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1

Blind Separation of Spatio-Temporal Synfire Sources and Visualization of Neural Cliques  

E-print Network

network, Synfire chains, cliques, ICA, BSS, sparse ICA, SCA, dynamic sources, spatio-temporal, 3D ICA investigate the effect of non-linearities on blind separation of neural activity. Key words: neurons, neural, such as a movie recorded through a glass windshield of a moving vehicle, or the visual environment observed

Zeevi, Yehoshua Y. "Josh"

2

An expectation-maximization method for spatio-temporal blind source separation using an AR-MOG source model.  

PubMed

In this paper, we develop a maximum-likelihood (ML) spatio-temporal blind source separation (BSS) algorithm, where the temporal dependencies are explained by assuming that each source is an autoregressive (AR) process and the distribution of the associated independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) innovations process is described using a mixture of Gaussians. Unlike most ML methods, the proposed algorithm takes into account both spatial and temporal information, optimization is performed using the expectation-maximization (EM) method, the source model is adapted to maximize the likelihood, and the update equations have a simple, analytical form. The proposed method, which we refer to as autoregressive mixture of Gaussians (AR-MOG), outperforms nine other methods for artificial mixtures of real audio. We also show results for using AR-MOG to extract the fetal cardiac signal from real magnetocardiographic (MCG) data. PMID:18334368

Hild, Kenneth E; Attias, Hagai T; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

2008-03-01

3

Spatio-temporal EEG source localization using simulated annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of multiple dipole parameters in spatio-temporal source modeling (STSM) of electroencephalographic (EEG) data is a difficult nonlinear optimization problem due to multiple local minima in the cost function. A straightforward iterative optimization approach to such a problem is very susceptible to being trapped in a local minimum, thereby resulting in incorrect estimates of the dipole parameters. Here, the

Deepak Khosla; Manbir Singh; Manuel Don

1997-01-01

4

Model selection in spatio-temporal electromagnetic source analysis.  

PubMed

Several methods [model selection procedures (MSPs)] to determine the number of sources in electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencphalogram (MEG) data have previously been investigated in an instantaneous analysis. In this paper, these MSPs are extended to a spatio-temporal analysis if possible. It is seen that the residual variance (RV) tends to overestimate the number of sources. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Wald test on amplitudes (WA) and the Wald test on locations (WL) have the highest probabilities of selecting the correct number of sources. The WA has the advantage that it offers the opportunity to test which source is active at which time sample. PMID:15759571

Waldorp, Lourens J; Huizenga, Hilde M; Nehorai, Arye; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Molenaar, Peter C M

2005-03-01

5

Spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of coastal water pollution in eastern Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehensive application of different multivariate methods and geographic information systems (GIS) was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of coastal water pollution in eastern Hong Kong. Fourteen variables were surveyed at 27 sites monthly from 2000 to 2004. After data pretreatment, cluster analysis grouped the 12 months into two groups, June–September and the remaining months, and

Feng Zhou; Gordon H. Huang; Huaicheng Guo; Wei Zhang; Zejia Hao

2007-01-01

6

A blind spatio-temporal equalizer for a radio-mobile channel using the constant modulus algorithm (CMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses constant modulus signal recovery by a multi-sensor receiver in a multipath propagation channel. The author first shows that spatio-temporal filtering can recover the transmitted signal provided that the number of sensors minus one times the length of the temporal filtering be larger than the intersymbol interference length assumed to be finite. It is also shown that spatio-temporal filtering is

Sylvie MAYRARGUE

1994-01-01

7

Mining Spatio-temporal Association Rules, Sources, Sinks, Stationary Regions and Thoroughfares in Object Mobility Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mobile devices proliferate and networks become more location-aware, the corresponding growth in spatio- temporal data will demand analysis techniques to mine pat- terns that take into account the semantics of such data. As- sociation Rule Mining (ARM) has been one of the more extensively studied data mining techniques, but it consid- ers discrete transactional data (supermarket or sequentia l).

Florian Verhein; Sanjay Chawla

2006-01-01

8

Source Models of the June 17th, 2007 Kilauea Intrusion: Spatio-Temporal Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The June 17, 2007 intrusion in the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii was particularly well monitored with continuous GPS, tilt, and InSAR. The first indication of activity was increased seismicity from Kilauea's summit to the bend in the ERZ. The upper ERZ tilted ~70 ? rad sharply down to the south from 02:16 to 07:40 HST, and within minutes the summit crossing GPS baseline began to shorten and eventually decreased by ~14 cm over 2.5 days. Beginning between 08:00 and 0:900, the rift-spanning GPS baseline down rift lengthened by ~1 meter in just over two days. In the two following days, surface cracks were observed in the upper ERZ, and a small amount of new lava was seen on the northeast side of Kane Nui o Hamo. We test distributed source models with a variety of dike geometries that follow observed surface cracks, the axis of InSAR fringes, and the optimal uniform opening model (Sinnett et al., this volume). The sources included are the ERZ dike, the south flank decollement, and the summit magma reservoir. The dike and decollement are modeled as distributed rectangular dislocations, and the summit magma reservoir with a Mogi source. While several models explain most of the data, none fits the details of the data near the western end of the dike, perhaps indicating a complex source geometry, inelastic deformation, or differing mechanisms of pre-, co- and post- intrusion. In the preferred model, following the axis of deformation observed by InSAR, the maximum opening of 2.33 m is between 0-2 km deep under Kane Nui o Hamo, just north of Makaopui crater. Another opening maximum of nearly 2 m occurs about 2 km deep between Pauahi and Mauna Ulu. Seismicity during the intrusion was concentrated below the opening maxima, with some events between them. Unlike previous ERZ intrusions (e.g. Jan. 1997, Owen et al., GRL, 2000) the dike opening does not account for all of the deformation observed at the GPS sites on the southwest flank, nor does it agree with the tilt direction at Kaena Point, indicating possible decollement slip during the intrusion (B. Brooks, pers. comm.). Inversions including a decollement favor slip of up to 30 cm and improve data fits locally, especially in the western part of the network, although the overall amount of data variance explained (~ %70) is similar to the dike-only models. We use the Kalman filter-based Extended Network Inversion Filter (McGuire and Segall, GJI, 2003) to invert kinematic GPS solutions that have been smoothed to reduce multipath (Larson et al., JGR, 2001) and sampled every 4 minutes, and tilt, sampled every 1 minute, for the spatio-temporal slip evolution. The source parameters are the same as the preferred distributed model. Because the dike is short relative to station spacing, lateral resolution of propagation is limited, however, refined models my be able to determine the relative timing of the intrusion and slow slip.

Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Sinnett, D. K.; Segall, P.; Miklius, A.; Poland, M. P.; Larson, K. M.

2007-12-01

9

Spatio-temporal variation of seismogenic stress field in the source region of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake occurred in an oblique subduction zone. The plate convergence direction significantly changes along the trench in the source region. The aftershocks activity and its variety of source mechanisms indicate the stress field in the source region is very complex. We conducted seismological analyses to investigate spatio-temporal variation of the stress filed in detail. We calculate angular deviation of earthquake slip directions from the plate convergence directions based on the Global CMT solutions (1976-2007, 209events). We also compare the coseismic slip direction (Tsai et al. 2005, Chlieh et al. 2007) with the plate convergence direction. Both results indicate that the coseismic slip direction is normal to the trench in the southern portion of the source region. This result implies that the fore-arc sliver motion accommodates the trench parallel component of the oblique plate convergence. On the other hand, in the northern portion around Andaman Islands, the fault slip direction deviates from the plate convergence direction by about 40 degrees, which is not perpendicular to the trench. The result suggests that stress partitioning due to the fore-arc sliver motion is not complete in the northern part. The large width of the fore-arc sliver and an effect of collision with the Eurasian plate at the northern edge of the sliver may be responsible for the incomplete stress partitioning. In order to discuss spatio-temporal stress variation with CMT solutions, we also conduct relocation of hypocenters in the source region by using the modified Joint hypocenter determination (MJHD) method. Initial hypocenter locations are assumed based on the ISC catalogue and Engdahl(2007), and 196300 P wave arrivals of 1807 events are reanalyzed. As a result, the average travel time residual reduced from 8.2 sec to 0.4 sec, and configuration of the subducted slab becomes clear. Combining the relocation result with the Global CMT solutions, various characteristics are identified. For example, afertshocks with high angle reverse faulting mechanism occurred just beneath the trench axis in the southern part. On the contrary, normal fault earthquakes occurred under the trench in the northern part, indicating a significant stress variation along the trench. In the southern part, normal fault events occurred near the plate boundary only after the mainshock, implying significant temporal stress change due to the mainshock.

Oishi, M.; Sagiya, T.; Sato, T.

2007-12-01

10

Resolving Trends in Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Loss and Glacio-isostatic Adjustment Through Spatio-temporal Source-separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There remains considerable inconsistency between different methods and approaches for determining ice mass trends for Antarctica from satellite observations. There are three approaches that can provide near global coverage for mass trends: altimetry, gravimetry and mass budget calculations. All three approaches suffer from a source separation problem where other geophysical processes limit the capability of the method to resolve the origin and magnitude of a mass change. A fourth approach, GPS vertical motion, provides localised estimates of mass change due to elastic uplift and an indirect estimate of GIA. Each approach has different source separation issues and different spatio-temporal error characteristics. In principle, it should be possible to combine the data and process covariances to minimize the uncertainty in the solution and to produce robust, posterior errors for the trends. In practice, this is a challenging problem in statistics because of the large number of degrees of freedom, the variable spatial and temporal sampling between the different observations and the fact that some processes remain under-sampled, such as firn compaction. Here, we present a novel solution to this problem using the latest methods in statistical modelling of spatio-temporal processes. We use Bayesian hierarchical modelling and employ stochastic partial differential equations to capture our physical understanding of the key processes that influence our observations. Due to the huge number of observations involved (> 10^8) methods are required to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and care is required in treatment of the observations as they are not independent. Here, we focus mainly on the results rather than the full suite of methods and we present time evolving fields of surface mass balance, ice dynamic-driven mass loss, and firn compaction for the period 2003-2009, derived from a combination of ICESat, ENVISAT, GRACE, InSAR, GPS and regional climate model output data. We also present a time-invariant GIA field and an elastic vertical motion field for the bedrock. All fields are solved for simultaneously alongside posterior errors that are consistent with the full suite of observations and priors. The framework we have developed can incorporate other data, such as shallow/deep ice core records of accumulation, coffee-can point measurements of mass balance, and snow radar data. The framework can also be applied to other ice masses and components of the climate system that suffer similar source separation issues: for example, solving the sea level budget.

Bamber, J. L.; Schoen, N.; Zammit-Mangion, A.; Rougier, J.; Flament, T.; Luthcke, S. B.; Petrie, E. J.; Rémy, F.

2013-12-01

11

A solution for change detection in spatio-temporal database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When modeling spatio-temporal applications, the spatial, temporal but also spatio-temporal aspects like change or motion have to be expressed (Brisaboa, N.R., 1998). For spatio-temporal object (ST-Object), it's necessary to store its correlation link which can be used to track an object's various states over time easily. In this paper, we propose a solution based on spatio-temporal data model to resolve how to detect ST-Object's various states over time and build correlation link and correlation tree into database for different temporal. DLG (Digital Line Graphic) source data of the same area interested.

Wang, Huibing; Tang, Xinming; Shi, Shaoyu

2007-06-01

12

Source localization of MEG generation using spatio-temporal Kalman filter  

E-print Network

The inverse problem for magnetoencephalography (MEG) involves estimating the magnitude and location of sources inside the brain that give rise to the magnetic field recorded on the scalp as subjects execute cognitive, motor ...

Desai, Neil U

2005-01-01

13

SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF BEACH MORPHOLOGY USING LIDAR, RTK- GPS AND OPEN SOURCE GRASS GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern mapping technologies used for coastal studies such as LIDAR and RTK-GPS produce massive amounts of data characterized by oversampling and noise. The physical phenomena and landscape changes examined are often subtle and besides statistical accuracy, adequate representation of surface geometry is crucial for correct interpretation of measured data. We have explored the suitability of the Open source GRASS GIS

Helena Mitasova; David Bernstein; Thomas G. Drake; Russell Harmon; Carl Miller

14

Hierarchic spatio-temporal dynamics in glycolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast extracts exhibit oscillations when the glycolytic system is far away from equilibrium. Spatio-temporal dynamics in this system was studied in the newly developed gel as well as in the solution. Small regions (about 10 um) with very complex shape with high or low concentrations of NADH appeared, and upon these small structures large-scale dynamics were superimposed. Concentration waves propagated, and the source of wave was induced by contact with high ADP. Sink of waves was generated by contacting the reaction gel to two small gels rich in ADP. Upon these spatio-temporal dynamics were superimposed much slower global oscillations throughout the system with a period of about 40 min. Similar dynamics was seen in a solution of yeast extract, but the size of domains was about ten times larger than that in the gel. In this way, the multi-enzyme system of glycolysis exhibits self-organization of hierarchy in spatio-temporal dynamics.

Shinjyo, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Tetsuo

15

Spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River (China) using neural-based modeling and multivariate statistical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing the spatio-temporal patterns and apportioning the pollution sources of water bodies are important for the management and protection of water resources. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of water quality and provide references for improving river pollution control practices. Comprehensive application of neural-based modeling and different multivariate methods was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites for the period of 2001-2004. A self-organizing map classified the 41 monitoring sites into three groups (Group A, B and C), representing different pollution characteristics. Four significant parameters (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total lead) were identified by discriminant analysis for distinguishing variations of different years, with about 80% correct assignment for temporal variation. Rotated principal component analysis (PCA) identified four potential pollution sources for Group A (domestic sewage and agricultural pollution, industrial wastewater pollution, mineral weathering, vehicle exhaust and sand mining), five for Group B (heavy metal pollution, agricultural runoff, vehicle exhaust and sand mining, mineral weathering, chemical plants discharge) and another five for Group C (vehicle exhaust and sand mining, chemical plants discharge, soil weathering, biochemical pollution, mineral weathering). The identified potential pollution sources explained 75.6% of the total variances for Group A, 75.0% for Group B and 80.0% for Group C, respectively. Receptor-based source apportionment was applied to further estimate source contributions for each pollution variable in the three groups, which facilitated and supported the PCA results. These results could assist managers to develop optimal strategies and determine priorities for river pollution control and effective water resources management.

Su, Shiliang; Zhi, Junjun; Lou, Liping; Huang, Fang; Chen, Xia; Wu, Jiaping

16

Spatio-Temporal Filter Adjustment from Evaluative Feedback for a Retina Implant  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Filter Adjustment from Evaluative Feedback for a Retina Implant Michael Becker@nero.uni-bonn.de, URL: http://www.nero.uni-bonn.de Abstract. Retina Implants for blind subjects with retinal degenerations are under development to regain a modest amount of vision. A spatio- temporal Retina Encoder (RE

Behnke, Sven

17

Sources on the anterior and posterior banks of the central sulcus identified from magnetic somatosensory evoked responses using multistart spatio-temporal localization.  

PubMed

A Multi-Start Spatio-Temporal (MSST) multidipole localization algorithm was used to study sources on the anterior and posterior banks of the central sulcus localized from early somatosensory magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Electrical stimulation was applied to the right and left median nerves of 8 normal subjects. Two sources, one on the anterior and one on the posterior bank of the central sulcus, were localized from 16 data sets (8 subjects, 2 hemispheres). Compared with the more traditional practice of single-dipole fits to peak latencies, MSST provided more reliable source locations. The temporal dynamics of the anterior and posterior central sulcus sources, obtained using MSST, showed considerable temporal overlap. In some cases, the two sources appeared synchronous. On the other hand, in the traditional single-dipole peak-latency fit approach, there is no time course other than a focal dipole moment activated only at the selected peak latency. The same group of subjects also performed a motor task involving index-finger lifting; the anterior central sulcus source obtained from electrical median nerve stimulation localized to the same or similar region in the primary motor area identified from the finger-lift task. The physiological significance of the anterior central sulcus source is discussed. The findings suggest that one can test the integrity of cortical tissue in the region of primary motor cortex using electrical somatosensory stimulation. PMID:11061334

Huang, M X; Aine, C; Davis, L; Butman, J; Christner, R; Weisend, M; Stephen, J; Meyer, J; Silveri, J; Herman, M; Lee, R R

2000-10-01

18

An ontology for spatio-temporal databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatio-temporal databases are representations of four-dimensional spatio-temporal reality. We discuss three different perspectives onto this reality: (a) the 'god' s eye' perspective in which spatio- temporal objects are seen as four-dimensional and non-changing, (b) the perspective of a sweeping plane dissecting four-dimensional reality into three-dimensional slices which we humans perceive the current moment; and (c) the perspective 'from within', which

Thomas Bittner

19

Socioscope: Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Social Media  

E-print Network

Socioscope: Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Social Media Jun-Ming Xu , Aniruddha Bhargava: where, when, and how much. Social media is a tantaliz- ing data source for those who wish to monitor to count its occurrences in social media. However, count- ing is plagued by sample bias, incomplete data

Nowak, Robert

20

The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database  

E-print Network

The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database implemented using Open Source tools Bruce countries #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;System components PostgreSQL (relational database) PostGIS (geospatial) GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library) Perl, PHP, Shapelib, ... #12;GLIMS Glacier Database System

Raup, Bruce H.

21

Spatio-Temporal Multimodal Developmental Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is elusive how the skull-enclosed brain enables spatio-temporal multimodal developmental learning. By multimodal, we mean that the system has at least two sensory modalities, e.g., visual and auditory in our experiments. By spatio-temporal, we mean that the behavior from the system depends not only on the spatial pattern in the current sensory inputs, but also those of the recent

Yilu Zhang; Juyang Weng

2010-01-01

22

Adaptive Spatio-Temporal Filters Infrared Target Detection  

E-print Network

Adaptive Spatio-Temporal Filters for Infrared Target Detection by Anusha Muthu Natarajan Copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Chapter 4. Spatio-Temporal Filter Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.1. Adaptation of Filter Temporal Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2. Adaptation

23

Spatio-Temporal Phrases for Activity Recognition  

E-print Network

- turing enough spatial and temporal information to distinguish different activity categories, while and intra-category invariance, the BoW model discards any structural spatial and temporal information amongSpatio-Temporal Phrases for Activity Recognition Yimeng Zhang , Xiaoming Liu , Ming-Ching Chang

24

Spatio-temporal Feature Recogntion using Randomised Ferns  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal Feature Recogntion using Randomised Ferns Olusegun Oshin, Andrew Gilbert, John Bayesian classifier of Ferns to the spatio-temporal domain and learn clas- sifiers that duplicate video sequence. We extend a Naive Bayesian classifier called Ferns [1] to the spatio-temporal domain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Geospatial Risk Factors of Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis  

PubMed Central

Variations in spatio-temporal patterns of Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME) infection in the state of Kansas, USA were examined and the relationship between HME relative risk and various environmental, climatic and socio-economic variables were evaluated. HME data used in the study was reported to the Kansas Department of Health and Environment between years 2005–2012, and geospatial variables representing the physical environment [National Land cover/Land use, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)], climate [NASA MODIS, Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Energy (POWER)], and socio-economic conditions (US Census Bureau) were derived from publicly available sources. Following univariate screening of candidate variables using logistic regressions, two Bayesian hierarchical models were fit; a partial spatio-temporal model with random effects and a spatio-temporal interaction term, and a second model that included additional covariate terms. The best fitting model revealed that spatio-temporal autocorrelation in Kansas increased steadily from 2005–2012, and identified poverty status, relative humidity, and an interactive factor, ‘diurnal temperature range x mixed forest area’ as significant county-level risk factors for HME. The identification of significant spatio-temporal pattern and new risk factors are important in the context of HME prevention, for future research in the areas of ecology and evolution of HME, and as well as climate change impacts on tick-borne diseases. PMID:24992684

Raghavan, Ram K.; Neises, Daniel; Goodin, Douglas G.; Andresen, Daniel A.; Ganta, Roman R.

2014-01-01

26

Event Detection using Twitter: A Spatio-Temporal Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Every day, around 400 million tweets are sent worldwide, which has become a rich source for detecting, monitoring and analysing news stories and special (disaster) events. Existing research within this field follows key words attributed to an event, monitoring temporal changes in word usage. However, this method requires prior knowledge of the event in order to know which words to follow, and does not guarantee that the words chosen will be the most appropriate to monitor. Methods This paper suggests an alternative methodology for event detection using space-time scan statistics (STSS). This technique looks for clusters within the dataset across both space and time, regardless of tweet content. It is expected that clusters of tweets will emerge during spatio-temporally relevant events, as people will tweet more than expected in order to describe the event and spread information. The special event used as a case study is the 2013 London helicopter crash. Results and Conclusion A spatio-temporally significant cluster is found relating to the London helicopter crash. Although the cluster only remains significant for a relatively short time, it is rich in information, such as important key words and photographs. The method also detects other special events such as football matches, as well as train and flight delays from Twitter data. These findings demonstrate that STSS is an effective approach to analysing Twitter data for event detection. PMID:24893168

Cheng, Tao; Wicks, Thomas

2014-01-01

27

Spatio-temporal EEG source localization using a three-dimensional subspace FINE approach in a realistic geometry inhomogeneous head model.  

