. It was recently shown that these black holes are unstable, and at low temperatures there is a new class of black hole solutions that are thermodynamically preferred. We extend this analysis, by considering consistent truncations of the Kaluza-Klein reduction of IIB supergravity on a five-sphere that preserves multiple scalar and U(1) gauge fields. We show that the previously constructed black holes become unstable at low temperatures, and construct new classes of exotic black hole solutions. We study the DC thermo-electric conductivity of these U(1) charged black holes, and find a diverging DC conductivity at zero temperature due to the divergence of the gauge field coupling.
Complex time solutions with nontrivial topology and multiparticle scattering in Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Thomas M.; R. Poppitz, Erich
1993-08-01
A classical solution in Yang-Mills thoery is given a new semiclassical interpretation in terms of particle scattering. It solves the complex time boundary value problem which arises in the semiclassical approximation to a multiparticle transition probability in the one-instanton sector at fixed energy. The imaginary part of the action of the solution on the complex time contour and its topological charge obey the same relation as the self-dual Euclidean configurations. Hence the solution is relevant for the problem of tunneling with fermion number violation in the electroweak theory. It describes transitions from an initial state with a smaller number of particles to a final state with a larger umber of particles. The implications of these results for multiparticle production in the electroweak theory are also discussed.
Infrared conductivity of cuprates using Yang-Rice-Zhang ansatz: Review of our recent investigations
Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman
2015-05-15
A review of our recent investigations related to the ac transport properties in the psedogapped state of cuprate high temperature superconductors is presented. For our theoretical calculations we use a phenomenological Green’s function proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ). This is based upon the renormalized mean-field theory of the Hubbard model and takes into account the strong electron-electron interaction present in Cuprates. The pseudogap is also taken into account through a proposed self energy. We have tested the form of the Green’s function by computing ac conductivity of cuprates and then compared with experimental results. We found agreement between theory and experiment in reproducing the doping evolution of ac conductivity but there is a problem with absolute magnitudes and their frequency dependence. This shows a partial success of the YRZ ansatz. The ways to rectify it are suggested and worked out.
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz Ruiz, F.
2016-02-01
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary.
A new phase for the anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Elliot; Gauntlett, Jerome P.
2015-09-01
Black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity have been previously constructed that describe the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with an anisotropic spatial deformation. The zero temperature limit of these black holes approach a Lifshitz-like scaling solution in the infrared. We show that these black holes become unstable at low temperature and we construct a new class of black hole solutions which are thermodynamically preferred. The phase transition is third order and incorporates a spontaneous breaking of the SO(6) global symmetry down to SO(4) × SO(2). The critical exponents for the phase transition are given by ( α, β, γ, δ) = (-1, 1, 1, 2) which differ from the standard mean-field exponents usually seen in holography. At low temperatures the black holes approach a novel kind of scaling behaviour in the far IR with spatial anisotropy and hyperscaling violation. We show that the new ground states are thermal insulators in the direction of the anisotropy.
Pion in the Holographic Model with 5D Yang-Mills Fields
Grigoryan, Hovhannes; Radyushkin, Anatoly
2008-12-01
We study pion in the holographic model of Hirn and Sanz which contains two Yang-Mills fields defined in the background of the sliced AdS space. The infrared boundary conditions imposed on these fields generate the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry down to its vector subgroup. Within the framework of this model, we get an analytic expression for the pion form factor and a compact result for its radius. We also extend the holographic model to include Chern-Simons term which is required to reproduce the appropriate axial anomaly of QCD. As a result, we calculate the anomalous form factor of the pion and predict its Q^2-slope for the kinematics when one of the photons is almost on-shell. We also observe that the anomalous form factor with one real and one virtual photon is given by the same analytic expression as the electromagnetic form factor of a charged pion.
Higher spin gravitational couplings: Ghosts in the Yang-Mills detour complex
Gover, A. R.; Hallowell, K.; Waldron, A.
2007-01-15
Gravitational interactions of higher spin fields are generically plagued by inconsistencies. There exists however, a simple framework that couples higher spins to a broad class of gravitational backgrounds (including Ricci flat and Einstein) consistently at the classical level. The model is the simplest example of a Yang-Mills detour complex and has broad mathematical applications, especially to conformal geometry. Even the simplest version of the theory, which couples gravitons, vectors and scalar fields in a flat background is rather rich, providing an explicit setting for detailed analysis of ghost excitations. Its asymptotic scattering states consist of a physical massless graviton, scalar, and massive vector along with a degenerate pair of zero norm photon excitations. Coherent states of the unstable sector do have positive norms, but their evolution is no longer unitary and amplitudes grow with time. The class of models proposed is extremely general and of considerable interest for ghost condensation and invariant theory.
Correlation functions of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory from Dyson-Schwinger equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Markus Q.
2016-04-01
The two- and three-point functions and the four-gluon vertex of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory are calculated from their Dyson-Schwinger equations and the three-particle irreducible effective action. Within a self-contained truncation, various effects of truncating Dyson-Schwinger equations are studied. Estimates for the errors induced by truncations are derived from comparisons between results from different equations, comparisons with lattice results, and varying higher Green functions. The results indicate that the two-loop diagrams are important in the gluon propagator, where they are explicitly calculated, but not for the vertices. Furthermore, the influence of the four-gluon vertex on lower Green functions is found to be small.
Multigrid-based simulation code for mantle convection in spherical shell using Yin Yang grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kameyama, Masanori; Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya
2008-12-01
A new simulation code of mantle convection in a three-dimensional spherical shell is presented. Major innovation of the code comes from an combination of two numerical techniques, namely Yin-Yang grid and ACuTE algorithm, which we had developed for large-scale simulations of solid earth sciences. Benchmark comparisons for the steady convection for low Rayleigh numbers ( Ra) with previous calculations revealed that accurate results are successfully reproduced not only for isoviscous cases but also for the cases where the mild temperature-dependence of viscosity is included. We also demonstrated that our code can reproduce the change in convective flow patterns into the "sluggish-lid" regime with increasing the viscosity variation rη up to 104.
A note on Lee-Yang zeros in the negative half-plane.
Lebowitz, Joel L; Scaramazza, Jasen A
2016-10-19
We obtain lower bounds on the inverse compressibility of systems whose Lee-Yang zeros of the grand-canonical partition function lie in the left half of the complex fugacity plane. This includes in particular systems whose zeros lie on the negative real axis such as the monomer-dimer system on a lattice. We also study the virial expansion of the pressure in powers of the density for such systems. We find no direct connection between the positivity of the virial coefficients and the negativity of the L-Y zeros, and provide examples of either one or both properties holding. An explicit calculation of the partition function of the monomer-dimer system on two rows shows that there are at most a finite number of negative virial coefficients in this case. PMID:27546459
On discrete three-dimensional equations associated with the local Yang-Baxter relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashaev, R. M.
1996-12-01
The local Yang-Baxter equation (YBE), introduced by Maillet and Nijhoff, is a proper generalization to three dimensions of the zero curvature relation. Recently, Korepanov has constructed an infinite set of integrable three-dimensional lattice models, and has related them to solutions to the local YBE. The simplest Korepanov model is related to the star-triangle relation in the Ising model. In this Letter the corresponding discrete equation is derived. In the continuous limit it leads to a differential three-dimensional equation, which is symmetric with respect to all permutations of the three coordinates. A similar analysis of the star-triangle transformation in electric networks leads to the discrete bilinear equation of Miwa, associated with the BKP hierarchy. Some related operator solutions to the tetrahedron equation are also constructed.
Thermal monopole condensation and confinement in finite temperature Yang-Mills theories
D'Alessandro, Alessio; D'Elia, Massimo; Shuryak, Edward V.
2010-05-01
We investigate the connection between color confinement and thermal Abelian monopoles populating the deconfined phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, by studying how the statistical properties of the monopole ensemble change as the confinement/deconfinement temperature is approached from above. In particular, we study the distribution of monopole currents with multiple wrappings in the Euclidean time direction, corresponding to two or more particle permutations, and show that multiple wrappings increase as the deconfinement temperature is approached from above, in a way compatible with a condensation of such objects happening right at the deconfining transition. We also address the question of the thermal monopole mass, showing that different definitions give consistent results only around the transition, where the monopole mass goes down and becomes of the order of the critical temperature itself.
Functional renormalization group approach to the Yang-Lee edge singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, X.; Mesterházy, D.; Stephanov, M. A.
2016-07-01
We determine the scaling properties of the Yang-Lee edge singularity as described by a one-component scalar field theory with imaginary cubic coupling, using the nonperturbative functional renormalization group in 3 ≤ d ≤ 6 Euclidean dimensions. We find very good agreement with high-temperature series data in d = 3 dimensions and compare our results to recent estimates of critical exponents obtained with the four-loop ɛ = 6 - d expansion and the conformal bootstrap. The relevance of operator insertions at the corresponding fixed point of the RG β functions is discussed and we estimate the error associated with O({partial}^4) truncations of the scale-dependent effective action.
Anisotropic N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Plasma and Its Instabilities
Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego
2011-09-02
We present a type-IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature N=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static and completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an ultraviolet anti-de Sitter geometry to an infrared Lifshitz-like geometry. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent {theta} term or from a nonzero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics. The phase diagram exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e., mixed) phases. In some regions the homogeneous phase displays instabilities reminiscent of those of weakly coupled plasmas. We comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density and with the phenomenon of cavitation.
Exact spectrum of anomalous dimensions of planar N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro
2009-09-25
We present a set of functional equations defining the anomalous dimensions of arbitrary local single trace operators in planar N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It takes the form of a Y system based on the integrability of the dual superstring sigma model on the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS_{5} x S;{5}) background. This Y system passes some very important tests: it incorporates the full asymptotic Bethe ansatz at large length of operator L, including the dressing factor, and it confirms all recently found wrapping corrections. The recently proposed AdS_{4}/three-dimensional conformal field theory duality is also treated in a similar fashion. PMID:19905502
Exact Spectrum of Anomalous Dimensions of Planar N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro
2009-09-25
We present a set of functional equations defining the anomalous dimensions of arbitrary local single trace operators in planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It takes the form of a Y system based on the integrability of the dual superstring sigma model on the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}) background. This Y system passes some very important tests: it incorporates the full asymptotic Bethe ansatz at large length of operator L, including the dressing factor, and it confirms all recently found wrapping corrections. The recently proposed AdS{sub 4}/three-dimensional conformal field theory duality is also treated in a similar fashion.
Hadamard States for the Linearized Yang-Mills Equation on Curved Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gérard, C.; Wrochna, M.
2015-07-01
We construct Hadamard states for the Yang-Mills equation linearized around a smooth, space-compact background solution. We assume the spacetime is globally hyperbolic and its Cauchy surface is compact or equal . We first consider the case when the spacetime is ultra-static, but the background solution depends on time. By methods of pseudodifferential calculus we construct a parametrix for the associated vectorial Klein-Gordon equation. We then obtain Hadamard two-point functions in the gauge theory, acting on Cauchy data. A key role is played by classes of pseudodifferential operators that contain microlocal or spectral type low-energy cutoffs. The general problem is reduced to the ultra-static spacetime case using an extension of the deformation argument of Fulling, Narcowich and Wald. As an aside, we derive a correspondence between Hadamard states and parametrices for the Cauchy problem in ordinary quantum field theory.
Dark energy as a fixed point of the Einstein Yang-Mills Higgs equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinaldi, Massimiliano
2015-10-01
We study the Einstein Yang-Mills Higgs equations in the SO(3) representation on a isotropic and homogeneous flat Universe, in the presence of radiation and matter fluids. We map the equations of motion into an autonomous dynamical system of first-order differential equations and we find the equilibrium points. We show that there is only one stable fixed point that corresponds to an accelerated expanding Universe in the future. In the past, instead, there is an unstable fixed point that implies a stiff-matter domination. In between, we find three other unstable fixed points, corresponding, in chronological order, to radiation domination, to matter domination, and, finally, to a transition from decelerated expansion to accelerated expansion. We solve the system numerically and we confirm that there are smooth trajectories that correctly describe the evolution of the Universe, from a remote past dominated by radiation to a remote future dominated by dark energy, passing through a matter-dominated phase.
Hydrodynamics of the Polyakov line in SU(Nc) Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yizhuang; Warchoł, Piotr; Zahed, Ismail
2016-02-01
We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Polyakov line at large but finite Nc for Yang-Mills theory in even and odd space-time dimensions. The hydro-static solutions for the eigenvalue densities are shown to interpolate between a uniform distribution in the confined phase and a localized distribution in the de-confined phase. The resulting critical temperatures are in overall agreement with those measured on the lattice over a broad range of Nc, and are consistent with the string model results at Nc = ∞. The stochastic relaxation of the eigenvalues of the Polyakov line out of equilibrium is captured by a hydrodynamical instanton. An estimate of the probability of formation of a Z (Nc) bubble using a piece-wise sound wave is suggested.
Color-kinematics duality for pure Yang-Mills and gravity at one and two loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bern, Zvi; Davies, Scott; Dennen, Tristan; Huang, Yu-tin; Nohle, Josh
2015-08-01
We provide evidence in favor of the conjectured duality between color and kinematics for the case of nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitudes by constructing a form of the one-loop four-point amplitude of this theory that makes the duality manifest. Our construction is valid in any dimension. We also describe a duality-satisfying representation for the two-loop four-point amplitude with identical four-dimensional external helicities. We use these results to obtain corresponding gravity integrands for a theory containing a graviton, dilaton, and antisymmetric tensor, simply by replacing color factors with specified diagram numerators. Using this, we give explicit forms of ultraviolet divergences at one loop in four, six, and eight dimensions, and at two loops in four dimensions.
Kinematic numerators and a double-copy formula for N=4 super-Yang-Mills residues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James
2014-07-01
Recent work by Cachazo et al.arXiv:1309.0885 shows that connected prescription residues obey the global identities of N=4 super-Yang-Mills amplitudes. In particular, they obey the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) amplitude identities. Here we offer a new way of interpreting this result via objects that we call residue numerators. These objects behave like the kinematic numerators introduced by BCJ except that they are associated with individual residues. In particular, these new objects satisfy a double-copy formula relating them to the residues appearing in recently discovered analogs of the connected prescription integrals for N=8 supergravity. Along the way, we show that the BCJ amplitude identities are equivalent to the consistency condition that allows kinematic numerators to be expressed as amplitudes using a generalized inverse.
Realization of Center Symmetry in Two Adjoint Flavor Large-N Yang-Mills
Catterall, Simon; Galvez, Richard; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-08-26
We report on the results of numerical simulations of SU(N) lattice Yang Mills with two flavors of (light) Wilson fermion in the adjoint representation. We analytically and numerically address the question of center symmetry realization on lattices with {Lambda} sites in each direction in the large-N limit. We show, by a weak coupling calculation that, for massless fermions, center symmetry realization is independent of {Lambda}, and is unbroken. Then, we extend our result by conducting simulations at non zero mass and finite gauge coupling. Our results indicate that center symmetry is intact for a range of fermion mass in the vicinity of the critical line on lattices of volume 2{sup 4}. This observation makes it possible to compute infinite volume physical observables using small volume simulations in the limit N {yields} {infinity}, with possible applications to the determination of the conformal window in gauge theories with adjoint fermions.
Spherically symmetric self-dual Yang-Mills instantons on curved backgrounds in all even dimensions
Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.; Yang Yisong
2008-02-15
We present several different classes of self-dual Yang-Mills instantons in all even d-dimensional backgrounds with Euclidean signature. In d=4p+2 the only solutions we found are on constant curvature dS (de Sitter) and AdS (anti-de Sitter) backgrounds and are evaluated in closed form. In d=4p an interesting class of instantons are given on black hole backgrounds. One class of solutions are (Euclidean) time-independent and spherically symmetric in d-1 dimensions, and the other class are spherically symmetric in all d dimensions. Some of the solutions in the former class are evaluated numerically, all the rest being given in closed form. Analytic proofs of existence covering all numerically evaluated solutions are given. All instantons studied have finite action and vanishing energy momentum tensor and do not disturb the geometry.
N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in soft-collinear effective theory
Chay, Junegone; Lee, Jae Yong
2011-01-01
We formulate N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of soft-collinear effective theory. The effective Lagrangian in soft-collinear effective theory is developed according to the power counting by a small parameter {eta}{approx}p{sub perpendicular}/Q. All the particles in this theory are in the adjoint representation of the SU(N) gauge group, and we derive the collinear gauge-invariant Lagrangian in the adjoint and fundamental representations, respectively. We consider collinear and ultrasoft Wilson lines in this theory, and show the ultrasoft factorization of the collinear Lagrangian by redefining the collinear fields with the use of the ultrasoft Wilson lines. The vertex correction for a vector fermion current at one loop is explicitly presented as an example to illustrate how the computation is performed in the effective theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebert, Dietmar; Plefka, Jan; Rodigast, Andreas
2009-02-01
We study the question of a modification of the running gauge coupling of Yang-Mills theories due to quantum gravitational effects in a compact large extra dimensional brane world scenario with a low energy quantum gravity scale. The ADD scenario is applied for a D = d+δ dimensional space-time in which gravitons freely propagate, whereas the non-abelian gauge fields are confined to a d-dimensional brane. The extra dimensions are taken to be toroidal and the transverse fluctuation modes (branons) of the brane are taken into account. On this basis we have calculated the one-loop corrections due to virtual Kaluza-Klein graviton and branon modes for the gluon two- and three-point functions in an effective field theory treatment. Applying momentum cut-off regularization we find that for a d = 4 brane the leading gravitational divergencies cancel irrespective of the number of extra dimensions δ, generalizing previous results in the absence of extra-dimensions. Hence, again the Yang-Mills β-function receives no gravitational corrections at one-loop. This is no longer true in a `universal' extra dimensional scenario with a d > 4 dimensional brane. Moreover, the subleading power-law gravitational divergencies induce higher-dimensional counterterms, which we establish in our scheme. Interestingly, for d = 4 these gravitationally induced counterterms are of the form recently considered in non-abelian Lee-Wick extensions of the standard model—now with a possible mass scale in the TeV range due to the presence of large extra dimensions.
Exact solutions of (n+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations in curved space-time
Sanchez-Monroy, J.A.; Quimbay, C.J.
2012-09-15
In the context of a semiclassical approach where vectorial gauge fields can be considered as classical fields, we obtain exact static solutions of the SU(N) Yang-Mills equations in an (n+1)-dimensional curved space-time, for the cases n=1,2,3. As an application of the results obtained for the case n=3, we consider the solutions for the anti-de Sitter and Schwarzschild metrics. We show that these solutions have a confining behavior and can be considered as a first step in the study of the corrections of the spectra of quarkonia in a curved background. Since the solutions that we find in this work are valid also for the group U(1), the case n=2 is a description of the (2+1) electrodynamics in the presence of a point charge. For this case, the solution has a confining behavior and can be considered as an application of the planar electrodynamics in a curved space-time. Finally we find that the solution for the case n=1 is invariant under a parity transformation and has the form of a linear confining solution. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study exact static confining solutions of the SU(N) Yang-Mills equations in an (n+1)-dimensional curved space-time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solutions found are a first step in the study of the corrections on the spectra of quarkonia in a curved background. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A expression for the confinement potential in low dimensionality is found.
Gravity duals for the Coulomb branch of marginally deformed Script N = 4 Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, Rafael; Sfetsos, Konstadinos; Zoakos, Dimitrios
2006-03-01
Supergravity backgrounds dual to a class of exactly marginal deformations of Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills can be constructed through an SL(2,Bbb R) sequence of T-dualities and coordinate shifts. We apply this transformation to multicenter solutions and derive supergravity backgrounds describing the Coulomb branch of Script N = 1 theories at strong 't Hooft coupling as marginal deformations of Script N = 4 Yang-Mills. For concreteness we concentrate to cases with an SO(4) × SO(2) symmetry preserved by continuous distributions of D3-branes on a disc and on a three-dimensional spherical shell. We compute the expectation value of the Wilson loop operator and confirm the Coulombic behaviour of the heavy quark-antiquark potential in the conformal case. When the vev is turned on we find situations where a complete screening of the potential arises, as well as a confining regime where a linear or a logarithmic potential prevails depending on the ratio of the quark-antiquark separation to the typical vev scale. The spectra of massless excitations on these backgrounds are analyzed by turning the associated differential equations into Schrödinger problems. We find explicit solutions taking into account the entire tower of states related to the reduction of type-IIB supergravity to five dimensions, and hence we go beyond the s-wave approximation that has been considered before for the undeformed case. Arbitrary values of the deformation parameter give rise to the Heun differential equation and the related Inozemtsev integrable system, via a non-standard trigonometric limit as we explicitly demonstrate.
The Analytic Structure of Scattering Amplitudes in N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litsey, Sean Christopher
We begin the dissertation in Chapter 1 with a discussion of tree-level amplitudes in Yang-. Mills theories. The DDM and BCJ decompositions of the amplitudes are described and. related to one another by the introduction of a transformation matrix. This is related to the. Kleiss-Kuijf and BCJ amplitude identities, and we conjecture a connection to the existence. of a BCJ representation via a condition on the generalized inverse of that matrix. Under. two widely-believed assumptions, this relationship is proved. Switching gears somewhat, we introduce the RSVW formulation of the amplitude, and the extension of BCJ-like features to residues of the RSVW integrand is proposed. Using the previously proven connection of BCJ representations to the generalized inverse condition, this extension is validated, including a version of gravitational double copy. The remainder of the dissertation involves an analysis of the analytic properties of loop. amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Chapter 2 contains a review of the planar case, including an exposition of dual variables and momentum twistors, dual conformal symmetry, and their implications for the amplitude. After defining the integrand and on-shell diagrams, we explain the crucial properties that the amplitude has no poles at infinite momentum and that its leading singularities are dual-conformally-invariant cross ratios, and can therefore be normalized to unity. We define the concept of a dlog form, and show that it is a feature of the planar integrand as well. This leads to the definition of a pure integrand basis. The proceeding setup is connected to the amplituhedron formulation, and we put forward the hypothesis that the amplitude is determined by zero conditions. Chapter 3 contains the primary computations of the dissertation. This chapter treats. amplitudes in fully nonplanar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, analyzing the conjecture that they. follow the pattern of having no poles at infinity, can be written in dlog
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isobe, Takeshi; Marini, Antonella
2012-06-01
In this paper and its sequel (Part II), we analyze the space of solutions to the ɛ-Dirichlet problem for the Yang-Mills equations on the four-dimensional disk, for small values of the coupling constant ɛ. These are in 1-1 correspondence with solutions to the Dirichlet problem for Yang-Mills, for small boundary data ɛA0. We establish a Morse theory for this non-compact variational problem and prove the existence of multiple solutions, and, also, non minimal ones. Here, we describe the problem, state the main theorems and do the first part of the proof. This consists in making the problem finite dimensional, by seeking solutions approximated by the connected sum of a minimal solution with an instanton, plus a correction term due to the boundary. By introducing an auxiliary equation, we solve the problem orthogonally to the space of the approximate solutions.