PubMed

The subspace source localization approach, i.e., first principle vectors (FINE), is able to enhance the spatial resolvability and localization accuracy for closely-spaced neural sources from EEG and MEG measurements. Computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the FINE algorithm in an inhomogeneous realistic geometry head model under a variety of conditions. The source localization abilities of FINE were examined at different cortical regions and at different depths. The present computer simulation results indicate that FINE has enhanced source localization capability, as compared with MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC, when sources are closely spaced, highly noise-contaminated, or inter-correlated. The source localization accuracy of FINE is better, for closely-spaced sources, than MUSIC at various noise levels, i.e., signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) from 6 dB to 16 dB, and RAP-MUSIC at relatively low noise levels, i.e., 6 dB to 12 dB. The FINE approach has been further applied to localize brain sources of motor potentials, obtained during the finger tapping tasks in a human subject. The experimental results suggest that the detailed neural activity distribution could be revealed by FINE. The present study suggests that FINE provides enhanced performance in localizing multiple closely spaced, and inter-correlated sources under low SNR, and may become an important alternative to brain source localization from EEG or MEG. PMID:16941829

Ding, Lei; He, Bin

2006-09-01

28

Quantifiers for spatio-temporal bifurcations in coupled map lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bifurcation behaviour of spatially extended systems shows interesting features which are as yet poorly understood. We analyse spatio-temporal bifurcations in coupled map lattices which maybe classified as purely spatial or spatio-temporal in nature. We construct quantifiers, which can detect all types of bifurcation behaviour. We demonstrate the utility of our quantifiers in the context of spatially or temporally periodic

Nandini Chatterjee; Neelima Gupte

1997-01-01

29

Abducing Qualitative Spatio-Temporal Histories from Partial Observations  

E-print Network

circumscription to ab- duce explanations of the sensor data. Exploiting Qualitative Motion Within QualitativeAbducing Qualitative Spatio-Temporal Histories from Partial Observations Shyamanta M Hazarika is constructed from local surveys i.e. par- tial spatio-temporal knowledge. Complete space-time histories

Leeds, University of

30

a Framework for Online Spatio-Temporal Data Visualization Based on HTML5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web is entering a new phase - HTML5. New features of HTML5 should be studied for online spatio-temporal data visualization. In the proposed framework, spatio-temporal data is stored in the data server and is sent to user browsers with WebSocket. Public geo-data such as Internet digital map is integrated into the browsers. Then animation is implemented through the canvas object defined by the HTML5 specification. To simulate the spatio-temporal data source, we collected the daily location of 15 users with GPS tracker. The current positions of the users are collected every minute and are recorded in a file. Based on this file, we generate a real time spatio-temporal data source which sends out current user location every second.By enlarging the real time scales by 60 times, we can observe the movement clearly. The data transmitted with WebSocket is the coordinates of users' current positions, which will can be demonstrated in client browsers.

Mao, B.; Wu, Z.; Cao, J.

2012-07-01

31

Spatio-temporal variation of pH and ionic concentrations in precipitation: interaction between two contrasting stationary sources affecting air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological and geological factors affecting the pH and ionic concentrations of precipitation were investigated from Jecheon\\u000a City, Korea. The air quality of the study area is affected by two contrasting stationary sources: 1) a coal-fired power plant\\u000a to the east-northeast and 2) limestone quarries and cement-manufacturing factories to the east to south-southeast of Jecheon.\\u000a The temporal change of rainwater chemistry

Byoung-Young Choi; Seong-Taek Yun; Gyu-Il Yeom; Ki-Hyun Kim; Kyoung-Ho Kim; Yong-Kwon Koh

2008-01-01

32

Spatio-temporal synchronization of recurrent epidemics.  

PubMed Central

Long-term spatio-temporal datasets of disease incidences have made it clear that many recurring epidemics, especially childhood infections, tend to synchronize in-phase across suburbs. In some special cases, epidemics between suburbs have been found to oscillate in an out-of-phase ('antiphase') relationship for lengthy periods. Here, we use modelling techniques to help explain the presence of in-phase and antiphase synchronization. The nonlinearity of the epidemic dynamics is often such that the intensity of the outbreak influences the phase of the oscillation thereby introducing 'shear', a factor that is found to be important for generating antiphase synchronization. By contrast, the coupling between suburbs via the immigration of infectives tends to enhance in-phase synchronization. The emerging synchronization depends delicately on these opposite factors. We use theoretical results from continuous time models to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between synchronization patterns for different model structures. PMID:12965019

He, Daihai; Stone, Lewi

2003-01-01

33

[PUF passive air sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta, China: spatio-temporal distribution and potential sources].  

PubMed

Atmosphere is regarded to be an important media in the environmental pollution research area. Passive air sampling was one of the effective complementary sampling techniques for the active high volume air sampler in recent decades. A regional scale investigation on the atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was conducted in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Polyurethane foam based passive air samplers were used to collect the atmospheric PAHs from 31 sampling sites in this area. PAHs concentrations ranged from 10.1 ng x m(-1) to 367 ng x m(-3) in this study. The annual average concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) reached 2.25 ng x m(-3), which was two times higher exceeding the national standard, GB 3095-2012. The atmospheric PAHs during four seasons decreased in the following order: autumn > winter > spring > summer. Larger BaP excessive areas were found in autumn and winter than other seasons. Moreover, an obvious emission of BaP was confirmed during the winter time. Traffic related petroleum combustion, coal and biomass burning, and coke oven were identified as potential sources of atmospheric PAHs, contributing 38.1%, 42.4%, and 19.5%, respectively. PMID:24288973

Zhang, Li-fei; Yang, Wen-long; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuang-xin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiu-lan; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Shan; Huang, Ye-ru

2013-09-01

34

Spatio-temporal activity of lightnings over Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense lightning activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of lightnings, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational lightning detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightnings (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with lightnings incidence. Lightning activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

2012-04-01

35

A LANGUAGE FOR MODULAR SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATION (R824766)  

EPA Science Inventory

Creating an effective environment for collaborative spatio-temporal model development will require computational systems that provide support for the user in three key areas: (1) Support for modular, hierarchical model construction and archiving/linking of simulation modules; (2)...

36

Extremum tracking in sensor fields with spatio-temporal correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical phenomena such as temperature, humidity, and wind velocity often exhibit both spatial and temporal correlation. We consider the problem of tracking the extremum value of a spatio-temporally correlated field using a wireless sensor network. Determining the extremum at the fusion center after making all sensor nodes transmitting their measurements is not energy-efficient because the spatio-temporal correlation of the field

Prithwish Basu; A. Nadamani; Lang Tong

2010-01-01

37

Looking at catchments in colors: combining thermal IR imagery with geochemical and isotopic tracers to document spatio-temporal dynamics of water source and flowpaths in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, our conceptual understanding of catchment-scale water mixing, source apportionment and hydrological connectivity is thwarted by measurement limitations. For instance, the measurement and documentation of HRS connectivity is a major impediment to better process understanding. In recent literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand the frontier of hydrological theory and eventually overcome the well-known limitations that are inherent to conventional techniques used for tracing water source, flowpaths and residence times. The 2010 edition of the EGU Leonardo Topical Conference Series on the hydrological cycle had concluded that a major challenge for hydrology in the near future will be to apply more often multidisciplinary approaches, so to find creative solutions that will eventually allow us to move away from 'monochrome pictures of reality', and 'see the catchments in colors'. Here, we demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to both determine adequate water sampling sites and validate the identification of water source and connectivity through conventional tracers. Until recently, the use of heat as a ground water tracer had been largely restricted to the hydrogeological literature. Thermal remote sensing of riparian and water surface temperatures has been of interest in aquatic management issues, as well as for the assessment of spatial heterogeneities. Our proof-of-concept study in the Weierbach experimental watershed further extended the potential for infrared thermography via hand-held cameras to hydrological processes studies across various hydrological response units (HRU). Infrared thermography of surface water dynamics stemming either from infiltration excess overland flow or saturation excess overland flow was mapped throughout a complete rainfall-runoff event. In order to grasp the spatial and temporal variability of geochemical and isotopic signatures, during and after a storm event, we have combined thermal IR imagery with grab sampling of water inside the hillslope-riparian zone-stream system. While relying on IR thermography, we also used simultaneous optical image capture to aid in classifying the incoming IR signal and differentiating between substances of different temperature. The distinction between flowing water, saturated zones, soil, wooden branches, pebbles or leaves is extremely difficult when observing the optical image alone. The IR thermography interprets the heat signal from the same source and provides a much better view for identifying both areas where water is flowing and areas where water is either seeping from the soil, flowing as surface runoff or accumulating temporarily in micro-depressions during a rainfall event. This approach has revealed how crucial the location of the grab sampling can be within extremely small geographical zones (a few square meters) due to incomplete mixing, as well as it has helped to map the dynamics of geochemical and isotopic signatures in the area of interest. To date, our investigations have revealed: (a) the potential for infrared thermography to identify, discriminate and observe the spatio-temporal dynamics of hydrological processes, namely infiltration excess overland flow, saturation excess overland flow and subsurface return flow; and (b) the complementarity of information gained from conventional tracers (geochemicals and stable isotopes) and remote sensing (infrared thermography). Our next step will consist in assessing the individual and combined potential of these techniques for reducing uncertainties in hydrological process identification and quantification (especially with respect to hydrograph separation).

Pfister, L.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Wetzel, C.; Ector, L.; Hissler, C.; Hoffmann, L.; Frentress, J. J.; McDonnell, J. J.

2012-04-01

38

A distributed spatio-temporal EEG/MEG inverse solver  

PubMed Central

We propose a novel ?1?2-norm inverse solver for estimating the sources of EEG/MEG signals. Based on the standard ?1-norm inverse solvers, this sparse distributed inverse solver integrates the ?1-norm spatial model with a temporal model of the source signals in order to avoid unstable activation patterns and “spiky” reconstructed signals often produced by the currently used sparse solvers. The joint spatio-temporal model leads to a cost function with an ?1?2-norm regularizer whose minimization can be reduced to a convex second-order cone programming (SOCP) problem and efficiently solved using the interior-point method. The efficient computation of the SOCP problem allows us to implement permutation tests for estimating statistical significance of the inverse solution. Validation with simulated and human MEG data shows that the proposed solver yields source time course estimates qualitatively similar to those obtained through dipole fitting, but without the need to specify the number of dipole sources in advance. Furthermore, the ?1?2-norm solver achieves fewer false positives and a better representation of the source locations than the conventional ?2 minimum-norm estimates. PMID:18979728

Ou, Wanmei; Hamalainen, Matti S.; Golland, Polina

2009-01-01

39

A Distributed Spatio-Temporal EEG/MEG Inverse Solver  

PubMed Central

We propose a novel ?1?2-norm inverse solver for estimating the sources of EEG/MEG signals. Developed based on the standard ?1-norm inverse solvers, this sparse distributed inverse solver integrates the ?1-norm spatial model with a temporal model of the source signals in order to avoid unstable activation patterns and “spiky” reconstructed signals often produced by the currently used sparse solvers. The joint spatio-temporal model leads to a cost function with an ?1?2-norm regularizer whose minimization can be reduced to a convex second-order cone programming (SOCP) problem and efficiently solved using the interior-point method. The efficient computation of the SOCP problem allows us to implement permutation tests for estimating statistical significance of the inverse solution. Validation with simulated and real MEG data shows that the proposed solver yields source time course estimates qualitatively similar to those obtained through dipole fitting, but without the need to specify the number of dipole sources in advance. Furthermore, the ?1?2-norm solver achieves fewer false positives and a better representation of the source locations than the conventional ?2 minimum-norm estimates. PMID:18603008

Hamalainen, Matti S.; Golland, Polina

2009-01-01

40

Spatio-temporal variability in ventricular fibrillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that reentrant ventricular tachycardia arises when a spiral wave of activation takes over and drives the ventricle at a rate significantly faster than sinus rhythm, and that ventricular fibrillation (VF), a spatio-temporally disorganized form of cardiac activity leading to sudden cardiac death, arises when this spiral breaks down into multiple offspring. Many authors have found that VF displays significant spatial and temporal organization. The purpose of this research is to quantify time scales and temporal and spatial variability in VF. Surface electrograms were obtained from a stable canine model of VF (cf. Nwasokwa and Bodenheimer, Am. J. Physiol. 253, H643 (1987)). These electrograms were analyzed to identify activation times to an accuracy of 1 ms (cf. Garfinkel et al., J. Clin. Invest. 99, 305 (1997)), yielded eighteen usable series, each containing over 1024 intervactivation intervals, two or three from widely spaced sites per episode of VF, 7 total episodes in 4 animals. Spatial and long-term (60 - 120 sec) temporal variability were analyzed and compared by ANOVA techniques (Evans et al., Proc. Royal Soc. B265, 2167 (1998)). In 6 of 7 episodes, spatial variability among sites was statistically more significant than variability between the first and second halves of each series. More recently, Fourier analysis of these series found three distinct scaling regions, with power law dynamics in each and break points of ca. 1 sec and 4 sec. Finally, there was significant variability in the fraction of "short" interactivation intervals (lasting < 60 of 125 ms) among sites. Together these results suggest variability in physiological properties among sites and consequent variability in spiral wave dynamics among sites.

Hastings, Harold M.; Evans, Steven J.; Fenton, Flavio H.; Garfinkel, Alan

2001-03-01

41

Spatio-temporal chaos in a chemotaxis model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the dynamics of a one-dimensional Keller-Segel type model for chemotaxis incorporating a logistic cell growth term. We demonstrate the capacity of the model to self-organise into multiple cellular aggregations which, according to position in parameter space, either form a stationary pattern or undergo a sustained spatio-temporal sequence of merging (two aggregations coalesce) and emerging (a new aggregation appears). This spatio-temporal patterning can be further subdivided into either a time-periodic or time-irregular fashion. Numerical explorations into the latter indicate a positive Lyapunov exponent (sensitive dependence to initial conditions) together with a rich bifurcation structure. In particular, we find stationary patterns that bifurcate onto a path of periodic patterns which, prior to the onset of spatio-temporal irregularity, undergo a “periodic-doubling” sequence. Based on these results and comparisons with other systems, we argue that the spatio-temporal irregularity observed here describes a form of spatio-temporal chaos. We discuss briefly our results in the context of previous applications of chemotaxis models, including tumour invasion, embryonic development and ecology.

Painter, Kevin J.; Hillen, Thomas

2011-02-01

42

Reaction diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate reaction-diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delays, the global existence, uniqueness and asymptotic behavior of solutions for which in relation to constant steady-state solution, included in the region of attraction of a stable steady solution. It is shown that if the delay reaction function satisfies some conditions and the system possesses a pair of upper and lower solutions then there exists a unique global solution. In terms of the maximal and minimal constant solutions of the corresponding steady-state problem, we get the asymptotic stability of reaction-diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delay. Applying this theory to Lotka-Volterra model with spatio-temporal delay, we get the global solution asymptotically tend to the steady-state problem's steady-state solution.

Zhao, Zhihong; Rong, Erhua

2014-07-01

43

Spatio-temporal learning by the ant ectatomma ruidum  

PubMed

We tested, under field and laboratory conditions, whether the neotropical ant Ectatomma ruidum Roger can learn several associations between temporal and spatial changes in the daily pattern of food availability. Honey was shuffled between two or three feeding sites following a fixed daily schedule. Foragers learnt to associate particular sites with the specific times at which food was available, individually marked ants being observed on the correct sites at the correct times. Some ants anticipated the time of food delivery by approximately 30 min, and it was not necessary for them to be rewarded at the first stage of the sequence of food collection to continue their search for honey according to the correct schedule of reward. Ants also followed the same schedule when no honey was supplied at each stage of the sequence, and they stayed at the expected unrewarded site for a period equivalent to the reward period of the corresponding training phase, indicating that they had learnt when and for how long the food was available. Thus, ants rely on their spatio-temporal memory rather than on local cues coming from the honey source to guide them. PMID:10377271

Schatz; Lachaud; Beugnon

1999-07-01

44

Spatio-temporal speckle correlations for imaging in turbid media  

E-print Network

We discuss the far-field spatio-temporal cross-correlations of waves multiple-scattered in a turbid medium in which is embedded a hidden heterogeneous region (inclusion) characterized by a distinct scatterer dynamics (as compared to the rest of the medium). We show that the spatio-temporal correlation is affected by the inclusion which suggests a new method of imaging in turbid media. Our results allow qualitative interpretation in terms of diffraction theory: the cross-correlation of scattered waves behaves similarly to the intensity of a wave diffracted by an aperture.

S. E. Skipetrov

2001-03-22

45

Time reversal and the spatio-temporal matched filter  

SciTech Connect

It is known that focusing of an acoustic field by a time-reversal mirror (TRM) is equivalent to a spatio-temporal matched filter under conditions where the Green's function of the field satisfies reciprocity and is time invariant, i.e. the Green's function is independent of the choice of time origin. In this letter, it is shown that both reciprocity and time invariance can be replaced by a more general constraint on the Green's function that allows a TRM to implement the spatio-temporal matched filter even when conditions are time varying.

Lehman, S K; Poggio, A J; Kallman, J S; Meyer, A W; Candy, J V

2004-03-08

46

Cubic map algebra functions for spatio-temporal analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose an extension of map algebra to three dimensions for spatio-temporal data handling. This approach yields a new class of map algebra functions that we call "cube functions." Whereas conventional map algebra functions operate on data layers representing two-dimensional space, cube functions operate on data cubes representing two-dimensional space over a third-dimensional period of time. We describe the prototype implementation of a spatio-temporal data structure and selected cube function versions of conventional local, focal, and zonal map algebra functions. The utility of cube functions is demonstrated through a case study analyzing the spatio-temporal variability of remotely sensed, southeastern U.S. vegetation character over various land covers and during different El Nin??o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases. Like conventional map algebra, the application of cube functions may demand significant data preprocessing when integrating diverse data sets, and are subject to limitations related to data storage and algorithm performance. Solutions to these issues include extending data compression and computing strategies for calculations on very large data volumes to spatio-temporal data handling.

Mennis, J.; Viger, R.; Tomlin, C.D.

2005-01-01

47

Adaptive joint spatio-temporal error concealment for video communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past years, video communication has found its application in an increasing number of environments. Unfor- tunately, some of them are error-prone and the risk of block losses caused by transmission errors is ubiquitous. To reduce the effects of these block losses, a new spatio-temporal error concealment algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses spatial as well as temporal information

Jürgen Seiler; André Kaup

2008-01-01

48

Spatio-temporal saliency perception via hypercomplex frequency spectral contrast.  

PubMed

Salient object perception is the process of sensing the salient information from the spatio-temporal visual scenes, which is a rapid pre-attention mechanism for the target location in a visual smart sensor. In recent decades, many successful models of visual saliency perception have been proposed to simulate the pre-attention behavior. Since most of the methods usually need some ad hoc parameters or high-cost preprocessing, they are difficult to rapidly detect salient object or be implemented by computing parallelism in a smart sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal saliency perception method based on spatio-temporal hypercomplex spectral contrast (HSC). Firstly, the proposed HSC algorithm represent the features in the HSV (hue, saturation and value) color space and features of motion by a hypercomplex number. Secondly, the spatio-temporal salient objects are efficiently detected by hypercomplex Fourier spectral contrast in parallel. Finally, our saliency perception model also incorporates with the non-uniform sampling, which is a common phenomenon of human vision that directs visual attention to the logarithmic center of the image/video in natural scenes. The experimental results on the public saliency perception datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to eleven state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we extend the proposed model to moving object extraction in dynamic scenes, and the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional algorithms. PMID:23482090

Li, Ce; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning; Lan, Xuguang; Tian, Zhiqiang

2013-01-01

49

Spatio-Temporal Saliency Perception via Hypercomplex Frequency Spectral Contrast  

PubMed Central

Salient object perception is the process of sensing the salient information from the spatio-temporal visual scenes, which is a rapid pre-attention mechanism for the target location in a visual smart sensor. In recent decades, many successful models of visual saliency perception have been proposed to simulate the pre-attention behavior. Since most of the methods usually need some ad hoc parameters or high-cost preprocessing, they are difficult to rapidly detect salient object or be implemented by computing parallelism in a smart sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal saliency perception method based on spatio-temporal hypercomplex spectral contrast (HSC). Firstly, the proposed HSC algorithm represent the features in the HSV (hue, saturation and value) color space and features of motion by a hypercomplex number. Secondly, the spatio-temporal salient objects are efficiently detected by hypercomplex Fourier spectral contrast in parallel. Finally, our saliency perception model also incorporates with the non-uniform sampling, which is a common phenomenon of human vision that directs visual attention to the logarithmic center of the image/video in natural scenes. The experimental results on the public saliency perception datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to eleven state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we extend the proposed model to moving object extraction in dynamic scenes, and the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional algorithms. PMID:23482090

Li, Ce; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning; Lan, Xuguang; Tian, Zhiqiang

2013-01-01

50

Modelling spatio-temporal variation in black smoke pollutant concentrations  

E-print Network

encompassing air pollution, socio-economic and meteorological data. Location Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1961-1992 AimModelling spatio-temporal variation in black smoke pollutant concentrations T.R. Fanshawe, P To predict black smoke level for any location in the study region, for any time in the study period

Diggle, Peter J.

51

Spatio-temporal analysis of environmental radiation in Korea  

SciTech Connect

Geostatistical visualization of environmental radiation is a very powerful approach to explore and understand spatio-temporal variabilities of environmental radiation data. Spatial patterns of environmental radiation can be described quantitatively in terms of variogram and kriging, which are based on the idea that statistical variation of data are functions of distance. (authors)

Kim, J.Y.; Lee, B.C. [Seoul National Univ., FNC Technology Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Shin, H.K. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

52

Judgments about spatio-temporal relations Thomas Bittner  

E-print Network

be able to represent the fact that things move, change, appear, and disappear over time. In this paper we distinct subway trains five meters apart without having had the chance to meet. They have been in different-temporal objects and their location 2.1 Objects and their location Spatio-temporal objects fall into two major

Bittner, Thomas

53

Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Political Tweets in Indonesia  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Political Tweets in Indonesia Anisha Mazumder, Arun Das activity in the provinces of Indonesia. Based on analysis of radical/counter radical sentiments expressed in tweets by Twitter users, we create a Heat Map of Indonesia which visually demonstrates the degree

Davulcu, Hasan

54

Spatio-temporal structures of laser-induced anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new observations of optical spatio-temporal structures formed in terbium gallium garnet when it is excited at resonance by a strong laser beam. We also present a theoretical description of this pattern formation, which accounts well for our observations. We finally discuss useful applications of both time and power dependence of these structures.

Chen, X.; Chaux, R.

1999-11-01

55

Spatio-temporal structures of laser-induced anisotropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report new observations of optical spatio-temporal structures formed in terbium gallium garnet when it is excited at resonance by a strong laser beam. We also present a theoretical description of this pattern formation, which accounts well for our observations. We finally discuss useful applications of both time and power dependence of these structures.

X. Chen; R. Chaux

1999-01-01

56

Spatio-temporal prediction for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal prediction for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa , Céline Helberta in Western Africa : West African Monsoon. We are particularly interested in studying the influence of sea-temporal modeling, filtering, multivariate penalized regression 1. Introduction West African monsoon is the major

57

Spatio-temporal metamodeling for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal metamodeling for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa , Céline Helberta in Western Africa : West African Monsoon. We are particularly interested in studying the influence of sea-temporal modeling, filtering, multivariate penalized regression 1. Introduction West African monsoon is the major

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Fully Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of FMRI data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fully Bayesian approach to modeling in functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), incorporating spatio-temporal noise modeling and haemodynamic response function (HRF) modeling. A fully Bayesian approach allows for the uncertainties in the noise and signal modeling to be incorporated together to provide full posterior distributions of the HRF parameters. The noise modeling is achieved via a nonseparable space-time

Mark William Woolrich; Mark Jenkinson; J. Michael Brady; Stephen M. Smith

2004-01-01

59

Spatio-Temporal Data Fusion in Cerebral Angiography  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Data Fusion in Cerebral Angiography by Andrew David Copeland B.S., Electrical in Cerebral Angiography by Andrew David Copeland Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering- olution time sequences of 3D images that show the dynamics of cerebral blood flow. These sequences allow

Mitter, Sanjoy K.

60

Literature review of spatio-temporal database models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts in spatial and temporal data models and database systems attempt to achieve an appropriate kind of interaction between the two areas. This paper reviews the different types of spatio-temporal data models that have been proposed in the literature as well as new theories and concepts that have emerged. It provides an overview of previous achievements within the domain

NIKOS PELEKIS; BABIS THEODOULIDIS; IOANNIS KOPANAKIS; YANNIS THEODORIDIS

2004-01-01

61

Querying Uncertain Spatio-Temporal Data Tobias Emrich #1  

E-print Network

Querying Uncertain Spatio-Temporal Data Tobias Emrich #1 , Hans-Peter Kriegel #1 , Nikos Mamoulis 2 of modeling and managing uncertain data has received a great deal of interest, due to its manifold ap for the economic representation and storage of the data, since only a subset of the object locations need

Kriegel, Hans-Peter

62

Football analysis using spatio-temporal tools Joachim Gudmundsson  

E-print Network

Football analysis using spatio-temporal tools Joachim Gudmundsson University of Sydney and NICTA, Australia thomas.wolle@gmail.com ABSTRACT Analysing a football match is without doubt an important task specifically for analysing the performance of football players and teams. The aim, functionality

Wolle, Thomas

63

SPATIO-TEMPORAL JOINT PROBABILITY IMAGES FOR VIDEO SEGMENTATION School of Computing Science  

E-print Network

effectiveness and efficiency. Ngo, Pong and Chin [4] presented a spatio-temporal method for gradual sceneSPATIO-TEMPORAL JOINT PROBABILITY IMAGES FOR VIDEO SEGMENTATION Ze-Nian Li School of Computing and wipes based on the anal- ysis of spatio-temporal behaviors of Joint Probability Im- ages (JPIs

Li, Ze-Nian

64

Scalable Spatio-temporal Continuous Query Processing for Location-aware Services  

E-print Network

Real-time spatio-temporal query processing needs to effectively handle a large number of moving objects into a spatial join. The main idea is to group the set of continuous spatio- temporal queries in one table called paradigm to support all mutability variations of continuous spatio-temporal queries. We propose three join

Mokbel, Mohamed F.

65

Anatomical co-registration using spatio-temporal features of a non-contact near-infrared optical scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-contact based near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging devices are developed for non-invasive imaging of deep tissues in various clinical applications. Most of these devices focus on obtaining the spatial information for anatomical co-registration of blood vessels as in sub-surface vein localization applications. In the current study, the anatomical co-registration of blood vessels based on spatio-temporal features was performed using NIR optical imaging without the use of external contrast agents. A 710 nm LED source and a compact CCD camera system were employed during simple cuff (0 to 60 mmHg) experiment in order to acquire the dynamic NIR data from the dorsum of a hand. The spatio-temporal features of dynamic NIR data were extracted from the cuff experimental study to localize vessel according to blood dynamics. The blood vessels shape is currently reconstructed from the dynamic data based on spatio-temporal features. Demonstrating the spatio-temporal feature of blood dynamic imaging using a portable non-contact NIR imaging device without external contrast agents is significant for applications such as peripheral vascular diseases.

Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Jean; Rodriguez, Suset; Velez Mejia, Maximiliano; Clark, Gabrielle; Godavarty, Anuradha

2014-02-01

66

A spatio-temporal data mining method for dynamic monitoring of land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated how to manage and use the spatio-temporal data during land use. To realize spatio-temporal data mining, the key issue to be solved in technology is how to organize spatio-temporal data. The spatio-temporal data model is just generated to solve this problem. According to analysis of spatio-temporal data changing character, two factors are very important in spatio-temporal data model. One is object, and the other is event. The object is an essential element that comprises spatio-temporal data information. The event is a fundamental factor that result in changing spatio-temporal data. A new spatio-temporal data model based on both object and event (OESTDM) was put forward to meet the demand. How to organize data, build relations between objects and storage data in spatio-temporal database are also emphatically discussed. At last, a dynamic land use information system based on OESTDM is presented. The system realized the function of managing spatio-temporal data, the retrospect of history information, tracing land parcel change, Area-Data-Change-Statistic and Analysis, and so on efficiently, by taking the land parcel data of some regions in Zhejiang province for study.

Teng, Longmei; Liu, Renyi; Liu, Nan

2005-10-01

67

Application of spatio-temporal filtering to fetal electrocardiogram enhancement.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose a new structure of the instrumentation for electrocardiographic fetal monitoring. We apply a single-channel approach to maternal electrocardiogram suppression in the recorded four abdominal bioelectric signals. Then we exploit spatial and temporal properties of the extracted four-channel fetal electrocardiogram to construct a new channel with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, we perform detection of fetal QRS complexes. The proposed approach is investigated with the help of the constructed database of the maternal abdominal signals. During the detection tests, the spatio-temporal filtering allowed us to decrease significantly the number of the detection errors of different detectors applied. Moreover, we present visually that even if the fetal QRS complexes are buried in noise, the spatio-temporal filtering can produce the signal with the discernible ones. PMID:20701992

Kotas, M; Jezewski, J; Horoba, K; Matonia, A

2011-10-01

68

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach for Learning Sparse Spatio-Temporal Decomposition of Multichannel EEG  

PubMed Central

Multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) offers a non-invasive tool to explore spatio-temporal dynamics of brain activity. With EEG recordings consisting of multiple trials, traditional signal processing approaches that ignore inter-trial variability in the data may fail to accurately estimate the underlying spatio-temporal brain patterns. Moreover, precise characterization of such inter-trial variability per se can be of high scientific value in establishing the relationship between brain activity and behavior. In this paper, a statistical modeling framework is introduced for learning spatiotemporal decomposition of multiple-trial EEG data recorded under two contrasting experimental conditions. By modeling the variance of source signals as random variables varying across trials, the proposed two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model is able to capture inter-trial amplitude variability in the data in a sparse way where a parsimonious representation of the data can be obtained. A variational Bayesian (VB) algorithm is developed for statistical inference of the hierarchical model. The efficacy of the proposed modeling framework is validated with the analysis of both synthetic and real EEG data. In the simulation study we show that even at low signal-to-noise ratios our approach is able to recover with high precision the underlying spatiotemporal patterns and the evolution of source amplitude across trials; on two brain-computer interface (BCI) data sets we show that our VB algorithm can extract physiologically meaningful spatio-temporal patterns and make more accurate predictions than other two widely used algorithms: the common spatial patterns (CSP) algorithm and the Infomax algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA). The results demonstrate that our statistical modeling framework can serve as a powerful tool for extracting brain patterns, characterizing trial-to-trial brain dynamics, and decoding brain states by exploiting useful structures in the data. PMID:21420499

Wu, Wei; Chen, Zhe; Gao, Shangkai; Brown, Emery N.

2011-01-01

69

Mining spatio-temporal patterns in object mobility databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing use of wireless communication devices and the ability to track people and objects cheaply and easily,\\u000a the amount of spatio-temporal data is growing substantially. Many of these applications cannot easily locate the exact position\\u000a of objects, but they can determine the region in which each object is contained. Furthermore, the regions are fixed and may\\u000a vary greatly

Florian Verhein; Sanjay Chawla

2008-01-01

70

Spatio-temporal analysis of early brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of human brain development is a crucial step for improved understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders. We focus on normal brain development as is observed in the multimodal longitudinal MRI\\/DTI data of neonates to two years of age. We present a spatio-temporal analysis framework using Gompertz function as a population growth model with three different spatial localization strategies: voxel-based, data driven

Neda Sadeghi; Marcel Prastawa; John H. Gilmore; Weili Lin; Guido Gerig

2010-01-01

71

A Bayesian spatio-temporal method for disease outbreak detection  

PubMed Central

A system that monitors a region for a disease outbreak is called a disease outbreak surveillance system. A spatial surveillance system searches for patterns of disease outbreak in spatial subregions of the monitored region. A temporal surveillance system looks for emerging patterns of outbreak disease by analyzing how patterns have changed during recent periods of time. If a non-spatial, non-temporal system could be converted to a spatio-temporal one, the performance of the system might be improved in terms of early detection, accuracy, and reliability. A Bayesian network framework is proposed for a class of space-time surveillance systems called BNST. The framework is applied to a non-spatial, non-temporal disease outbreak detection system called PC in order to create the spatio-temporal system called PCTS. Differences in the detection performance of PC and PCTS are examined. The results show that the spatio-temporal Bayesian approach performs well, relative to the non-spatial, non-temporal approach. PMID:20595315

Cooper, Gregory F

2010-01-01

72

A Spatio-Temporal Downscaler for Output From Numerical Models  

PubMed Central

Often, in environmental data collection, data arise from two sources: numerical models and monitoring networks. The first source provides predictions at the level of grid cells, while the second source gives measurements at points. The first is characterized by full spatial coverage of the region of interest, high temporal resolution, no missing data but consequential calibration concerns. The second tends to be sparsely collected in space with coarser temporal resolution, often with missing data but, where recorded, provides, essentially, the true value. Accommodating the spatial misalignment between the two types of data is of fundamental importance for both improved predictions of exposure as well as for evaluation and calibration of the numerical model. In this article we propose a simple, fully model-based strategy to downscale the output from numerical models to point level. The static spatial model, specified within a Bayesian framework, regresses the observed data on the numerical model output using spatially-varying coefficients which are specified through a correlated spatial Gaussian process. As an example, we apply our method to ozone concentration data for the eastern U.S. and compare it to Bayesian melding (Fuentes and Raftery 2005) and ordinary kriging (Cressie 1993; Chilès and Delfiner 1999). Our results show that our method outperforms Bayesian melding in terms of computing speed and it is superior to both Bayesian melding and ordinary kriging in terms of predictive performance; predictions obtained with our method are better calibrated and predictive intervals have empirical coverage closer to the nominal values. Moreover, our model can be easily extended to accommodate for the temporal dimension. In this regard, we consider several spatio-temporal versions of the static model. We compare them using out-of-sample predictions of ozone concentration for the eastern U.S. for the period May 1–October 15, 2001. For the best choice, we present a summary of the analysis. Supplemental material, including color versions of Figures 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and MCMC diagnostic plots, are available online. PMID:21113385

Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.

2010-01-01

73

Visual tracking with spatio-temporal Dempster-Shafer information fusion.  

PubMed

A key problem in visual tracking is how to effectively combine spatio-temporal visual information from throughout a video to accurately estimate the state of an object. We address this problem by incorporating Dempster-Shafer (DS) information fusion into the tracking approach. To implement this fusion task, the entire image sequence is partitioned into spatially and temporally adjacent subsequences. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained for object/nonobject classification on each of these subsequences, the outputs of which act as separate data sources. To combine the discriminative information from these classifiers, we further present a spatio-temporal weighted DS (STWDS) scheme. In addition, temporally adjacent sources are likely to share discriminative information on object/nonobject classification. To use such information, an adaptive SVM learning scheme is designed to transfer discriminative information across sources. Finally, the corresponding DS belief function of the STWDS scheme is embedded into a Bayesian tracking model. Experimental results on challenging videos demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracking approach. PMID:23529089

Li, Xi; Dick, Anthony; Shen, Chunhua; Zhang, Zhongfei; van den Hengel, Anton; Wang, Hanzi

2013-08-01

74

Learning Functional Object-Categories from a Relational Spatio-Temporal Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a framework that learns functional object- categories from spatio-temporal data sets such as those abstracted from video. The data is represented as one activity graph that encodes qualitative spatio-temporal patterns of interaction betw een objects. Event classes are induced by statistical generalization, t he instances of which encode similar patterns of spatio-temporal relati onships be- tween objects. Equivalence

Muralikrishna Sridhar; Anthony G. Cohn; David C. Hogg

2008-01-01

75

Spatio-temporal topological relationships between land parcels in cadastral database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are complex spatio-temporal relationships among cadastral entities. Cadastral spatio-temporal data model should not only describe the data structure of cadastral objects, but also express cadastral spatio-temporal relationships between cadastral objects. In the past, many experts and scholars have proposed a variety of cadastral spatio-temporal data models, but few of them concentrated on the representation of spatiotemporal relationships and few of them make systematic studies on spatiotemporal relationships between cadastral objects. The studies on spatio-temporal topological relationships are not abundant. In the paper, we initially review current approaches to the studies of spatio-temporal topological relationships, and argue that spatio-temporal topological relation is the combination of temporal topology on the time dimension and spatial topology on the spatial dimension. Subsequently, we discuss and develop an integrated representation of spatio-temporal topological relationships within a 3-dimensional temporal space. In the end, based on the semantics of spatiotemporal changes between land parcels, we conclude the possible spatio-temporal topological relations between land parcels, which provide the theoretical basis for creating, updating and maintaining of land parcels in the cadastral database.

Song, W.; Zhang, F.

2014-04-01

76

Dim moving target detection algorithm based on spatio-temporal classification sparse representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dim moving target detection algorithm based on spatio-temporal classification sparse representation, which can characterize the motion information and morphological feature of target and background clutter, is proposed to enhance the performance of target detection. A spatio-temporal redundant dictionary is trained according to the content of infrared image sequence, and then is subdivided into target spatio-temporal redundant dictionary describing moving target, and background spatio-temporal redundant dictionary embedding background by the criterion that the target spatio-temporal atom could be decomposed more sparsely over Gaussian spatio-temporal redundant dictionary. The target and background clutter can be sparsely decomposed over their corresponding spatio-temporal redundant dictionary, yet could not be sparsely decomposed on their opposite spatio-temporal redundant dictionary, and so their residuals after reconstruction by the prescribed number of target and background spatio-temporal atoms would differ very visibly. Some experimental results show this proposed approach could not only improve the sparsity more efficiently, but also enhance the target detection performance more effectively.

Li, Zhengzhou; Dai, Zhen; Fu, Hongxia; Hou, Qian; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Lijiao; Jin, Gang; Liu, Changju; Li, Ruzhang

2014-11-01

77

Spatio-Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spatio-temporal equalizer has been conceived as an improved means of suppressing multipath effects in the reception of aeronautical telemetry signals, and may be adaptable to radar and aeronautical communication applications as well. This equalizer would be an integral part of a system that would also include a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal antenna that would be nominally aimed at or near the aircraft that would be the source of the signal that one seeks to receive (see Figure 1). This spatio-temporal equalizer would consist mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters one for each element in the array - and the outputs of the filters would be summed (see Figure 2). The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank would afford better multipath-suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The seven-element feed array would supplant the single feed horn used in a conventional paraboloidal ground telemetry-receiving antenna. The radio-frequency telemetry signals re ceiv ed by the seven elements of the array would be digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to the FIR filter bank, which would adapt itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of multipath of the type found at many flight test ranges.

Mukai, Ryan; Lee, Dennis; Vilnrotter, Victor

2010-01-01

78

Spatio-temporal skin strain distributions evoke low variability spike responses in cuneate neurons.  

PubMed

A common method to explore the somatosensory function of the brain is to relate skin stimuli to neurophysiological recordings. However, interaction with the skin involves complex mechanical effects. Variability in mechanically induced spike responses is likely to be due in part to mechanical variability of the transformation of stimuli into spiking patterns in the primary sensors located in the skin. This source of variability greatly hampers detailed investigations of the response of the brain to different types of mechanical stimuli. A novel stimulation technique designed to minimize the uncertainty in the strain distributions induced in the skin was applied to evoke responses in single neurons in the cat. We show that exposure to specific spatio-temporal stimuli induced highly reproducible spike responses in the cells of the cuneate nucleus, which represents the first stage of integration of peripheral inputs to the brain. Using precisely controlled spatio-temporal stimuli, we also show that cuneate neurons, as a whole, were selectively sensitive to the spatial and to the temporal aspects of the stimuli. We conclude that the present skin stimulation technique based on localized differential tractions greatly reduces response variability that is exogenous to the information processing of the brain and hence paves the way for substantially more detailed investigations of the brain's somatosensory system. PMID:24451390

Hayward, Vincent; Terekhov, Alexander V; Wong, Sheng-Chao; Geborek, Pontus; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Jörntell, Henrik

2014-04-01

79

OFDM Radar Space-Time Adaptive Processing by Exploiting Spatio-Temporal Sparsity  

SciTech Connect

We propose a sparsity-based space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm to detect a slowly-moving target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar. We observe that the target and interference spectra are inherently sparse in the spatio-temporal domain. Hence, we exploit that sparsity to develop an efficient STAP technique that utilizes considerably lesser number of secondary data and produces an equivalent performance as the other existing STAP techniques. In addition, the use of an OFDM signal increases the frequency diversity of our system, as different scattering centers of a target resonate at different frequencies, and thus improves the target detectability. First, we formulate a realistic sparse-measurement model for an OFDM radar considering both the clutter and jammer as the interfering sources. Then, we apply a residual sparse-recovery technique based on the LASSO estimator to estimate the target and interference covariance matrices, and subsequently compute the optimal STAP-filter weights. Our numerical results demonstrate a comparative performance analysis of the proposed sparse-STAP algorithm with four other existing STAP methods. Furthermore, we discover that the OFDM-STAP filter-weights are adaptable to the frequency-variabilities of the target and interference responses, in addition to the spatio-temporal variabilities. Hence, by better utilizing the frequency variabilities, we propose an adaptive OFDM-waveform design technique, and consequently gain a significant amount of STAP-performance improvement.

Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL

2013-01-01

80

Large scale stochastic spatio-temporal modelling with PCRaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCRaster is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (http://www.pcraster.eu). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations are available to model builders as Python functions. The software comes with Python framework classes providing control flow for spatio-temporal modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, and data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter and Particle Filter). Models are built by combining the spatial operations in these framework classes. This approach enables modellers without specialist programming experience to construct large, rather complicated models, as many technical details of modelling (e.g., data storage, solving spatial operations, data assimilation algorithms) are taken care of by the PCRaster toolbox. Exploratory modelling is supported by routines for prompt, interactive visualisation of stochastic spatio-temporal data generated by the models. The high computational requirements for stochastic spatio-temporal modelling, and an increasing demand to run models over large areas at high resolution, e.g. in global hydrological modelling, require an optimal use of available, heterogeneous computing resources by the modelling framework. Current work in the context of the eWaterCycle project is on a parallel implementation of the modelling engine, capable of running on a high-performance computing infrastructure such as clusters and supercomputers. Model runs will be distributed over multiple compute nodes and multiple processors (GPUs and CPUs). Parallelization will be done by parallel execution of Monte Carlo realizations and sub regions of the modelling domain. In our approach we use multiple levels of parallelism, improving scalability considerably. On the node level we will use OpenCL, the industry standard for low-level high performance computing kernels. To combine multiple nodes we will use software from the eScience Technology Platform (eSTeP), developed at the Netherlands eScience Center. This will allow us to scale up to hundreds of machines, with thousands of compute cores. A key requirement is not to change the user experience of the software. PCRaster operations and the use of the Python framework classes should work in a similar manner on machines ranging from a laptop to a supercomputer. This enables a seamless transfer of models from small machines, where model development is done, to large machines used for large-scale model runs. Domain specialists from a large range of disciplines, including hydrology, ecology, sedimentology, and land use change studies, currently use the PCRaster Python software within research projects. Applications include global scale hydrological modelling and error propagation in large-scale land use change models. The software runs on MS Windows, Linux operating systems, and OS X.

Karssenberg, Derek; Drost, Niels; Schmitz, Oliver; de Jong, Kor; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2013-04-01

81

Spontaneous bursting: From temporal to spatio-temporal intermittency  

SciTech Connect

A simple model for temporal bursting is introduced. This model invokes either dynamic or random forcing of a bifurcation parameter of some simple dynamical system in a way that makes the bifurcation parameter spend suitable amounts of time below and above the bifurcation threshold. This model is extended to coupled map lattices to produce spontaneous spatio-temporal burstings. It models physical systems which are embedded in a random background that is statistically homogeneous in space and time. An application of this model to optical turbulence is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Platt, N.; Hammel, S.M. [Code B44, Nonlinear Dynamics and Wavelets Group, Naval Surface Warfare Center, 10901 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, Maryland, 20903-5640 (United States)

1996-06-01

82

Spatio-temporal autocorrelation of road network data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling autocorrelation structure among space–time observations is crucial in space–time modelling and forecasting. The\\u000a aim of this research is to examine the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of road networks in order to determine likely\\u000a requirements for building a suitable space–time forecasting model. Exploratory space–time autocorrelation analysis is carried\\u000a out using journey time data collected on London’s road network. Through the use

Tao Cheng; James Haworth; Jiaqiu Wang

2011-01-01

83

Spatio-temporal dynamics in the origin of genetic information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolutionary processes induced by spatio-temporal dynamics in prebiotic evolution. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that hypercycles emerge from complex interaction structures in multispecies systems. In this work, we also find that ‘hypercycle hybrid’ protects the hypercycle from its environment during the growth process. There is little selective advantage for one hypercycle to maintain coexistence with others. This brings the possibility of the outcompetition between hypercycles resulting in the negative effect on information diversity. To enrich the information in hypercycles, symbiosis with parasites is suggested. It is shown that symbiosis with parasites can play an important role in the prebiotic immunology.

Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

2005-04-01

84

Spatio-temporal Granger causality: a new framework.  