In Vivo Chromatin Targets of the Transcription Factor Yin Yang 2 in Trophoblast Stem Cells
Pérez-Palacios, Raquel; Macías-Redondo, Sofía; Climent, María; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Muniesa, Pedro; Schoorlemmer, Jon
2016-01-01
Background Yin Yang 2 (YY2) is a zinc finger protein closely related to the well-characterized Yin Yang 1 (YY1). YY1 is a DNA-binding transcription factor, with defined functions in multiple developmental processes, such as implantation, cell differentiation, X inactivation, imprinting and organogenesis. Yy2 has been treated as a largely immaterial duplication of Yy1, as they share high homology in the Zinc Finger-region and similar if not identical in vitro binding sites. In contrast to these similarities, gene expression alterations in HeLa cells with attenuated levels of either Yy1 or Yy2 were to some extent gene-specific. Moreover, the chromatin binding sites for YY2, except for its association with transposable retroviral elements (RE) and Endogenous Retroviral Elements (ERVs), remain to be identified. As a first step towards defining potential Yy2 functions matching or complementary to Yy1, we considered in vivo DNA binding sites of YY2 in trophoblast stem (TS) cells. Results We report the presence of YY2 protein in mouse-derived embryonic stem (ES) and TS cell lines. Following up on our previous report on ERV binding by YY2 in TS cells, we investigated the tissue-specificity of REX1 and YY2 binding and confirm binding to RE/ERV targets in both ES cells and TS cells. Because of the higher levels of expression, we chose TS cells to understand the role of Yy2 in gene and chromatin regulation. We used in vivo YY2 association as a measure to identify potential target genes. Sequencing of chromatin obtained in chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays carried out with αYY2 serum allowed us to identify a limited number of chromatin targets for YY2. Some putative binding sites were validated in regular ChIP assays and gene expression of genes nearby was altered in the absence of Yy2. Conclusions YY2 binding to ERVs is not confined to TS cells. In vivo binding sites share the presence of a consensus binding motif. Selected sites were uniquely bound by YY2 as
Super Yang-Mills and θ-exact Seiberg-Witten map: absence of quadratic noncommutative IR divergences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Carmelo P.; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang
2016-05-01
We compute the one-loop 1PI contributions to all the propagators of the noncommutative (NC) N=1,2,4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) U(1) theories defined by the means of the θ-exact Seiberg-Witten (SW) map in the Wess-Zumino gauge. Then we extract the UV divergent contributions and the noncommutative IR divergences. We show that all the quadratic noncommutative IR divergences add up to zero in each propagator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakumichi, Naoyuki; Kawakami, Norio; Ueda, Masahito
2012-04-01
The quantum-statistical cluster expansion method of Lee and Yang is extended to investigate off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO) in one-component and multicomponent mixtures of bosons or fermions. Our formulation is applicable to both a uniform system and a trapped system without local-density approximation and allows systematic expansions of one-particle and multiparticle reduced density matrices in terms of cluster functions, which are defined for the same system with Boltzmann statistics. Each term in this expansion can be associated with a Lee-Yang graph. We elucidate a physical meaning of each Lee-Yang graph; in particular, for a mixture of ultracold atoms and bound dimers, an infinite sum of the ladder-type Lee-Yang 0-graphs is shown to lead to Bose-Einstein condensation of dimers below the critical temperature. In the case of Bose statistics, an infinite series of Lee-Yang 1-graphs is shown to converge and gives the criteria of ODLRO at the one-particle level. Applications to a dilute Bose system of hard spheres are also made. In the case of Fermi statistics, an infinite series of Lee-Yang 2-graphs is shown to converge and gives the criteria of ODLRO at the two-particle level. Applications to a two-component Fermi gas in the tightly bound limit are also made.
S-duality in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with non-abelian unbroken gauge group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroers, B. J.; Bais, F. A.
1998-12-01
It is observed that the magnetic charges of classical monopole solutions in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with non-abelian unbroken gauge group H are in one-to-one correspondence with coherent states of a dual or magnetic group H˜. In the spirit of the Goddard-Nuyts-Olive conjecture this observation is interpreted as evidence for a hidden magnetic symmetry of Yang-Mills theory. SU(3) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with unbroken gauge group U(2) is studied in detail. The action of the magnetic group on semi-classical states is given explicitly. Investigations of dyonic excitations show that electric and magnetic symmetry are never manifest at the same time: Non-abelian magnetic charge obstructs the realisation of electric symmetry and vice-versa. On the basis of this fact the charge sectors in the theory are classified and their fusion rules are discussed. Non-abelian electric-magnetic duality is formulated as a map between charge sectors. Coherent states obey particularly simple fusion rules, and in the set of coherent states S-duality can be formulated as an SL(2, Z) mapping between sectors which leaves the fusion rules invariant.
Yang-Mills solutions and Spin(7)-instantons on cylinders over coset spaces with G 2-structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haupt, Alexander S.
2016-03-01
We study {g} -valued Yang-Mills fields on cylinders Zleft(G/Hright)={R}× G/H , where G/H is a compact seven-dimensional coset space with G 2-structure, {g} is the Lie algebra of G, and Z(G/H) inherits a Spin(7)-structure. After imposing a general G-invariance condition, Yang-Mills theory with torsion on Z(G/H) reduces to Newtonian mechanics of a point particle moving in {{R}}^n under the influence of some quartic potential and possibly additional constraints. The kinematics and dynamics depends on the chosen coset space. We consider in detail three coset spaces with nearly parallel G 2-structure and four coset spaces with SU(3)-structure. For each case, we analyze the critical points of the potential and present a range of finite-energy solutions. We also study a higher-dimensional analog of the instanton equation. Its solutions yield G-invariant Spin(7)-instanton configurations on Z(G/H), which are special cases of Yang-Mills configurations with torsion.
Plane-wave matrix theory from N=4 super-Yang-Mills on R×S 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Nakwoo; Klose, Thomas; Plefka, Jan
2003-11-01
Recently a mass deformation of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics has been constructed from the supermembrane action in eleven-dimensional plane-wave backgrounds. However, the origin of this plane-wave matrix theory in terms of a compactification of a higher-dimensional super-Yang-Mills model has remained obscure. In this paper we study the Kaluza-Klein reduction of D=4, N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on a round three-sphere, and demonstrate that the plane-wave matrix theory arises through a consistent truncation to the lowest lying modes. We further explore the relation between the dilatation operator of the conformal field theory and the Hamiltonian of the quantum mechanics through perturbative calculations up to two-loop order. In particular, we find that the one-loop anomalous dimensions of pure scalar operators are completely captured by the plane-wave matrix theory. At two-loop level this property ceases to exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergner, G.; Langelage, J.; Philipsen, O.
2015-11-01
We consider a three-dimensional effective theory of Polyakov lines derived previously from lattice Yang-Mills theory and QCD by means of a resummed strong coupling expansion. The effective theory is useful for investigations of the phase structure, with a sign problem mild enough to allow simulations also at finite density. In this work we present a numerical method to determine improved values for the effective couplings directly from correlators of 4d Yang-Mills theory. For values of the gauge coupling up to the vicinity of the phase transition, the dominant short range effective coupling are well described by their corresponding strong coupling series. We provide numerical results also for the longer range interactions, Polyakov lines in higher representations as well as four-point interactions, and discuss the growing significance of non-local contributions as the lattice gets finer. Within this approach the critical Yang-Mills coupling β c is reproduced to better than one percent from a one-coupling effective theory on N τ = 4 lattices while up to five couplings are needed on N τ = 8 for the same accuracy.
Wang, Qiqi; Zhang, Zhengqing; Tang, Guanghui
2016-04-25
Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are of great importance for better understanding the genome-level characteristics and phylogenetic relationships among related species. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Atrijuglans hetaohei Yang is sequenced and analyzed, which is 15,379bp in length (GenBank: KT581634) and contains a typical set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (control region). Except for cox1 gene that is initiated by CGA codon, all protein-coding genes start with ATN codons and end with the stop codon T, TA or TAA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1, of which the DHU arm could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS consists of 49 helices and 33 helices, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences and of the amino acid sequences for 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes among related species support the view that A. hetaohei is more closely related to the Gelechioidea than Yponomeutoidea. This result is consistent with a previous classification based on morphology. PMID:26800782
Constraints on the infrared behavior of the ghost propagator in Yang-Mills theories
Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.
2008-11-01
We present rigorous upper and lower bounds for the momentum-space ghost propagator G(p) of Yang-Mills theories in terms of the smallest nonzero eigenvalue (and of the corresponding eigenvector) of the Faddeev-Popov matrix. We apply our analysis to data from simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in Landau gauge, using the largest lattice sizes to date. Our results suggest that, in three and in four space-time dimensions, the Landau gauge ghost propagator is not enhanced as compared to its tree-level behavior. This is also seen in plots and fits of the ghost dressing function. In the two-dimensional case, on the other hand, we find that G(p) diverges as p{sup -2-2{kappa}} with {kappa}{approx_equal}0.15, in agreement with A. Maas, Phys. Rev. D 75, 116004 (2007). We note that our discussion is general, although we make an application only to pure gauge theory in Landau gauge. Our simulations have been performed on the IBM supercomputer at the University of Sao Paulo.
Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei
2015-01-01
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117
Design and fabrication of liquid nitrogen thermal shields for the MFTF yin-yang magnets
Johnson, G.L.; Chang, Y.; VanSant, J.H.
1981-10-12
This paper documents the design and fabrication of thin liquid nitrogen-cooled panels installed on the 340-ton MFTF yin-yang superconducting magnet system. The 344 panels are made of polished 316-L stainless steel with the pillowed fluid channels formed by inflation with a high pressure gas. Strict leak-rate limits required the manufacturer to thermal shock the panels with LN/sub 2/ and then vacuum leak check them with He. The thin-walled panel supports are made from an epoxy base, fiberglass composite which is reliable at cryogenic vacuum conditions. Quick and reliable welding of the manifold system was assured using a pair of automated tube welders on the more than 4000 feet of tubing and 1000 butt-weld fittings. To assure sufficient flow for single-phase LN/sub 2/ flow conditions, we performed a hydraulic network flow analysis. This allowed for some optimization of shield-inlet-flow conditions and manifold design. To verify operating fluid pressure and temperature, special pressure transducers and platinum resistance thermometers capable of operation at cryogenic conditions in a vacuum, high magnetic field, and long-term neutron bombardment were installed. Final assembly is complete. The final installation on the magnet was difficult due to the orientation of the magnet assembly and the restricted access to some installation surfaces.
Regulation of Transcription Factor Yin Yang 1 by SET7/9-mediated Lysine Methylation
Zhang, Wen-juan; Wu, Xiao-nan; Shi, Tao-tao; Xu, Huan-teng; Yi, Jia; Shen, Hai-feng; Huang, Ming-feng; Shu, Xing-yi; Wang, Fei-fei; Peng, Bing-ling; Xiao, Rong-quan; Gao, Wei-wei; Ding, Jian-cheng; Liu, Wen
2016-01-01
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor shown to be critical in a variety of biological processes. Although it is regulated by multiple types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), whether YY1 is methylated, which enzyme methylates YY1, and hence the functional significance of YY1 methylation remains completely unknown. Here we reported the first methyltransferase, SET7/9 (KMT7), capable of methylating YY1 at two highly conserved lysine (K) residues, K173 and K411, located in two distinct domains, one in the central glycine-rich region and the other in the very carboxyl-terminus. Functional studies revealed that SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation regulated YY1 DNA-binding activity both in vitro and at specific genomic loci in cultured cells. Consistently, SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation was shown to involve in YY1-regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. Our findings revealed a novel regulatory strategy, methylation by lysine methyltransferase, imposed on YY1 protein, and linked YY1 methylation with its biological functions. PMID:26902152
Exterior integrability: Yang-Baxter form of non-equilibrium steady-state density operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prosen, Tomaž; Ilievski, Enej; Popkov, Vladislav
2013-07-01
A new type of quantum transfer matrix, arising as a Cholesky factor for the steady-state density matrix of a dissipative Markovian process associated with the boundary-driven Lindblad equation for the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg (XXX) chain, is presented. The transfer matrix forms a commuting family of non-Hermitian operators depending on the spectral parameter, which is essentially the strength of dissipative coupling at the boundaries. The intertwining of the corresponding Lax and monodromy matrices is performed by an infinitely dimensional Yang-Baxter R-matrix, which we construct explicitly and is essentially different from the standard 4 × 4 XXX R-matrix. We also discuss a possibility to construct Bethe ansatz for the spectrum and eigenstates of the non-equilibrium steady-state density operator. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a deformed R-matrix in the infinite dimensional auxiliary space for the anisotropic XXZ spin-1/2 chain, which in general provides a sequence of new, possibly quasi-local, conserved quantities of the bulk XXZ dynamics.
Massive Yang-Mills for vector and axial-vector spectral functions at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf
2016-05-01
The hadronic mechanism which leads to chiral symmetry restoration is explored in the context of the ρπa1 system using Massive Yang-Mills, a hadronic effective theory which governs their microscopic interactions. In this approach, vector and axial-vector mesons are implemented as gauge bosons of a local chiral gauge group. We have previously shown that this model can describe the experimentally measured vector and axial-vector spectral functions in vacuum. Here, we carry the analysis to finite temperatures by evaluating medium effects in a pion gas and calculating thermal spectral functions. We find that the spectral peaks in both channels broaden along with a noticeable downward mass shift in the a1 spectral peak and negligible movement of the ρ peak. The approach toward spectral function degeneracy is accompanied by a reduction of chiral order parameters, i.e., the pion decay constant and scalar condensate. Our findings suggest a mechanism where the chiral mass splitting induced in vacuum is burned off. We explore this mechanism and identify future investigations which can further test it.
Spatial volume dependence for 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez, Margarita García; González-Arroyo, Antonio; Okawa, Masanori
2013-09-01
We study the 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a finite two-torus with twisted boundary conditions. Our goal is to study the interplay between the rank of the group N , the length of the torus L and the Z N magnetic flux. After presenting the classical and quantum formalism, we analyze the spectrum of the theory using perturbation theory to one-loop and using Monte Carlo techniques on the lattice. In perturbation theory, results to all orders depend on the combination x = λ N L and an angle defined in terms of the magnetic flux (λ is `t Hooft coupling). Thus, fixing the angle, the system exhibits a form of volume independence ( N L dependence). The numerical results interpolate between our perturbative calculations and the confinement regime. They are consistent with x-scaling and provide interesting information about the k-string spectrum and effective string theories. The occurrence of tachyonic instabilities is also analysed. They seem to be avoidable in the large N limit with a suitable scaling of the magnetic flux.
Yang-Mills field theory in an axial field-strength gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyburski, Lawrence
1984-02-01
We introduce what we call an axial field-strength gauge as an alternative to the conventional Coulomb gauge in the Yang-Mills field theory. This new gauge does not share the pathologies that were shown to exist in the Coulomb gauge by Gribov and Mandelstam. We apply this new gauge to the calculation, in two special cases, of the energy possessed by sources J1,20 interacting in the presence of a background field produced by a source J30, which is assumed to be of order g-1, in the limit g goes to zero, where g is the coupling constant. In the case in which the charge density J30 consists of two infinite uniform parallel plates bearing charge densities equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, we find that the potential energy possessed by two point particles bearing charge densities J1,20 grows linearly in proportion to the distance between them at large distances when the two particles are separated along a line parallel to the background field. This is a confining potential.
Thermodynamics, contact, and density profiles of the repulsive Gaudin-Yang model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PâÅ£u, Ovidiu I.; Klümper, Andreas
2016-03-01
We address the problem of computing the thermodynamic properties of the repulsive one-dimensional two-component Fermi gas with contact interaction, also known as the Gaudin-Yang model. Using a specific lattice embedding and the quantum transfer matrix we derive an exact system of only two nonlinear integral equations for the thermodynamics of the homogeneous model which is valid for all temperatures and values of the chemical potential, magnetic field, and coupling strength. This system allows for an easy and extremely accurate calculation of thermodynamic properties circumventing the difficulties associated with the truncation of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz system of equations. We present extensive results for the densities, polarization, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, interaction energy, Tan contact, and local correlation function of opposite spins. Our results show that at low and intermediate temperatures the experimentally accessible contact is a nonmonotonic function of the coupling strength. As a function of the temperature the contact presents a pronounced local minimum in the Tonks-Girardeau regime which signals an abrupt change of the momentum distribution in a small interval of temperature. The density profiles of the system in the presence of a harmonic trapping potential are computed using the exact solution of the homogeneous model coupled with the local density approximation. We find that at finite temperature the density profile presents a double shell structure (partially polarized center and fully polarized wings) only when the polarization in the center of the trap is above a critical value which is monotonically increasing with temperature.
On the Hamiltonian integrability of the bi-Yang-Baxter σ-model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delduc, F.; Lacroix, S.; Magro, M.; Vicedo, B.
2016-03-01
The bi-Yang-Baxter σ-model is a certain two-parameter deformation of the principal chiral model on a real Lie group G for which the left and right G-symmetries of the latter are both replaced by Poisson-Lie symmetries. It was introduced by C. Klimčík who also recently showed it admits a Lax pair, thereby proving it is integrable at the Lagrangian level. By working in the Hamiltonian formalism and starting from an equivalent description of the model as a two-parameter deformation of the coset σ-model on G × G/G diag, we show that it also admits a Lax matrix whose Poisson bracket is of the standard r/s-form characterised by a twist function which we determine. A number of results immediately follow from this, including the identification of certain complex Poisson commuting Kac-Moody currents as well as an explicit description of the q-deformed symmetries of the model. Moreover, the model is also shown to fit naturally in the general scheme recently developed for constructing integrable deformations of σ-models. Finally, we show that although the Poisson bracket of the Lax matrix still takes the r/s-form after fixing the G diag gauge symmetry, it is no longer characterised by a twist function.
Non-intersecting Brownian walkers and Yang-Mills theory on the sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forrester, Peter J.; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2011-03-01
We study a system of N non-intersecting Brownian motions on a line segment [0,L] with periodic, absorbing and reflecting boundary conditions. We show that the normalized reunion probabilities of these Brownian motions in the three models can be mapped to the partition function of two-dimensional continuum Yang-Mills theory on a sphere respectively with gauge groups U(N), Sp(2N) and SO(2N). Consequently, we show that in each of these Brownian motion models, as one varies the system size L, a third order phase transition occurs at a critical value L=L(N)˜√{N} in the large N limit. Close to the critical point, the reunion probability, properly centered and scaled, is identical to the Tracy-Widom distribution describing the probability distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random matrix. For the periodic case we obtain the Tracy-Widom distribution corresponding to the GUE random matrices, while for the absorbing and reflecting cases we get the Tracy-Widom distribution corresponding to GOE random matrices. In the absorbing case, the reunion probability is also identified as the maximal height of N non-intersecting Brownian excursions ("watermelons" with a wall) whose distribution in the asymptotic scaling limit is then described by GOE Tracy-Widom law. In addition, large deviation formulas for the maximum height are also computed.
Massive Yang-Mills theory based on the nonlinearly realized gauge group
Bettinelli, D.; Ferrari, R.; Quadri, A.
2008-02-15
We propose a subtraction scheme for a massive Yang-Mills theory realized via a nonlinear representation of the gauge group [here SU(2)]. It is based on the subtraction of the poles in D-4 of the amplitudes, in dimensional regularization, after a suitable normalization has been performed. Perturbation theory is in the number of loops, and the procedure is stable under iterative subtraction of the poles. The unphysical Goldstone bosons, the Faddeev-Popov ghosts, and the unphysical mode of the gauge field are expected to cancel out in the unitarity equation. The spontaneous symmetry breaking parameter is not a physical variable. We use the tools already tested in the nonlinear sigma model: hierarchy in the number of Goldstone boson legs and weak-power-counting property (finite number of independent divergent amplitudes at each order). It is intriguing that the model is naturally based on the symmetry SU(2){sub L} local x SU(2){sub R} global. By construction the physical amplitudes depend on the mass and on the self-coupling constant of the gauge particle and moreover on the scale parameter of the radiative corrections. The Feynman rules are in the Landau gauge.
Embedded monopoles in quark eigenmodes in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
Chernodub, M. N.; Morozov, S. M.
2006-09-01
We study the embedded QCD monopoles ('quark monopoles') using low-lying eigenmodes of the overlap Dirac operator in zero- and finite-temperature SU(2) Yang-Mills theory on the lattice. These monopoles correspond to the gauge-invariant hedgehogs in the quark-antiquark condensates. The monopoles were suggested to be agents of the chiral symmetry restoration since their cores should suppress the chiral condensate. We study numerically the scalar, axial, and chirally invariant definitions of the embedded monopoles and show that the monopole densities are in fact globally anticorrelated with the density of the Dirac eigenmodes. We observe that the embedded monopoles corresponding to low-lying Dirac eigenvalues are dense in the chirally invariant (high temperature) phase and dilute in the chirally broken (low-temperature) phase. We find that the scaling of the scalar and axial monopole densities towards the continuum limit is similar to the scaling of the stringlike objects while the chirally invariant monopoles scale as membranes. The excess of gluon energy at monopole positions reveals that the embedded QCD monopole possesses a gluonic core which is, however, empty at the very center of the monopole.
Embedded monopoles in quark eigenmodes in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernodub, M. N.; Morozov, S. M.
2006-09-01
We study the embedded QCD monopoles (“quark monopoles”) using low-lying eigenmodes of the overlap Dirac operator in zero- and finite-temperature SU(2) Yang-Mills theory on the lattice. These monopoles correspond to the gauge-invariant hedgehogs in the quark-antiquark condensates. The monopoles were suggested to be agents of the chiral symmetry restoration since their cores should suppress the chiral condensate. We study numerically the scalar, axial, and chirally invariant definitions of the embedded monopoles and show that the monopole densities are in fact globally anticorrelated with the density of the Dirac eigenmodes. We observe that the embedded monopoles corresponding to low-lying Dirac eigenvalues are dense in the chirally invariant (high temperature) phase and dilute in the chirally broken (low-temperature) phase. We find that the scaling of the scalar and axial monopole densities towards the continuum limit is similar to the scaling of the stringlike objects while the chirally invariant monopoles scale as membranes. The excess of gluon energy at monopole positions reveals that the embedded QCD monopole possesses a gluonic core which is, however, empty at the very center of the monopole.