PubMed

That physiological oscillations of various frequencies are present in fMRI signals is the rule, not the exception. Herein, we propose a novel theoretical framework, spatio-temporal Granger causality, which allows us to more reliably and precisely estimate the Granger causality from experimental datasets possessing time-varying properties caused by physiological oscillations. Within this framework, Granger causality is redefined as a global index measuring the directed information flow between two time series with time-varying properties. Both theoretical analyses and numerical examples demonstrate that Granger causality is a monotonically increasing function of the temporal resolution used in the estimation. This is consistent with the general principle of coarse graining, which causes information loss by smoothing out very fine-scale details in time and space. Our results confirm that the Granger causality at the finer spatio-temporal scales considerably outperforms the traditional approach in terms of an improved consistency between two resting-state scans of the same subject. To optimally estimate the Granger causality, the proposed theoretical framework is implemented through a combination of several approaches, such as dividing the optimal time window and estimating the parameters at the fine temporal and spatial scales. Taken together, our approach provides a novel and robust framework for estimating the Granger causality from fMRI, EEG, and other related data. PMID:23643924

Luo, Qiang; Lu, Wenlian; Cheng, Wei; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A; Wen, Xiaotong; Ding, Mingzhou; Feng, Jianfeng

2013-10-01

85

Spatio-temporal processing of tactile stimuli in autistic children.  

PubMed

Altered multisensory integration has been reported in autism; however, little is known concerning how the autistic brain processes spatio-temporal information concerning tactile stimuli. We report a study in which a crossed-hands illusion was investigated in autistic children. Neurotypical individuals often experience a subjective reversal of temporal order judgments when their hands are stimulated while crossed, and the illusion is known to be acquired in early childhood. However, under those conditions where the somatotopic representation is given priority over the actual spatial location of the hands, such reversals may not occur. Here, we showed that a significantly smaller illusory reversal was demonstrated in autistic children than in neurotypical children. Furthermore, in an additional experiment, the young boys who had higher Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores generally showed a smaller crossed hands deficit. These results suggest that rudimentary spatio-temporal processing of tactile stimuli exists in autistic children, and the altered processing may interfere with the development of an external frame of reference in real-life situations. PMID:25100146

Wada, Makoto; Suzuki, Mayuko; Takaki, Akiko; Miyao, Masutomo; Spence, Charles; Kansaku, Kenji

2014-01-01

86

Stochastic spatio-temporal modelling with PCRaster Python  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCRaster Python is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (Karssenberg, Schmitz, Salamon, De Jong, & Bierkens, 2010; PCRaster, 2012). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations, developed in C++, are available to model builders as Python functions. Users create models by combining these functions in a Python script. As construction of large iterative models is often difficult and time consuming for non-specialists in programming, the software comes with a set of Python framework classes that provide control flow for static modelling, temporal modelling, stochastic modelling using Monte Carlo simulation, and data assimilation techniques including the Ensemble Kalman filter and the Particle Filter. A framework for integrating model components with different time steps and spatial discretization is currently available as a prototype (Schmitz, de Jong, & Karssenberg, in review). The software includes routines for visualisation of stochastic spatio-temporal data for prompt, interactive, visualisation of model inputs and outputs. Visualisation techniques include animated maps, time series, probability distributions, and animated maps with exceedance probabilities. The PCRaster Python software is used by researchers from a large range of disciplines, including hydrology, ecology, sedimentology, and land use change studies. Applications include global scale hydrological modelling and error propagation in large-scale land use change models. The software runs on MS Windows and Linux operating systems, and OS X (under development).

Karssenberg, D.; Schmitz, O.; de Jong, K.

2012-04-01

87

Multiple dipole modeling of spatio-temporal MEG (magnetoencephalogram) data  

SciTech Connect

An array of SQUID biomagentometers may be used to measure the spatio-temporal neuromagnetic field produced by the brain in response to a given sensory stimulus. A popular model for the neural activity that produces these fields is a set of current dipoles. We present here a common linear algebraic framework for three common spatio-temporal dipole models: moving and rotating dipoles, rotating dipoles with fixed location, and dipoles with fixed orientation and location. Our intent here is not to argue the merits of one model over another, but rather show how each model may be solved efficiently, and within the same framework as the others. In all cases, we assume that the location, orientation, and magnitude of the dipoles are unknown. We present the parameter estimation problem for these three models in a common framework, and show how, in each case, the problem may be decomposed into the estimation of the dipole locations using nonlinear minimization followed by linear estimation of the associated moment time series. Numerically efficient means of calculating the cost function are presented, and problems of model order selection and missing moments are also investigated. The methods described are demonstrated in a simulated application to a three dipole problem. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Mosher, J.C. (TRW Defense Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA (USA). Systems Engineering and Development Div. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Signal and Image Processing Inst.); Lewis, P.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Leahy, R. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Signal and Image Processing Inst.); Singh, M. (University of Southern Californi

1990-01-01

88

Spatio-temporal avalanche forecasting with Support Vector Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the use of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) as a data exploration tool and a predictive engine for spatio-temporal forecasting of snow avalanches. Based on the historical observations of avalanche activity, meteorological conditions and snowpack observations in the field, an SVM is used to build a data-driven spatio-temporal forecast for the local mountain region. It incorporates the outputs of simple physics-based and statistical approaches used to interpolate meteorological and snowpack-related data over a digital elevation model of the region. The interpretation of the produced forecast is discussed, and the quality of the model is validated using observations and avalanche bulletins of the recent years. The insight into the model behaviour is presented to highlight the interpretability of the model, its abilities to produce reliable forecasts for individual avalanche paths and sensitivity to input data. Estimates of prediction uncertainty are obtained with ensemble forecasting. The case study was carried out using data from the avalanche forecasting service in the Locaber region of Scotland, where avalanches are forecast on a daily basis during the winter months.

Pozdnoukhov, A.; Matasci, G.; Kanevski, M.; Purves, R. S.

2011-02-01

89

Scale-free model for spatio-temporal distribution of outbreaks of avian influenza  

E-print Network

Scale-free model for spatio-temporal distribution of outbreaks of avian influenza Michael Small influenza outbreaks among wild and domestic birds, we show that this model is not appropriate. We find the global spatio-temporal distribution of avian influenza cases in both wild and domestic birds and find

Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

90

Spatio-temporal analysis of nucleate pool boiling: identi cation of nucleation sites using  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal analysis of nucleate pool boiling: identi#12;cation of nucleation sites using non are often limited by the available techniques. These limitations are especially evident in nucleate boiling boiling experiment. Spatio-temporal data for the wall temperature in pool nu- cleate boiling of water

McSharry, Patrick E.

91

Velocity and Acceleration Measurement from the Spatio-Temporal Fourier Transform of Low Light Level Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal Fourier transform is usually applied to determine the velocity of an object from a series of standard light intensity frames. In this paper the technique has been extended to determine the object acceleration. The techniques for velocity and acceleration determination based on the spatio-temporal Fourier transform have been applied to experimental low light level images. Under these conditions,

Manuel P. Cagigal; Pedro M. Prieto

1995-01-01

92

4-Dimensional Local Spatio-Temporal Features for Human Activity Recognition  

E-print Network

-dimensional (4D) local spatio-temporal feature that combines both intensity and depth information. The feature detector applies separate filters along the 3D spatial dimensions and the 1D temporal dimension to detect the distortion in this pattern. In this paper, we propose a new 4D local spatio-temporal feature that combines

Parker, Lynne E.

93

Mercury: A Memory-Constrained Spatio-temporal Real-time Search on Microblogs  

E-print Network

Mercury: A Memory-Constrained Spatio-temporal Real-time Search on Microblogs Amr Magdy1§ , Mohamed Mercury; a system for real-time support of top-k spatio-temporal queries on microblogs, where users are able to browse recent microblogs near their locations. With high arrival rates of microblogs, Mercury

Bernstein, Phil

94

Spatio-temporal dynamics in fMRI recordings revealed with complex independent component analysis  

E-print Network

. To allow modeling patterns of spatio- temporal dynamics, in particular, the flow of oxygenated blood, weSpatio-temporal dynamics in fMRI recordings revealed with complex independent component analysis) and blood supply vessels. One such component, obtained in the 0.10-Hz band, is analyzed in detail and found

Makeig, Scott

95

A SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODEL OF HOUSING PRICES BASED ON INDIVIDUAL  

E-print Network

A SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODEL OF HOUSING PRICES BASED ON INDIVIDUAL SALES TRANSACTIONS OVER TIME Tony E price trends is developed that focuses on individual housing sales over time. The model allows for both in the Philadelphia area. Key Words: Housing Prices, Spatio-temporal models, Autocorrelation We owe special thanks

Smith, Tony E.

96

Spatio-Temporal Structure of Hooded Gull Flocks  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor’s position in terms of coordinates based on each individual’s motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock. PMID:24339960

Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

97

Spatial and spatio-temporal models with R-INLA.  

PubMed

During the last three decades, Bayesian methods have developed greatly in the field of epidemiology. Their main challenge focusses around computation, but the advent of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) and in particular of the WinBUGS software has opened the doors of Bayesian modelling to the wide research community. However model complexity and database dimension still remain a constraint. Recently the use of Gaussian random fields has become increasingly popular in epidemiology as very often epidemiological data are characterised by a spatial and/or temporal structure which needs to be taken into account in the inferential process. The Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) approach has been developed as a computationally efficient alternative to MCMC and the availability of an R package (R-INLA) allows researchers to easily apply this method. In this paper we review the INLA approach and present some applications on spatial and spatio-temporal data. PMID:24377114

Blangiardo, Marta; Cameletti, Michela; Baio, Gianluca; Rue, Håvard

2013-12-01

98

Spatial and spatio-temporal models with R-INLA.  

PubMed

During the last three decades, Bayesian methods have developed greatly in the field of epidemiology. Their main challenge focusses around computation, but the advent of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) and in particular of the WinBUGS software has opened the doors of Bayesian modelling to the wide research community. However model complexity and database dimension still remain a constraint. Recently the use of Gaussian random fields has become increasingly popular in epidemiology as very often epidemiological data are characterised by a spatial and/or temporal structure which needs to be taken into account in the inferential process. The Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) approach has been developed as a computationally efficient alternative to MCMC and the availability of an R package (R-INLA) allows researchers to easily apply this method. In this paper we review the INLA approach and present some applications on spatial and spatio-temporal data. PMID:23481252

Blangiardo, Marta; Cameletti, Michela; Baio, Gianluca; Rue, Håvard

2013-03-01

99

Spatio-temporal dynamics in transitional shear flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal dynamics of transition pipe flow is dominated by the interplay between a local decay of turbulent puffs and the spreading of turbulence to neighboring regions. Much of the dynamics can be captured by a cellular model with two parameters that describe the local persistence and the spreading. The model shows a transition from a transient turbulence to a persistent one for sufficiently strong spreading. The bulk properties of the model fall into the universality class of 1+1-d directed percolation. The model can also be used to analyze the dynamics of local excitations. These localized excitations show an initial phase of spreading, which is followed by a slower spreading in the parameter range of persistent turbulence, or a contraction and a decay for transient turbulence. The observations are also compared to observations on turbulent spots in plane Couette flow.

Eckhardt, Bruno; Allhoff, Korinna

2011-11-01

100

Spatio-temporal population estimates for risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimation of population at risk from hazards and effective emergency management of events require not just appropriate spatio-temporal modelling of hazards but also of population. While much recent effort has been focused on improving the modelling and predictions of hazards (both natural and anthropogenic), there has been little parallel advance in the measurement or modelling of population statistics. Different hazard types occur over diverse temporal cycles, are of varying duration and differ significantly in their spatial extent. Even events of the same hazard type, such as flood events, vary markedly in their spatial and temporal characteristics. Conceptually and pragmatically then, population estimates should also be available for similarly varying spatio-temporal scales. Routine population statistics derived from traditional censuses or surveys are usually static representations in both space and time, recording people at their place of usual residence on census/survey night and presenting data for administratively defined areas. Such representations effectively fix the scale of population estimates in both space and time, which is unhelpful for meaningful risk management. Over recent years, the Pop24/7 programme of research, based at the University of Southampton (UK), has developed a framework for spatio-temporal modelling of population, based on gridded population surfaces. Based on a data model which is fully flexible in terms of space and time, the framework allows population estimates to be produced for any time slice relevant to the data contained in the model. It is based around a set of origin and destination centroids, which have capacities, spatial extents and catchment areas, all of which can vary temporally, such as by time of day, day of week, season. A background layer, containing information on features such as transport networks and landuse, provides information on the likelihood of people being in certain places at specific times. Unusual patterns associated with special events can also be modelled and the framework is fully volume preserving. Outputs from the model are gridded population surfaces for the specified time slice, either for total population or by sub-groups (e.g. age). Software to implement the models (SurfaceBuilder247) has been developed and pre-processed layers for typical time slices for England and Wales in 2001 and 2006 are available for UK academic purposes. The outputs and modelling framework from the Pop24/7 programme provide significant opportunities for risk management applications. For estimates of mid- to long-term cumulative population exposure to hazards, such as in flood risk mapping, populations can be produced for numerous time slices and integrated with flood models. For applications in emergency response/ management, time-specific population models can be used as seeds for agent-based models or other response/behaviour models. Estimates for sub-groups of the population also permit exploration of vulnerability through space and time. This paper outlines the requirements for effective spatio-temporal population models for risk management. It then describes the Pop24/7 framework and illustrates its potential for risk management through presentation of examples from natural and anthropogenic hazard applications. The paper concludes by highlighting key challenges for future research in this area.

Cockings, Samantha; Martin, David; Smith, Alan; Martin, Rebecca

2013-04-01

101

Entropy quantification of human brain spatio-temporal dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a procedure to quantify spatio-temporal dynamics applied here to brain surface recordings during three distinct cognitive tasks. The method uses 19 sites of EEG recording as spatial embedding for the reconstruction of trajectories, global and local linear indices, and non-linear forecasting methods to quantify the global and local information loss of the dynamics (K-entropy). We show that K-entropy can differentiate between raw and multivariate phase random surrogate data in a significant percentage of EEG segments, and that relevant non-linear indices are best studied in time segments not longer than 4s. We also find a certain complementarity between local non-linear and linear indices for the discrimination between the three cognitive tasks. Moreover, localized projections onto electrode site of K-entropy provide a new kind of brain mapping with functional significance.

Pezard, Laurent; Martinerie, Jacques; Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Varela, Francisco J.; Renault, Bernard

102

Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

2012-04-01

103

Facilitating Integrated Spatio-Temporal Visualization and Analysis of Heterogeneous Archaeological and Palaeoenvironmental Research Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 "Our way to Europe" (CRC806), a research database is developed for integrating data from the disciplines of archaeology, the geosciences and the cultural sciences to facilitate integrated access to heterogeneous data sources. A practice-oriented data integration concept and its implementation is presented in this contribution. The data integration approach is based on the application of Semantic Web Technology and is applied to the domains of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data. The aim is to provide integrated spatio-temporal access to an existing wealth of data to facilitate research on the integrated data basis. For the web portal of the CRC806 research database (CRC806-Database), a number of interfaces and applications have been evaluated, developed and implemented for exposing the data to interactive analysis and visualizations.

Willmes, C.; Brocks, S.; Hoffmeister, D.; Hütt, C.; Kürner, D.; Volland, K.; Bareth, G.

2012-07-01

104

Spatio-temporal distribution of energy radiation from low frequency tremor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent fine-scale hypocenter locations of low frequency tremors (LFTs) estimated by cross-correlation technique (Shelly et al. 2006; Maeda et al. 2006) and new finding of very low frequency earthquake (Ito et al. 2007) suggest that these slow events occur at the plate boundary associated with slow slip events (Obara and Hirose, 2006). However, the number of tremor detected by above technique is limited since continuous tremor waveforms are too complicated. Although an envelope correlation method (ECM) (Obara, 2002) enables us to locate epicenters of LFT without arrival time picks, however, ECM fails to locate LFTs precisely especially on the most active stage of tremor activity because of the low-correlation of envelope amplitude. To reveal total energy release of LFT, here we propose a new method for estimating the location of LFTs together with radiated energy from the tremor source by using envelope amplitude. The tremor amplitude observed at NIED Hi-net stations in western Shikoku simply decays in proportion to the reciprocal of the source-receiver distance after the correction of site- amplification factor even though the phases of the tremor are very complicated. So, we model the observed mean square envelope amplitude by time-dependent energy radiation with geometrical spreading factor. In the model, we do not have origin time of the tremor since we assume that the source of the tremor continuously radiates the energy. Travel-time differences between stations estimated by the ECM technique also incorporated in our locating algorithm together with the amplitude information. Three-component 1-hour Hi-net velocity continuous waveforms with a pass-band of 2-10 Hz are used for the inversion after the correction of site amplification factors at each station estimated by coda normalization method (Takahashi et al. 2005) applied to normal earthquakes in the region. The source location and energy are estimated by applying least square inversion to the 1-min window iteratively. As a first application of our method, we estimated the spatio-temporal distribution of energy radiation for 2006 May episodic tremor and slip event occurred in western Shikoku, Japan, region. Tremor location and their radiated energy are estimated for every 1 minute. We counted the number of located LFTs and summed up their total energy at each grid having 0.05-degree spacing at each day to figure out the spatio-temporal distribution of energy release of tremors. The resultant spatial distribution of radiated energy is concentrated at a specific region. Additionally, we see the daily change of released energy, both of location and amount, which corresponds to the migration of tremor activity. The spatio-temporal distribution of energy radiation of tremors is in good agreement with a spatio-temporal slip distribution of slow slip event estimated from Hi-net tiltmeter record (Hirose et al. 2007). This suggests that small continuous tremors occur associated with a rupture process of slow slip.

Maeda, T.; Obara, K.

2007-12-01

105

A Hybrid Spatio-Temporal Data Indexing Method for Trajectory Databases  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type. PMID:25051028

Ke, Shengnan; Gong, Jun; Li, Songnian; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yeting

2014-01-01

106

Spatio-temporal relationships between feral hogs and cattle with implicatons for disease transmission  

E-print Network

) could harbor and shed disease in areas used by domestic livestock such as cattle (Bos taurus). Extent of risk logically depends on spatio-temporal interactions between species. I used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on cattle and hogs...

Deck, Aubrey Lynn

2007-09-17

107

Towards Duplicate Detection for Situation Awareness Based on Spatio-Temporal Relations  

E-print Network

Towards Duplicate Detection for Situation Awareness Based on Spatio-Temporal Relations Norbert, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria Abstract. Systems supporting situation awareness typically integrate detection methods exist, a recent survey revealed that the character- istics of situation awareness

Hochreiter, Sepp

108

Spatio-temporal variability and predictability of summer monsoon onset over the Philippines  

E-print Network

1 Spatio-temporal variability and predictability of summer monsoon onset over the Philippines V + International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, USA * Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, Manila, Philippines Submitted to Climate Dynamics

Robertson, Andrew W.

109

Workload induced spatio-temporal distortions and safety of flight  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical analysis of the relationship between cognitive complexity and the perception of time and distance is presented and experimentally verified. Complex tasks produce high rates of mental representation which affect the subjective sense of duration and, through the subjective time scale, the percept of distance derived from dynamic visual cues (i.e., visual cues requiring rate integration). The analysis of the interrelationship of subjective time and subjective distance yields the prediction that, as a function of cognitive complexity, distance estimates derived from dynamic visual cues will be longer than the actual distance whereas estimates based on perceived temporal duration will be shorter than the actual distance. This prediction was confirmed in an experiment in which subjects (both pilots and non-pilots) estimated distances using either temporal cues or dynamic visual cues. The distance estimation task was also combined with secondary loading tasks in order to vary the overall task complexity. The results indicated that distance estimates based on temporal cues were underestimated while estimates based on visual cues were overestimated. This spatio-temporal distortion effect increased with increases in overall task complexity. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Barrett, C.L.; Weisgerber, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (USA))

1989-01-01

110

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Early Brain Development  

PubMed Central

Analysis of human brain development is a crucial step for improved understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders. We focus on normal brain development as is observed in the multimodal longitudinal MRI/DTI data of neonates to two years of age. We present a spatio-temporal analysis framework using Gompertz function as a population growth model with three different spatial localization strategies: voxel-based, data driven clustering and atlas driven regional analysis. Growth models from multimodal imaging channels collected at each voxel form feature vectors which are clustered using the Dirichlet Process Mixture Models (DPMM). Clustering thus combines growth information from different modalities to subdivide the image into voxel groups with similar properties. The processing generates spatial maps that highlight the dynamic progression of white matter development. These maps show progression of white matter maturation where primarily, central regions mature earlier compared to the periphery, but where more subtle regional differences in growth can be observed. Atlas based analysis allows a quantitative analysis of a specific anatomical region, whereas data driven clustering identifies regions of similar growth patterns. The combination of these two allows us to investigate growth patterns within an anatomical region. Specifically, analysis of anterior and posterior limb of internal capsule show that there are different growth trajectories within these anatomies, and that it may be useful to divide certain anatomies into subregions with distinctive growth patterns.

Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

2013-01-01

111

Research of spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural pest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase of agricultural pest disasters in recent years has become one of major problems in agriculture harvest; how to predict and control the disasters of agricultural pest has thus attracted great research interest. Although a series of works have been done and some achievements have been attained, the knowledge in this area remains limited. The migration of agricultural pest is not only related to the time variation, but also the space; consequently, the population of agricultural pest has complex spatio-temporal characteristics. The space factor and the temporal factor must be considered at the same time in the research of dynamics changes of the pest population. Using plant hoppers as an object of study, this study employed the biological analogy deviation model to study the distribution of pest population in different periods of time in Guangdong Province. It is demonstrated that the population distribution of plant hoppers is not only related to the space location, but also has a certain direction. The result reported here offers help to the monitor, prevention and control of plant hoppers in Guangdong Provinces.

Wang, Changwei; Li, Deren; Hu, Yueming; Wu, Xiaofang; Qi, Yu

2009-10-01

112

Spatio-Temporal Self-Organization in Mudstones (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shales and other mudstones are the most abundant rock types in sedimentary basins, yet have received comparatively little attention. Common as hydrocarbon seals, these are increasingly being targeted as unconventional gas reservoirs, caprocks for CO2 sequestration, and storage repositories for waste. The small pore and grain size, large specific surface areas, and clay mineral structures lend themselves to rapid reaction rates, high capillary pressures, and semi-permeable membrane behavior accompanying changes in stress, pressure, temperature and chemical conditions. Under far from equilibrium conditions, mudrocks display a variety of spatio-temporal self-organized phenomena arising from nonlinear thermo-mechano-chemo-hydro coupling. Beginning with a detailed examination of nano-scale pore network structures in mudstones, we discuss the dynamics behind such self-organized phenomena as pressure solitons in unconsolidated muds, chemically-induced flow self focusing and permeability transients, localized compaction, time dependent well-bore failure, and oscillatory osmotic fluxes as they occur in clay-bearing sediments. Examples are draw from experiments, numerical simulation, and the field. These phenomena bear on the ability of these rocks to serve as containment barriers. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

Dewers, T. A.