Chaotic dynamics of Yang-Mills field as source of particle couplings and masses
Goldfain, E.
1995-04-01
Dynamics of classical uniform Yang-Mills fields is explored from the viewpoint of universal route to chaos in nonlinear systems. The author shows how the path to nonintegrable behavior of the field is equivalent to the period doubling bifurcation of the logistic map. Universal scalings of the growth parameter yield the full set of Standard Model couplings. Hamiltonian formulation in action-angle variables leads to the physics of phase transitions in classical lattice models. The ground state phase diagram of the system with {open_quotes}antiferromagnetic{close_quotes} interaction is known to exhibit a devil`s staircase form. Linking the staircase attributes to the asymptotic freedom of the gauge coupling yields an universal mass equation. Critical exponent is found to depend on the number of field flavors. Further solving the model for various stability plateaus renders the spectrum of particle masses in the low energy framework. Agreement between theory and experimental results is confirmed for the photon/graviton pair, weak bosons, leptons and quarks. The approach offers an intriguing explanation of the dymanical origin of the physical mass and on the internal hierarchy of particle families.
Towards a string bit formulation of Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alday, Luis F.; David, Justin R.; Gava, Edi; Narain, Kumar S.
2006-04-01
We show that planar Script N = 4 Yang-Mills theory at zero 't Hooft coupling can be efficiently described in terms of 8 bosonic and 8 fermionic oscillators. We show that these oscillators can serve as world-sheet variables, the string bits, of a discretized string. There is a one to one correspondence between the on shell gauge invariant words of the free Y-M theory and the states in the oscillators' Hilbert space, obeying a local gauge and cyclicity constraints. The planar two-point functions and the three-point functions of all gauge invariant words are obtained by the simple delta-function overlap of the corresponding discrete string world sheet. At first order in the 't Hooft coupling, i.e. at one-loop in the Y-M theory, the logarithmic corrections of the planar two-point and the three-point functions can be incorporated by nearest neighbour interactions among the discretized string bits. In the SU(2) sub-sector we show that the one-loop corrections to the structure constants can be uniquely determined by the symmetries of the bit picture. For the SU(2) sub-sector we construct a gauged, linear, discrete world-sheet model for the oscillators, with only nearest neighbour couplings, which reproduces the anomalous dimension Hamiltonian up to two loops. This model also obeys BMN scaling to all loops.
The Two-Loop Six-Point MHV Amplitude in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.; Roiban, R.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.
2008-03-12
We give a representation of the parity-even part of the planar two-loop six-gluon MHV amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in terms of loop-momentum integrals with simple dual conformal properties. We evaluate the integrals numerically in order to test directly the ABDK/BDS all-loop ansatz for planar MHV amplitudes. We find that the ansatz requires an additive remainder function, in accord with previous indications from strong-coupling and Regge limits. The planar six-gluon amplitude can also be compared with the hexagonal Wilson loop computed by Drummond, Henn, Korchemsky and Sokatchev in arXiv:0803.1466 [hep-th]. After accounting for differing singularities and other constants independent of the kinematics, we find that the Wilson loop and MHV-amplitude remainders are identical, to within our numerical precision. This result provides non-trivial confirmation of a proposed n-point equivalence between Wilson loops and planar MHV amplitudes, and suggests that an additional mechanism besides dual conformal symmetry fixes their form at six points and beyond.
Analytical study of Yang-Mills theory in the infrared from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siringo, Fabio
2016-06-01
Pure Yang-Mills SU(N) theory is studied in the Landau gauge and four dimensional space. While leaving the original Lagrangian unmodified, a double perturbative expansion is devised, based on a massive free-particle propagator. In dimensional regularization, all diverging mass terms cancel exactly in the double expansion, without the need to include mass counterterms that would spoil the symmetry of the Lagrangian. No free parameters are included that were not in the original theory, yielding a fully analytical approach from first principles. The expansion is safe in the infrared and is equivalent to the standard perturbation theory in the UV. At one-loop, explicit analytical expressions are given for the propagators and the running coupling and are found in excellent agreement with the data of lattice simulations. A universal scaling property is predicted for the inverse propagators and shown to be satisfied by the lattice data. Higher loops are found to be negligible in the infrared below 300 MeV where the coupling becomes small and the one-loop approximation is under full control.
The Yin and Yang of Formative Research in Designing Serious (Exer-)games.
DeSmet, Ann; Palmeira, António; Beltran, Alicia; Brand, Leah; Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Thompson, Debbe
2015-02-01
Despite its relevance, formative research on games may be an undervalued part of the game development process. At the 2014 International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity exergaming preconference satellite meeting, a roundtable discussion was held to assemble experiences and suggestions on enhancing the use of formative research in the development of active videogames (i.e., exergames). This article presents a summary of the concepts discussed. The discussants concluded that, although formative research may slightly expand the project timeline, the potential benefits include a game more in line with preferences of the intended users, with better operationalized theoretical constructs and broader stakeholder support, facilitating implementation and sustainability. It also improves the efficiency of other research parts because of a lower dropout rate of participants. Formative, qualitative research is thus a necessary complement to quantitative measurements of intervention outcomes, in a sort of Yin and Yang dynamic. An adapted version of formative research that casts a wider net may, however, be needed, involving both behavioral scientists and game developers, expanding the topics beyond the game's looks and soliciting the opinions of a larger group of stakeholders, such as implementers, gatekeepers, and funders. PMID:26181683
An object oriented code for simulating supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catterall, Simon; Joseph, Anosh
2012-06-01
We present SUSY_LATTICE - a C++ program that can be used to simulate certain classes of supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, including the well known N=4 SYM in four dimensions, on a flat Euclidean space-time lattice. Discretization of SYM theories is an old problem in lattice field theory. It has resisted solution until recently when new ideas drawn from orbifold constructions and topological field theories have been brought to bear on the question. The result has been the creation of a new class of lattice gauge theories in which the lattice action is invariant under one or more supersymmetries. The resultant theories are local, free of doublers and also possess exact gauge-invariance. In principle they form the basis for a truly non-perturbative definition of the continuum SYM theories. In the continuum limit they reproduce versions of the SYM theories formulated in terms of twisted fields, which on a flat space-time is just a change of the field variables. In this paper, we briefly review these ideas and then go on to provide the details of the C++ code. We sketch the design of the code, with particular emphasis being placed on SYM theories with N=(2,2) in two dimensions and N=4 in three and four dimensions, making one-to-one comparisons between the essential components of the SYM theories and their corresponding counterparts appearing in the simulation code. The code may be used to compute several quantities associated with the SYM theories such as the Polyakov loop, mean energy, and the width of the scalar eigenvalue distributions. Program summaryProgram title: SUSY_LATTICE Catalogue identifier: AELS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9315 No. of bytes in distributed program
PCSK9 and LDLR The Yin-Yang in the Cellular Uptake of Cholesterol.
Morales-Villegas, E
2014-07-01
The intracellular concentration of cholesterol is a vital constant influenced by the uptake, metabolism and excretion of cholesterol. The synthesis and expression of the PCSK9-LDLR duo is one of the most important mechanisms to regulate this constant; in a physiological state, the yin-yang balance between PCSK9 and LDLR regulates the entry of cholesterol into the cell to keep the intracellular cholesterol concentration stable. The mapping of the human gene encoding the serine protease PCSK9, located at 1p32-3, has allowed the identification of mutations with "gain" and "loss" of protease functions. Gain of function mutations causes decreased LDLR resulting in increased LDL-C and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Loss of function mutations have opposite effect, increased LDLR, decreased LDL-C and decreased incidence of cardiovascular events. The identification of human mutations with PCSK9 "loss" of function demostrated the benefit of decreased PCSK9 and opened the door to developing new anti-PCSK9 therapies. The goal of this research area is to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events beyond statins; the strategy is to mimic the state of PCSK9 "loss" of function by tactics as oligonucleotide therapies targeting PCSK9 mRNA and/or biological therapies with human monoclonal antibodies targeting PCSK9. This chapter reviews, the characteristics of the PCSK9, the physiological significance of the PCSK9-LDLR duo, and the therapeutic implications of the human genetic models of PCSK9 "loss" of function. The phase I-II clinical trial data of two promising monoclonal antibodies to PCSK9, Alirocumab formerly SAR236553/REGN727and AMG145 will be presented. PMID:24993279
Berube, D.; Kroeger, H.; Lafrance, R.; Marleau, L. )
1991-02-15
We discuss properties of a noncompact formulation of gauge theories with fermions on a momentum ({ital k}) lattice. (a) This formulation is suitable to build in Fourier acceleration in a direct way. (b) The numerical effort to compute the action (by fast Fourier transform) goes essentially like log{ital V} with the lattice volume {ital V}. (c) For the Yang-Mills theory we find that the action conserves gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry in a weak sense: On a finite lattice the action is invariant under infinitesimal transformations with compact support. Under finite transformations these symmetries are approximately conserved and they are restored on an infinite lattice and in the continuum limit. Moreover, these symmetries also hold on a finite lattice under finite transformations, if the classical fields, instead of being {ital c}-number valued, take values from a finite Galois field. (d) There is no fermion doubling. (e) For the {phi}{sup 4} model we investigate the transition towards the continuum limit in lattice perturbation theory up to second order. We compute the two- and four-point functions and find local and Lorentz-invariant results. (f) In QED we compute a one-loop vacuum polarization and find in the continuum limit the standard result. (g) As a numerical application, we compute the propagator {l angle}{phi}({ital k}){phi}({ital k}{prime}){r angle} in the {phi}{sup 4} model, investigate Euclidean invariance, and extract {ital m}{sub {ital R}} as well as {ital Z}{sub {ital R}}. Moreover we compute {l angle}{ital F}{sub {mu}{nu}}({ital k}){ital F}{sub {mu}{nu}}({ital k}{prime}){r angle} in the SU(2) model.
Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Lu, Lina; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei
2013-01-01
Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348
Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Jia, Wei
2013-01-01
Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348
An improved dynamic core for a non-hydrostatic model system on the Yin-Yang grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaohan; Peng, Xindong; Li, Xingliang
2015-05-01
A 3D dynamic core of the non-hydrostatic model GRAPES (Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction System) is developed on the Yin-Yang grid to address the polar problem and to enhance the computational efficiency. Three-dimensional Coriolis forcing is introduced to the new core, and full representation of the Coriolis forcing makes it straightforward to share code between the Yin and Yang subdomains. Similar to that in the original GRAPES model, a semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian scheme is adopted for temporal integration and advection with additional arrangement for cross-boundary transport. Under a non-centered second-order temporal and spatial discretization, the dry nonhydrostatic frame is summarized as the solution of an elliptical problem. The resulting Helmholtz equation is solved with the Generalized Conjugate Residual solver in cooperation with the classic Schwarz method. Even though the coefficients of the equation are quite different from those in the original model, the computational procedure of the new core is just the same. The bi-cubic Lagrangian interpolation serves to provide Dirichlet-type boundary conditions with data transfer between the subdomains. The dry core is evaluated with several benchmark test cases, and all the tests display reasonable numerical stability and computing performance. Persistency of the balanced flow and development of both the mountain-induced Rossby wave and Rossby-Haurwitz wave confirms the appropriate installation of the 3D Coriolis terms in the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian dynamic core on the Yin-Yang grid.
A Study of the Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui (兩景揆日儀) in the Joseon Dynasty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Yong Sam; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Mihn, Byeong-Hee
2015-03-01
The Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui (兩景揆日儀) is a kind of elevation sundial using three wooden plates. Sang-hyeok Lee (李尙爀, 1810~?) and Byeong-cheol Nam (南秉哲, 1817~1863) gave descriptions of this sundial and explained how to use it in their Gyu-il-go (揆日考) and Ui-gi-jip-seol (儀器輯說), respectively. According to Gyu-il-go (揆日考) there are two horizontal plates and two vertical plates that have lines of season and time. Subseasonal (節候) lines are engraved between seasonal (節氣) lines, subdividing the interval into three equal lines of Cho-hu (初候, early subseason), Jung-hu (中候, mid subseason) and Mal-hu (末候, late subseason); there are 13 seasonal lines for a year, thus resulting in 37 subseasonal lines; also, there are 12 double-hour (時辰) lines for a day engraved on these plates. The only remaining artifact of Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui was made in 1849 (the 15th year of Heon-jong) and is kept at the Korea University Museum. We have compared and analyzed Yanggyeong- gyu-il-ui and similar western sundials. Also, we have reviewed the scientific aspect of this artifact and built a replica. Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui is a new model enhanced from the miniaturization development in the early Joseon Dynasty and can be applied to the southern part of the tropic line through a structure change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P. S.; Zayats, Alexei E.
2016-04-01
Alternative theories of gravity and their solutions are of considerable importance since, at some fundamental level, the world can reveal new features. Indeed, it is suspected that the gravitational field might be nonminimally coupled to the other fields at scales not yet probed, bringing into the forefront nonminimally coupled theories. In this mode, we consider a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant. Imposing spherical symmetry and staticity for the spacetime and a magnetic Wu-Yang ansatz for the Yang-Mills field, we find expressions for the solutions of the theory. Further imposing constraints on the nonminimal parameters, we find a family of exact solutions of the theory depending on five parameters—two nonminimal parameters, the cosmological constant, the magnetic charge, and the mass. These solutions represent magnetic monopoles and black holes in magnetic monopoles with de Sitter, Minkowskian, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics, depending on the sign and value of the cosmological constant Λ . We classify completely the family of solutions with respect to the number and the type of horizons and show that the spacetime solutions can have, at most, four horizons. For particular sets of the parameters, these horizons can become double, triple, and quadruple. For instance, for a positive cosmological constant Λ , there is a critical Λc for which the solution admits a quadruple horizon, evocative of the Λc that appears for a given energy density in both the Einstein static and Eddington-Lemaître dynamical universes. As an example of our classification, we analyze solutions in the Drummond-Hathrell nonminimal theory that describe nonminimal black holes. Another application is with a set of regular black holes previously treated.
Same Initial States Attack in Yang et al.'s Quantum Private Comparison Protocol and the Improvement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Chao; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Jing-Fa; Geng, Huan-Tong
2014-01-01
In Yang et al.'s literatures (J. Phys. A: Math. 42, 055305, 2009; J. Phys. A: Math. 43, 209801, 2010), a quantum private comparison protocol based on Bell states and hash function is proposed, which aims to securely compare the equality of two participants' information with the help of a dishonest third party (TP). However, this study will point out their protocol cannot resist a special kind of attack, TP's same initial states attack, which is presented in this paper. That is, the dishonest TP can disturb the comparison result without being detected through preparing the same initial states. Finally, a simple improvement is given to avoid the attack.
Comparing the drag force on heavy quarks in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory and QCD
Gubser, Steven S.
2007-12-15
Computations of the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a thermal state of strongly coupled N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory have appeared recently. I compare the strength of this effect between N=4 gauge theory and QCD, using the static force between external quarks to normalize the 't Hooft coupling. Comparing N=4 and QCD at fixed energy density then leads to a relaxation time of roughly 2 fm/c for charm quarks moving through a quark-gluon plasma at T=250 MeV. This estimate should be regarded as preliminary because of the difficulties of comparing two such different theories.
Rodrigues, Joao P.; Zaidi, Alia
2010-10-15
We derive a planar sector of the large N nonsupersymmetric background of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction, in terms of the density of eigenvalues of one of the matrices. This background satisfies an implicit nonlinear integral equation, with a perturbative small coupling expansion and a solvable large coupling solution, which is obtained. The energy of system and the expectation value of several correlators are obtained in this strong coupling limit. They are free of infrared divergences.
A non-Abelian SO(8) monopole as generalization of Dirac-Yang monopoles for a 9-dimensional space
Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son
2011-03-15
We establish an explicit form of a non-Abelian SO(8) monopole in a 9-dimensional space and show that it is indeed a direct generalization of Dirac and Yang monopoles. Using the generalized Hurwitz transformation, we have found a connection between a 16-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a 9-dimensional hydrogenlike atom in the field of the SO(8) monopole (MICZ-Kepler problem). Using the built connection the group of dynamical symmetry of the 9-dimensional MICZ-Kepler problem is found as SO(10, 2).
The Types of Axisymmetric Exact Solutions Closely Related to n-SOLITONS for Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Zai Zhe
In this letter, we point out that if a symmetric 2×2 real matrix M(ρ,z) obeys the Belinsky-Zakharov equation and |det(M)|=1, then an axisymmetric Bogomol'nyi field exact solution for the Yang-Mills-Higgs theory can be given. By using the inverse scattering technique, some special Bogomol'nyi field exact solutions, which are closely related to the true solitons, are generated. In particular, the Schwarzschild-like solution is a two-soliton-like solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2015-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress in understanding quark confinement. The emphasis of this review is placed on how to obtain a manifestly gauge-independent picture for quark confinement supporting the dual superconductivity in the Yang-Mills theory, which should be compared with the Abelian projection proposed by 't Hooft. The basic tools are novel reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory based on change of variables extending the decomposition of the SU(N) Yang-Mills field due to Cho, Duan-Ge and Faddeev-Niemi, together with the combined use of extended versions of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the SU(N) Wilson loop operator. Moreover, we give the lattice gauge theoretical versions of the reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which enables us to perform the numerical simulations on the lattice. In fact, we present some numerical evidences for supporting the dual superconductivity for quark confinement. The numerical simulations include the derivation of the linear potential for static interquark potential, i.e., non-vanishing string tension, in which the "Abelian" dominance and magnetic monopole dominance are established, confirmation of the dual Meissner effect by measuring the chromoelectric flux tube between quark-antiquark pair, the induced magnetic-monopole current, and the type of dual superconductivity, etc. In addition, we give a direct connection between the topological configuration of the Yang-Mills field such as instantons/merons and the magnetic monopole. We show especially that magnetic monopoles in the Yang-Mills theory can be constructed in a manifestly gauge-invariant way starting from the gauge-invariant Wilson loop operator and thereby the contribution from the magnetic monopoles can be extracted from the Wilson loop in a gauge-invariant way through the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator, which is a prerequisite for exhibiting magnetic monopole dominance for quark
Two-loop five-point amplitudes of super Yang-Mills and supergravity in pure spinor superspace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver
2015-10-01
Supersymmetric integrands for the two-loop five-point amplitudes in tendimensional super Yang-Mills and type II supergravity are proposed. The kinematic numerators are manifestly local and satisfy the duality between color and kinematics described by Bern, Carrasco and Johansson. Our results are expected to reproduce the integrated two-loop amplitudes in dimensions D < 7. The UV divergence in the critical dimension D = 7 matches the low-energy limit of the corresponding superstring amplitudes and is written in terms of SYM tree amplitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2014-11-01
Based on the formulation of Yang-Baxter sigma models developed by Klimcik and Delduc-Magro-Vicedo, we explain that various deformations of type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S5 can be charactered by classical r-matrices satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE). The relation may be referred to as the gravity/CYBE correspondence. We present non-trivial examples of the correspondence including Lunin-Maldacena backgrounds for β-deformations of the N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory and the gravity duals for non-commutative gauge theories. We also discuss non-integrable backgrounds such as AdS5 × T1,1 as a generalization.
Emerging geometry from maximally super-symmetric Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vazquez, Samuel Enrique
In this thesis, we explore the emergence of space-time geometry, and string theory physics from N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with gauge group U(N). This is done in the context of the anti-de-Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence (AdS/CFT). The main results of this thesis are the following. First, we study single trace perturbations around generic 1/2 BPS states of the theory. We do this in the large N limit, and at one-loop in the 't-Hooft coupling. We show how these states can be mapped to dynamical lattices with boson statistics and periodic boundary conditions. By dynamical, we mean that the total boson occupation number is not conserved in general. Then, we show how to derive an effective sigma model for these systems which coincides with the Polyakov action of a probe string on a 1/2 BPS geometry (in the fast string limit). Secondly, we study non-supersymmetric perturbations of the vacuum which give rise to bosonic lattices with open boundary conditions. We also do this in the large N limit, and at one-loop in the 't-Hooft coupling. We show that these states are dual to open strings on D3-branes known as "Giant Gravitons". These lattice systems are also dynamical, but in some special cases, we show that we get an integrable spin chain with open boundary conditions. Next, we study single trace perturbations at strong coupling. We do this by taking a "dilute gas" approximation. We derive an all-loop result for the dispersion relation of the "magnons" which coincides with previous conjectures in the literature. What is more, we derive the geometrical picture of the so-called "giant magnon" string solution of Hofman and Maldacena, directly from the field theory. Finally, we explore the question of classical integrability of open strings on D-branes. In particular, we study the case of the giant gravitons, and compare the integrable structures on both sides of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Classical Yang-Mills Theory with Fermions II:. DIRAC’S Observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lusanna, Luca
For pure Yang-Mills theory on Minkowski space-time, formulated in functional spaces where the covariant divergence is an elliptic operator without zero modes, and for a trivial principal bundle over the fixed time Euclidean space with a compact, semisimple, connected and simply connected structure Lie group, a Green function for the covariant divergence has been found. It allows one to solve the first class constraints associated with Gauss’ laws and to identify a connection-dependent coordinatization of the trivial principal bundle. In a neighborhood of the global identity section, by using canonical coordinates of the first kind on the fibers, one has a symplectic implementation of the Lie algebra of the small gauge transformations generated by Gauss’ laws and one can make a generalized Hodge decomposition of the gauge potential one-forms based on the BRST operator. This decomposition singles out a pure gauge background connection (the BRST ghost as Maurer-Cartan one-form on the group of gauge transformations) and a transverse gauge-covariant magnetic gauge potential. After an analogous decomposition of the electric field strength into the transverse and the longitudinal part, Dirac’s observables associated with the transverse electric and magnetic components are identified as their restriction to the global identity section of the trivial principal bundle. The longitudinal part of the electric field can be re-expressed in terms of these electric and magnetic transverse parts and of the constraints without Gribov ambiguity. The physical Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, non-Abelian and topological charges have been obtained in terms of transverse Dirac’s observables, also in the presence of fermion fields, after a symplectic decoupling of the gauge degrees of freedom; one has an explicit realization of the abstract “Riemannian metric” on the orbit space. Both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian are nonlocal and nonpolynomial; like in the Coulomb gauge they are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Artur
Gas-phase activated monolithic glassy carbon was used as electrochemical double layer capacitor electrode by a research team of Siemens AG in the early 1980s [1], J. Miklos, K. Mund, W. Naschwitz, Siemens AG, Offenlegungsschrift DE 30 11 701 A1, German Patent (1980). Wen et al. [2] (Y.H. Wen, G.P. Cao, J. Cheng, Y.S. Yang, New Carbon Mater. 18(3) (2003) 219, and [3] Y.H. Wen, G.P. Cao, Y.S. Yang, J. Power Sources 148 (2005) 121, have repeatedly questioned the performance of this glassy carbon based supercapacitor electrode concept. This asks for some comments.
Numerical investigation of pyrolysis of a Loy Yang coal in a lab-scale furnace at elevated pressures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, James; Al-Abbas, Audai Hussein; Naser, Jamal
2013-12-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the pyrolysis of a Loy Yang low-rank coal in a pressurised drop tube furnace (pdtf) was undertaken evaluating Arrhenius reaction rate constants. The paper also presents predictions of an isothermal flow through the drop tube furnace. In this study, a pdtf reactor operated at pressures up to 15 bar and at a temperature of 1,173 K with particle heating rates of approximately 105 K s-1 was used. The CFD model consists of two geometrical sections; flow straightner and injector. The single reaction and two competing reaction models were employed for this numerical investigation of the pyrolysis process. The results are validated against the available experimental data in terms of velocity profiles for the drop tube furnace and the particle mass loss versus particle residence times. The isothermal flow results showed reasonable agreement with the available experimental data at different locations from the injector tip. The predicted results of both the single reaction and competing reaction modes showed slightly different results. In addition, several reaction rate constants were tested and validated against the available experimental data. The most accurate results were being Badzioch and Hawksley (Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev 9:521-530, 1970) with a single reaction model and Ubhayakar et al. (Symp (Int) Combust 16:427-436, 1977) for two competing reactions. These numerical results can provide useful information towards future modelling of the behaviour of Loy Yang coal in a full scale tangentially-fired furnace.
Kovtun, Pavel; Uensal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2005-11-15
In previous work, we found that necessary and sufficient conditions for large N{sub c} equivalence between parent and daughter theories, for a wide class of orbifold projections of U(N{sub c}) gauge theories, are just the natural requirements that the discrete symmetry used to define the projection not be spontaneously broken in the parent theory, and the discrete symmetry permuting equivalent gauge group factors not be spontaneously broken in the daughter theory. In this paper, we discuss the application of this result to Z{sub k} projections of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions, as well as various multiflavor generalizations. Z{sub k} projections with k>2 yielding chiral gauge theories violate the symmetry realization conditions needed for large N{sub c} equivalence, due to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of discrete chiral symmetry in the parent super-Yang-Mills theory. But for Z{sub 2} projections, we show that previous assertions of large N{sub c} inequivalence, in infinite volume, between the parent and daughter theories were based on incorrect mappings of vacuum energies, theta angles, or connected correlators between the two theories. With the correct identifications, there is no sign of any inconsistency. A subtle but essential feature of the connection between parent and daughter theories involves multivaluedness in the mapping of theta parameters from parent to daughter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morita, Kenji; Nakamura, Atsushi
2015-12-01
We investigate Yang-Lee zeros of grand partition functions as truncated fugacity polynomials of which coefficients are given by the canonical partition functions Z (T ,V ,N ) up to N ≤Nmax. Such a partition function can be inevitably obtained from the net-baryon number multiplicity distribution in relativistic heavy ion collisions, where the number of the event beyond Nmax has insufficient statistics, as well as from canonical approaches in lattice QCD. We use a chiral random matrix model as a solvable model for chiral phase transition in QCD and show that the closest edge of the distribution to the real chemical potential axis is stable against cutting the tail of the multiplicity distribution. A similar behavior is also found in lattice QCD at finite temperature for the Roberge-Weiss transition. In contrast, such a stability is found to be absent in the Skellam distribution which does not have a phase transition. We compare the number of Nmax to obtain the stable Yang-Lee zeros with those of critical higher-order cumulants.
Field-dependent BRST-antiBRST transformations in Yang-Mills and Gribov-Zwanziger theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshin, Pavel Yu.; Reshetnyak, Alexander A.
2014-11-01
We introduce the notion of finite BRST-antiBRST transformations, both global and field-dependent, with a doublet λa, a=1,2, of anticommuting Grassmann parameters and find explicit Jacobians corresponding to these changes of variables in Yang-Mills theories. It turns out that the finite transformations are quadratic in their parameters. At the same time, exactly as in the case of finite field-dependent BRST transformations for the Yang-Mills vacuum functional, special field-dependent BRST-antiBRST transformations, with sa-potential parameters λa=saΛ induced by a finite even-valued functional Λ and by the anticommuting generators sa of BRST-antiBRST transformations, amount to a precise change of the gauge-fixing functional. This proves the independence of the vacuum functional under such BRST-antiBRST transformations. We present the form of transformation parameters that generates a change of the gauge in the path integral and evaluate it explicitly for connecting two arbitrary Rξ-like gauges. For arbitrary differentiable gauges, the finite field-dependent BRST-antiBRST transformations are used to generalize the Gribov horizon functional h, given in the Landau gauge, and being an additive extension of the Yang-Mills action by the Gribov horizon functional in the Gribov-Zwanziger model. This generalization is achieved in a manner consistent with the study of gauge independence. We also discuss an extension of finite BRST-antiBRST transformations to the case of general gauge theories and present an ansatz for such transformations. introduction of finite BRST-antiBRST transformations, being polynomial in powers of a constant Sp(2)-doublet of Grassmann-odd parameters λa and leaving the quantum action of the Yang-Mills theory invariant to all orders in λa; definition of finite field-dependent BRST-antiBRST transformations, being polynomial in powers of an Sp(2)-doublet of Grassmann-odd functionals λa(ϕ) depending on the classical Yang-Mills fields, the ghost
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Jennifer
2009-01-01
The exploratory study conducted by Yang, Burrola, and Bryan (2009) provides an excellent platform for calling attention to the issue of suicide risk among elementary and middle school youth. Using their study as a catalyst, with this commentary I consider the finding that 12% of the young people surveyed acknowledged that they had "seriously…
Lee, Cheng-Hung; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Chia-I; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Wu, Ya-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang
2015-01-01
Objective. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), can cause severe visual impairment and blindness. To prevent the development of DR, identifying the associated risk factors for patient classification is critical. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether body constitution (BC) is an independent predictor of DR. Method. 673 type 2 DM (T2DM) patients were recruited from a medical center, all received DR examination and body constitution questionnaire to assess BC. Other risk factors for DR were also recorded, including life style, history of diabetes, and blood pressure, etc. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for DR. Results. The prevalence of DR was significantly lower in Yang deficiency patients compared with non-Yang deficiency patients (24.69% versus 38.18% P = 0.02). After adjusting for other risk factors, we observed that patients exhibiting Yang deficiency BC were less likely to present with DR (OR = 0.531; 95% confidence interval = 0.312–0.903, P = 0.018). Conclusion. In addition to traditional risk factors, Yang deficiency BC might be an independent predictor of DR among T2DM patients and the results can be used as evidence for traditional Chinese medicine patient classification. PMID:26167195
Floyd, Kyle A; Meyer, Adam E; Nelson, George; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria
2015-12-01
Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) afflict millions of people worldwide both in the community and the hospital setting. The onset, duration, and severity of infection depend on the characteristics of the invading pathogen (yin), as well as the immune response elicited by the infected individual (yang). Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) account for the majority of UTIs, and extensive investigations by many scientific groups have elucidated an elaborate pathogenic UPEC life cycle, involving the occupation of extracellular and intracellular niches and the expression of an arsenal of virulence factors that facilitate niche occupation. This review will summarize the current knowledge on UPEC pathogenesis; the host immune responses elicited to combat infection; and it will describe proteomics approaches used to understand UPEC pathogenesis, as well as drive diagnostics and treatment options. Finally, new strategies are highlighted that could be applied toward furthering our knowledge regarding host-bacterial interactions during UTI. PMID:26255866
Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman
2015-05-15
In the underdoped regime of the cuprate phase diagram, the modified version of the Resonance Valence Bond (RVB) model by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ) captures the strong electronic correlation effects very well as corroborated by the ARPES and many other experiments. However, under a non-equilibrium transport setting, YRZ says nothing about the scattering mechanisms of the charge carriers. In the present investigation we include, in a very simplified way, the scattering of charge carriers due to antiferromagnetic type spin waves (ASW). The effect of ASW excitations on conductivity has been studied by changing combined life times of the included process. It has been found that there is a qualitative change in the conductivity in the right direction. The theoretical conductivity reproduces qualitatively the experimental one.
Correct effective potential of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on M{sup 4}xS{sup 1}
Haba, Naoyuki; Takenaga, Kazunori; Yamashita, Toshifumi
2005-01-15
We study an N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory defined on M{sup 4}xS{sup 1}. The vacuum expectation values for adjoint scalar field in vector multiplet, though important, have been overlooked in evaluating one-loop effective potential of the theory. We correctly take the vacuum expectation values into account in addition to the Wilson line phases to give an expression for the effective potential, and gauge symmetry breaking is discussed. In evaluating the potential, we employ the Scherk-Schwarz mechanism and introduce bare mass for gaugino in order to break supersymmetry. We also obtain masses for the scalars, the adjoint scalar, and the component gauge field for the S{sup 1} direction in the case of the SU(2) gauge group. We observe that large supersymmetry breaking gives larger mass for the scalar. This analysis is easily applied to the M{sup 4}xS{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} case.
Spacetime and flux tube S-matrices at finite coupling for N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.
Basso, Benjamin; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro
2013-08-30
We propose a nonperturbative formulation of planar scattering amplitudes in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, or, equivalently, polygonal Wilson loops. The construction is based on the operator product expansion approach and introduces a new decomposition of the Wilson loop in terms of fundamental building blocks named pentagon transitions. These transitions satisfy a simple relation to the worldsheet S matrix on top of the so-called Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov vacuum which allows us to bootstrap them at any value of the coupling. In this Letter we present a subsector of the full solution which we call the gluonic part. We match our results with both weak and strong coupling data available in the literature. PMID:24033023
Perturbative tests for a large-N reduced model of {N} = {4} super Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishiki, Goro; Shimasaki, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Asato
2011-11-01
We study a non-perturbative formulation of {N} = {4} super Yang-Mills theory (SYM) on R × S 3 in the planar limit proposed in arXiv:0807.2352. This formulation is based on the large- N reduction, and the theory can be described as a particular large- N limit of the plane wave matrix model (PWMM), which is obtained by dimensionally reducing the original theory over S 3. In this paper, we perform some tests for this proposal. We construct an operator in the PWMM that corresponds to the Wilson loop in SYM in the continuum limit and calculate the vacuum expectation value of the operator for the case of the circular contour. We find that our result indeed agrees with the well-known result first obtained by Erickson, Semenoff and Zarembo. We also compute the beta function at the 1-loop level based on this formulation and see that it is indeed vanishing.
Perturbative tests for a large-N reduced model of mathcal{N} = {4} super Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishiki, Goro; Shimasaki, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Asato
2012-02-01
We study a non-perturbative formulation of mathcal{N} = {4} super Yang-Mills theory (SYM) on R × S 3 in the planar limit proposed in arXiv:0807.2352. This formulation is based on the large- N reduction, and the theory can be described as a particular large- N limit of the plane wave matrix model (PWMM), which is obtained by dimensionally reducing the original theory over S 3. In this paper, we perform some tests for this proposal. We construct an operator in the PWMM that corresponds to the Wilson loop in SYM in the continuum limit and calculate the vacuum expectation value of the operator for the case of the circular contour. We find that our result indeed agrees with the well-known result first obtained by Erickson, Semenoff and Zarembo. We also compute the beta function at the 1-loop level based on this formulation and see that it is indeed vanishing.
Zhou, Xiao-Hang; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Liang; Tan, Yun-Long; Guan, Yu; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xi-Jun
2016-08-01
Elucidation of the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is of importance for scientists of modern medicine to understand the value of TCM clinical experience, and it is necessary to have a biological language to scientifically describe the efficacy of TCM. With this background?Chinmedomics has been proposed by our team, which includes integrating serum pharmacochemistry and metabolomics technology, defining theory and research methods for expressing the efficacy of TCMs based on the biomarkers discovery of TCM syndrome and elucidating the efficacy of TCM formulae, discovering effective constituents, and finally elucidating the scientific value of TCM. In the present study, the innovative chinmedomics strategy was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ShenQiWan (SQW) acting on ShenYangXu (kidney-yang deficiency syndrome, KYDS). We analyzed the urine metabolic trajectory between the model and control groups, and identified the biomarkers by the multivariate analysis. We found that SQW caused significant restoration of abnormal metabolism of KYDs. Using the method of metabolomics, 17 potential urine biomarkers were analyzed through 4 repeated tests in our serial studies on SQW and KYDS. Under the premise of therapeutic efficacy, a total of 56 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo by the use of serum pharmacochemistry. Correlation analysis between marker metabolites and in vivo constituents of SQW showed that 28 compositions had a close relationship with urine biomarkers of therapeutic effects, whichmight play a key role in the therapeutic effect of SQW. These compounds were imported into an online database to predict their targets. Twenty-three important potential targets were identified, which were related to the metabolism of steroid hormone, tryptophan utilization, and thyroid hormone. In conclusion, chinmedomics is a useful strategy for discovery of potentially effective constituents from complex TCM formulae. PMID:27608946
Lee, Soo Jin; Park, Soo Hyun; Chae, Han
2016-01-01
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in relation to Carver and White's Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale and Cloninger's temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%), middle (40%), and low (30%) groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger's temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex. Correlation among SPQ, Cloninger's four temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales was also examined. Results. Significant differences in BAS (F = 11.703, p < .001), Novelty-Seeking (F = 4.945, p < .01), and Harm-Avoidance (F = 10.912, p < .001) were observed between high and low SPQ score groups after controlling for sex. The SPQ showed significant correlation with BAS (r = 0.303), Novelty-Seeking (r = 0.225), and Harm-Avoidance (r = - 0.273). However, BIS showed no significant differences between SPQ groups, and did not show correlation with the SPQ. Discussion. The current study demonstrated that Yin-Yang has similarities with and disparities from the Western tradition and may be examined with objective instruments. We showed that the emotionality of the East which is defined as mobility of emotion, not emotional instability as traditionally defined in Western theories, is pivotal for understanding the nature of emotion in the East. Suggestions are made for cross-cultural psychobiological study of the East and West. PMID:27231654
Oh, Chaekun
2014-04-01
In this study, I aim to reveal how Lee Gyoojoons medicine has given birth to a current of learning, the supporting yang current of learning, and describe its historical significance. Before anything, I'd like to throw the question of whether if there were any currents within the traditional Korean medicine. There are no records of medical currents being widely discussed until now in medical history of Korea; however, the current of Lee Jema's sasang medicine is the most noticeable one. Among the contemporaries of Lee Jema, during the late Chosun, there was also another famed medical practitioner called Lee Gyoojoon. Lee Gyoojoon mainly practiced his medicine within Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do area, his apprentices have formed a group and have succeeded his medical practice. Based on the analyses of Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices and the Somun Oriental Medical Society, which is known as a successor group to Lee Gyoojoon's medicine today, they are fully satisfying the five requirements to establish a medical current: first, they held Lee Gyoojoon as the first and foremost, representative practitioner of their current; second, they advocate the supporting yang theory suggested by Lee Gyoojoon, which is originated from his theory of Mind; third, books such as the Major Essentials of Huangdi's Internal Classic Plain Questions, and the Double Grinded Medical Mirror, were being used as the main textbooks to educate their students or to practice medicine. Fourth, Lee Gyoojoon's medical ideas were being transcended quite clearly within his group of apprentices, including Seo Byungoh, Lee Wonse, and the Somun Oriental Medical Society. Fifth, Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices were first produced through the Sukgok School, however, nowadays they are being produced through medical groups formed by Lee Wonse, the Somun Oriental Medical Society, regarding the propagation of medical theories, compilation of textbooks, publication of academic journals, etc. Then, what do the existence of the
Symmetries of the 4D self-dual Yang-Mills equation and the reduction to the 2D KdV equation
HoSeong La )
1992-04-01
The Lie-point and the Lie-Baecklund symmetries of 4D self-dual Yang-Mills equation are investigated as those of differential equations. The Lie-point symmetry is nothing but the gauge symmetry at the level of field equation, but the Lie-Baecklund symmetries are new. In particular, by the symmetry reduction to KdV equation in 2D the corresponding Lie-Baecklund symmetries which reduce to the isospectral symmetries or to the nonisospectral symmetries are identified. Some speculations on the existence of the self-dual Yang-Mills hierarchy as well as the derivation of the 4D analogue of the string equation of the nonperturbative 2D quantum gravity are given.
Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi
2008-09-15
The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacaru, Sergiu I.; Veliev, Elşen Veli; Yazici, Enis
2014-09-01
We show that geometric techniques can be elaborated and applied for constructing generic off-diagonal exact solutions in f(R, T)-modified gravity for systems of gravitational-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. The corresponding classes of metrics and generalized connections are determined by generating and integration functions which depend, in general, on all space and time coordinates and may possess, or not, Killing symmetries. For nonholonomic constraints resulting in Levi-Civita configurations, we can extract solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. We show that the constructions simplify substantially for metrics with at least one Killing vector. Some examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal modifications to black hole/ellipsoid and solitonic configurations are provided and analyzed.
Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.V.; Perry, G.J.
2006-07-01
In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt was optimized using the solvent gradient method. This method was applied for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products. It was confirmed that the analytical data using this method were consistent with those determined using gas chromatography.
Huang, Hai-Peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-Feng
2016-03-01
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487
Huang, Hai-peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-feng
2016-01-01
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. “Warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Tchrakian, D. H.
2015-05-01
We study spherically symmetric finite energy solutions of two Higgs-Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs (HCS-YMH) models in 3+1 dimensions, one with gauge group SO(5) and the other with SU(3). The Chern-Simons (CS) densities are defined in terms of both the Yang-Mills (YM) and Higgs fields and the choice of the two gauge groups is made so that they do not vanish. The solutions of the SO(5) model carry only electric charge and zero magnetic charge, while the solutions of the SU(3) model are dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges like the Julia-Zee (JZ) dyon. Unlike the latter, however, the electric charge in both models receives an important contribution from the CS dynamics. We pay special attention to the relation between the energies and charges of these solutions. In contrast with the electrically charged JZ dyon of the Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) system, whose mass is larger than that of the electrically neutral (magnetic monopole) solutions, the masses of the electrically charged solutions of our HCS-YMH models can be smaller than their electrically neutral counterparts in some parts of the parameter space. To establish this is the main task of this work, which is performed by constructing the HCS-YMH solutions numerically. In the case of the SU(3) HCS-YMH, we have considered the question of angular momentum and it turns out that it vanishes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuboi, Zengo
2014-09-01
We consider a class of asymptotic representations of the Borel subalgebra of the quantum affine superalgebra Uq(glˆ(M|N)). This is characterized by Drinfeld rational fractions. In particular, we consider contractions of Uq(gl(M|N)) in the FRT formulation and obtain explicit solutions of the graded Yang-Baxter equation in terms of q-oscillator superalgebras. These solutions correspond to L-operators for Baxter Q-operators. We also discuss an extension of these representations to the ones for contracted algebras of Uq(glˆ(M|N)) by considering the action of renormalized generators of the other side of the Borel subalgebra. We define model independent universal Q-operators as the supertrace of the universal R-matrix and write universal T-operators in terms of these Q-operators based on shift operators on the supercharacters. These include our previous work on Uq(slˆ(2|1)) case [1] in part, and also give a cue for the operator realization of our Wronskian-like formulas on T- and Q-functions in [2,3].
Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Meteer, William T; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J
2013-01-01
Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS. PMID:23700364
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Jiménez, I.; Novales-Sánchez, H.; Toscano, J. J.
2016-05-01
One-loop Standard Model observables produced by virtual heavy Kaluza-Klein fields play a prominent role in the minimal model of universal extra dimensions. Motivated by this aspect, we integrate out all the Kaluza-Klein heavy modes coming from the Yang-Mills theory set on a spacetime with an arbitrary number, n , of compact extra dimensions. After fixing the gauge with respect to the Kaluza-Klein heavy gauge modes in a covariant manner, we calculate a gauge-independent effective Lagrangian expansion containing multiple Kaluza-Klein sums that entail a bad divergent behavior. We use the Epstein-zeta function to regularize and characterize discrete divergences within such multiple sums, and then we discuss the interplay between the number of extra dimensions and the degree of accuracy of effective Lagrangians to generate or not divergent terms of discrete origin. We find that nonrenormalizable terms with mass dimension k are finite as long as k >4 +n . Multiple Kaluza-Klein sums of nondecoupling logarithmic terms, not treatable by Epstein-zeta regularization, are produced by four-dimensional momentum integration. On the grounds of standard renormalization, we argue that such effects are unobservable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di, Q.
2013-12-01
In recent years, deep prospecting method such as magnetotelluric and controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric develop rapidly, but the instruments almost monopolized by several big geophysical companies from the United States, Canada and Germany. From prospecting practice, foreign equipment adaptation on complicated geological conditions in China is unsatisfactory. As increasing of national strength, electromagnetic exploration system development independently is on the agenda. In the year of 2010, the institute of geology and geophysics, Chinese academy of sciences, took on one subject of the SinoProbe project, the research of surface Electromagnetic Prospecting (SEP) System, and has achieved some achievements. SEP is an independent research instrumentation system, which is available for MT, AMT and CSAMT soundings. After laboratory testing, in order to test SEP's performance in field, the yang-jia-zhang-zi molybdenum deposit area is selected for SEP experiment. All modules and components of SEP system have been tested, and the field ability of the whole system also has been tested. The experimental results show that SEP performance has reached the level of commercial instruments.
Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju
2013-01-01
Anisotropic flow coefficients v(1)-v(5) in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time Glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The Glasma dynamics, as realized in the impact parameter dependent Glasma (IP-Glasma) model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic subnucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the preequilibrium flow of matter is then matched to the music algorithm describing viscous hydrodynamic flow and particle production at freeze-out. The IP-Glasma+MUSIC model describes well both transverse momentum dependent and integrated v(n) data measured at the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The model also reproduces the event-by-event distributions of v(2), v(3) and v(4) measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. The implications of our results for better understanding of the dynamics of the Glasma and for the extraction of transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma are outlined. PMID:23383781
Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2008-03-15
We consider folded (S,J) spinning strings in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} (with one spin component in AdS{sub 5} and a one in S{sup 5}) corresponding to the Tr(D{sup S}{phi}{sup J}) operators in the sl(2) sector of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the special scaling limit in which both the string mass {approx}{radical}({lambda})lnS and J are sent to infinity with their ratio fixed. Expanding in the parameter l=(J/{radical}({lambda})lnS) we compute the 2-loop string sigma-model correction to the string energy and show that it agrees with the expression proposed by Alday and Maldacena [J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2007) 019]. We suggest that a resummation of the logarithmic l{sup 2}ln{sup n}l terms is necessary in order to establish an interpolation to the weakly coupled gauge-theory results. In the process, we set up a general framework for the calculation of higher loop corrections to the energy of multispin string configurations. In particular, we find that in addition to the direct 2-loop term in the string energy there is a contribution from lower loop order due to a finite 'renormalization' of the relation between the parameters of the classical solution and the fixed spins, i.e., the charges of the SO(2,4)xSO(6) symmetry.
Bone marrow niche-mediated survival of leukemia stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia: Yin and Yang
Zhou, Hong-Sheng; Carter, Bing Z.; Andreeff, Michael
2016-01-01
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of circulating immature blasts that exhibit uncontrolled growth, lack the ability to undergo normal differentiation, and have decreased sensitivity to apoptosis. Accumulating evidence shows the bone marrow (BM) niche is critical to the maintenance and retention of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), including leukemia stem cells (LSC), and an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that crosstalk between LSC and the stromal cells associated with this niche greatly influences leukemia initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Undeniably, stromal cells in the BM niche provide a sanctuary in which LSC can acquire a drug-resistant phenotype and thereby evade chemotherapy-induced death. Yin and Yang, the ancient Chinese philosophical concept, vividly portrays the intricate and dynamic interactions between LSC and the BM niche. In fact, LSC-induced microenvironmental reprogramming contributes significantly to leukemogenesis. Thus, identifying the critical signaling pathways involved in these interactions will contribute to target optimization and combinatorial drug treatment strategies to overcome acquired drug resistance and prevent relapse following therapy. In this review, we describe some of the critical signaling pathways mediating BM niche-LSC interaction, including SDF1/CXCL12, Wnt/β-catenin, VCAM/VLA-4/NF-κB, CD44, and hypoxia as a newly-recognized physical determinant of resistance, and outline therapeutic strategies for overcoming these resistance factors. PMID:27458532
Blättler, Sharon M.; Verdeguer, Francisco; Liesa, Marc; Cunningham, John T.; Vogel, Rutger O.; Chim, Helen; Liu, Huifei; Romanino, Klaas; Shirihai, Orian S.; Vazquez, Francisca; Rüegg, Markus A.; Shi, Yang
2012-01-01
The formation, distribution, and maintenance of functional mitochondria are achieved through dynamic processes that depend strictly on the transcription of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. A large number of these mitochondrial genes contain binding sites for the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in their proximal promoters, but the physiological relevance is unknown. We report here that skeletal-muscle-specific YY1 knockout (YY1mKO) mice have severely defective mitochondrial morphology and oxidative function associated with exercise intolerance, signs of mitochondrial myopathy, and short stature. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that the top pathways downregulated in YY1mKO mice were assigned to key metabolic and regulatory mitochondrial genes. This analysis was consistent with a profound decrease in the level of mitochondrial proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) bioenergetic function in these mice. In contrast to the finding for wild-type mice, inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) did not suppress mitochondrial genes in YY1mKO mice. Mechanistically, mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of YY1 resulted in a strong interaction between YY1 and the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α), a major regulator of mitochondrial function. These results underscore the important role of YY1 in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and explain how its inactivation might contribute to exercise intolerance and mitochondrial myopathies. PMID:22711985
A role for Yin Yang-1 (YY1) in the assembly of snRNA transcription complexes.
Emran, Farida; Florens, Laurence; Ma, Beicong; Swanson, Selene K; Washburn, Michael P; Hernandez, Nouria
2006-08-01
The RNA polymerase (pol) II and III human small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes have very similar promoters and recruit a number of common factors. In particular, both types of promoters utilize the small nuclear RNA activating protein complex (SNAP(c)) and the TATA box binding protein (TBP) for basal transcription, and are activated by Oct-1. We find that SNAP(c) purified from cell lines expressing tagged SNAP(c) subunits is associated with Yin Yang-1 (YY1), a factor implicated in both activation and repression of transcription. Recombinant YY1 accelerates the binding of SNAP(c) to the proximal sequence element, its target within snRNA promoters. Moreover, it enhances the formation of a complex on the pol III U6 snRNA promoter containing all the factors (SNAP(c), TBP, TFIIB-related factor 2 (Brf2), and B double prime 1 (Bdp1)) that are sufficient to direct in vitro U6 transcription when complemented with purified pol III, as well as that of a subcomplex containing TBP, Brf2, and Bdp1. YY1 is found on both the RNA polymerase II U1 and the RNA polymerase III U6 promoters as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitations. Thus, YY1 represents a new factor that participates in transcription complexes formed on both pol II and III promoters. PMID:16769183
Dyons and dyonic black holes in su (N ) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepherd, Ben L.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-03-01
We present new spherically symmetric, dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the su (N ) Einstein-Yang-Mills equations in four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The gauge field has nontrivial electric and magnetic components and is described by N -1 magnetic gauge field functions and N -1 electric gauge field functions. We explore the phase space of solutions in detail for su (2 ) and su (3 ) gauge groups. Combinations of the electric gauge field functions are monotonic and have no zeros; in general the magnetic gauge field functions may have zeros. The phase space of solutions is extremely rich, and we find solutions in which the magnetic gauge field functions have more than fifty zeros. Of particular interest are solutions for which the magnetic gauge field functions have no zeros, which exist when the negative cosmological constant has sufficiently large magnitude. We conjecture that at least some of these nodeless solutions may be stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations.
Direct test of the AdS/CFT correspondence by Monte Carlo studies of super Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honda, Masazumi; Ishiki, Goro; Kim, Sang-Woo; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato
2013-11-01
We perform nonperturbative studies of super Yang-Mills theory by Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we calculate the correlation functions of chiral primary operators to test the AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results agree with the predictions obtained from the AdS side that the SUSY non-renormalization property is obeyed by the three-point functions but not by the four-point functions investigated in this paper. Instead of the lattice regularization, we use a novel regularization of the theory based on an equivalence in the large- N limit between the SU( N) theory on R × S 3 and a one-dimensional SU( N) gauge theory known as the plane-wave (BMN) matrix model. The equivalence extends the idea of large- N reduction to a curved space and, at the same time, overcomes the obstacle related to the center symmetry breaking. The adopted regularization for S 3 preserves 16 SUSY, which is crucial in testing the AdS/CFT correspondence with the available computer resources. The only SUSY breaking effects, which come from the momentum cutoff Λ in R direction, are made negligible by using sufficiently large Λ.
One-loop amplitudes in Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills and anomalous dual conformal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandhuber, Andreas; Heslop, Paul; Travaglini, Gabriele
2009-08-01
We discuss what predictions can be made for one-loop superamplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory by using anomalous dual conformal symmetry. We show that the anomaly coefficient is a specific combination of two-mass hard and one-mass supercoefficients which appears in the supersymmetric on-shell recursion relations and equals the corresponding tree-level superamplitude. We discuss further novel relations among supercoefficients imposed by the remaining non-anomalous part of the symmetry. In particular, we find that all one-loop supercoefficients, except the four-mass box coefficients, can be expressed as linear combinations of three-mass box coefficients and a particular symmetric combination of two-mass hard coefficients. We check that our equations are explicitly satisfied in the case of one-loop n-point MHV and NMHV amplitudes. As a bonus, we prove the covariance of the NMHV superamplitudes at an arbitrary number of points, extending previous results at n <= 9.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju
2013-01-01
Anisotropic flow coefficients v1-v5 in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time Glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The Glasma dynamics, as realized in the impact parameter dependent Glasma (IP-Glasma) model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic subnucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the preequilibrium flow of matter is then matched to the music algorithm describing viscous hydrodynamic flow and particle production at freeze-out. The IP-Glasma+MUSIC model describes well both transverse momentum dependent and integrated vn data measured at the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The model also reproduces the event-by-event distributions of v2, v3 and v4 measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. The implications of our results for better understanding of the dynamics of the Glasma and for the extraction of transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma are outlined.
Structure of Yin Yang 1 Oligomers That Cooperate with RuvBL1-RuvBL2 ATPases*
López-Perrote, Andrés; Alatwi, Hanan E.; Torreira, Eva; Ismail, Amani; Ayora, Silvia; Downs, Jessica A.; Llorca, Oscar
2014-01-01
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a transcription factor regulating proliferation and differentiation and is involved in cancer development. Oligomers of recombinant YY1 have been observed before, but their structure and DNA binding properties are not well understood. Here we find that YY1 assembles several homo-oligomeric species built from the association of a bell-shaped dimer, a process we characterized by electron microscopy. Moreover, we find that YY1 self-association also occurs in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Unexpectedly, these oligomers recognize several DNA substrates without the consensus sequence for YY1 in vitro, and DNA binding is enhanced in the presence of RuvBL1-RuvBL2, two essential AAA+ ATPases. YY1 oligomers bind RuvBL1-RuvBL2 hetero-oligomeric complexes, but YY1 interacts preferentially with RuvBL1. Collectively, these findings suggest that YY1-RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complexes could contribute to functions beyond transcription, and we show that YY1 and the ATPase activity of RuvBL2 are required for RAD51 foci formation during homologous recombination. PMID:24990942
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, P. J.; Oliveira, O.
2016-06-01
The correlations between the modulus of the Polyakov loop, its phase θ , and the Landau gauge gluon propagator at finite temperature are investigated in connection with the center symmetry for pure Yang-Mills SU(3) theory. In the deconfined phase, where the center symmetry is spontaneously broken, the phase of the Polyakov loop per configuration is close to θ =0 , ±2 π /3 . We find that the gluon propagator form factors associated with θ ≈0 differ quantitatively and qualitatively from those associated to θ ≈±2 π /3 . This difference between the form factors is a property of the deconfined phase and a sign of the spontaneous breaking of the center symmetry. Furthermore, given that this difference vanishes in the confined phase, it can be used as an order parameter associated to the deconfinement transition. For simulations near the critical temperature Tc, the difference between the propagators associated to θ ≈0 and θ ≈±2 π /3 allows one to classify the configurations as belonging to the confined or deconfined phase. This establishes a selection procedure which has a measurable impact on the gluon form factors. Our results also show that the absence of the selection procedure can be erroneously interpreted as lattice artifacts.
Two-loop study of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories: SU(3) and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinosa, U.; Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Wschebor, N.
2016-05-01
We study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature using a simple massive extension of standard background field methods. We generalize our recent next-to-leading-order perturbative calculation of the Polyakov loop and of the related background field effective potential for the SU(2) theory to any compact and connex Lie group with a simple Lie algebra. We discuss in detail the SU(3) theory, where the two-loop corrections yield improved values for the first-order transition temperature as compared to the one-loop result. We also show that certain one-loop artifacts of thermodynamical observables disappear at two-loop order, as was already the case for the SU(2) theory. In particular, the entropy and the pressure are positive for all temperatures. Finally, we discuss the groups SU(4) and Sp(2) which shed interesting light, respectively, on the relation between the (de)confinement of static matter sources in the various representations of the gauge group and on the use of the background field itself as an order parameter for confinement. In both cases, we obtain first-order transitions, in agreement with lattice simulations and other continuum approaches.
Phase diagram of Script N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory with R-symmetry chemical potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Daisuke; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2006-09-01
The phase diagram of large Nc, weakly-coupled Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a three-sphere with non-zero chemical potentials is examined. In the zero coupling limit, a transition line in the μ-T plane is found, separating a ``confined'' phase in which the Polyakov loop has vanishing expectation value from a ``deconfined'' phase in which this order parameter is non-zero. For non-zero but weak coupling, perturbative methods may be used to construct a dimensionally reduced effective theory valid for sufficiently high temperature. If the maximal chemical potential exceeds a critical value, then the free energy becomes unbounded below and no genuine equilibrium state exists. However, the deconfined plasma phase remains metastable, with a lifetime which grows exponentially with Nc (not Nc2). This metastable phase persists with increasing chemical potential until a phase boundary, analogous to a spinodal decomposition line, is reached. Beyond this point, no long-lived locally stable quasi-equilibrium state exists. The resulting picture for the phase diagram of the weakly coupled theory is compared with results believed to hold in the strongly coupled limit of the theory, based on the AdS/CFT correspondence and the study of charged black hole thermodynamics. The confinement/deconfinement phase transition at weak coupling is in qualitative agreement with the Hawking-Page phase transition in the gravity dual of the strongly coupled theory. The black hole thermodynamic instability line may be the counterpart of the spinodal decomposition phase boundary found at weak coupling, but no black hole tunneling instability, analogous to the instability of the weakly coupled plasma phase is currently known.
Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory
Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2012-02-15
We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.
Bern, Zvi; Czakon, Michael; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.
2006-11-15
We present an expression for the leading-color (planar) four-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 4-2{epsilon} dimensions, in terms of eight separate integrals. The expression is based on consistency of unitarity cuts and infrared divergences. We expand the integrals around {epsilon} = 0, and obtain analytic expressions for the poles from 1/{epsilon}{sup 8} through 1/{epsilon}{sup 4}. We give numerical results for the coefficients of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 3} and 1/e{sup 2} poles. These results all match the known exponentiated structure of the infrared divergences, at four separate kinematic points. The value of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 2} coefficient allows us to test a conjecture of Eden and Staudacher for the four-loop cusp (soft) anomalous dimension. We find that the conjecture is incorrect, although our numerical results suggest that a simple modification of the expression, flipping the sign of the term containing {zeta}{sub 3}{sup 2}, may yield the correct answer. Our numerical value can be used, in a scheme proposed by Kotikov, Lipatov and Velizhanin, to estimate the two constants in the strong-coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension that are known from string theory. The estimate works to 2.6% and 5% accuracy, providing non-trivial evidence in support of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also use the known constants in the strong-coupling expansion as additional input to provide approximations to the cusp anomalous dimension which should be accurate to under one percent for all values of the coupling. When the evaluations of the integrals are completed through the finite terms, it will be possible to test the iterative, exponentiated structure of the finite terms in the four-loop four-point amplitude, which was uncovered earlier at two and three loops.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yablon, Jay R.
2013-10-01
Evidence is summarized from four recent papers that baryons including protons and neutrons are magnetic monopoles of non-commuting Yang-Mills gauge theories: 1) Protons and neutrons are ``resonant cavities'' with binding energies determined strictly by the masses of the quarks they contain. This is proven true at parts-per million accuracy for each of the 2H, 3H,3He, 4He binding energies and the neutron minus proton mass difference. 2) Respectively, each free proton and neutron contains 7.64 MeV and 9.81 MeV of mass/energy used to confine its quarks. When these nucleons bind, some, never all, of this energy is released and the mass deficit goes into binding. The balance continues to confine quarks. 56Fe releases 99.8429% of this energy for binding, more than any other nuclide. 3) Once we consider the Fermi vev one also finds an entirely theoretical explanation of proton and neutron masses, which also connects within experimental errors to the CKM quark mixing angles. 4) A related GUT explains fermion generation replication based on generator loss during symmetry breaking, and answers Rabi's question ``who ordered this?'' 5) Nuclear physics is governed by combining Maxwell's two classical equations into one equation using non-commuting gauge fields in view of Dirac theory and Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion. 6) Atoms themselves are core magnetic charges (nucleons) paired with orbital electric charges (electrons and elusive neutrinos), with the periodic table itself revealing an electric/magnetic symmetry of Maxwell's equations often pondered but heretofore unrecognized for a century and a half.
Tsai, Chia-I; Su, Yi-Chang; Lee, I-Te; Li, Tsai-Chung
2014-01-01
Aim. To evaluate how health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis are related in type 2 diabetes patients. Method. Seven hundred and five subjects were recruited in 2010 for this study from a Diabetes Shared Care Network in Taiwan. Generic and disease-specific HRQOL were assessed by the short form 36 (SF-36) and the diabetes impact measurement scale (DIMS). Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were then assessed by the body constitution questionnaire (BCQ), a questionnaire consisting of 44 items that evaluate the physiological state based on subjective symptoms and signs. Results. Estimated effects of the Ying-Xu and Stasis on all scales of the SF-36 were significantly negative, while estimated effects of the Yang-Xu on all scales (except for SF, RE, MH, and MCS) were significantly negative. For DIMS, the estimated effects of the Ying-Xu and Stasis on all scales were significantly negative except for Stasis on well-being, while Yang-Xu has a significantly negative effect only on symptoms. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that TCM constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis are closely related to a reduction in HRQOL. These findings support the need for further research into the impact of intervention for TCM constitutions on HRQOL in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25093025
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Joosiri, Apinya; Jantakate, Sirinun; Sangkudloa, Amnat; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Chimplee, Kanokporn; Khemplila, Kritsakorn; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
2016-01-01
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern and northern regions. Database of population at risk are need required for monitoring, surveillance, home health care, and home visit. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database and Google map of the population at risk of CCA in Mueang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand during June to October 2015. Populations at risk were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST). Software included Microsoft Excel, ArcGIS, and Google Maps. The secondary data included the point of villages, sub-district boundaries, district boundaries, point of hospital in Mueang Yang district, used for created the spatial databese. The populations at risk for CCA and opisthorchiasis were used to create an arttribute database. Data were tranfered to WGS84 UTM ZONE 48. After the conversion, all of the data were imported into Google Earth using online web pages www.earthpoint.us. Some 222 from a 4,800 population at risk for CCA constituted a high risk group. Geo-visual display available at following www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/ edit?mid=zPxtcHv_iDLo.kvPpxl5mAs90 and hl=th. Geo-visual display 5 layers including: layer 1, village location and number of the population at risk for CCA; layer 2, sub-district health promotion hospital in Mueang Yang district and number of opisthorchiasis; layer 3, sub-district district and the number of population at risk for CCA; layer 4, district hospital and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis; and layer 5, district and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis. This GIS database and Google map production process is suitable for further monitoring, surveillance, and home health care for CCA sufferers. PMID:27039762
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, Ph.
2016-03-01
We recall the relation between zeta function representation of groups and two-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory through Mednikh formula. We prove various generalisations of Mednikh formulas and define generalization of zeta function representations of groups. We compute some of these functions in the case of the finite group GL(2, 𝔽q) and PGL(2, 𝔽q). We recall the table characters of these groups for any q, compute the Frobenius-Schur indicator of their irreducible representations, and give the explicit structure of their fusion rings.
Kompor, Pontip; Muang Karn, Rattikarn; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Photipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Phong Paew, Somkiat; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Phatisena, Tanida; Eaksanti, Thawatchai; Joosiri, Apinya; Polsripradistdist, Poowadol; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
2016-01-01
Opisthorchiasis is still a major health problem in rural communities of Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is found frequently in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of health intervention in the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and CCA. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were completed health intervention comprising 4 stations; 1, VDO clip of moving adult worm of liver fluke; 2, poster of life cycle of liver fluke; 3, microscopy with adult and egg liver fluke; and 4, brochure with the knowledge of liver fluke containing infection, signs, symptoms, related disease, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. Pre-and-post-test questionnaires were utilized to collect data from all participants. Students paired t-tests were used to analyze differences between before and after participation in the health intervention. Knowledge (mean difference=-7.48, t=-51.241, 95% CI, -7.77, -7.19, p-value =0.001), attitude (mean difference=-9.07, t=-9.818, 95% CI=-10.9, -7.24, p-value=0.001), and practice (mean difference=-2.04, t=-2.688, 95% CI=-3.55, -0.53, p-value=0.008), changed between before and after time points with statistical significance. Community rules were concluded regarding: (1) cooked cyprinoid fish consumption; (2) stop under cooked cyprinoid fish by household cooker; (3) cooked food consumption; (4) hygienic defecation; (5) corrected knowledge campaign close to each household; (6) organizing a village food safety club; (7) and annual health check including stool examination featuring monitoring by village health volunteers and local public health officers. The results indicates that the present health intervention program was effective and easy to understand, with low cost and taking only a short time. Therefore, this program may
Kaufhold, Samantha; Garbán, Hermes; Bonavida, Benjamin
2016-01-01
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is frequently overexpressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues and has regulatory roles in cell proliferation, cell viability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis and drug/immune resistance. YY1 shares many properties with cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drive tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance and are regulated by overexpression of certain transcription factors, including SOX2, OCT4 (POU5F1), BMI1 and NANOG. Based on these similarities, it was expected that YY1 expression would be associated with SOX2, OCT4, BMI1, and NANOG's expressions and activities. Data mining from the proteomic tissue-based datasets from the Human Protein Atlas were used for protein expression patterns of YY1 and the four CSC markers in 17 types of cancer, including both solid and hematological malignancies. A close association was revealed between the frequency of expressions of YY1 and SOX2 as well as SOX2 and OCT4 in all cancers analyzed. Two types of dynamics were identified based on the nature of their association, namely, inverse or direct, between YY1 and SOX2. These two dynamics define distinctive patterns of BMI1 and OCT4 expressions. The relationship between YY1 and SOX2 expressions as well as the expressions of BMI1 and OCT4 resulted in the classification of four groups of cancers with distinct molecular signatures: 1) Prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, ovarian and glioma cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(hi)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) 2) Skin, testis and breast cancers (YY1(hi)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) 3) Liver, stomach, renal, pancreatic and urothelial cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) and 4) Colorectal cancer, lymphoma and melanoma (YY1(hi)SOX2(hi)BMI1(lo)OCT4(hi)). A regulatory loop is proposed consisting of the cross-talk between the NF-kB/PI3K/AKT pathways and the downstream inter-regulation of target gene products YY1, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1. PMID:27225481
A HYBRID SOLAR WIND MODEL OF THE CESE+HLL METHOD WITH A YIN-YANG OVERSET GRID AND AN AMR GRID
Feng Xueshang; Zhang Shaohua; Xiang Changqing; Yang Liping; Jiang Chaowei; Wu, S. T.