2010-12-01

113

Spatio-Temporal Human Grip Force Analysis via Sensor Arrays.  

PubMed

This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter grip rod that subjects could either move actively with their fingers in the horizontal direction or exert reactive forces against opposing forces generated in the rod by a linear motor. The sensor array film was attached to the rod by adhesive tape and covered approximately 45 cm(2) of the rod surface. The sensor density was 4/cm(2) with each sensor having a force resolution of 0.1 N. A scan across all sensors resulted in a corresponding frame containing force values at a frame repetition rate of 150/s. The force value of a given sensor was interpreted as a pixel value resulting in a false-colour image. Based on remote sensed image analysis an algorithm was developed to distinguish significant force-representing pixels from those affected by noise. This allowed tracking of the position of identified fingers in subsequent frames such that spatio-temporal grip force profiles for individual fingers could be derived. Moreover, the algorithm allowed simultaneous measurement of forces exerted without any constraints on the number of fingers or on the position of the fingers. The system is thus well suited for basic and clinical research in human physiology as well as for studies in psychophysics. PMID:22454588

Kutz, Dieter F; Wölfel, Alexander; Meindl, Tobias; Timmann, Dagmar; Kolb, Florian P

2009-01-01

114

Spatio-temporally smoothed coherence factor for ultrasound imaging.  

PubMed

Coherence-factor-like beamforming methods, such as the coherence factor (CF), the phase coherence factor (PCF), or the sign coherence factor (SCF), have been applied to suppress side and/or grating lobes and clutter in ultrasound imaging. These adaptive weighting factors can be implemented effectively with low computational complexity to improve image contrast properties. However, because of low SNR, the resulting images may suffer from deficiencies, including reduced overall image brightness, increased speckle variance, black-region artifacts surrounding hyperechoic objects, and underestimated magnitudes of point targets. To overcome these artifacts, a new spatio-temporal smoothing procedure is introduced to the CF method. It results in a smoothed coherence factor which measures the signal coherence among the beamsums of the divided subarrays over the duration of a transmit pulse. In addition, the procedure is extended to the SCF using the sign bits of the received signals. Simulated and real experimental data sets demonstrate that the proposed methods can improve the robustness of the CF and SCF with reduced speckle variance and significant removal of black-region artifacts, while preserving the ability to suppress clutter. Consequently, image contrast can be enhanced, especially for anechoic cysts. PMID:24402905

Xu, Mengling; Yang, Xin; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

2014-01-01

115

Spatio-temporal ranging behaviour and its relevance to foraging strategies in wide-ranging wolverines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of carnivores in an increasingly changing environment is greatly helped by understanding the decision-making processes underlying habitat patch choice. Foraging theory may give us insight into spatio-temporal search patterns and consequent foraging decisions that carnivores make in heterogeneous and fluctuating environments. Constraints placed on central-place foragers in particular are likely to influence both foraging decisions and related spatio-temporal movement

Roel May; Jiska van Dijk; Arild Landa; Roy Andersen; Reidar Andersen

2010-01-01

116

Lips and Jaw Movements for Vowels and Consonants: Spatio-Temporal Characteristics and Bimodal Recognition Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the spatio-temporal characteristics of lips and jaw movements and on their relevance for lip-reading, bimodal communication theory and bimodal recognition applications. 3D visible articulatory targets for vowels and consonants are proposed. Relevant modifications on the spatio- temporal consonant targets due to coarticulatory phenomena are exemplified. When visual parameters are added to acoustic ones as inputs to

Piero Cosi; Emanuela Magno Caldognetto

117

Western Antarctic Peninsula physical oceanography and spatio temporal variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on 12 years of physical oceanography data, collected during the Palmer, Antarctica, Long-Term Ecological Research program (PAL LTER) over the continental margin of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The dataset offers the most long-lived consistent CTD-gridded observations of Antarctic waters collected anywhere in the Southern Ocean. The physical characteristics, water column structure and spatio-temporal variability of the various properties are examined for physically consistent and ecologically important patterns and modes of variability. Unique findings of note include: (1) The average annual ocean heat flux (to the atmosphere) over the continental shelf shows a decreasing trend through time averaging 0.6 W m -2 yr -1, with an annual average ocean heat flux of ˜19 W m -2. The ocean heat content over the shelf shows a linearly increasing trend of 2.6×10 7 J m -2yr -1, due predominantly to increased upwelling of warm Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) onto the shelf with a small contribution due to a slight warming of UCDW (but over longer time scales (50 yr), the warming of UCDW dominates), (2) optimal multi-annual average vertical turbulent diffusivity coefficient ( k z) is ˜8.5×10 -5 m 2s -1, determined by inversion considering warming of trapped remnant winter mixed layer water, (3) the water masses in the grid are well separated according to bathymetrically controlled features, dividing the sample domain into 3 sub-regions: slope, shelf and coastal waters; (4) the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) was always present along the shelf-break (consistent with the Orsi et al. [1995. On the meridional extent and fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Research I 42 (5), 641-673.] climatology) where UCDW shows its farthest southern extent and forms the Southern ACC Front (SACCF). The spatio-temporal variability of the delivery and distribution of ocean heat is dictated by the dynamics that are consistent with changes in the state of ENSO (La Niña drives enhanced upwelling in this region) and in the strength of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM; +SAM drives a local response similar to that of La Niña). The large 1997-1998 El Niño, followed by the transition to the strong La Niña of 1998-1999 (amplified by a large +SAM) introduced a regime shift on the shelf, resulting in the elimination of ˜0.5 m of sea ice melt (presumably from the loss of sea ice being grown). 2002 was an anomalous year coinciding with an extraordinary storm forcing driving a 4.5 ? increase in the heat content on the shelf. These jumps coincide with considerable changes in sea ice distribution as well. Pure UCDW on the shelf is primarily restricted to the deep canyons, with occasional appearances on the shelf floor near the middle of the grid. Anomalies in summer sea surface temperatures reflect wind strength (stronger winds mixing more cold winter water to the surface, with cooler SST; light winds, the opposite).

Martinson, Douglas G.; Stammerjohn, Sharon E.; Iannuzzi, Richard A.; Smith, Raymond C.; Vernet, Maria

2008-09-01

118

Ultrashort relativistic electron bunches and spatio-temporal radiation biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensive developments of terawatt Ti:Sa lasers permit to extend laser-plasma interactions into the relativistic regime, providing very-short electron or proton bunches. Experimental researches developed at the interface of laser physics and radiation biology, using the combination of sub-picosecond electron beams in the energy range 2-15 MeV with femtosecond near-IR optical pulses might conjecture the real-time investigation of penetrating radiation effects. A perfect synchronization between the particle beam (pump) and optical beam at 820 nm (probe) allows subpicosecond time resolution. This emerging domain involves high-energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF) for which the early spatial energy deposition is decisive for the prediction of cellular and tissular radiation damages. With vacuum-focused intensities of 2.7 x 1019 W cm-2 and a high energy electron total charge of 2.5 nC, radiation events have been investigated in the temporal range 10-13 - 10-10s. The early radiation effects of secondary electron on biomolecular sensors may be investigated inside sub-micrometric ionisation, considering the radial direction of Gaussian electron bunches. It is shown that short range electron-biosensor interactions lower than 10 A take place in nascent track structures triggered by penetrating radiation bunches. The very high dose delivery 1013 Gy s-1 performed with laser plasma accelerator may challenge our understanding of nanodosimetry on the time scale of molecular target motions. High-quality ultrashort penetrating radiation beams open promising opportunities for the development of spatio-temporal radiation biology, a crucial domain of cancer therapy, and would favor novating applications in nanomedicine such as highly-selective shortrange pro-drug activation.

Gauduel, Y. A.; Faure, J.; Malka, V.

2008-08-01

119

Spatio-temporal coupling of EEG signals in epilepsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 1% of the world's population suffer from epileptic seizures throughout their lives that mostly come without sign or warning. Thus, epilepsy is the most common chronical disorder of the neurological system. In the past decades, the problem of detecting a pre-seizure state in epilepsy using EEG signals has been addressed in many contributions by various authors over the past two decades. Up to now, the goal of identifying an impending epileptic seizure with sufficient specificity and reliability has not yet been achieved. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are characterized by local couplings of dynamical systems of comparably low complexity. Thus, they are well suited for an implementation as highly parallel analogue processors. Programmable sensor-processor realizations of CNN combine high computational power comparable to tera ops of digital processors with low power consumption. An algorithm allowing an automated and reliable detection of epileptic seizure precursors would be a"huge step" towards the vision of an implantable seizure warning device that could provide information to patients and for a time/event specific treatment directly in the brain. Recent contributions have shown that modeling of brain electrical activity by solutions of Reaction-Diffusion-CNN as well as the application of a CNN predictor taking into account values of neighboring electrodes may contribute to the realization of a seizure warning device. In this paper, a CNN based predictor corresponding to a spatio-temporal filter is applied to multi channel EEG data in order to identify mutual couplings for different channels which lead to a enhanced prediction quality. Long term EEG recordings of different patients are considered. Results calculated for these recordings with inter-ictal phases as well as phases with seizures will be discussed in detail.

Senger, Vanessa; Müller, Jens; Tetzlaff, Ronald

2011-05-01

120

Modeling sediment transport as a spatio-temporal Markov process.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a century of research about sediment transport by bedload occuring in rivers, its constitutive laws remain largely unknown. The proof being that our ability to predict mid-to-long term transported volumes within reasonable confidence interval is almost null. The intrinsic fluctuating nature of bedload transport may be one of the most important reasons why classical approaches fail. Microscopic probabilistic framework has the advantage of taking into account these fluctuations at the particle scale, to understand their effect on the macroscopic variables such as sediment flux. In this framework, bedload transport is seen as the random motion of particles (sand, gravel, pebbles...) over a two-dimensional surface (the river bed). The number of particles in motion, as well as their velocities, are random variables. In this talk, we show how a simple birth-death Markov model governing particle motion on a regular lattice accurately reproduces the spatio-temporal correlations observed at the macroscopic level. Entrainment, deposition and transport of particles by the turbulent fluid (air or water) are supposed to be independent and memoryless processes that modify the number of particles in motion. By means of the Poisson representation, we obtained a Fokker-Planck equation that is exactly equivalent to the master equation and thus valid for all cell sizes. The analysis shows that the number of moving particles evolves locally far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Several analytical results are presented and compared to experimental data. The index of dispersion (or variance over mean ratio) is proved to grow from unity at small scales to larger values at larger scales confirming the non Poisonnian behavior of bedload transport. Also, we study the one and two dimensional K-function, which gives the average number of moving particles located in a ball centered at a particle centroid function of the ball's radius.

Heyman, Joris; Ancey, Christophe

2014-05-01

121

Spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for signal detection from image sequences  

PubMed Central

Detection of signals in noisy images is necessary in many applications, including astronomy and medical imaging. The optimal linear observer for performing a detection task, called the Hotelling observer in the medical literature, can be regarded as a generalization of the familiar prewhitening matched filter. Performance on the detection task is limited by randomness in the image data, which stems from randomness in the object, randomness in the imaging system, and randomness in the detector outputs due to photon and readout noise, and the Hotelling observer accounts for all of these effects in an optimal way. If multiple temporal frames of images are acquired, the resulting data set is a spatio-temporal random process, and the Hotelling observer becomes a spatio-temporal linear operator. This paper discusses the theory of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer and estimation of the required spatio-temporal covariance matrices. It also presents a parallel implementation of the observer on a cluster of Sony PLAYSTATION 3 gaming consoles. As an example, we consider the use of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for exoplanet detection. PMID:19550494

Caucci, Luca; Barrett, Harrison H.; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-01

122

In-situ image data capturing and spatio-temporal data management in the context of a multi-hazard risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of the spatio-temporal variability of exposure and vulnerability indicators for risk assessments is dependent not only on the amount and quality of the data upon which the assessment is made, but also on the tools and methodologies employed to capture, store, manage and analyse the information. Spatio-temporal changes need to be properly integrated into a sound, comprehensive conceptual and methodological framework, which is able to deal with multi-dimensional data coming from different sources, at varying scales and changing over time. Commonly used approaches to capture data about an exposed building stock with respect to its physical characteristics and vulnerability usually entail a detailed (inside and outside) screening of buildings by structural engineers. These approaches are often not suitable for the rapidly changing spatio-temporal conditions in many present-day cities, and moreover do not often scale well with end-user's limited resource allocation. Also purely satellite-based approaches, which are used as time- and cost-effective alternative, show limitations in that they are only capable of providing information about vulnerability-related characteristics that can be assessed from the top view. This work, therefore, introduces a methodological and technical framework to combine remote sensing with in-situ image data capturing to overcome the limitations of previous approaches. A novel mobile mapping system and Remote Rapid Visual Screening (RRVS) technique based on omnidirectional imaging is presented. A key objective of this work is, moreover, to present a prototype spatio-temporal database system that functions as basis for the storage and management of data from different sources, at varying scales and changing over time. Examples from our study sites in Central Asia and Germany will be presented to highlight the application of the proposed approach.

Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

2014-05-01

123

Spatio-temporal soil moisture distribution in a Maize field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal distribution of water content is important for predicting water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone. In a cropped field, this distribution is affected by the interception and redistribution of water by the plants, by surface runoff, by root water uptake, and by the distribution of soil hydraulic properties and boundary conditions of the system. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plant root water uptake, soil structure and flow field variability. An experimental plot in a Maize field was installed in July 2009 and measurements were performed between the 23 of July and the 21 of September 2009. Upper boundary conditions were followed with a weather station, while drainage was estimated with deep tensiometers (1.4 m). Four TDR profiles (14 TDR probes at 10, 30, 70 and 125 cm depth) perpendicular to two maize rows were monitored every hour. In addition, a square grid of 76 surface electrodes and 8 boreholes each with 7 electrodes (5, 15, 30, 50, 75, 105 and 140 cm deep) were inserted in the maize field to evaluate the 3-D distribution of the electrical conductivity by ERT. Weekly ERT measurements were performed. Subsequently, the ERT and TDR data were used to estimate the soil moisture dynamics based on petrophysical relationships. We performed root profiles at four times during the experiment to quantify the root distribution. This allowed us to investigate the relationship between plant root water uptake and soil moisture dynamics. After the growing season, a dye tracer experiment was conducted on a 1.4 m-side square, to assess the influence of roots and macropores in water infiltration. The results show the importance of using depth electrodes to estimate the vertical distribution of water content accurately. A high measurement resolution allowed us to observe the 3-D soil water content variability. During the growing season, we observed an increase in the coefficient of variation of soil water content when the soil becomes drier. This is in agreement with the results obtained by Hupet and Vanclooster (2005). Water dynamics in the topsoil was higher than in the lower layer. It seems that the distribution of water content at the end of the growing season was significantly influenced by the row / inter-row of maize and therefore by root water uptake. This highlights the importance of seeding patterns on soil moisture distribution in a field. Reference: F. Hupet and A. Vanclooster. Micro-variability of hydrological processes at the maize row scale: implications for soil water content measurements and evapotranspiration estimates. Journal Of Hydrology, 303(1-4):247-270, March 2005.

Beff, Laure; Couvreur, Valentin; Javaux, Mathieu

2010-05-01

124

Geovisualization Approaches for Spatio-temporal Crime Scene Analysis - Towards 4D Crime Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.

Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut

125

Low-complexity algorithms for spatio-temporal directional spectrum sensing with applications in cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suit of low complexity signal processing algorithms are identified for the directional spectrum sensing and two-dimensional (2-D) spatio-temporal white space detection in cognitive radio systems. The concept of spectral white spaces in 2-D spatio-temporal frequency space is reviewed based on the specific spectral properties of 2-D spatio-temporal array signals. The proposed system contains an array processing stage, magnitude-fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) stage followed by an energy detection stage. The use of 2-D infinite impulse response (IIR) filters having beam-shaped passbands in the 2-D frequency space is identi_ed as a low complexity solution for the array processing stage for the directional enhancement of radio signals. A low complexity algorithm that delivers the magnitude FFT is described for the 16-point case and computational complexity is expressed in closed-form.

Madanayake, Arjuna; Wijenayake, Chamith; Potluri, Uma; Abeysekara, Judith; Mugler, Dale

2013-05-01

126

Electrical brain imaging reveals spatio-temporal dynamics of timbre perception in humans.  

PubMed

Timbre is a major attribute of sound perception and a key feature for the identification of sound quality. Here, we present event-related brain potentials (ERPs) obtained from sixteen healthy individuals while they discriminated complex instrumental tones (piano, trumpet, and violin) or simple sine wave tones that lack the principal features of timbre. Data analysis yielded enhanced N1 and P2 responses to instrumental tones relative to sine wave tones. Furthermore, we applied an electrical brain imaging approach using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to estimate the neural sources of N1/P2 responses. Separate significance tests of instrumental vs. sine wave tones for N1 and P2 revealed distinct regions as principally governing timbre perception. In an initial stage (N1), timbre perception recruits left and right (peri-)auditory fields with an activity maximum over the right posterior Sylvian fissure (SF) and the posterior cingulate (PCC) territory. In the subsequent stage (P2), we uncovered enhanced activity in the vicinity of the entire cingulate gyrus. The involvement of extra-auditory areas in timbre perception may imply the presence of a highly associative processing level which might be generally related to musical sensations and integrates widespread medial areas of the human cortex. In summary, our results demonstrate spatio-temporally distinct stages in timbre perception which not only involve bilateral parts of the peri-auditory cortex but also medially situated regions of the human brain associated with emotional and auditory imagery functions. PMID:16798014

Meyer, Martin; Baumann, Simon; Jancke, Lutz

2006-10-01

127

Spatio-temporal variability of meteorological and hydrologic droughts in typical closed glacial basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of meteorological droughts from March 1961 to Feburary 2001 in Tarim Basin by using Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) incorporating potential evapotranspiration is presented, while hydrological droughts within the source region of Tarim River were also recognized based on Streamflow Drought Index (SDI). To assess spatio-temporal variability of meteorological droughts, a principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the RDI series, four well-defined parts with different temporal evolution of droughts were identified (north, south, west and east parts of Tarim Basin). With a focus on the north and south part, where three most important headstreams including Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River were distributed, the relationship between meteorological and hydrolgical droughts was investigated in multiple timescales (1,3,6,12 months) comparison between SDI series and the corresponding RDI principal components through the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm (FFT). This study aims to reveal complexities of hydrologic cycle over this closed basin where glacier melting plays a very active role and how the meteorological and hydrological droughts affect each other under regional climate change.

Li, Z.; Li, J.; Hao, Z.; Chen, S.

2012-04-01

128

Geographical information system (GIS) mapping of spatio-temporal pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposures as a part of environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management. In this study, an information system was developed to manage the physico-chemical pollution information of Ibadan river system, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. The study took into account the seasonal influences of point and non-point discharges on the levels of physico-chemical parameters. The overall sensitivity of the watershed to physicochemical environmental pollution revealed that during dry season, of the 22 (100%) sample points, only 3 (13.6%) were unpolluted; 6 (27.3%) were slightly polluted; 10(45.4%) were moderately polluted; 2 (9.1%) were seriously polluted and 1 (4.5%) was exceptionally polluted. During rainy season, 3 (13.6%) were unpolluted; 7 (31.8%) were slightly polluted; 9 (40.9%) were moderately polluted; 2 (9.1%) were seriously polluted and 1 (4.5%) was exceptionally polluted. There is a considerable environmental risk associated with the present level of pollution of the Ibadan river water body on fish health and biodiversity. This research provides a basis for aquatic management and assist in policy making at national and international levels. Appropriate strategies for the control of point and non-point pollution sources, amendments and enforcement of legislation should be developed. PMID:18810966

Adeyemo, Olanike K; Babalobi, Olutayo O

2008-04-01

129

An Accessible Method for Implementing Hierarchical Models with Spatio-Temporal Abundance Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A common goal in ecology and wildlife management is to determine the causes of variation in population dynamics over long periods of time and across large spatial scales. Many assumptions must nevertheless be overcome to make appropriate inference about spatio-temporal variation in population dynamics, such as autocorrelation among data points, excess zeros, and observation error in count data. To address these issues, many scientists and statisticians have recommended the use of Bayesian hierarchical models. Unfortunately, hierarchical statistical models remain somewhat difficult to use because of the necessary quantitative background needed to implement them, or because of the computational demands of using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms to estimate parameters. Fortunately, new tools have recently been developed that make it more feasible for wildlife biologists to fit sophisticated hierarchical Bayesian models (i.e., Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation, ‘INLA’). We present a case study using two important game species in North America, the lesser and greater scaup, to demonstrate how INLA can be used to estimate the parameters in a hierarchical model that decouples observation error from process variation, and accounts for unknown sources of excess zeros as well as spatial and temporal dependence in the data. Ultimately, our goal was to make unbiased inference about spatial variation in population trends over time.

Ross, Beth E.; Hooten, Melvin B.; Koons, David N.