2011-06-10
A hybrid three-dimensional (3D) MHD model for solar wind study is proposed in the present paper with combined grid systems and solvers. The computational domain from the Sun to Earth space is decomposed into the near-Sun and off-Sun domains, which are respectively constructed with a Yin-Yang overset grid system and a Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) grid system and coupled with a domain connection interface in the overlapping region between the near-Sun and off-Sun domains. The space-time conservation element and solution element method is used in the near-Sun domain, while the Harten-Lax-Leer method is employed in the off-Sun domain. The Yin-Yang overset grid can avoid well-known singularity and polar grid convergence problems and its body-fitting property helps achieve high-quality resolution near the solar surface. The block structured AMR Cartesian grid can automatically capture far-field plasma flow features, such as heliospheric current sheets and shock waves, and at the same time, it can save significant computational resources compared to the uniformly structured Cartesian grid. A numerical study of the solar wind structure for Carrington rotation 2069 shows that the newly developed hybrid MHD solar wind model successfully produces many realistic features of the background solar wind, in both the solar corona and interplanetary space, by comparisons with multiple solar and interplanetary observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli
2015-11-01
A double-image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and high dimension chaotic system in gyrator transform domain, in which three chaotic random sequences are generated by using Chen system. First, an enlarged image constituted with two plaintext images is scrambled by using the first two sequences, and then separated into two new interim images. Second, one interim image is converted to the private phase key with the help of the third sequence, which is modulated by a random phase key generated based on logistic map. Based on this private phase key, another interim image is converted to the ciphertext with white noise distribution in the Yang-Gu amplitude-phase retrieval process. In the process of encryption and decryption, the images both in spatial domain and gyrator domain are nonlinear and disorder by using high dimension chaotic system. Moreover, the ciphertext image is only a real-valued function which is more convenient for storing and transmitting, and the security of the proposed encryption scheme is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of initial values of Chen system and rotation angle of gyrator transform. Extensive cryptanalysis and simulation results have demonstrated the security, validity and feasibility of the propose encryption scheme.
Not Available
1981-09-01
The overall objective of this engineering study was to determine the feasibility of designing a Yin-Yang magnet capable of producing a peak field in the windings of 12T for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) program. As part of this technical study, a rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate of the winding for this magnet was undertaken. The preferred approach to the winding design of the TMNS plug coil utilizes innovative design concepts to meet the structural, electrical and thermodynamic requirements of the magnet system. Structurally, the coil is radially partitioned into four sections, preventing the accumulation of the radial loads and reacting them into the structural case. To safely dissipate the 13.34 GJ of energy stored in each Yin-Yang magnet, the winding has been electrically subdivided into parallel or nested coils, each having its own power supply and protection circuitry. This arrangement effectively divides the total stored energy of the coils into manageable subsystems. The windings are cooled with superfluid helium II, operated at 1.8K and 1.2 atmospheres. The superior cooling capabilities of helium II have enabled the overall winding envelope to be minimized, providing a current density of 2367 A/CM/sup 2/, excluding substructure.
Castro-Chavez, Fernando
2014-01-01
Objective The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the genetic code can be studied and represented in a 3-D Sphered Cube for bioinformatics and for education by using the graphical help of the ancient “Book of Changes” or I Ching for the comparison, pair by pair, of the three basic characteristics of nucleotides: H-bonds, molecular structure, and their tautomerism. Methods The source of natural biodiversity is the high plasticity of the genetic code, analyzable with a reverse engineering of its 2-D and 3-D representations (here illustrated), but also through the classical 64-hexagrams of the ancient I Ching, as if they were the 64-codons or words of the genetic code. Results In this article, the four elements of the Yin/Yang were found by correlating the 3×2=6 sets of Cartesian comparisons of the mentioned properties of nucleic acids, to the directionality of their resulting blocks of codons grouped according to their resulting amino acids and/or functions, integrating a 384-codon Sphered Cube whose function is illustrated by comparing six brain peptides and a promoter of osteoblasts from Humans versus Neanderthal, as well as to Negadi’s work on the importance of the number 384 within the genetic code. Conclusions Starting with the codon/anticodon correlation of Nirenberg, published in full here for the first time, and by studying the genetic code and its 3-D display, the buffers of reiteration within codons codifying for the same amino acid, displayed the two long (binary number one) and older Yin/Yang arrows that travel in opposite directions, mimicking the parental DNA strands, while annealing to the two younger and broken (binary number zero) Yin/Yang arrows, mimicking the new DNA strands; the graphic analysis of the of the genetic code and its plasticity was helpful to compare compatible sequences (human compatible to human versus neanderthal compatible to neanderthal), while further exploring the wondrous biodiversity of nature for
Uchino, Shun; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ueda, Masahito
2010-06-15
We develop Bogoliubov theory of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman effect, and derive the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) corrections to the ground-state energy, pressure, sound velocity, and quantum depletion. We investigate all the phases of spin-1 and spin-2 BECs that can be realized experimentally. We also examine the stability of each phase against quantum fluctuations and the quadratic Zeeman effect. Furthermore, we discuss a relationship between the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken and that of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. It is found that in the spin-2 nematic phase there are special Bogoliubov modes that have gapless linear dispersion relations but do not belong to the NG modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butera, P.; Pernici, M.
2012-07-01
We have extended, in most cases through 24th order, the series expansions of the dimer density in powers of the activity in the case of bipartite [(hyper)-simple-cubic and (hyper)-body-centered-cubic] lattices of dimensionalities 2⩽d⩽7. A numerical analysis of these data yields estimates of the exponents characterizing the Yang-Lee edge singularities for lattice ferromagnetic spin models as d varies between the lower and the upper critical dimensionalities. Our results are consistent with, but more extensive and sometimes more accurate than, those obtained from the existing dimer series or from the estimates of related exponents for lattice animals, branched polymers, and fluids. We mention also that it is possible to obtain estimates of the dimer constants from our series for the various lattices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Heslop, Paul; Tran, Vuong-Viet
2016-05-01
We use the soft-collinear bootstrap to construct the 8-loop integrand for the 4-point amplitude and 4-stress-tensor correlation function in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Both have a unique representation in terms of planar, conformal integrands grouped according to a hidden symmetry discovered for correlation functions. The answer we find exposes a fundamental tension between manifest locality and planarity with manifest conformality not seen at lower loops. For the first time, the integrand must include terms that are finite even on-shell and terms that are divergent even off-shell (so-called pseudoconformal integrals). We describe these novelties and their consequences in this Letter, and we make the full correlator and amplitude available as part of the Supplemental Material.
Bourjaily, Jacob L; Heslop, Paul; Tran, Vuong-Viet
2016-05-13
We use the soft-collinear bootstrap to construct the 8-loop integrand for the 4-point amplitude and 4-stress-tensor correlation function in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Both have a unique representation in terms of planar, conformal integrands grouped according to a hidden symmetry discovered for correlation functions. The answer we find exposes a fundamental tension between manifest locality and planarity with manifest conformality not seen at lower loops. For the first time, the integrand must include terms that are finite even on-shell and terms that are divergent even off-shell (so-called pseudoconformal integrals). We describe these novelties and their consequences in this Letter, and we make the full correlator and amplitude available as part of the Supplemental Material. PMID:27232016
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxter, J. Erik
2016-02-01
We investigate dyonic black hole and dyon solutions of four-dimensional 𝔰𝔲(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant. We derive a set of field equations in this case, and prove the existence of non-trivial solutions to these equations for any integer N, with 2N - 2 gauge degrees of freedom. We do this by showing that solutions exist locally at infinity, and at the event horizon for black holes and the origin for solitons. We then prove that we can patch these solutions together regularly into global solutions that can be integrated arbitrarily far into the asymptotic regime. Our main result is to show that dyonic solutions exist in open sets in the parameter space, and hence that we can find non-trivial dyonic solutions in a number of regimes whose magnetic gauge fields have no zeros, which is likely important to the stability of the solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxter, J. Erik; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-02-01
We investigate the stability of spherically symmetric, purely magnetic, soliton and black hole solutions of four-dimensional 𝔰𝔲(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant Λ. These solutions are described by N - 1 magnetic gauge field functions ωj. We consider linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of these solutions. The perturbations decouple into two sectors, known as the sphaleronic and gravitational sectors. For any N, there are no instabilities in the sphaleronic sector if all the magnetic gauge field functions ωj have no zeros and satisfy a set of N - 1 inequalities. In the gravitational sector, we prove that there are solutions which have no instabilities in a neighbourhood of stable embedded 𝔰𝔲(2) solutions, provided the magnitude of the cosmological constant |" separators=" Λ | is sufficiently large.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tackley, P. J.
2013-12-01
StagYY is a well-established code for modelling mantle convection in 3D spherical geometry (Tackley, PEPI 2008), incorporating several physical complexities such as compressibility, phase transitions, compositional variations, strongly temperature-dependent, non-linear rheology, tracers to track composition, continents, partial melting and melt migration. It uses a finite volume discretization (primitive variables on a staggered grid) on the yin-yang spherical grid (minimum overlap version). Geometric multigrid is used for simultaneous solution of the Stokes and mass conservation equations. Here, parallelization using MPI is discussed, and performance and scaling of the current StagYY version on up to 4096 cores on grids of up to 768x2304x512x2 cells (1.8 billion, corresponding to 7.2 billion unknowns) is demonstrated. Complexities related to scaling further to 100,000s to millions of cores are discussed together with possible solutions and performance projections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linhananta, Apichart
2004-03-01
Recent computer simulations of coarse-grained (J.P. Kemp and Z.Y. Chen, 1998, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3880) and all-atom protein models (M. Takano et. al., 2002, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 2219) have demonstrated that the helix-coil transition is a first-order-like transition. This contradicts the classical Ising-based one-dimensional Zimm-Bragg theory in which no phase transition occurs. It was conjectured that the discrepancy is due to long-range interactions and the fact that real protein systems are not one dimensional. The effects of long-range interactions have been investigated by minimalist models (N.A. Alves and U.H.E. Hansmann, 2000, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1836; J.P. Kemp, U.H.E. Hansmann, and Z.Y. Chen, 2000, Eur. Phys. J. B, 15, 371), which suggests the universality of the helix-coil transition. This paper examines how conformation entropy of proteins in two or three dimensions drives the helix-coil transition. This is done by constructing two- or three-dimension self-avoiding random-walk models of proteins in which it is energetically favorable for the protein to assume linear (helical) configurations. The partition functions were determined exactly. Using the method of finite-size scaling and Lee-Yang zeros, it was confirmed that the phase transition is first order-like. The model is then extended to examine proteins that can form tertiary structures and non-native interactions. It was found that the partition-function zeros of these models differ significantly from those of the helix-coil models. The characterization of phase transitions in models of proteins and biopolymers by Lee-Yang zeros are discussed.
Lee, Soo Jin; Park, Soo Hyun
2016-01-01
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in relation to Carver and White’s Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale and Cloninger’s temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%), middle (40%), and low (30%) groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger’s temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex. Correlation among SPQ, Cloninger’s four temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales was also examined. Results. Significant differences in BAS (F = 11.703, p < .001), Novelty-Seeking (F = 4.945, p < .01), and Harm-Avoidance (F = 10.912, p < .001) were observed between high and low SPQ score groups after controlling for sex. The SPQ showed significant correlation with BAS (r = 0.303), Novelty-Seeking (r = 0.225), and Harm-Avoidance (r = − 0.273). However, BIS showed no significant differences between SPQ groups, and did not show correlation with the SPQ. Discussion. The current study demonstrated that Yin-Yang has similarities with and disparities from the Western tradition and may be examined with objective instruments. We showed that the emotionality of the East which is defined as mobility of emotion, not emotional instability as traditionally defined in Western theories, is pivotal for understanding the nature of emotion in the East. Suggestions are made for cross-cultural psychobiological study of the East and West. PMID:27231654
Design of 12-T Yin-Yang magnets operating in subcooled, superfluid helium. [Nb-Ti and Nb/sub 3/Sn
Cornish, D.N.; Hoard, R.W.; Baldi, R.
1981-10-09
A conceptual design study of a large 12-T yin-yang pair of coils, typical of the plug coils envisioned for a tandem-mirror facility to follow MFTF, has been completed. Because of its larger size and field strength, the magnetic forces are much greater than those experienced on MFTF. The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the feasibility of such a device, paying particular attention to mechanical stress and conductor strain. The conductor proposed operates at 15.6 kA and consists of a rectangular half-hard copper stabilizer with a Nb-Ti insert in the low-field regions and Nb/sub 3/Sn in the high field. The coil is divided into four sections in the longitudinal direction, with steel substructure to limit the winding stress to an acceptable level. The conductor is cryostatically stabilized in superfluid He at 1.8K and 1.2 atm, with an operating heat flux of 0.8 W.cm/sup -2/.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.
2014-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha
2015-09-01
Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.
Liu, Zhouying; Huang, Jian; Huo, Youping; Gong, Jing; Zhang, Yinhui; Wei, Cong; Pu, Jielin
2015-01-01
The present study tries to identify proteins implicated in bradycardia rabbits in hearts after ShenSongYangXin (SSYX, a traditional Chinese medicine) treatment. Eighteen adult rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups: sham, model, and SSYX treatment groups. Heart rate was recorded in rabbits and proteins were isolated from ventricular muscle. We used isobaric tags for elative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify altered proteins after SSYX treatment. The heart rate decreased after six weeks due to the injury of the sinoatrial node in the model group. This effect was partially reversed by 4-week SSYX treatment. A total of a2988 proteins were quantified by performing the iTRAQ-based experiments. Of these, 86 proteins were differentially expressed according to our criteria (42 upregulated and 44 downregulated). The identification of key proteins implicated in the treatment of bradycardia could serve as a foundation to better understand and further explore the molecular mechanism of SSYX treatment. PMID:26770253
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli
2015-12-01
A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, Anthony G.; Oliveira, Orlando; Silva, Paulo J.
2016-07-01
The dependence of the Landau gauge two-point gluon and ghost correlation functions on the lattice spacing and on the physical volume are investigated for pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions using lattice simulations. We present data from very large lattices up to 1284 and for two lattice spacings 0.10 fm and 0.06 fm corresponding to volumes of ˜(13 fm )4 and ˜(8 fm )4 , respectively. Our results show that, for sufficiently large physical volumes, both propagators have a mild dependence on the lattice volume. On the other hand, the gluon and ghost propagators change with the lattice spacing a in the infrared region, with the gluon propagator having a stronger dependence on a compared to the ghost propagator. In what concerns the strong coupling constant αs(p2), as defined from gluon and ghost two-point functions, the simulations show a sizeable dependence on the lattice spacing for the infrared region and for momenta up to ˜1 GeV .
Lee, Miran; Park, Jeonghyeon; Lim, Mi-sun; Seong, Sook Jin; Lee, Joomi; Seo, Jeong Ju; Park, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hae Won; Yoon, Young-Ran
2012-01-01
Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang (BHT) is an oriental herbal medicine for treating brain disorders such as cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to develop an economically feasible and time-saving high-throughput screening method to monitor the potential inhibitory effects of BHT on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro. Two cocktail sets were used for incubation of human liver microsomes: Cocktail A: 6 probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4; Cocktail B: 3 for CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2E1. The concentrations of the substrate metabolites were simultaneously analyzed using UPLC/MS/MS. The BHT extract had almost negligible inhibitory effects on the nine human CYP isoforms tested, with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value ranged from 3624.99 to 45412.44 μg/ml. The results suggest that BHT extract has no inhibitory effects on CYP isoforms within the clinically recommended dosage range. We conclude that BHT might be free of drug-herb interactions when co-administered with other medicines. However, more in vivo human studies are needed to confirm these results. The high-throughput screening method can be a useful tool for drug discovery and for understanding drug interactions. PMID:23232241
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Host-specificity determination prior to the introduction of non-native natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) is a critical component of the risk assessment for modern classical biological control programs. In the present study, we assessed the host specificity of a newly described parasitoid,...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A crucial step in biological control programs is identification of candidates for introduction. This is often difficult when cryptic species are involved. However, recent advances in next-generation sequencing allows whole genome sequencing in non-model species for the discovery and genotyping of ...
Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu
2012-01-01
Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is one of the most popular formulated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, and is widely for prevention of ischemic cardio-cerebral vascular diseases and stroke-induced disability. A specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the nine main bioactive components, i.e., astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV, formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, ligustilide and paeoniflorin in rat plasma after oral administration of BYHWT extract. This method was applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics in conscious and freely moving rats. No significant matrix effects were observed. The overall analytical procedure was rapid and reproducible, which makes it suitable for quantitative analysis of a large number of samples. Among them, three astragalosides and four isoflavones in A. membranaceus, ligustilide in Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra were identified. This developed method was then successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of the nine bioactive constituents after oral administration of BYHWT extracts in rats. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV and ligustilide presented the phenomenon of double peaks. The other herbal ingredients of formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside and paeoniflorin appeared together in a single and plateau absorption phase. These phenomenona suggest that these components may have multiple absorption sites, regulation of enterohepatic circulation or the gastric emptying rate, or there is ingredient-ingredient interaction. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to better understand the absorption mechanism of BYHWT and to support additional clinical evaluation. PMID:22952787
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamo, Kiminad A.
2016-08-01
Using AdS /CFT correspondence, we find that a massless quark moving at the speed of light v =1 , in arbitrary direction, through a strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) vacuum at T =0 , in the presence of strong magnetic field B , loses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on B , i.e., d/E d t =-√{λ/} 6 π B . We also show that a heavy quark of mass M ≠0 moving at near the speed of light v2=v*2=1 -4/π2T2 B ≃1 , in arbitrary direction, through a strongly coupled N =4 SYM plasma at finite temperature T ≠0 , in the presence of strong magnetic field B ≫T2, loses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on B , i.e., d/E d t =-√{λ/}6 π B v*2≃-√{λ/}6 π B . Moreover, we argue that, in the strong magnetic field B ≫T2 (IR) regime, N =4 SYM and adjoint QCD theories (when the adjoint QCD theory has four flavors of Weyl fermions and is at its conformal IR fixed point λ =λ*) have the same microscopic degrees of freedom (i.e., gluons and lowest Landau levels of Weyl fermions) even though they have quite different microscopic degrees of freedom in the UV when we consider higher Landau levels. Therefore, in the strong magnetic field B ≫T2 (IR) regime, the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic properties of N =4 SYM and adjoint QCD plasmas, as well as the rates of energy loss of a quark moving through the plasmas, should be the same.
Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming
2011-10-01
In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (P<0.009). The end-line survey found that feeding practices had improved significantly following the intervention. An enabling policy and regulatory environment in which CFSs are defined and parameters for appropriate marketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tackley, Paul J.
2008-12-01
Here it is documented how an existing code for modelling mantle convection in a cartesian domain, Stag3D, has been converted to model a 3D spherical shell by using the recently introduced yin-yang grid. StagYY is thus the latest evolution of a code that has been in continuous use and development for about 15 years so incorporates much physics and several features including compressibility, phase transitions, compositional variations, non-linear rheology, parallelisation, tracers to track composition, partial melting and melt migration, and the ability to also model spherical patches, cartesian boxes, and various 2D geometries by changing one input switch. StagYY uses a multigrid solver to obtain a velocity-pressure solution at each timestep on a staggered grid, a finite-volume scheme for advection of temperature and tracers to track composition. Convergence of multigrid solvers in the presence of realistically large viscosity variations has always been a problem; here a new pressure interpolation scheme is presented that can dramatically improve the robustness of the iterations to large viscosity variations, with up to 19 orders of magnitude variation in presented tests. Benchmark tests show that StagYY produces results that are consistent with those produced by other codes. Performance tests show reasonable scaling on a parallel Beowulf cluster up to 64 CPUs, with up to 1.2 billion unknowns solved for in a few minutes. StagYY is designed to be a stand-alone application with no libraries required and if MPI is installed it can be run in parallel. Technical issues and goals for the future are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jian Qi
2016-05-01
A gravitational gauge theory with a spin-affine connection (Lorentz connection) as a rotational gauge potential (fundamental dynamical variable) is suggested for reformulating the theory of Stephenson-Kilmister-Yang gravity, in which the Einstein field equation of gravity is a first-integral solution of a spin-connection gravitational gauge field equation. A heavy intermediate field φ that accompanies a matter field \\varphi is introduced in order to remove the conventional dimensionful gravitational coupling. Such a \\varphi -φ coupling can lead to dimensionless gravitational coupling (i.e., the gravitational constant is dimensionless) in the present gravitational gauge field theory. A low-energy effective Lagrangian density for the matter field can be obtained by integrating out the accompanying heavy field in generating functional of path integral formalism, and therefore, a dimensionful gravitational coupling coefficient (Einstein gravitational constant) emerges. Such a dimensionless coupling of gravity, where the dimensionful coupling is emergent at low energies, is considered for scalar and spinor fields, which serve as gravitating matter fields (gravitational source). Though there are higher derivatives (e.g., third- and fourth-order partial derivatives) of the scalar and spinor fields in the low-energy effective Lagrangian densities, the ordinary equations of motion of the scalar and spinor fields can also be emergent from the present gravitational gauge theory. Therefore, the Einstein gravity can be recovered from the present gravitational gauge theory. In addition to the gravitational Lagrangian of the spacetime-rotational gauge potential (i.e., spin-affine connection), the Lagrangian of a spacetime-translational gauge potential (i.e., vierbein) is also constructed. Thus, the present dimensionless gravitational gauge coupling preserves local rotational and translational gauge symmetries. Since the spin-connection gravitational gauge field equation is a
Janssens, V; Van Hoof, C; De Baere, I; Merlevede, W; Goris, J
1999-01-01
The phosphotyrosine phosphatase activator (PTPA) has been isolated as an in vitro regulator of protein phosphatase 2A. Human PTPA is encoded by a single gene, the structure and chromosomal localization of which have been determined in our previous work. Here we describe the further isolation, sequencing and functional characterization of the PTPA promoter region. In agreement with its ubiquitous expression, the PTPA promoter displays several characteristics of housekeeping genes: it lacks both a TATA-box and a CAAT-box, it is very GC-rich and it contains an unmethylated CpG island surrounding the transcription initiation site. Transient transfection experiments in different cell types with several truncated chimaeric luciferase reporter gene plasmids revealed the importance of the region between positions -67 and -39 for basal promoter activity. This region coincides remarkably well with the determined CpG island. Further analysis of this region demonstrated the presence of a Yin Yang 1 (YY1) binding motif at positions -52 to -44. Binding of YY1 to this sequence is demonstrated in bandshift and DNase I footprinting experiments. Another YY1 binding motif is found in the 5' untranslated region, at positions +27 to +35. Mutations in either of these sites, abolishing YY1 binding in vitro, have differential effects on promoter activity. Point mutations in both sites completely abolish promoter activity. Moreover, induction of promoter activity by co-transfection with a YY1 expression plasmid is fully dependent upon the presence of both intact YY1 binding sites. Thus YY1 apparently mediates basal transcription of the human PTPA gene through two binding sites within its proximal promoter. PMID:10585862
Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Siu, Ada Hoi Ling; Chen, Na; Poon, Michel K T; Ko, Kam Ming
2008-02-01
Previous work in our laboratory has shown that long-term treatment with Vigconic 28 (VI-28), a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula used for the promotion of overall wellness in Chinese medicine, can enhance the mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity in various tissues of both male and female rats. To investigate whether the VI-28 treatment regimen could afford tissue protection against oxidative injury, the effects of long-term VI-28 treatment (80 or 240 mg/kg/d x 30) on oxidative stress-induced tissue damage in various organs (brain, heart, liver, and kidney) were examined in female rats. The results indicated that long-term VI-28 treatment invariably protected against oxidative tissue damage in the rat models of cerebral/myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, CCl4 hepatotoxicity, and gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The tissue protection was associated with increases in the levels and activities of mitochondrial antioxidant components as well as with the preservation of mitochondrial structural integrity. This was evidenced by decreases in the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-induced permeability transition, and in the levels of mitochondrial malondialdehyde production, Ca2+ loading, and cytochrome c release in the tissues examined. Interestingly, the VI-28 treatment increased red cell CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) levels, and these levels correlated positively with the degree of tissue protection afforded by long-term VI-28 treatment in rats. The generalized tissue protection afforded by long-term VI-28 treatment may have clinical implications in the prevention of age-related diseases, and VI-28 treatment may possibly delay the aging process. PMID:18160022
Oh, Tae Woo; Jung, Hyo Won; Park, Yong-Ki
2015-01-01
Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been well-characterized as a common pathological status contributing to vascular dementia (VD). In this study, the neuroprotective effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-O Tang (mBHT), a polyherbal medicine for ischemic stroke, was investigated in a rat model for global ischemia. Materials and Methods: Global ischemia model was prepared in Sprague-Dawley rats by the permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO])-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was orally administrated for 4 weeks once a day, 24 h after 2VO. Histopathological change of the hippocampal region was observed by hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-neuronal nuclei antibodies. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 was investigated in the hippocampus by Western blot. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression was also analyzed in hippocampal CA1 region using immunofluorescence staining. Results: The administration of mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced neuronal damage and astroglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region in 2VO rats. mBHT increased the NF-κB expression in the CA1 neuronal cells but decreased in activated astrocytes. In addition, mBHT significantly decreased the hippocampal expression of Bax and caspase-3 and increased the Bcl-2 expression in 2VO rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that mBHT has a neuroprotective property in VD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the hippocampal neuronal damage and astrogliosis. PMID:26246747
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoecker, Horst; Zhou, Kai; Schramm, Stefan; Senzel, Florian; Greiner, Carsten; Beitel, Maxim; Gallmeister, Kai; Gorenstein, Mark; Mishustin, Igor; Vasak, David; Steinheimer, Jan; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Satarov, Leonid; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei; Csernai, Laszlo P.; Sinha, Bikash; Raha, Sibaji; Sándor Biró, Tamás; Panero, Marco
2016-08-01
The early stage of a high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collisions is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, {T}c=270 {{MeV}}, a first-order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn glueball fluid. This new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high p T photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. We propose to observe this newly predicted class of events at the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.