2012-01-01

130

Structured Spatio-Temporal Shot-Noise Cox Point Process Models, with a View to Modelling Forest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatio-temporal Cox point process models with a multiplicative structure for the driving random intensity, incorporating covariate information into temporal and spatial components, and with a residual term modelled by a shot-noise process, are considered. Such models are flexible and tractable for statistical analysis, using spatio-temporal versions of intensity and inhomogeneous \\

JESPER MØLLER; CARLOS DÍAZ-AVALOS

2010-01-01

131

Spatio-temporal variation in the pollination mode of Buxus balearica (Buxaceae), an ambophilous and selfing species: mainland-island  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal variation in the pollination mode of Buxus balearica (Buxaceae), an ambophilous. 2005. Spatio-temporal variation in the pollination mode of Buxus balearica (Buxaceae), an ambophilous and selfing species: mainland-island comparison. Á/ Ecography 28: 640Á/652. Mixed-pollination systems may

Traveset, Anna

132

Spatio-temporal genetic variability in sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations from north-western Spain  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal genetic variability in sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations from north variation at five microsatellite loci was investigated in six sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations, sea trout Introduction The brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) presents two alternative life strategies

Posada, David

133

Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Morphable Models for Representation of complex movements for Imitation Learning  

E-print Network

and movement styles from tra- jectories in computer vision [10, 11]. To generalize the method of linearHierarchical Spatio-Temporal Morphable Models for Representation of complex movements for Imitation.ilg,martin.giese,goekhan.bakir,matthias.franz£ @tuebingen.mpg.de Abstract Imitation learning is a promising technique for teach- ing robots complex movement

134

Fast disparity estimation using spatio-temporal correlation of disparity field for multiview video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disparity estimation is adopted by multiview video coding (MVC) to reduce the inter-view redundancy. However, it consumes enormous computational load. In this paper, a fast disparity estimation is proposed by using the spatio-temporal correlation and the temporal variation of disparity field. For each macroblock, a temporal prediction of the disparity vector is calculated first by utilizing the smoothed disparity field

Wei Zhu; Xiang Tian; Fan Zhou; Yaowu Chen

2010-01-01

135

Spatio-temporal analysis of nucleate pool boiling: identication of nucleation sites using non-orthogonal  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal analysis of nucleate pool boiling: identi®cation of nucleation sites using non techniques. These limitations are especially evident in nucleate boiling. This paper investigates the analysis of a sequence of temperature ®elds obtained from a pool nucleate boiling experiment. Spatio

Stevenson, Paul

136

Panda: A Predictive Spatio-Temporal Query Processor Abdeltawab M. Hendawi Mohamed F. Mokbel  

E-print Network

Panda: A Predictive Spatio-Temporal Query Processor Abdeltawab M. Hendawi Mohamed F. Mokbel, mokbel}@cs.umn.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents the Panda system for efficient support of a wide variety, Panda targets long-term query prediction as it relies on adapting a well-designed long-term prediction

Mokbel, Mohamed F.

137

Learning Sets of Sub-Models for Spatio-Temporal Prediction  

E-print Network

a network of CCTV cameras. 1 Introduction Events over time may be described using a spatio-temporal data of CCTV cameras. Both of these approaches benefit from breaking the solution down into its component parts-model for each of the outcomes in the game. In the CCTV scenario this means learning the actions of single

Fernandez, Thomas

138

Mining Probabilistic Frequent Spatio-Temporal Sequential Patterns with Gap Constraints from Uncertain Databases  

E-print Network

Mining Probabilistic Frequent Spatio-Temporal Sequential Patterns with Gap Constraints from of Computing Science Simon Fraser University BC V5A 1S6, Canada Email: jpei@cs.sfu.ca Abstract in much interest in itemset mining for uncertain transaction databases. In this paper, we focus on pattern

Pei, Jian

139

Collaborative and competitive scenarios in spatio-temporal negotiation with agents of bounded rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spatio-temporal negotiation evaluating an o er for feasibility or utility often requires computationally expensive path planning, thus practical negotiation strategies can evaluate only a small subset of the possible o ers during o er formation. As equilibrium strate- gies are not practically possible, we are interested in strategies with bounded rationality, which achieve good performance in a wide range

Yi Luo; Ladislau Bölöni

140

Spatio-temporal variability of moisture conditions within the Urban Canopy Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶Re-analysed data from an urban climate research project in Munich, Germany, were used to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of moisture conditions (expressed here in vapour pressure VP) within the Urban Canopy Layer UCL. The results, which apply to three main sites and additional subsidiary ones, cover both summer and winter months. The summer month variation of VP is characterised

H. Mayer; A. Matzarakis; M. G. Iziomon

2003-01-01

141

A transformation class for spatio-temporal survival data with a cure fraction.  

PubMed

We propose a hierarchical Bayesian methodology to model spatially or spatio-temporal clustered survival data with possibility of cure. A flexible continuous transformation class of survival curves indexed by a single parameter is used. This transformation model is a larger class of models containing two special cases of the well-known existing models: the proportional hazard and the proportional odds models. The survival curve is modeled as a function of a baseline cumulative distribution function, cure rates, and spatio-temporal frailties. The cure rates are modeled through a covariate link specification and the spatial frailties are specified using a conditionally autoregressive model with time-varying parameters resulting in a spatio-temporal formulation. The likelihood function is formulated assuming that the single parameter controlling the transformation is unknown and full conditional distributions are derived. A model with a non-parametric baseline cumulative distribution function is implemented and a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is specified to obtain the usual posterior estimates, smoothed by regional level maps of spatio-temporal frailties and cure rates. Finally, we apply our methodology to melanoma cancer survival times for patients diagnosed in the state of New Jersey between 2000 and 2007, and with follow-up time until 2007. PMID:22514030

Hurtado Rúa, Sandra M; Dey, Dipak K

2012-04-18

142

A tool for construction of stochastic spatio-temporal models assimilated with observational data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework and a software tool has been developed to execute two important steps in the model development cycle of temporal numerical models simulating geographic change using rules of cause and effect. The first step supported by the tool is the software implementation of spatio- temporal models. This can be done with the tool by combining generic operations on 2D

Derek Karssenberg; Oliver Schmitz; Luis Manuel de Vries; Kor de Jong

2008-01-01

143

STFL: a spatio temporal filtering language with applications in assisted living  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the SpatioTemporal Filtering Lan- guage (STFL), which is a language framework that aims to provide the primitives for easily dening rules and sequences of rules and constraints. These sequences of rules can be used to convert low-level streams of sensor data into higher- level semantics and provide triggers for actuation. Among others STFL provides support

Athanasios Bamis; Andreas Savvides

2009-01-01

144

Spatio-temporal Granger causality: A new framework Qiang Luo a,b,1  

E-print Network

University, Shanghai 200433, PR China f Cuban Neuroscience Center, Ave 25 #15202 esquina 158, Cubanacan at the finer spatio-temporal scales considerably outperforms the traditional approach in terms of an improved (Evan et al., 2011), genetics (Zhu et al., 2010) and neuroscience (Ge et al., 2009, 2012; Guo et al

Feng, Jianfeng

145

On the Formal Analysis of a Spatio-Temporal Role-Based Access Control Model  

E-print Network

. Moreover, it has been successfully used in the modeling and analysis of real-world systems [10On the Formal Analysis of a Spatio-Temporal Role-Based Access Control Model Manachai Toahchoodee, for the purpose of our analysis. Alloy is supported by a software infrastructure that allows automated analysis

Ray, Indrakshi

146

FROM SINGLE POINT GAUGE TO SPATIO-TEMPORAL MEASUREMENT OF OCEAN WAVES PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES  

E-print Network

FROM SINGLE POINT GAUGE TO SPATIO-TEMPORAL MEASUREMENT OF OCEAN WAVES � PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES With the recent advancement of spatial measurements of ocean waves, we are clearly facing new challenges regarding world of truly spatial ocean waves. INTRODUCTION Since the first successful development of a wave gauge

147

SPATIO-TEMPORAL REGRESSION MODELS FOR DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON Giovana M. de Espindolaa  

E-print Network

SPATIO-TEMPORAL REGRESSION MODELS FOR DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON Giovana M. de change, spatial simultaneous autoregression ABSTRACT: Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has sharply of deforestation in a selected area by relating data from 2002-2008 to a number of explanatory variables, part

Camara, Gilberto

148

Cortical Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Underlying Phonological Target Detection in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selective processing of task-relevant stimuli is critical for goal-directed behavior. We used electrocorticography to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activation during a simple phonological target detection task, in which subjects press a button when a prespecified target syllable sound is heard. Simultaneous surface potential…

Chang, Edward F.; Edwards, Erik; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Fogelson, Noa; Dalal, Sarang S.; Canolty, Ryan T.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Knight, Robert T.

2011-01-01

149

VISUALISING THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT IN ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Motor Vehicle Theft (MVT) in Australia is as a serious problem with high social and economic costs. MVT is neither unique nor random, but rather tends to be unevenly distributed and has a spatial-temporalpattern. This study assesses and explains the spatio-temporal distribution of MVT within metropolitan Adelaide based on MVT incidences that occurred in 1999. In this exploratory spatial

Leakha M. Henry; Brett A. Bryan

2000-01-01

150

Gender discriminations at early stages of life in Asia 67 SPATIO-TEMPORAL TRENDS OF  

E-print Network

(SR) is employed as a good expression of the status of women in a society. It is the result of sex in the context of the Indian patriarchy. To the infanticide of newborn girls was added, some thirty years ago as the number of women per 1000 men. #12;Spatio-temporal trends of female discrimination in South India68 method

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Efficient Bayesian multivariate fMRI analysis using a sparsifying spatio-temporal prior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian logistic regression with a multivariate Laplace prior is introduced as a multivariate approach to the analysis of neuroimaging data. It is shown that, by rewriting the multivariate Laplace distribution as a scale mixture, we can incorporate spatio-temporal constraints which lead to smooth importance maps that facilitate subsequent interpretation. The posterior of interest is computed using an approximate inference method

Marcel A. J. van Gerven; Botond Cseke; Floris P. de Lange; Tom Heskes

2010-01-01

152

SPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND ESTIMATION OF OCEAN SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SATELLITE SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FIELDS  

E-print Network

Laboratory Technop^ole Brest-Iroise, France ABSTRACT The use of satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST of spatial and temporal information of Sea Surface Temperature (SST). By con- trast, satellite altimetersSPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND ESTIMATION OF OCEAN SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SATELLITE SEA SURFACE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp.) and their hosts  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp Summary 1. A 39-year bumblebee data base was used to study the codistribution of six cuckoo bumblebees in the subgenus Psythirus of Bombus (hereafter called Psythirus) and their free-living bumblebee hosts

Antonovics, Janis

154

Impacts of demographic and socioeconomic factors on spatio-temporal dynamics of panda habitat  

E-print Network

2004 Key words: Agent-based modeling, Giant panda conservation, Households, Human demography-temporal dynamics of wildlife habitat and local biodiversity. In the Wolong Nature Reserve (China) for giant panda-1 Impacts of demographic and socioeconomic factors on spatio-temporal dynamics of panda habitat LI

155

Ocean Wave Reconstruction Algorithms Based on Spatio-temporal Data Acquired by a Flash LIDAR Camera  

E-print Network

Ocean Wave Reconstruction Algorithms Based on Spatio-temporal Data Acquired by a Flash LIDAR Camera made with a high frequency ASC Flash LIDAR camera. We assume that the camera is mounted on a vessel, and simulated LIDAR data sets are constructed by performing geometric in- tersections of laser rays with each

Grilli, Stéphan T.

156

Adoption of cropping sequences in northeast Montana: A spatio-temporal analysis  

E-print Network

Adoption of cropping sequences in northeast Montana: A spatio- temporal analysis John A. Long a the decision to adopt a particular agricultural practice within a range of social, economic, environmental practices that are indicative of regionally changing agricultural practices: (1) the broad-scale adoption

Lawrence, Rick L.

157

Deterrence, Firearm Arrests, and Subsequent Shootings: A Micro-Level Spatio-Temporal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do police firearm arrests reduce later shootings in nearby locations and in the days immediately following the arrest? This question is examined at a more detailed level than in previous work in order to better describe the spatio-temporal dynamics linking these two event types. All firearm arrests (n = 5,687) and shootings (n = 5,870) in Philadelphia from 2004 to

Brian R. Wyant; Ralph B. Taylor; Jerry H. Ratcliffe; Jennifer Wood

2011-01-01

158

On fitting spatio-temporal disease mapping models using approximate Bayesian inference.  

PubMed

Spatio-temporal disease mapping comprises a wide range of models used to describe the distribution of a disease in space and its evolution in time. These models have been commonly formulated within a hierarchical Bayesian framework with two main approaches: an empirical Bayes (EB) and a fully Bayes (FB) approach. The EB approach provides point estimates of the parameters relying on the well-known penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) technique. The FB approach provides the posterior distribution of the target parameters. These marginal distributions are not usually available in closed form and common estimation procedures are based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. However, the spatio-temporal models used in disease mapping are often very complex and MCMC methods may lead to large Monte Carlo errors and a huge computation time if the dimension of the data at hand is large. To circumvent these potential inconveniences, a new technique called integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), based on nested Laplace approximations, has been proposed for Bayesian inference in latent Gaussian models. In this paper, we show how to fit different spatio-temporal models for disease mapping with INLA using the Leroux CAR prior for the spatial component, and we compare it with PQL via a simulation study. The spatio-temporal distribution of male brain cancer mortality in Spain during the period 1986-2010 is also analysed. PMID:24713158

Ugarte, María Dolores; Adin, Aritz; Goicoa, Tomas; Militino, Ana Fernandez

2014-12-01

159

Spatio-temporal foraging patterns of a giant zooplanktivore, the leatherback turtle Sabrina Fossette a,  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal foraging patterns of a giant zooplanktivore, the leatherback turtle Sabrina Keywords: Leatherback turtle Migration strategy Foraging behavior Zooplankton distribution Diving pattern-temporal foraging patterns in 21 leatherback turtles during their pluri-annual migration in the Northern Atlantic

Hays, Graeme

160

Linking spatio-temporal variation of crop response with sediment deposition along paddy rice terraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical mountainous regions of South East Asia, intensive cultivation of annual crops on steep slopes makes the area prone to erosion resulting in decreasing soil fertility. Sediment deposition in the valleys, however, can enhance soil fertility, depending on the quality of the sediments, and influence crop productivity. The aim of the study was to assess (i) the spatio-temporal variation

P. Schmitter; G. Dercon; T. Hilger; M. Hertel; J. Treffner; N. Lam; T. Duc Vien; G. Cadisch

2011-01-01

161

The electromagnetic fields and the radiation of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop  

E-print Network

The electric and magnetic fields of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop are calculated using the Jefimenko equations. The radiation and the nonradiation parts of the electromagnetic fields are derived in the framework of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic fields. In this way, a new, exact, analytical solution of the Maxwell equation is found.

Markus Lazar

2013-04-12

162

Spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients influenced by an altered land tenure system in China  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients influenced by an altered land tenure system in China Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China b Department of Land Management, Zhejiang

Zhang, Minghua

163

Research Training Group (Graduiertenkolleg) 1653 Spatio/Temporal Probabilistic Graphical Models  

E-print Network

and applied research in the field of computational image analysis using graphical models at the interfaceResearch Training Group (Graduiertenkolleg) 1653 Spatio/Temporal Probabilistic Graphical Models And Applications in Image Analysis The Research Training Group (RTG 1653) funded by the German Research Foundation

Heermann, Dieter W.

164

Long-Range Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Video with Application to Fire Detection  

E-print Network

variability over long time scales. 1.1 Related Work Prior work on fire monitoring [1­4] relies on color andLong-Range Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Video with Application to Fire Detection Avinash- mal mode. The motivating application is fire monitoring from remote stations, where illumination

Soatto, Stefano

165

Predicting spatio-temporal variability in fire return intervals using a topographic roughness index  

E-print Network

Predicting spatio-temporal variability in fire return intervals using a topographic roughness index Michael C. Stambaugh *, Richard P. Guyette Missouri Tree-Ring Laboratory, Department of Forestry, 203 of disturbances to propagate across the earth's surface, such as a wildland fire burning across a landscape. We

Stambaugh, Michael C

166

Spatio-temporal patterns of fish assemblages in a large regulated alluvial  

E-print Network

or to the nearest large woody debris. However, PLS regression revealed no significant differences in habitat of woody debris and lateral/longitudinal location. Eighteen fish species were sampled by electrofishingSpatio-temporal patterns of fish assemblages in a large regulated alluvial river. Freshwater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Spatio-temporal delays in a nutrient-plankton model on a finite  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal delays in a nutrient-plankton model on a finite domain: linear stability of a finite, one-dimen- sional domain. To illustrate the ideas we concentrate on a diffusive nutrient-plankton modelling the evolution of a plankton population feeding on nutrient that is supplied at a constant rate

Ruan, Shigui

168

Spatio-temporal parameters of gait measured by an ambulatory system using miniature gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we describe an ambulatory system for estimation of spatio-temporal parameters during long periods of walking. This original method based on wavelet analysis is proposed to compute the values of temporal gait parameters from the angular velocity of lower limbs. Based on a mechanical model, the medio-lateral rotation of the lower limbs during stance and swing, the stride

K. Aminian; B. Najafi; C. Büla; P.-F. Leyvraz; Ph. Robert

2002-01-01

169

Trajectory Parsing by Cluster Sampling in Spatio-temporal Graph Xiaobai Liu1,3  

E-print Network

Trajectory Parsing by Cluster Sampling in Spatio-temporal Graph Xiaobai Liu1,3 Liang Lin2,3 , Song of this paper is to parse object trajectories in surveillance video against occlusion, interruption trajectory parsing framework to track and preserve identity of multiple moving objects in a visual

Zhu, Song Chun

170

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery  

PubMed Central

Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinc; Kad?ogullar?, Ali Ihsan; Kucuk, Omer

2008-01-01

171

Blind source separation using Renyi's -marginal entropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently suggested the minimization of a nonparametric estimator of Renyi's mutual information as a criterion for blind source separation. Using a two-stage topology, consisting of spatial whitening and a series of Givens rotations, the cost function reduces to the sum of marginal entropies, just like in the Shannon's entropy case. Since we use a Parzen window density estimator

Deniz Erdogmus; Kenneth E. Hild II; José Carlos Príncipe

2002-01-01

172

Kernel-Based Nonlinear Blind Source Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose kTDSEP, a kernel-based algorithm for nonlinear blind source separation (BSS). It combines complementary research fields: kernel feature spaces and BSS using temporal information. This yields an efficient algorithm for nonlinear BSS with invertible nonlinearity. Key assumptions are that the kernel feature space is chosen rich enough to approximate the nonlinearity and that signals of interest contain temporal information.

Stefan Harmeling; Andreas Ziehe; Motoaki Kawanabe; Klaus-robert Müller

2003-01-01

173

Spatio-temporal changes in biomass carbon sinks in China's forests from 1977 to 2008.  

PubMed

Forests play a leading role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. Detailed assessment of the temporal and spatial changes in C sinks/sources of China's forests is critical to the estimation of the national C budget and can help to constitute sustainable forest management policies for climate change. In this study, we explored the spatio-temporal changes in forest biomass C stocks in China between 1977 and 2008, using six periods of the national forest inventory data. According to the definition of the forest inventory, China's forest was categorized into three groups: forest stand, economic forest, and bamboo forest. We estimated forest biomass C stocks for each inventory period by using continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method for forest stands, and the mean biomass density method for economic and bamboo forests. As a result, China's forests have accumulated biomass C (i.e., biomass C sink) of 1896 Tg (1 Tg=10(12) g) during the study period, with 1710, 108 and 78 Tg C in forest stands, and economic and bamboo forests, respectively. Annual forest biomass C sink was 70.2 Tg C a(-1), offsetting 7.8% of the contemporary fossil CO2 emissions in the country. The results also showed that planted forests have functioned as a persistent C sink, sequestrating 818 Tg C and accounting for 47.8% of total C sink in forest stands, and that the old-, mid- and young-aged forests have sequestrated 930, 391 and 388 Tg C from 1977 to 2008. Our results suggest that China's forests have a big potential as biomass C sink in the future because of its large area of planted forests with young-aged growth and low C density. PMID:23722235

Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Li, Pin; Li, Nuyun; Fang, Jingyun

2013-07-01

174

GABA-ergic control of visual perception in healthy volunteers: effects of midazolam, a benzodiazepine, on spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity.  

PubMed Central

1. We studied the effects of midazolam (MDZ), a benzodiazepine, on spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity, choice reaction time, and mood visual analogue scales in healthy volunteers. 2. Eight extensively trained, healthy volunteers were included in a placebo-controlled cross-over double-blind trial of MDZ (0.15 mg kg-1). Treatments were injected intramuscularly and evaluations were performed before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after drug administration. Spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity was measured using a micro-computer with appropriate software. Stimuli were vertical gratings with adjustable contrast, with spatial frequencies of 0.25, 1 and 4 cpd. Four conditions of temporal modulation were used: the grating was either static or drifting laterally with temporal frequencies of 1, 3 and 9 Hz. 3. An analysis of variance was performed on the data. As compared with placebo, MDZ induced an increase in choice reaction time and sedation (as assessed on visual analogue scales). From 0.5-4 h after the injection, MDZ produced an overall decrease in visual sensitivity, as compared with placebo. More specifically, MDZ preferentially affected medium to high spatial frequencies and low temporal frequencies. Several non-exclusive hypotheses may account for the results: 1) an increase in the size of the receptive fields, 2) a preferential effect on the visual parvocellular pathways which mediate the sensitivity to high spatial and low temporal frequencies. PMID:8398579

Blin, O; Mestre, D; Paut, O; Vercher, J L; Audebert, C

1993-01-01

175

GABA-ergic control of visual perception in healthy volunteers: effects of midazolam, a benzodiazepine, on spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity.  

PubMed

1. We studied the effects of midazolam (MDZ), a benzodiazepine, on spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity, choice reaction time, and mood visual analogue scales in healthy volunteers. 2. Eight extensively trained, healthy volunteers were included in a placebo-controlled cross-over double-blind trial of MDZ (0.15 mg kg-1). Treatments were injected intramuscularly and evaluations were performed before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after drug administration. Spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity was measured using a micro-computer with appropriate software. Stimuli were vertical gratings with adjustable contrast, with spatial frequencies of 0.25, 1 and 4 cpd. Four conditions of temporal modulation were used: the grating was either static or drifting laterally with temporal frequencies of 1, 3 and 9 Hz. 3. An analysis of variance was performed on the data. As compared with placebo, MDZ induced an increase in choice reaction time and sedation (as assessed on visual analogue scales). From 0.5-4 h after the injection, MDZ produced an overall decrease in visual sensitivity, as compared with placebo. More specifically, MDZ preferentially affected medium to high spatial frequencies and low temporal frequencies. Several non-exclusive hypotheses may account for the results: 1) an increase in the size of the receptive fields, 2) a preferential effect on the visual parvocellular pathways which mediate the sensitivity to high spatial and low temporal frequencies. PMID:8398579

Blin, O; Mestre, D; Paut, O; Vercher, J L; Audebert, C

1993-08-01

176

Spatio-temporal analysis in functional brain imaging  

E-print Network

Localizing sources of activity from electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements involves solving an ill-posed inverse problem, where infinitely many source distribution patterns can give rise ...

Ou, Wanmei

2010-01-01

177

Spatio-temporal pattern of viral meningitis in Michigan, 1993-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize Michigan's high viral meningitis incidence rates, 8,803 cases from 1993-2001 were analyzed for standard epidemiological indices, geographic distribution, and spatio-temporal clusters. Blacks and infants were found to be high-risk groups. Annual seasonality and interannual variability in epidemic magnitude were apparent. Cases were concentrated in southern Michigan, and cumulative incidence was correlated with population density at the county level (r=0.45, p<0.001). Kulldorff's Scan test identified the occurrence of spatio-temporal clusters in Lower Michigan during July-October 1998 and 2001 (p=0.01). More extensive data on cases, laboratory isolates, sociodemographics, and environmental exposures should improve detection and enhance the effectiveness of a Space-Time Information System aimed at prevention.

Greene, Sharon K.; Schmidt, Mark A.; Stobierski, Mary Grace; Wilson, Mark L.

2005-05-01

178

Sensing solutions for collecting spatio-temporal data for wildlife monitoring applications: a review.  

PubMed

Movement ecology is a field which places movement as a basis for understanding animal behavior. To realize this concept, ecologists rely on data collection technologies providing spatio-temporal data in order to analyze movement. Recently, wireless sensor networks have offered new opportunities for data collection from remote places through multi-hop communication and collaborative capability of the nodes. Several technologies can be used in such networks for sensing purposes and for collecting spatio-temporal data from animals. In this paper, we investigate and review technological solutions which can be used for collecting data for wildlife monitoring. Our aim is to provide an overview of different sensing technologies used for wildlife monitoring and to review their capabilities in terms of data they provide for modeling movement behavior of animals. PMID:23666132

Baratchi, Mitra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J M; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Bert A G

2013-01-01

179

Meteorological factors-based spatio-temporal mapping and predicting malaria in central China.  

PubMed

Despite significant reductions in the overall burden of malaria in the 20th century, this disease still represents a significant public health problem in China, especially in central areas. Understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria is essential in the planning and implementing of effective control measures. In this study, normalized meteorological factors were incorporated in spatio-temporal models. Seven models were established in WinBUGS software by using Bayesian hierarchical models and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. M?, M?, and M? modeled separate meteorological factors, and M?, which modeled rainfall performed better than M? and M?, which modeled average temperature and relative humidity, respectively. M? was the best fitting models on the basis of based on deviance information criterion and predicting errors. The results showed that the way rainfall influencing malaria incidence was different from other factors, which could be interpreted as rainfall having a greater influence than other factors. PMID:21896823

Huang, Fang; Zhou, Shuisen; Zhang, Shaosen; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Weidong

2011-09-01

180

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Collective Frog Choruses Examined by Mathematical Modeling and Field Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports theoretical and experimental studies on spatio-temporal dynamics in the choruses of male Japanese tree frogs. First, we theoretically model their calling times and positions as a system of coupled mobile oscillators. Numerical simulation of the model as well as calculation of the order parameters show that the spatio-temporal dynamics exhibits bistability between two-cluster antisynchronization and wavy antisynchronization, by assuming that the frogs are attracted to the edge of a simple circular breeding site. Second, we change the shape of the breeding site from the circle to rectangles including a straight line, and evaluate the stability of two-cluster and wavy antisynchronization. Numerical simulation shows that two-cluster antisynchronization is more frequently observed than wavy antisynchronization. Finally, we recorded frog choruses at an actual paddy field using our sound-imaging method. Analysis of the video demonstrated a consistent result with the aforementioned simulation: namely, two-cluster antisynchronization was more frequently realized.

Aihara, Ikkyu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Awano, Hiromitsu; Nagira, Kohei; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2014-01-01

181

A spatio-temporal absorbing state model for disease and syndromic surveillance.  

PubMed

Reliable surveillance models are an important tool in public health because they aid in mitigating disease outbreaks, identify where and when disease outbreaks occur, and predict future occurrences. Although many statistical models have been devised for surveillance purposes, none are able to simultaneously achieve the important practical goals of good sensitivity and specificity, proper use of covariate information, inclusion of spatio-temporal dynamics, and transparent support to decision-makers. In an effort to achieve these goals, this paper proposes a spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive hidden Markov model with an absorbing state. The model performs well in both a large simulation study and in an application to influenza/pneumonia fatality data. PMID:22388709

Heaton, Matthew J; Banks, David L; Zou, Jian; Karr, Alan F; Datta, Gauri; Lynch, James; Vera, Francisco

2012-08-30

182

Spatio-temporal adaptation in the unsupervised development of networked visual neurons.  

PubMed

There have been many computational models mimicking the visual cortex that are based on spatial adaptations of unsupervised neural networks. In this paper, we present a new model called neuronal cluster which includes spatial as well as temporal weights in its unified adaptation scheme. The "in-place" nature of the model is based on two biologically plausible learning rules, Hebbian rule and lateral inhibition. We present the mathematical demonstration that the temporal weights are derived from the delay in lateral inhibition. By training with the natural videos, this model can develop spatio-temporal features such as orientation selective cells, motion sensitive cells, and spatio-temporal complex cells. The unified nature of the adaptation scheme allows us to construct a multilayered and task-independent attention selection network which uses the same learning rule for edge, motion, and color detection, and we can use this network to engage in attention selection in both static and dynamic scenes. PMID:19457750

Chen, Dongyue; Zhang, Liming; Weng, Juyang

2009-06-01

183

DSTiPE Algorithm for Fuzzy Spatio-Temporal Risk Calculation in Wireless Environments  

SciTech Connect

Time and location data play a very significant role in a variety of factory automation scenarios, such as automated vehicles and robots, their navigation, tracking, and monitoring, to services of optimization and security. In addition, pervasive wireless capabilities combined with time and location information are enabling new applications in areas such as transportation systems, health care, elder care, military, emergency response, critical infrastructure, and law enforcement. A person/object in proximity to certain areas for specific durations of time may pose a risk hazard either to themselves, others, or the environment. This paper presents a novel fuzzy based spatio-temporal risk calculation DSTiPE method that an object with wireless communications presents to the environment. The presented Matlab based application for fuzzy spatio-temporal risk cluster extraction is verified on a diagonal vehicle movement example.

Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

2008-09-01

184

A spatio-temporal model of housing prices based on individual sales transactions over time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatio-temporal model of housing price trends is developed that focuses on individual housing sales over time. The model allows for both the spatio-temporal lag effects of previous sales in the vicinity of each housing sale, and for general autocorrelation effects over time. A key feature of this model is the recognition of the unequal spacing between individual housing sales over time. Hence the residuals are modeled as a first-order autoregressive process with unequally spaced events. The maximum-likelihood estimation of this model is developed in detail, and tested in terms of simulations based on selected data. In addition, the model is applied to a small data set in the Philadelphia area.

Smith, Tony E.; Wu, Peggy

2009-12-01

185

Spatio-temporal dynamics of a three interacting species mathematical model inspired in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study both, analytically and numerically, the spatio-temporal dynamics of a three interacting species mathematical model. The populations take the form of pollinators, a plant and herbivores; the model consists of three nonlinear reaction-diffusion-advection equations. In view of considering the full model, as a previous step we firstly analyze a mutualistic interaction (pollinator-plant), later on a predator-prey (plant-herbivore) interaction model is studied and finally, we consider the full model. In all cases, the purely temporal dynamics is given; meanwhile for the spatio-temporal dynamics, we use numerical simulations, corresponding to those parameter values for which we obtain interesting temporal dynamics.

Sánchez-Garduño, Faustino; Breña-Medina, Víctor F.

2008-02-01

186

Dynamic design of ecological monitoring networks for non-Gaussian spatio-temporal data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many ecological processes exhibit spatial structure that changes over time in a coherent, dynamical fashion. This dynamical component is often ignored in the design of spatial monitoring networks. Furthermore, ecological variables related to processes such as habitat are often non-Gaussian (e.g. Poisson or log-normal). We demonstrate that a simulation-based design approach can be used in settings where the data distribution is from a spatio-temporal exponential family. The key random component in the conditional mean function from this distribution is then a spatio-temporal dynamic process. Given the computational burden of estimating the expected utility of various designs in this setting, we utilize an extended Kalman filter approximation to facilitate implementation. The approach is motivated by, and demonstrated on, the problem of selecting sampling locations to estimate July brood counts in the prairie pothole region of the U.S.

Wikle, C.K.; Royle, J.A.

2005-01-01

187

Spatio-temporal feature extraction for differentiation of non-mass-enhancing lesions in breast MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal feature extraction represents a challenge however critical step for the differential diagnosis of non-mass-enhancing lesions. The atypical dynamical behavior of these lesions paired with non well-defined tumor borders requires novel approaches to obtain representative features for a subsequent automated diagnosis. We evaluate the performance of mappings of pixelwise kinetic features within a tumor, morphological descriptors based on Minkowski functionals and a novel technique, the Zernike velocity moments, to capture the joint spatio- temporal behavior within an image sequence. The highest sensitivity is achieved by the Zernike velocity moments proving thus that dynamical and morphological behavior can not be separately analyzed based on features extracted only for a distinct behavior or as a feature combination of these two but has to be a simultaneous measure of these. The present paper provides the most detailed automated diagnosis of non-mass-enhancing lesions so far in the literature.

Ngo, Dat; Zavala, Olmo; Shutler, Jamie; Lobbes, Mark; Lockwood, Maribel; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

2012-06-01

188

Sensing Solutions for Collecting Spatio-Temporal Data for Wildlife Monitoring Applications: A Review  

PubMed Central

Movement ecology is a field which places movement as a basis for understanding animal behavior. To realize this concept, ecologists rely on data collection technologies providing spatio-temporal data in order to analyze movement. Recently, wireless sensor networks have offered new opportunities for data collection from remote places through multi-hop communication and collaborative capability of the nodes. Several technologies can be used in such networks for sensing purposes and for collecting spatio-temporal data from animals. In this paper, we investigate and review technological solutions which can be used for collecting data for wildlife monitoring. Our aim is to provide an overview of different sensing technologies used for wildlife monitoring and to review their capabilities in terms of data they provide for modeling movement behavior of animals. PMID:23666132

Baratchi, Mitra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J. M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Toxopeus, Bert A. G.

2013-01-01

189

Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates  

E-print Network

. This dissertation focuses on understanding the spatio-temporal variability of near-surface soil moisture and the associated physical control(s) across varying measurement support (point-scale and passive microwave airborne/satellite remote sensing footprint...

Joshi, Champa

2013-05-06

190

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic algorithm  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal urban landscape change analysis using the Markov chain model and a modified genetic from a modified genetic algorithm (GA). Model performance was evaluated between the empirical landscape

Wang, Le

191

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris.  

E-print Network

??Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence… (more)

Burlet, Pierre Edouard

2011-01-01

192

A SPATIO-TEMPORAL DOWNSCALER FOR OUTPUT FROM NUMERICAL MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Often, in environmental data collection, data arise from two sources: numerical models and monitoring networks. The first source provides predictions at the level of grid cells, while the second source gives measurements at points. The first is characterized by full spatial cove...

193

Spatio-temporal filter based small infrared target detection in highly cluttered sea background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a separate spatio-temporal filter based small infrared target detection method to address the sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) problem in dense sun-glint environment. It is critical to detect small infrared targets such as sea-skimming missiles or asymmetric small ships for national defense. On the sea surface, sun-glint clutters degrade the detection performance. Furthermore, if we have

Sungho Kiml; Taek Lyul Song; Byungin Choi; Boo-Hwan Lee; Wang-Heon Lee

2011-01-01

194

Event clustering of digital media in personal mobile device based on spatio-temporal clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we intended to seek a method to retrieval media files on personal mobile devices efficiently. We aimed at finding media-generated event accurately to provide support for annotation and retrieval of multimedia files. In this paper, the event-cluster positioning is realized by spatio-temporal clustering. Time clustering uses a method that maps the time difference to image, and then

Yi Sun; Wendong Wang; Xiangyang Gong; Canfeng Chen; Xiaogang Yang; Jian Ma

2010-01-01

195

A kernel-based spatio-temporal dynamical model for nowacasting radar precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A good short period forecast of heavy rainfall is essential for many meteo- rological and hydrological applications. Traditional deterministic and stochastic nowcasting methodologies,have been inadequate in their characterization of pixel- wise rainfall propagation, intensity, and uncertainty characterization. The method- ology presented herein utilizes an approach that efficiently parameterizes spatio- temporal dynamic,models in terms of integro-difference equations within a hier-

B. Xu; C. K. Wikle; N. I. Fox

2003-01-01

196

Abnormal crowd behavior detection using high-frequency and spatio-temporal features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal crowd behavior detection is an important research issue in computer vision. The traditional methods first extract\\u000a the local spatio-temporal cuboid from video. Then the cuboid is described by optical flow or gradient features, etc. Unfortunately,\\u000a because of the complex environmental conditions, such as severe occlusion, over-crowding, etc., the existing algorithms cannot\\u000a be efficiently applied. In this paper, we derive

Bo Wang; Mao Ye; Xue Li; Fengjuan Zhao; Jian Ding

197

Sustained Emerging Spatio-Temporal Co-occurrence Pattern Mining: A Summary of Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained emerging spatio-temporal co-occurrence patterns (SECOPs) represent subsets of object-types that are increasingly located together in space and time. Discovering SECOPs is important due to many applications, e.g., predicting emerging infectious diseases, predicting defensive and offensive intent from troop movement patterns, and novel predator-prey interactions. However, mining SECOPs is computationally very expensive because the interest measures are computationally complex, datasets

Mete Celik; Shashi Shekhar; James P. Rogers; James A. Shine

2006-01-01

198

Characteristics and spatio-temporal variability of the Amazon River Basin Water Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal variations of the water budget components in the Amazon region are investigated by using a combination of hydrometeorological observations and moisture fluxes derived from the NCEP\\/NCAR reanalyses, for the period 1970–1999. The key new finding of this study identifies the major differences in the water balance characteristics and variability between the northern and southern parts of the basin.

Jose A. Marengo

2005-01-01

199

Multiuser spatio-temporal Tomlinson-Harashima precoding for frequency selective vector channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive and compare different approaches to Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) in frequency-selective multiuser scenarios with a centralized multiantenna transmitter and single-antenna receivers. Starting with spatio-temporal THP, we discuss how to simplify this relatively complex approach to systems that perform either spatial THP or temporal THP only. For each approach, we give a MMSE design rule for computing the feedforward and

Michael Joham; Johannes Brehmer; Andreas Voulgarelis; Wolfgang Utschick

2004-01-01

200

Trophic ecology of the invasive argentine ant: spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation and isotopic enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of food webs often employ stable isotopic approaches to infer trophic position and interaction strength without consideration\\u000a of spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation by constituent species. Using results from laboratory diet manipulations\\u000a and monthly sampling of field populations, we illustrate how nitrogen isotopes may be used to quantify spatio-temporal variation\\u000a in resource assimilation in ants. First, we determined nitrogen

Sean B. MenkeAndy; Andy V. Suarez; Chadwick V. TillbergCheng; Cheng T. Chou; David A. Holway

2010-01-01

201

Nathan Becker, UCSB (KITP Pattern Conf 8-20-03) Spatio-temporal chaos in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection Page 1 Nathan Becker, UCSB (KITP Pattern Conf 8-20-03) Spatio-temporal chaos in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection Page 2  

E-print Network

Nathan Becker, UCSB (KITP Pattern Conf 8-20-03) Spatio-temporal chaos in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection Page 1 #12;Nathan Becker, UCSB (KITP Pattern Conf 8-20-03) Spatio-temporal chaos in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection Page 2 #12;Nathan Becker, UCSB (KITP Pattern Conf 8-20-03) Spatio-temporal chaos

Ahlers, Guenter

202

Coupled map model for spatio-temporal processing in the olfactory bulb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor processing in the animal olfactory system is still an open problem in modern neuroscience. It is a common understanding that the spatial code provided by the activity distribution of the olfactory receptor cells (ORC) due the presence of an odorant is transformed into a spatio-temporal code in the mitral cell (MC) layer in the case of mammals, or the projection neurons (PN) in the case of insects, that is decoded later along the neural path. The putative role of the spatio-temporal coding is to disambiguate the stimulus putting it in a more robust representation that allows odor separation, categorization, and recognition. Oscillations due to lateral inhibition among MC's (or PN's) may play an important part in the code as well as neural adaptation. To shed some light on their possible role in the olfaction processing, we study the properties of a simple network model. Upon the presentation of a random distributed input it respond with a rich spatio-temporal structure where two distinct phases are observed. We discuss their properties and implications in information processing.

de Almeida, L.; Idiart, M.; Quillfeldt, J. A.

2007-02-01

203

Spatio-temporal modeling of 210Pb transportation in lake environments.  

PubMed

Radioactive particle movement analysis in any environment gives valuable information about the effects of the concerned environment on the particle and the transportation phenomenon. In this study, the spatio-temporal point cumulative semivariogram (STPCSV) approach is proposed for the analysis of the spatio-temporal changes in the radioactive particle movement within a surface water body. This methodology is applied to the (210)Pb radioactive isotope measurements at 44 stations, which are determined beforehand in order to characterize the Keban Dam water environment on the Euphrates River in the southeastern part of Turkey. It considers the contributions coming from all the stations and provides information about the spatio-temporal behavior of (210)Pb in the water environment. After having identified the radii of influences at each station it is possible to draw maps for further interpretations. In order to see holistically the spatial changes of the radioisotope after 1st, 3rd and 5th hours, the radius of influence maps are prepared and interpreted accordingly. PMID:19027230

Külahci, Fatih; Sen, Zekâi

2009-06-15

204

Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

2012-09-01

205

Reconstruction of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a human magnetoencephalogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconstruct the entire experimentally observed spatio-temporal signal of a human magnetoencephalogram (MEG) observed in a sensori-motor-coordination experiment by Kelso et al. In this experiment, when an acoustic stimulus frequency is changed systematically, a spontaneous transition in coordination occurs at a critical frequency in both the motor behavior and brain signals. Here we present a stepwise approach for the reconstruction of the spatio-temporal signal: First, we identify the order parameters and recall a theoretical model by the present authors and Kelso which reproduces the temporal dynamics of the order parameters. Second, we use the variational method by Uhl et al. in order to determine the spatial modes of the order parameters. Third, we present a variational method for the reconstruction of the remaining spatio-temporal signal and determine the spatial modes and temporal dynamics of the enslaved variables and possible order parameter modifications. The obtained set of spatial modes proves to be a fixed spatial base system of the observed temporal dynamics in the brain.

Jirsa, V. K.; Friedrich, R.; Haken, H.

206

Controlling for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation in long-term air pollution and health studies.  

PubMed

Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution using an ecological spatio-temporal study design is a challenging task, due to the presence of residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation in the health counts after adjusting for the covariate effects. This autocorrelation is commonly modelled by a set of random effects represented by a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) prior distribution, as part of a hierarchical Bayesian model. However, GMRF models typically assume the random effects are globally smooth in space and time, and thus are likely to be collinear to any spatially and temporally smooth covariates such as air pollution. Such collinearity leads to poor estimation performance of the estimated fixed effects, and motivated by this epidemiological problem, this paper proposes new GMRF methodology to allow for localised spatio-temporal smoothing. This means random effects that are either geographically or temporally adjacent are allowed to be autocorrelated or conditionally independent, which allows more flexible autocorrelation structures to be represented. This increased flexibility results in improved fixed effects estimation compared with global smoothing models, which is evidenced by our simulation study. The methodology is then applied to the motivating study investigating the long-term effects of air pollution on respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland between 2007 and 2011. PMID:24648100

Lee, Duncan; Mitchell, Richard

2014-12-01

207

Evaluating the Spatio-Temporal Factors that Structure Network Parameters of Plant-Herbivore Interactions  

PubMed Central

Despite the dynamic nature of ecological interactions, most studies on species networks offer static representations of their structure, constraining our understanding of the ecological mechanisms involved in their spatio-temporal stability. This is the first study to evaluate plant-herbivore interaction networks on a small spatio-temporal scale. Specifically, we simultaneously assessed the effect of host plant availability, habitat complexity and seasonality on the structure of plant-herbivore networks in a coastal tropical ecosystem. Our results revealed that changes in the host plant community resulting from seasonality and habitat structure are reflected not only in the herbivore community, but also in the emergent properties (network parameters) of the plant-herbivore interaction network such as connectance, selectiveness and modularity. Habitat conditions and periods that are most stressful favored the presence of less selective and susceptible herbivore species, resulting in increased connectance within networks. In contrast, the high degree of selectivennes (i.e. interaction specialization) and modularity of the networks under less stressful conditions was promoted by the diversification in resource use by herbivores. By analyzing networks at a small spatio-temporal scale we identified the ecological factors structuring this network such as habitat complexity and seasonality. Our research offers new evidence on the role of abiotic and biotic factors in the variation of the properties of species interaction networks. PMID:25340790

Lopez-Carretero, Antonio; Diaz-Castelazo, Cecilia; Boege, Karina; Rico-Gray, Victor

2014-01-01

208

Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Twice Whitening for MIMO Energy Detector  

SciTech Connect

While many techniques exist for local spectrum sensing of a primary user, each represents a computationally demanding task to secondary user receivers. In software-defined radio, computational complexity lengthens the time for a cognitive radio to recognize changes in the transmission environment. This complexity is even more significant for spatially multiplexed receivers, e.g., in SIMO and MIMO, where the spatio-temporal data sets grow in size with the number of antennae. Limits on power and space for the processor hardware further constrain SDR performance. In this report, we discuss improvements in spatio-temporal twice whitening (STTW) for real-time local spectrum sensing by demonstrating a form of STTW well suited for MIMO environments. We implement STTW on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a multicore processor intended for low-power, high-throughput software-defined signal processing. These results demonstrate how coupling the novel capabilities of emerging multicore processors with algorithmic advances can enable real-time, software-defined processing of large spatio-temporal data sets.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Mitra, Pramita [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL; Schleck, Bryan [Coherent Logix, Inc.