Tsang, Daisy P F; Wu, William K K; Kang, Wei; Lee, Ying-Ying; Wu, Feng; Yu, Zhuo; Xiong, Lei; Chan, Anthony W; Tong, Joanna H; Yang, Weiqin; Li, May S M; Lau, Suki S; Li, Xiangchun; Lee, Sau-Dan; Yang, Yihua; Lai, Paul B S; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Xu, Gang; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Matthew T V; Wang, Huating; Lee, Tin L; Yu, Jun; Wong, Nathalie; Yip, Kevin Y; To, Ka-Fai; Cheng, Alfred S L
2016-04-01
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) catalyses histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) to silence tumour-suppressor genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but the process of locus-specific recruitment remains elusive. Here we investigated the transcription factors involved and the molecular consequences in HCC development. The genome-wide distribution of H3K27me3 was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing or promoter array analyses in HCC cells from hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein transgenic mouse and human cell models. Transcription factor binding site analysis was performed to identify EZH2-interacting transcription factors followed by functional characterization. Our cross-species integrative analysis revealed a crucial link between Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 in HCC. Gene expression analysis of human HBV-associated HCC specimens demonstrated concordant overexpression of YY1 and EZH2, which correlated with poor survival of patients in advanced stages. The YY1 binding motif was significantly enriched in both in vivo and in vitro H3K27me3-occupied genes, including genes for 15 tumour-suppressive microRNAs. Knockdown of YY1 reduced not only global H3K27me3 levels, but also EZH2 and H3K27me3 promoter occupancy and DNA methylation, leading to the transcriptional up-regulation of microRNA-9 isoforms in HCC cells. Concurrent EZH2 knockdown and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment synergistically increased the levels of microRNA-9, which reduced the expression and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Functionally, YY1 promoted HCC tumourigenicity and inhibited apoptosis of HCC cells, at least partially through NF-κB activation. In conclusion, YY1 overexpression contributes to EZH2 recruitment for H3K27me3-mediated silencing of tumour-suppressive microRNAs, thereby activating NF-κB signalling in hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26800240
Yang-Mills Magnetofluid Unification
Bambah, Bindu A.; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Mukku, Chandrasekher
2006-08-18
We generalize the hybrid magnetofluid model of a charged fluid interacting with an electromagnetic field to the dynamics of a relativistic hot fluid interacting with a non-Abelian field. The fluid itself is endowed with a non-Abelian charge and the consequences of this generalization are worked out. Applications of this formalism to the quark gluon plasma are suggested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Shaocheng
2015-07-01
Recently, Yang et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:1013, 2014a) proposed that "cataclasites," "breccias" and "pseudotachylytes" of eclogites at Yangkou in the Chinese Sulu UHP metamorphic belt are formed by "a compression stress wave of earthquake." They suggested that the intergranular coesite resulted from a rapid cooling from about 700 °C to below 375-400 °C and a "sudden pressure release of seismic wave" from 3.3 to 1.2 GPa in some hours. However, the earthquake-induced UHP metamorphism under fluid-deficient conditions, proposed by these authors, remains inconclusive and inconsistent with the available data from the UHP metamorphic belt. The coesite inclusions within garnet, zircon and omphacite, and intergranular coesite grains between these minerals can be preserved by the presence of the pressure vessel effect, the lack of fluid infiltration, and the presence of a low-temperature and nonhydrostatic deformation environment during rapid exhumation.
Sailaja, Bade; Shameem, Ummey; Madhavi, Rokkam
2016-02-01
Two species of the mazocraeid monogenean genus Paramazocraes Tripathi, 1959 are redescribed based on specimens collected from the gills of clupeoid fishes off the Visakhapatnam coast, Bay Bengal: Paramazocraes thrissocles Tripathi, 1959 from Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider), T. setirostris (Broussonet), T. malabarica (Bloch) and Paramazocraes setipinna Zhang & Ding in Zhang, Yang & Liu, 2001 from Setipinna taty (Valenciennes). The two species were subjected to morphological and morphometric analyses. The study revealed that P. thrissocles and P. setipinna differ mainly in the number, size and arrangement of the testes. A review of the genus Paramazocraes is provided and the validity of some of the Indian species of the genus is discussed. Sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for the two species are deposited in the GenBank. PMID:26790682
Yoo, Soohaeng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.
2009-06-11
The melting temperature (Tm) of ice Ih was determined from constant enthalphy (NPH) Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations to be 417±3 K for the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and 411±4 K for the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals using a coexisting ice (Ih)-liquid phase at constant pressures of P = 2,500 and 10,000 bar and a density ρ = 1 g/cm3, respectively. This suggests that ambient condition simulations at ρ = 1 g/cm3 will rather describe a supercooled state that is overstructured when compared to liquid water. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.
Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Moncayo, Helga
2007-01-01
Background A conceptual model of lateral muscular tension in patients presenting thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) has been recently described. Clinical improvement has been achieved by using acupuncture on points belonging to the so-called extraordinary meridians. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical structures related to these acupuncture points by means of 3D MRI image rendering relying on external markers. Methods The investigation was carried out the index case patient of the lateral tension model. A licensed medical acupuncture practitioner located the following acupuncture points: 1) Yin qiao mai meridian (medial ankle): Kidney 3, Kidney 6, the plantar Kidney 6 (Nan jing description); 2) Yang qiao mai meridian (lateral ankle): Bladder 62, Bladder 59, Bladder 61, and the plantar Bladder 62 (Nan jing description); 3) Dai mai meridian (wait): Liver 13, Gall bladder 26, Gall bladder 27, Gall bladder 28, and Gall bladder 29. The points were marked by taping a nitro-glycerin capsule on the skin. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using an array head and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. The image data were rendered in 3D modus using dedicated software (Leonardo, Siemens). Results Points of the Dai mai meridian – at the level of the waist – corresponded to the obliquus externus abdominis and the obliquus internus abdominis. Points of the Yin qiao mai meridian – at the medial side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the flexor digitorum longus as well as to muscular structures of the abductor hallucis on the foot sole. Points of the Yang qiao mai meridian – at the lateral side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the peroneus brevis, the peroneous longus, and the lateral surface of the calcaneus and close to the foot sole to the abductor digiti minimi. Conclusion This non
Combined study of the gluon and ghost condensates and <{epsilon}{sup abc}c{sup b}c{sup c}> in Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in the Landau gauge
Capri, M.A.L.; Lemes, V.E.R.; Sobreiro, R.F.; Sorella, S.P.; Dudal, D.; Verschelde, H.; Gracey, J.A.
2006-01-01
The ghost condensate <{epsilon}{sup abc}c{sup b}c{sup c}> is considered together with the gluon condensate in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theories quantized in the Landau gauge. The vacuum polarization ceases to be transverse due to the nonvanishing condensate <{epsilon}{sup abc}c{sup b}c{sup c}>. The gluon propagator itself remains transverse. By polarization effects, this ghost condensate induces then a splitting in the gluon mass parameter, which is dynamically generated through . The obtained effective masses are real when is included in the analysis. In the absence of , the already known result that the ghost condensate induces effective tachyonic masses is recovered. At the one-loop level, we find that the effective diagonal mass becomes smaller than the off-diagonal one. This might serve as an indication for some kind of Abelian dominance in the Landau gauge, similar to what happens in the maximal Abelian gauge.
2016-05-01
The authors apologise for an error in the presentation of the affiliations of the authors of this published paper. The correct details are:Hui Wang(1,2*), Chao Chen(3*), Jun Li(4), Xiaoxi Yang(5), Hui Zhang(1,6), Zhiqiang Wang(1,7) (1)Graduate School, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China(2)The department of Hand Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan, Hebei, PR China(3)The department of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, PR China(4)The emergency department, The Second Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan, Hebei, PR China(5)The department of traditional Chinese Medicine, College of traditional Chinese Medicine, North China University of Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, PR China(6)The department of Joint Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan, Hebei, PR China(7)The department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital, North China University of Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 063000, PR China*Hui Wang and Chao Chen contributed equally to this work. PMID:26936745
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, M. L.; et al.
1996-09-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Part I: Satellite Meeting of STATPHYS-19 * Boundary Yang-Baxter in the RSOS/SOS Representation * Quantum Domains in Ferromagnetic Anisotropic Heisenberg Chains * The Generalized Chiral Clock Model and its Phase Diagram * Algebraic Solution of the Coincidence Problem for Crystals and Quasicrystals * Reflection Equations and Surface Critical Phenomena * Fully Packed Loop Models * Quantum Field Theories in terms of Group-Valued Local Fields: An Overview * C-Statiscal Transition Transforms of the Heisenberg Spin Chain and Braided Symmetry * U(1)-Invariant Local and Integrable Lattice Formulation of the Massive Thirring Model * Corner Transfer Matrices and Novel Polynomials * Rigorous and Numerical Results on Two-Dimensional Oriented Self-Avoiding Walks * The Price for Quantum Group Symmetry: Chiral Versus 2D WZNW Model * Integrable Zn-Chiral Potts Model : The Missing Rapidity-Momentum Relation * Dilute Algebras and Solvable Lattice Models * Falicov-Kimball Model: Ground States and Flux Phase Problem * Mutual Exclusion Statistics in the Exactly Solvable Model of the Mott Metal-Insulator Transition * Quantum Group and the Hofstadter Problem * Domain Walls in the Spin-S Quantum Ising Chain * Quantization of Nonultralocal Models - Generalization of the Theorem for the Multiple Coproduct * Multipoint Functions(Form-factors) of Quantum sine-Gordon Field with Boundary * Three-Dimensional Vertex Model * Probability of Phase Separation and Two Point Temperature Correlation Functions for the Bose Gas with Delta Interaction * On the Fundamental Invariant of the Hecke Algebra Hn(q) * Ternary Z3-Graded Algebras and New Gauge Theories * Thermodynamics of Integrable Quantum Chains : Free Energy and Correlation Lengths * Quantum Integrable Systems and Classical Discrete Nonlinear Dynamics * Quantum Jacobi-Trudi Formula and Analytic Bethe Ansatz * On Boundary Condition of Single Particle and the Spectrum of Many
LI, YACHAN; LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; YIN, LIANHUA; SHEN, JIANYING; KANG, JIE; DING, SHANSHAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG
2015-01-01
The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of the Kidney-Yang deficiency (KYD) pattern of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women of a certain age range by comparing the effect of serum from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibiting the KYD pattern with that of serum from postmenopausal women without osteoporosis on bone formation in an hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line. A random selection of 30 female, postmenopausal volunteers aged 60–70 years, including 15 cases without osteoporosis and 15 cases with the KYD pattern of osteoporosis, were enrolled at the Physical Examination Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Venous blood was extracted and the serum was separated. The hFOB 1.19 cells were treated with 10% KYD pattern-serum or control serum from postmenopausal women of the same age range without osteoporosis. It was found that the KYD pattern-serum significantly decreased the cell viability, activity of alkaline phosphatase and number of calcified nodules, as well as downregulated the expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and upregulated that of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in the hFOB 1.19 cells. In addition, the present results showed that the concentrations of estradiol (E2), OPG and insulin-like factor-1 (IGF-1) in the KYD pattern-serum were lower than those in the control serum. In combination, these findings suggest that the downregulation of E2, OPG and IGF-1 in the KYD pattern-serum inhibits the OPG/RANKL system, leading to a decrease in bone formation in the hFOB 1.19 cells. This indicates that the alterations in E2, OPG and IGF-1 may account for the susceptibility of certain postmenopausal women to the KYD pattern of osteoporosis. PMID:26622445
Liu, Xiao-cong; Lian, Wei; Zhang, Liang-jun; Feng, Xin-chan; Gao, Yu; Li, Shao-xue; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rong-quan; Chai, Jin; Chen, Wen-sheng
2015-01-01
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism by transporting toxic organic anion conjugates, including conjugated bilirubin, glutathione, sulfate, and multifarious drugs. MRP2 expression is reduced in cholestatic patients and rodents. However, the molecular mechanism of MRP2 down-regulation remains elusive. In this report, we treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells with interleukin-18 (IL-18) and measured the expression of MRP2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. We found that expression of MRP2 was repressed by IL-18 at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activated NF-κB pathway increased YY1 and reduced FXR. These changes were all attenuated in HepG2 cells with knockdown of the NF-κB subunit, p65. The reduced expression of FXR and MRP2 in HepG2 cells that had been caused by IL-18 treatment was also attenuated by YY1 knockdown. We further observed significantly elevated IL-18, NF-κB, and YY1 expression and decreased FXR and MRP2 expression in bile duct-ligated Sprague Dawley rat livers. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also showed that FXR bound to the promoter region in MRP2 was less abundant in liver extracts from bile duct-ligated rats than sham-operated rats. Our findings indicate that IL-18 down-regulates MRP2 expression through the nuclear receptor FXR in HepG2 cells, and may be mediated by NF-κB and YY1. PMID:26292095
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Three hymenotperan parasitoid species were introduced to the United State from China for biological control of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in 2007. These species are Tetrastichus planipennisi (Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid; Oobius agrili (Encyrtidae), a solitary pa...
Gravity and Yang-Mills amplitude relations
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Soendergaard, Thomas; FengBo
2010-11-15
Using only general features of the S matrix and quantum field theory, we prove by induction the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations that link products of gauge theory amplitudes to gravity amplitudes at tree level. As a bonus of our analysis, we provide a novel and more symmetric form of these relations. We also establish an infinite tower of new identities between amplitudes in gauge theories.
Yang-Mills localization in warped space
Batell, Brian; Gherghetta, Tony
2007-01-15
We present a mechanism to localize zero mode non-Abelian gauge fields in a slice of AdS{sub 5}. As in the U(1) case, bulk and boundary mass terms allow for a massless mode with an exponential profile that can be localized anywhere in the bulk. However in the non-Abelian extension, the cubic and quartic zero-mode gauge couplings do not match, implying a loss of 4D gauge invariance. We show that the symmetry can be restored at the nonlinear level by considering brane-localized interactions, which are added in a gauge invariant way using boundary kinetic terms. Possible issues related to the scalar sector of the theory, such as strong coupling and ghosts, are also discussed. Our approach is then compared with other localization mechanisms motivated by dilaton gravity and deconstruction. Finally, we show how to localize the scalar component A{sub 5} zero mode anywhere in the bulk which could be relevant in gauge-Higgs unification models.
Asymptotic symmetries of Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strominger, Andrew
2014-07-01
Asymptotic symmetries at future null infinity ( +) of Minkowski space for electrodynamics with massless charged fields, as well as nonabelian gauge theories with gauge group G, are considered at the semiclassical level. The possibility of charge/color flux through + suggests the symmetry group is infinite-dimensional. It is conjectured that the symmetries include a G Kac-Moody symmetry whose generators are "large" gauge transformations which approach locally holomorphic functions on the conformal two-sphere at + and are invariant under null translations. The Kac-Moody currents are constructed from the gauge field at the future boundary of +. The current Ward identities include Weinberg's soft photon theorem and its colored extension.
C. N. Yang on Hao Bailin, 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chen Ning
Professor Hao Bailin is one of China's most talented and most versatile theoretical physicists. He has made important contributions to a wide variety of research fields, including biology in which he pioneered a multidimensional method for studying the evolutionary pathways of bacteria. Indeed he calls himself, appreciatively I believe, a guerrilla fighter...
The yin and yang of kidney development and Wilms’ tumors
Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Charlton, Jocelyn
2015-01-01
Wilms’ tumor, or nephroblastoma, is the most common pediatric renal cancer. The tumors morphologically resemble embryonic kidneys with a disrupted architecture and are associated with undifferentiated metanephric precursors. Here, we discuss genetic and epigenetic findings in Wilms’ tumor in the context of renal development. Many of the genes implicated in Wilms’ tumorigenesis are involved in the control of nephron progenitors or the microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway. Whereas the first group of genes has been extensively studied in normal development, the second finding suggests important roles for miRNAs in general—and specific miRNAs in particular—in normal kidney development that still await further analysis. The recent identification of Wilms’ tumor cancer stem cells could provide a framework to integrate these pathways and translate them into new or improved therapeutic interventions. PMID:25737276
Storage or Retrieval Deficit: The Yin and Yang of Amnesia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hardt, Oliver; Wang, Szu-Han; Nader, Karim
2009-01-01
To this day, it remains unresolved whether experimental amnesia reflects failed memory storage or the inability to retrieve otherwise intact memory. Methodological as well as conceptual reasons prevented deciding between these two alternatives: The absence of recovery from amnesia is typically taken as supporting storage impairment…
The Yin and Yang of copper during infection.
Besold, Angelique N; Culbertson, Edward M; Culotta, Valeria C
2016-04-01
Copper is an essential micronutrient for both pathogens and the animal hosts they infect. However, copper can also be toxic in cells due to its redox properties and ability to disrupt active sites of metalloproteins, such as Fe-S enzymes. Through these toxic properties, copper is an effective antimicrobial agent and an emerging concept in innate immunity is that the animal host intentionally exploits copper toxicity in antimicrobial weaponry. In particular, macrophages can attack invading microbes with high copper and this metal is also elevated at sites of lung infection. In addition, copper levels in serum rise during infection with a wide array of pathogens. To defend against this toxic copper, the microbial intruder is equipped with a battery of copper detoxification defenses that promote survival in the host, including copper exporting ATPases and copper binding metallothioneins. However, it is important to remember that copper is also an essential nutrient for microbial pathogens and serves as important cofactor for enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase for respiration, superoxide dismutase for anti-oxidant defense and multi-copper oxidases that act on metals and organic substrates. We therefore posit that the animal host can also thwart pathogen growth by limiting their copper nutrients, similar to the well-documented nutritional immunity effects for starving microbes of essential zinc, manganese and iron micronutrients. This review provides both sides of the copper story and evaluates how the host can exploit either copper-the-toxin or copper-the-nutrient in antimicrobial tactics at the host-pathogen battleground. PMID:26790881
The yin and yang of autophagy in acute kidney injury.
Melk, Anette; Baisantry, Arpita; Schmitt, Roland
2016-03-01
Antagonizing the strongly activated pathway of autophagy in renal ischemic injury has been associated with poor outcome. In our recent study we used mice with a selective deletion of Atg5 in the S3 proximal tubule segment, which is most susceptible to ischemic damage. In line with the notion that autophagy is a prosurvival mechanism our studies revealed an early accelerated cell death of heavily damaged tubular cells in the S3 segment of these mice. Interestingly, this expedited loss of cells was associated with better long-term outcome as reflected by less inflammation, improved tubular repair, and function and reduced accumulation of senescent cells. While these data confirm the role of tubular autophagy as a prosurvival mechanism in ischemic kidney injury, they also show that autophagy may enable severely damaged cells to persist and exert deleterious effects. Such ambivalent effects might be of relevance if modulating autophagy is considered as a therapeutic option. PMID:26761120
Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.
Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua
2015-09-01
An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. PMID:26209936
Retinoid-xenobiotic interactions: the Ying and the Yang.
Shmarakov, Igor O
2015-08-01
The literature provides compelling evidence pointing to tight metabolic interactions between retinoids and xenobiotics. These are extensive and important for understanding xenobiotic actions in the body. Within the body, retinoids affect xenobiotic metabolism and actions and conversely, xenobiotics affect retinoid metabolism and actions. This article summarizes data that establish the importance of retinoid-dependent metabolic pathways for sustaining the body's responses to xenobiotic exposure, including the roles of all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acid for protecting mammals from harmful xenobiotic effects and for ensuring xenobiotic elimination from the body. This review will also consider molecular mechanisms underlying xenobiotic toxicity focusing on how this may contribute to retinoid deficiency and disruption of normal retinoid homeostasis. Special attention is paid to xenobiotic molecular targets (nuclear receptors, regulatory proteins, enzymes, and transporters) which affect retinoid metabolism and signaling. PMID:26311625
Retinoid-xenobiotic interactions: the Ying and the Yang
2015-01-01
The literature provides compelling evidence pointing to tight metabolic interactions between retinoids and xenobiotics. These are extensive and important for understanding xenobiotic actions in the body. Within the body, retinoids affect xenobiotic metabolism and actions and conversely, xenobiotics affect retinoid metabolism and actions. This article summarizes data that establish the importance of retinoid-dependent metabolic pathways for sustaining the body’s responses to xenobiotic exposure, including the roles of all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acid for protecting mammals from harmful xenobiotic effects and for ensuring xenobiotic elimination from the body. This review will also consider molecular mechanisms underlying xenobiotic toxicity focusing on how this may contribute to retinoid deficiency and disruption of normal retinoid homeostasis. Special attention is paid to xenobiotic molecular targets (nuclear receptors, regulatory proteins, enzymes, and transporters) which affect retinoid metabolism and signaling. PMID:26311625
Lower Dimension Vacuum Defects in Lattice Yang-Mills Theory
Zakharov, V.I.
2005-04-01
We overview lattice data on d = 0, 1, 2, 3 dimensional vacuum defects in lattice four-dimensional SU(2) (SU(3)) gluodynamics. In all the cases, defects have a total volume which scales in physical units (with zero fractal dimension). In the case of d = 1, 2, the defects are distinguished by ultraviolet divergent non-Abelian action as well. This sensitivity to the ultraviolet scale allows us to derive strong constraints from the continuum theory on the properties of the defects, which turn out to be satisfied by the lattice data. We discuss a classification scheme of the defects which allows us to (at least) visualize the defect properties in a simple and unified way. A not-yet-checked relation of the defects to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is suggested by the scheme. Finally, we present some arguments that the defects considered could become fundamental variables of a dual formulation of the theory.
Gravity and Yang-Mills Amplitude Relations in Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Søndergaard, Thomas
2011-07-01
We review some recent work in the famous Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations. Especially we present a compact way of writing down the general n-point relation. We also look at an extra feature of these relations which were only very recently realized, and leads to new relations among gauge-theory amplitudes.
Switching transients in the MFTF yin-yang coils
Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.
1982-11-02
This report is a study of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to the coils' performance tests.
Myeloperoxidase: the yin and yang in tumour progression.
Mika, Denish; Guruvayoorappan, C
2011-01-01
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme- containing enzyme abundantly expressed in neutrophils. It catalyzes the reaction between chloride and hydrogen peroxide to generate a potent oxidant, hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It plays an important role in innate immune defense mechanism. However, excessive generation of MPO-derived oxidants has been linked to tissue damage and in the initiation and progression of diseases such as cancer which arise from chronic inflammation. The oxidant activity of MPO is believed to promote the metabolism of chemical carcinogens, cause DNA damage and compromise the repair process. It is also considered as important mediators of gastric ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) through its ability to catalyze the generation of reactive oxidants. A G-463 a polymorphism located in the promoter of the MPO gene plays an important role in its transcription. Moreover the reactive oxidants produced by neutrophilic enzyme have the potential to interact with tumour cells and contribute to their metastasis. There has been a considerable interest in the screening of plant extracts and compounds isolated from them for their potential use as HOCl scavengers. This review will discuss the role of MPO in tumour progression and provide an overview of its part in tumour metastasis and ulcer. PMID:21699016
The Yin and Yang of Sleep and Attention.
Kirszenblat, Leonie; van Swinderen, Bruno
2015-12-01
Sleep is not a single state, but a complex set of brain processes that supports several physiological needs. Sleep deprivation is known to affect attention in many animals, suggesting that a key function of sleep is to regulate attention. Conversely, tasks that require more attention drive sleep need and sleep intensity. Attention involves the ability to filter incoming stimuli based on their relative salience, and this is likely to require coordinated synaptic activity across the brain. This capacity may have only become possible with the evolution of related neural mechanisms that support two key sleep functions: stimulus suppression and synaptic plasticity. We argue here that sleep and attention may have coevolved as brain states that regulate each other. PMID:26602764
Structure constants of β deformed super Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, Justin R.; Sadhukhan, Abhishake
2013-10-01
We study the structure constants of the beta deformed theory perturbatively and at strong coupling. We show that the planar one loop corrections to the structure constants of single trace gauge invariant operators in the scalar sector is determined by the anomalous dimension Hamiltonian. This result implies that 3 point functions of the chiral primaries of the theory do not receive corrections at one loop. We then studythe structure constants at strong coupling using the Lunin-Maldacena geometry. We explicitly construct the supergravity mode dual to the chiral primary with three equal U(1) R-charges in the Lunin-Maldacena geometry. We show that the 3 point function of this supergravity mode with semi-classical states representing two other similar chiral primary states but with large U(1) charges to be independent of the beta deformation and identical to that found in the AdS 5 × S 5 geometry. This together with the one-loop result indicate that these structure constants are protected by a non-renormalization theorem. We also show that three point function of U(1) R-currents with classical massive strings is proportional to the R-charge carried by the string solution. This is in accordance with the prediction of the R-symmetry Ward identity.
The Yin-Yang of Experiential Education Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henderson, Karla A.
1993-01-01
Explores the complementary contributions to experiential education research that are offered by an interpretive approach using qualitative methods and a positivist approach using quantitative methods. Discusses the utility of the interpretive approach in examining the multiple realities that influence human behavior. (SV)
Amplitudes in N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spradlin, Marcus
These lecture notes provide a lightning introduction to some aspects of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric theory, aimed at the audience of students attending the 2014 TASI summer school "Journeys Through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders". Emphasis is placed on explaining modern terminology so that students needing to delve further may more easily access the available literature.
Looking East: Yin and Yang of an Academic Exchange
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
La Roche, Claire Reeves
2011-01-01
Intended as a brief guide to the cultural differences associated with an East-West academic exchange, this paper discusses customs and cultural norms likely to be encountered. Chinese economic growth has been accompanied by rapidly increasing East-West study abroad opportunities. Over the past decade, China has sent more students to study abroad…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Although climate change has frequently been linked to observed shifts in the distributions or phenologies of species, very little is known about the potential effects of climate change on parasitoids and their relationship with hosts. Using the egg parasitoid Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)...
The Yin and Yang of Bacterial Resilience in the Human Gut Microbiota
Gibson, Molly K.; Pesesky, Mitchell W.; Dantas, Gautam
2014-01-01
The human gut is home to trillions of microbes that form a symbiotic relationship with the human host. During health, the intestinal microbiota provides many benefits to the host and is generally resistant to colonization by new species; however, disruption of this complex community can lead to pathogen invasion, inflammation, and disease. Restoration and maintenance of a healthy gut microbiota composition requires effective therapies to reduce and prevent colonization of harmful bacteria (pathogens) while simultaneously promoting growth of beneficial bacteria (probiotics). Here we review the mechanisms by which the host modulates the gut community composition during health and disease, and discuss prospects for antibiotic and probiotic therapy for restoration of a healthy intestinal community following disruption. PMID:24911583
VizieR Online Data Catalog: ynogkm: code for calculating time-like geodesics (Yang+, 2014)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, X.-L.; Wang, J.-C.
2013-11-01
Here we present the source file for a new public code named ynogkm, aim on calculating the time-like geodesics in a Kerr-Newmann spacetime fast. In the code the four Boyer-Lindquis coordinates and proper time are expressed as functions of a parameter p semi-analytically, i.e., r(p), μ(p), φ(p), t(p), and σ(p), by using the Weiers- trass' and Jacobi's elliptic functions and integrals. All of the ellip- tic integrals are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method, which guarantees the fast speed of the code.The source Fortran file ynogkm.f90 contains three modules: constants, rootfind, ellfunction, and blcoordinates. (3 data files).
The Yin and Yang of Repair Mechanisms in DNA Structure-induced Genetic Instability
Vasquez, Karen M.; Wang, Guliang
2013-01-01
DNA can adopt a variety of secondary structures that deviate from the canonical Watson-Crick B-DNA form. More than 10 types of non-canonical or non-B DNA secondary structures have been characterized, and the sequences that have the capacity to adopt such structures are very abundant in the human genome. Non-B DNA structures have been implicated in many important biological processes and can serve as sources of genetic instability, implicating them in disease and evolution. Non-B DNA conformations interact with a wide variety of proteins involved in replication, transcription, DNA repair, and chromatin architectural regulation. In this review, we will focus on the interactions of DNA repair proteins with non-B DNA and their roles in genetic instability, as the proteins and DNA involved in such interactions may represent plausible targets for selective therapeutic intervention. PMID:23219604
Holographic Wilson loops in symmetric representations in {N} = {2}^{ast } super-Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen-Lin, Xinyi; Dekel, Amit; Zarembo, Konstantin
2016-02-01
We construct the D3-brane solution in the holographic dual of the {N} = {2}^{ast } theory that describes Wilson lines in symmetric representations of the gauge group. The results perfectly agree with the direct field-theory predictions based on localization.
Evolution of Wilson loop in time-dependent N =4 super Yang-Mills plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali-Akbari, M.; Charmchi, F.; Davody, A.; Ebrahim, H.; Shahkarami, L.
2016-04-01
Using holography we study the evolution of the Wilson loop of a quark-antiquark pair in a dynamical strongly coupled plasma. The time-dependent plasma, whose dynamics is originated from the energy injection, is dual to the anti-de Sitter-Vaidya background. The quark-antiquark pair is represented by the endpoints of a string stretched from the boundary to the bulk. The evolution of the system is studied by evaluating the expectation value of the Wilson loop, throughout the process. Our results show that the evolution of the Wilson loop depends on the speed of the energy injection as well as the final temperature of the plasma. For high enough temperatures and rapid energy injection, it starts oscillating around its equilibrium value, immediately after the injection.
Infrared analysis of propagators and vertices of Yang-Mills theory in Landau and Coulomb gauge
Schleifenbaum, W.; Leder, M.; Reinhardt, H.
2006-06-15
The infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators, ghost-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex is investigated for both the covariant Landau and the noncovariant Coulomb gauge. Assuming infrared ghost dominance, we find a unique infrared exponent in the d=4 Landau gauge, while in the d=3+1 Coulomb gauge we find two different infrared exponents. We also show that a finite dressing of the ghost-gluon vertex has no influence on the infrared exponents. Finally, we determine the infrared behavior of the three-gluon vertex analytically and calculate it numerically at the symmetric point in the Coulomb gauge.
The Yin and the Yang of Prediction: An fMRI Study of Semantic Predictive Processing
Weber, Kirsten; Lau, Ellen F.; Stillerman, Benjamin; Kuperberg, Gina R.
2016-01-01
Probabilistic prediction plays a crucial role in language comprehension. When predictions are fulfilled, the resulting facilitation allows for fast, efficient processing of ambiguous, rapidly-unfolding input; when predictions are not fulfilled, the resulting error signal allows us to adapt to broader statistical changes in this input. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to examine the neuroanatomical networks engaged in semantic predictive processing and adaptation. We used a relatedness proportion semantic priming paradigm, in which we manipulated the probability of predictions while holding local semantic context constant. Under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, we replicate previous observations of reduced activity to semantically predictable words in the left anterior superior/middle temporal cortex, reflecting facilitated processing of targets that are consistent with prior semantic predictions. In addition, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity we observed significant differences in the effects of semantic relatedness within the left inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior portion of the left superior/middle temporal gyrus. We suggest that together these two regions mediated the suppression of unfulfilled semantic predictions and lexico-semantic processing of unrelated targets that were inconsistent with these predictions. Moreover, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, a functional connectivity analysis showed that the left inferior frontal and left posterior superior/middle temporal gyrus were more tightly interconnected with one another, as well as with the left anterior cingulate cortex. The left anterior cingulate cortex was, in turn, more tightly connected to superior lateral frontal cortices and subcortical regions—a network that mediates rapid learning and adaptation and that may have played a role in switching to a more predictive mode of processing in response to the statistical structure of the wider environmental context. Together, these findings highlight close links between the networks mediating semantic prediction, executive function and learning, giving new insights into how our brains are able to flexibly adapt to our environment. PMID:27010386
The "Yin" and "Yang" of Cell Cycle Progression and Differentiation in the Oligodendroglial Lineage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nguyen, Laurent; Borgs, Laurence; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Mangin, Jean-Marie; Beukelaers, Pierre; Moonen, Gustave; Gallo, Vittorio; Malgrange, Brigitte; Belachew, Shibeshih
2006-01-01
In white matter disorders such as leukodystrophies (LD), periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), or multiple sclerosis (MS), the hypomyelination or the remyelination failure by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells involves errors in the sequence of events that normally occur during development when progenitors proliferate, migrate through the white…
The yin and yang of hepatitis C: synthesis and decay of hepatitis C virus RNA.
Li, You; Yamane, Daisuke; Masaki, Takahiro; Lemon, Stanley M
2015-09-01
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an unusual RNA virus that has a striking capacity to persist for the remaining life of the host in the majority of infected individuals. In order to persist, HCV must balance viral RNA synthesis and decay in infected cells. In this Review, we focus on interactions between the positive-sense RNA genome of HCV and the host RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs, and describe how these interactions influence the competing processes of viral RNA synthesis and decay to achieve stable, long-term persistence of the viral genome. Furthermore, we discuss how these processes affect hepatitis C pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies against HCV. PMID:26256788
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral galaxy pairs from SDSS DR9 (Yang+, 2014)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H.; Luo, A.; Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Hou, W.; Cai, J.; Wei, P.; Ren, J.; Liu, X.; Zhao, Y.
2015-04-01
Spectral galaxy pairs (hereafter as SGPs) are composite galaxy spectra that contain two independent redshift systems. These spectra are useful for studying the dust properties of the foreground galaxies. In this article, a total of 165 spectra of SGPs are mined from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) using the concept of 'membership degree' from fuzzy set theory, especially defined to be suitable for fuzzy identification of emission lines. The spectra and images of this sample are classified according to their membership degree and image features, respectively. Many of the second redshift systems are too small or too dim to select from SDSS images alone, making the sample a potentially unique source of information on dust effects in low-luminosity or low surface brightness galaxies, which are underrepresented in morphological pair samples. The dust extinction of those objects with high membership degree is also estimated by Balmer decrement. Additionally, analyses for a series of spectroscopic observations of one SGP from 165 systems indicate that a newly star-forming region of our Milky Way might exist. (1 data file).
The Yin-Yang of Hormones: Cytokinin and Auxin Interactions in Plant Development
Bishopp, Anthony
2015-01-01
The phytohormones auxin and cytokinin interact to regulate many plant growth and developmental processes. Elements involved in the biosynthesis, inactivation, transport, perception, and signaling of these hormones have been elucidated, revealing the variety of mechanisms by which signal output from these pathways can be regulated. Recent studies shed light on how these hormones interact with each other to promote and maintain plant growth and development. In this review, we focus on the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in several developmental contexts, including its role in regulating apical meristems, the patterning of the root, the development of the gynoecium and female gametophyte, and organogenesis and phyllotaxy in the shoot. PMID:25604447
The yin and yang of formative research in designing serious (exer-)games
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Despite its relevance, formative research on games may be an undervalued part of the game development process. At the 2014 International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity exergaming preconference satellite meeting, a roundtable discussion was held to assemble experiences and sugg...
Renormalization of composite operators in Yang-Mills theories using a general covariant gauge
Collins, J.C.; Scalise, R.J. )
1994-09-15
Essential to QCD applications of the operator product expansion, etc., is a knowledge of those operators that mix with gauge-invariant operators. A standard theorem asserts that the renormalization matrix is triangular: Gauge-invariant operators have alien'' gauge-variant operators among their counterterms, but, with a suitably chosen basis, the necessary alien operators have only themselves as counterterms. Moreover, the alien operators are supposed to vanish in physical matrix elements. A recent calculation by Hamberg and van Neerven apparently contradicts these results. By explicit calculations with the energy-momentum tensor, we show that the problems arise because of subtle infrared singularities that appear when gluonic matrix elements are taken on shell at zero momentum transfer.
GLP-1 and GLP-2 as Yin and Yang of Intestinal Lipoprotein Production
Hein, Gustavo J.; Baker, Chris; Hsieh, Joanne; Farr, Sarah; Adeli, Khosrow
2013-01-01
The glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) are processed from the proglucagon polypeptide and secreted in equimolar amounts but have opposite effects on chylomicron (CM) production, with GLP-1 significantly reducing and GLP-2 increasing postprandial chylomicronemia. In the current study, we evaluated the apparent paradoxical roles of GLP-1 and GLP-2 under physiological conditions in the Syrian golden hamster, a model with close similarity to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism. A short (30-min) intravenous infusion of GLP-2 resulted in a marked increase in postprandial apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) and triglyceride (TG) levels in the TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction, whereas GLP-1 infusion decreased lipid absorption and levels of TRL-TG and apoB48. GLP-1 and GLP-2 coinfusion resulted in net increased lipid absorption and an increase in TRL-TG and apoB48. However, prolonged (120-min) coinfusion of GLP-1 and GLP-2 decreased postprandial lipemia. Blocking dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia. Interestingly, fructose-fed, insulin-resistant hamsters showed a more pronounced response, including possible hypersensitivity to GLP-2 or reduced sensitivity to GLP-1. In conclusion, under normal physiological conditions, the actions of GLP-2 predominate; however, when GLP-1 activity is sustained, the hypolipidemic action of GLP-1 predominates. Pharmacological inhibition of GLP-1 degradation tips the balance toward an inhibitory effect on intestinal production of atherogenic CM particles. PMID:23028139
Autoimmunity and autoinflammation as the yin and yang of idiopathic recurrent acute pericarditis.
Cantarini, Luca; Lopalco, Giuseppe; Selmi, Carlo; Napodano, Salvatore; De Rosa, Gabriella; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Iannone, Florenzo; Rigante, Donato
2015-02-01
Autoimmunity and autoinflammation are generally considered as mutually exclusive mechanisms of diseases but may concur to specific syndromes. Idiopathic recurrent acute pericarditis (IRAP) is defined as the recurrence of pericardial symptoms at any point following the prior cessation of acute pericarditis, and the latency is generally 6 weeks. Manifestations of pericarditis such as pericardial friction rub, electrocardiographic changes, and pericardial effusion are less frequent in the subsequent episodes compared to the index attack, and in some cases the only clinical sign is represented by a suggestive chest pain. Several autoimmune diseases may manifest with pericarditis which is often related to viral infections, while postviral pericarditis may in turn display a nonspecific autoimmune background. Similarly, autoinflammatory syndromes such as familial Mediterranean fever and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome are characterized by self-limiting pericardial symptoms. Corticosteroids are generally effective, thus supporting the autoimmune nature of IRAP, but dramatic results are obtained with interleukin-1 blocking agents in corticosteroid-dependent cases, pointing to a pathogenic role for the inflammasome. Based on these observations, we submit that IRAP represents a paradigmatic example of the putative coexistence of autoimmunity and autoinflammation: the main aim of this review is to critically discuss the hypothesis as well as the current understanding of this enigmatic clinical condition. PMID:25308531
VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of IZ Mon and AR Dra (Yang+, 2016)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Zhou, Z.; Li, Q.
2016-07-01
CCD Photometry for IZ Mon and AR Dra, was acquired using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Two telescopes are equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc. filters. We then obtained the individual observations as heliocentric Julian dates and differential magnitude, which are listed in Table1. The complete light curves for IZ Mon were obtained on 2009 January 20, 22, 24, 25, and 26, and March 1, using the 85cm telescope. The exposure times are fixed to be 20, 15, and 15s for BVR bands, respectively. A total of 961, 960, and 959 effective images in BVR bands are obtained. Another primary eclipse for IZ Mon was monitored on 2011 January 17. AR Dra was observed on 2009 February 20, 25, 26, and 27, with the 65cm telescope. The typical exposure times are 50, 40 and 40s for BVR bands, which depend on the condition of weather. In total, we obtained 733, 728 and 356 images in B, V and R bands, respectively. (6 data files).
Tricking Landau-Yang: How to obtain the diphoton excess from a vector resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chala, Mikael; Duerr, Michael; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai
2016-04-01
We show that contrary to naive expectations the recently observed diphoton excess can be explained by a vector resonance, which decays to a photon and a light scalar s, followed by a decay of the scalar into two photons: Z‧ → γs → 3 γ. As the two photons from the scalar decay are highly boosted, the experimental signature is an apparent diphoton final state. In fact all the necessary ingredients are naturally present in Z‧ models: Additional fermions with electroweak quantum numbers are required in order to render the theory anomaly free and naturally induce the required effective couplings, while the hidden Higgs which gives mass to the Z‧ can be very light. In particular no new coloured states are required in this framework. We also show that in such a setup the width of the resonance can be rather large, while all couplings remain perturbative.
Special symmetries for the Utiyama Lagrangian with external Yang-Mills fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betounes, David E.
1985-05-01
This paper demonstrates how conditions for the existence of symmetries for particles interacting with external background gauge fields arise easily from the standard symmetry equations. The general phenomenon is described by the Lagrangian LUA obtained from Utiyama's original Lagrangian LU by regarding the gauge fields A as a given set of fields. An infinitesimal transformation X+Y, consisting of certain combined infinitesimal coordinate and local gauge transformations, will be an infinitesimal symmetry of LUA precisely when the Lie derivative &(LUA) yields a Lagrangian with identically vanishing Euler-Lagrange equations. This Lie derivative is explicitly computed and is shown to contain the expressions derived recently by several papers in the literature, as well as a new expression with possible physical importance.