2010-01-01

209

Ontology Driven Analysis of Spatio-temporal Phenomena, Aimed At Spatial Planning And Environmental Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial planning is a crucial area for balancing civilization development with environmental protection. Spatial planning has a multidisciplinary nature. It must take into account the dynamics of the processes, which could affect the integrity of the environmental system. That is why we need a new approach to modelling phenomena occurring in space. Such approach is offered by ontologies, based on Description Logic (DL) and related to inference systems. Ontology is a system for the knowledge representation, including conceptual scheme and based on this scheme representation of reality. Ontologies can be enriched with additional logical systems. The authors present a way of building domain ontologies for spatial planning, including the representation of spatio-temporal phenomena. Description Logic is supplemented by structures of temporal logic. As a result, the analysis for exploring the topological relations between spatial objects will be extended to include temporal relationships: coincidence, precedence and succession, cause and effect relationship. Spatio-temporal models with temporal logic structures, encoded in ontologies, could be a subject of inference process, performed by semantic reasoners (reasoner engines). Spatio-temporal representations are offered, by so-called upper ontologies, such as GFO, BFO, OCHRE and others. Temporal structures provided in such ontologies, are useful for the analysis of data obtained from environmental and development monitoring systems and for description and representation of historical phenomena. They allow creating the models and scenarios of expected spatial transformation. They will support analysis for spatial development design, decision-making in spatial planning and forecasting of environmental impact.

Iwaniak, A.; ?ukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Kaczmarek, I.

2013-10-01

210

An interactive spatio-temporal knowledge-discovery environment for solid Earth Science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information systems form a core part of Earth Science education and teaching, allowing the ever-growing repositories of digital geo-data to be integrated and visualised in a unified fashion. These systems cope with the wide variety of spatial data types, each with their own properties and metadata, allowing for a better understanding of how Earth processes operate. A unique requirement for the Earth Sciences is to take into account plate motion and crustal deformation processes acting through time, thus altering the various spatial relationships. The open-source GPlates software (www.gplates.org) infrastructure has become a standard tool for this type of analysis, providing the ability to reconstruct various datasets through time interactively by attaching arbitrary data to tectonic plates. Combining vast datasets in this manner is increasing the analysis complexity, with traditional visualisation-based approaches becoming ineffective in extracting necessary information and discovering new insights. In addressing this, GPlates has been extended with two key technologies, manifesting itself as a powerful interactive knowledge-discovery platform. The first technology is a "data coregistration" tool, in which desired relationships between various datasets are recursively defined, thus providing the key link between a qualitative visualisation environment and a quantitative multivariate statistical analysis framework. The second technology is a data-mining environment (Orange, http://orange.biolab.si), better suited to coping with complexities due to large datasets, high dimensionality, spatial and temporal dynamics, different data types etc. The data-mining tool has a diverse library of components allowing for interactive filtering, combining, transforming and pattern analysis of incoming data. Attached to the data-mining tool is a visual-programming environment in which underlying software complexities are abstracted from the user, allowing for the rapid prototyping of analysis work-flows without requiring programming expertise. A plug-in framework allows for the construction of new spatio-temporal data processing components, which is seeing the functionality and flexibility of this environment increasing rapidly, aided by an open-source model. The resultant ensemble of technologies lends itself to becoming a frontier teaching and research tool, providing the necessary abstraction of complexity required to better understand how the various complex Earth processes acted through time resulting in the familiar spatial configuration we observe today.

Landgrebe, T. C.; Müller, R. D.; EathByte Group

2011-12-01

211

Spatio-temporal modelling of Antarctic mass balance from multi-satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying ice mass changes, identifying its causes and determining rigorous error estimates, is important for estimating present-day sea-level rise. Yet this remains a challenging task: (i) estimates obtained from altimetry, gravimetry, and mass-budget methods can yield conflicting results with error estimates that do not always overlap, and (ii) the use of different forward models to separate the effects of GIA and surface mass balance (SMB) processes, as is generally done, introduces another source of uncertainty which is hard to quantify. We present a statistical modelling approach that tackles these issues. We combine the observational data together, including radar and laser altimetry, GRACE, GPS and InSAR, and use the different degrees of spatial and temporal smoothness to constrain the underlying geophysical processes. This is achieved via a spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model, employing dimensionality reduction methods to allow the solution to remain tractable in the presence of the large number (> 10^6) of observations involved. The resulting trend estimates are only dependent on length and smoothness properties obtained from numerical models, but are otherwise data-driven. We present annual, time-varying trend fields of dynamic ice loss, SMB, firn compaction and GIA; using a combination of GRACE, ICESat, ENVISat, and GPS vertical uplift rates, for 2003-2009. The elastic flexure of the crust is also determined simultaneously. We estimate that, between 2003 and 2009, there has been an acceleration in ice loss, from balance in 2003/2004 to a rate of -200±50Gt/yr by 2009. This was predominantly driven by ice dynamic losses in West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula. However, this has been partially compensated by an overall positive trend in SMB over the whole continent. We conclude that there was no statistically significant net loss or gain in the seven year period. Other data will be included to allow extension back to 1995 and forward to the present day using, for example, CryoSat 2, ice core records and accumulation radar data.

Schoen, Nana; Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Bamber, Jonathan; Rougier, Jonathan; Luthcke, Scott; Rémy, Frédérique; Flament, Thomas; Petrie, Elizabeth

2014-05-01

212

Spatio-temporal variations of Planetary Boundary Layer characteristics over Indian subcontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) characteristics play an important role in mixing, cloud formation and pollutant transport, but their diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual variations on a regional scale over the Indian subcontinent is not well-understood. Proper PBL characterization requires measurements with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, whereas methods using traditional radiosonde observations are limited in spatial and temporal coverage and observations are lacking over oceanic regions. Again, the available twice daily observations over the Indian region are in the local morning and evening hours (corresponding to 0000 and 1200 UTC), which completely excludes information on daytime and nocturnal boundary layer. Atmospheric profiling with the satellite based Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) is a relatively new technique that provides air temperature and water vapor profiles with an almost uniform global coverage at sufficiently large vertical resolution (100 - 200 m in the troposphere to 1 km in the stratosphere). The RO technique utilizes the information on bending and time delay of GPS signals for the estimation of atmospheric refractivity and thus the air temperature and water vapor profiles. The GPS RO atmospheric profiles can fill in the temporal and spatial voids in radiosonde data and be used for the estimation of PBL parameters. The Indian subcontinent characterized by two monsoon regimes and several different climate zones with humid and arid regions, is an ideal test bed for evaluating the GPS RO data. However, evaluation and use of these datasets over the Indian subcontinent have been limited. The present study focuses on the estimation of PBL height and other important boundary-layer parameters from GPS RO data and validating them by comparing with those derived from radiosonde measurements over different geographical locations on Indian subcontinent. The COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere & Climate) RO atmospheric profiles over the Indian region during 2007-2009 are used for the analysis. The radiosonde data used are from two sources: (i) routine radiosonde observations conducted by India Meteorological Department over the Indian subcontinent and (ii) additional radiosonde observations conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology as a part of the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) during the southwest monsoon season May-September, 2009. In order to extrapolate the information on a spatio-temporal scale, comparison of PBL parameters from the observational methods and high-resolution WRF model simulations over selected regions is also conducted. The variation in PBL characteristics over the Indian subcontinent are depicted using parameters calculated from observations and WRF model simulations.

Karipot, Anandakumar; Prabha, Thara; Maheshkumar R., S.

2010-05-01

213

Vector zonal operations for spatio-temporal analysis  

E-print Network

and Geographic Information Science, 32(1): 17- 32. Vary only in Space Vary only in time Vary both in space and time NEXRAD Precipitation Database • Radar estimates of precipitation (correct with available rain gauges) • 4km x 4km spatial resolution • Hourly... temporal resolution • NEXRAD Tool Spatiotemporal Vector Zone Calculate daily sub-watershed precipitation for non-point source pollution models + 24 hours (daily) time Area Weight Precipitation ? ? = == 9 1 9 1 * i i i ii a ap p Antecedent...

Xu, Tingting

2008-11-19

214

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebees foraging under predation risk  

E-print Network

We study bumblebees searching for nectar in a laboratory experiment with and without different types of artificial spiders as predators. We find that the flight velocities obey mixed probability distributions reflecting the access to the food sources while the threat posed by the spiders shows up only in the velocity correlations. This means that the bumblebees adjust their flight patterns spatially to the environment and temporally to the predation risk. Key information on response to environmental changes is thus contained in temporal correlation functions and not in spatial distributions.

Lenz, Friedrich; Chittka, Lars; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Klages, Rainer

2011-01-01

215

Spatio-temporal changes of seismic anisotropy in seismogenic zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy plays a key role in the study of stress and strain fields in the earth. Potential temporal change of seismic anisotropy can be interpreted as change of the orientation of cracks in seismogenic zones and thus change of the stress field. Such temporal changes have been observed in seismogenic zones before and after earthquakes (Durand et al. , 2011) but are still not well understood. In this study, from a numerical point of view, we investigate the variations of the polarization of surface waves in anisotropic media. These variations are related to the elastic properties of the medium, in particular to anisotropy. The technique used is based on the calculation of the whole cross-correlation tensor (CCT) of ambient seismic noise. If the sources are randomly distributed in homogeneous medium, it allows us to reconstruct the Green's tensor between two stations continuously and to monitor the region through the use of its fluctuations. Therefore, the temporal change of the Green's cross-correlation tensor enables the monitoring of stress and strain fields. This technique is applied to synthetic seismograms computed in a transversally isotropic medium with horizontal symmetry axis (hereafter referred to an HTI medium) using a code RegSEM (Cupillard et al. , 2012) based on the spectral element method. We designed an experiment in order to investigate the influence of anisotropy on the CCT. In homogeneous, isotropic medium the off-diagonal terms of the Green's tensor are null. The CCT is computed between each pair of stations and then rotated in order to approximate the Green's tensor by minimizing the off-diagonal components. This procedure permits the calculation of the polarization angle of quasi-Rayleigh and quasi-Love waves, and to observe the azimuthal variation of their polarization. The results show that even a small variation of the azimuth of seismic anisotropy with respect to a certain pair of stations can induce, in some cases, a large variation in the horizontal polarization of surface waves along the direction of this pair of stations. It depends on the relative azimuth angle between the pair of stations and the direction of anisotropy, on the amplitude of anisotropy and the frequency band of the signal. Therefore, it is now possible to explain the large, rapid and very localized variations of surface waves horizontal polarization observed by Durand et al. (2011) during the Parkfield earthquake of 2004. Furthermore, some preliminary results about the investigation of seismic anisotropy change caused by the June 13, 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (Mw = 6.9) will be presented.

Saade, M.; Montagner, J.; Roux, P.; Paul, C.; Brenguier, F.; Enescu, B.; Shiomi, K.

2013-12-01

216

Spatio-temporal mapping cortical neuroplasticity in carpal tunnel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging data demonstrate that carpal tunnel syndrome, a peripheral neuropathy, is accompanied by maladaptive central neuroplasticity. To further investigate this phenomenon, we collected magnetoencephalography data from 12 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 12 healthy control subjects undergoing somatosensory stimulation of the median nerve-innervated Digits 2 and 3, as well as Digit 5, which is innervated by the ulnar nerve. Nerve conduction velocity and psychophysical data were acquired to determine whether standard clinical measures correlated with brain response. In subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, but not healthy controls, sensory nerve conduction velocity for Digits 2 and 3 was slower than Digit 5. However, somatosensory M20 latencies for Digits 2 and 3 were significantly longer than those of Digit 5. The extent of the M20 delay for median nerve-innervated Digit 2 was positively correlated with decreasing nerve conduction velocity and increasing pain severity. Thus, slower peripheral nerve conduction in carpal tunnel syndrome corresponds to greater delays in the first somatosensory cortical response. Furthermore, spectral analysis demonstrated weaker post-stimulus beta event-related desynchronization and earlier and shorter event-related synchronization in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome. The extent of the decreased event-related desynchronization for median nerve-innervated digits was positively correlated with paraesthesia severity. We propose that ongoing paraesthesias in median nerve-innervated digits render their corresponding sensorimotor cortical areas ‘busy’, thus reducing their capacity to process external stimulation. Finally, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated a smaller cortical source separation for Digits 2 and 3 compared with healthy controls. This supports our hypothesis that ongoing paraesthesias promote blurring of median nerve-innervated digit representations through Hebbian plasticity mechanisms. In summary, this study reveals significant correlation between the clinical severity of carpal tunnel syndrome and the latency of the early M20, as well as the strength of long latency beta oscillations. These temporal magnetoencephalography measures are novel markers of neuroplasticity in carpal tunnel syndrome and could be used to study central changes that may occur following clinical intervention. PMID:23043143

Ruzich, Emily; Witzel, Thomas; Maeda, Yumi; Malatesta, Cristina; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Hamalainen, Matti; Kettner, Norman; Napadow, Vitaly

2012-01-01

217

Spatio-Temporal Process Variability in Watershed Scale Wetland Restoration Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed scale restoration decision making processes are increasingly informed by quantitative methodologies providing site-specific restoration recommendations - sometimes referred to as "systematic planning." The more advanced of these methodologies are characterized by a coupling of search algorithms and ecological models to discover restoration plans that optimize environmental outcomes. Yet while these methods have exhibited clear utility as decision support toolsets, they may be critiqued for flawed evaluations of spatio-temporally variable processes fundamental to watershed scale restoration. Hydrologic and non-hydrologic mediated process connectivity along with post-restoration habitat dynamics, for example, are commonly ignored yet known to appreciably affect restoration outcomes. This talk will present a methodology to evaluate such spatio-temporally complex processes in the production of watershed scale wetland restoration plans. Using the Tuscarawas Watershed in Eastern Ohio as a case study, a genetic algorithm will be coupled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to reveal optimal wetland restoration plans as measured by their capacity to maximize nutrient reductions. Then, a so-called "graphical" representation of the optimization problem will be implemented in-parallel to promote hydrologic and non-hydrologic mediated connectivity amongst existing wetlands and sites selected for restoration. Further, various search algorithm mechanisms will be discussed as a means of accounting for temporal complexities such as post-restoration habitat dynamics. Finally, generalized patterns of restoration plan optimality will be discussed as an alternative and possibly superior decision support toolset given the complexity and stochastic nature of spatio-temporal process variability.

Evenson, G. R.

2012-12-01

218

Spatio-temporal foraging patterns of a giant zooplanktivore, the leatherback turtle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding food web functioning through the study of natural bio-indicators may constitute a valuable and original approach. In the context of jellyfish proliferation in many overexploited marine ecosystems studying the spatio-temporal foraging patterns of the giant "jellyvore" leatherback turtle turns out to be particularly relevant. Here we analyzed long-term tracking data to assess spatio-temporal foraging patterns in 21 leatherback turtles during their pluri-annual migration in the Northern Atlantic. Through an analytical approach based on the animal's own motion (independent of currents) and diving behavior distinct zones of high and low foraging success were identified. High foraging success occurred in a sub-equatorial zone spanning the width of the Atlantic and at high (>30°N) latitudes. Between these zones in the centre of North Atlantic gyre there was low foraging success. This "ocean desert" area was traversed at high speed by leatherbacks on their way to more productive areas at higher latitudes. Animals traveled slowly in high foraging success areas and dived shallower (17.2 ± 8.0 km day - 1 and 53.6 ± 33.1 m mean ± SD respectively) than in low foraging success areas (51.0 ± 13.1 km day - 1 and 81.8 ± 56.2 m mean ± SD respectively). These spatio-temporal foraging patterns seem to relatively closely match the main features of the integrated meso-zooplankton distribution in the North Atlantic. Our method of defining high foraging success areas is intuitive and relatively easy to implement but also takes into account the impact of oceanic currents on animal's behavior.

Fossette, Sabrina; Hobson, Victoria J.; Girard, Charlotte; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Hays, Graeme C.

2010-05-01

219

Observation of spatio-temporal structure in stick-slip motion of an adhesive gel sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the sliding friction between an adhesive gel sheet and a glass substrate. In this system, the probability distribution of the force drop obeys a power law similar to that found in earthquakes and granular systems. We observed the motion of the slip regions at the frictional interfaces and obtained the spatial distributions of shear strain by image analysis. The frictional force evaluated by the image analysis is in good agreement with the actual force measured by a load cell. This indicates that the present method provides a powerful tool to study the spatio-temporal structure in the heterogeneous stick-slip motions in sliding friction.

Morishita, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Doi, Masao

2010-09-01

220

A general science-based framework for dynamical spatio-temporal models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatio-temporal statistical models are increasingly being used across a wide variety of scientific disciplines to describe and predict spatially-explicit processes that evolve over time. Correspondingly, in recent years there has been a significant amount of research on new statistical methodology for such models. Although descriptive models that approach the problem from the second-order (covariance) perspective are important, and innovative work is being done in this regard, many real-world processes are dynamic, and it can be more efficient in some cases to characterize the associated spatio-temporal dependence by the use of dynamical models. The chief challenge with the specification of such dynamical models has been related to the curse of dimensionality. Even in fairly simple linear, first-order Markovian, Gaussian error settings, statistical models are often over parameterized. Hierarchical models have proven invaluable in their ability to deal to some extent with this issue by allowing dependency among groups of parameters. In addition, this framework has allowed for the specification of science based parameterizations (and associated prior distributions) in which classes of deterministic dynamical models (e. g., partial differential equations (PDEs), integro-difference equations (IDEs), matrix models, and agent-based models) are used to guide specific parameterizations. Most of the focus for the application of such models in statistics has been in the linear case. The problems mentioned above with linear dynamic models are compounded in the case of nonlinear models. In this sense, the need for coherent and sensible model parameterizations is not only helpful, it is essential. Here, we present an overview of a framework for incorporating scientific information to motivate dynamical spatio-temporal models. First, we illustrate the methodology with the linear case. We then develop a general nonlinear spatio-temporal framework that we call general quadratic nonlinearity and demonstrate that it accommodates many different classes of scientific-based parameterizations as special cases. The model is presented in a hierarchical Bayesian framework and is illustrated with examples from ecology and oceanography. ?? 2010 Sociedad de Estad??stica e Investigaci??n Operativa.

Wikle, C.K.; Hooten, M.B.

2010-01-01

221

Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Pond Use and Recruitment in Florida Gopher Frogs (Rana Capito aesopus)  

SciTech Connect

We examined spatio-temporal dynamics of the Florida Gopher frog breeding and juvenile recruitment. Ponds were situated in a hardwood or pine-savanna matrix of upland forest. Movement was monitored from 1994-1999. Adult pond use was low but relatively constant. Juvenile recruitment was higher in the upland savanna matrix. Body size was negatively correlated with the number of juveniles exiting the pond in only one year suggesting intraspecific competition is one of many factors. Most immigration occurred in May through August and was unrelated to rainfall.

Greenberg, C.H.

2000-05-16

222

Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Colonies of Rod-Shaped Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In incubation experiments of bacterial colonies of Proteus Mirabilis, macroscopic spatio-temporal patterns, such as turbulent and unidirectional spiral patterns, appear in colonies. Considering only kinetic propeties of rod-shaped bacteria, we propose a phenomenological model for the directional and positional distributions. As the average density increases, homogeneous states bifurcate sub-critically into nonuniform states exhibiting localized collective motion, and spiral patterns appear for sufficiently large density. These patterns result from interactions between the local bacteria densities and the order parameter representing collective motion. Our model can be described by reduced equations using a perturbative method for large density. The unidirectionality of sprial rotation is also discussed.

Kitsunezaki, S.

223

Spatio-temporal regularization for range imaging with high photon efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional depth imagers using time-of-flight methods collect hundreds to thousands of detected photons per pixel to form high-quality depth images of a scene. Through spatio-temporal regularization achieved with maximum a posteriori probability estimation under a scene prior and an inhomogeneous Poisson process likelihood function, we form depth images with dramatically higher photon efficiency even as low as one detected photon per pixel. Simulations demonstrate the combination of high accuracy and high photon efficiency of our method, compared to the traditional maximum likelihood estimate of the depth image and other popular denoising algorithms.

Kirmani, Ahmed; Colaço, Andrea; Shin, Dongeek; Goyal, Vivek K.

2013-09-01

224

Population dynamics of wetland fishes: Spatio-temporal patterns synchronized by hydrological disturbance?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Drought is a natural disturbance that can cause widespread mortality of aquatic organisms in wetlands. We hypothesized that seasonal drying of marsh surfaces (i.e. hydrological disturbance) shapes spatio-temporal patterns of fish populations. 2. We tested whether population dynamics of fishes were synchronized by hydrological disturbance (Moran effect) or distance separating study sites (dispersal). Spatio-temporal patterns were examined in local populations of five abundant species at 17 sites (sampled five times per year from 1996 to 2001) in a large oligotrophic wetland. 3. Fish densities differed significantly across spatio-temporal scales for all species. For all species except eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), a significant portion of spatio-temporal variation in density was attributed to drying events (used as a covariate). 4. We observed three patterns of response to hydrological disturbance. Densities of bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei), least killifish (Heterandria formosa), and golden top-minnow (Fundulus chrysotus) were usually lowest after a dry down and recovered slowly. Eastern mosquitofish showed no distinct response to marsh drying (i.e. they recovered quickly). Flagfish (Jordanella floridae) density was often highest after a dry down and then declined. Population growth after a dry down was often asymptotic for bluefin killifish and golden topminnow, with greatest asymptotic density and longest time to recovery at sites that dried infrequently. 5. Fish population dynamics were synchronized by hydrological disturbance (independent of distance) and distance separating study sites (independent of hydrological disturbance). Our ability to separate the relative importance of the Moran effect from dispersal was strengthened by a weak association between hydrological synchrony and distance among study sites. Dispersal was the primary mechanism for synchronous population dynamics of flagfish, whereas hydrological disturbance was the primary mechanism for synchronous population dynamics of the other species examined. 6. Species varied in the relative role of the Moran effect and dispersal in homogenizing their population dynamics, probably as a function of life history and ability to exploit dry-season refugia. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

Ruetz, C. R., III; Trexler, J.C.; Jordan, F.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.A.

2005-01-01

225

User requirements for geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data in a web-based virtual globe environment.  

PubMed

Web-based tools developed in the last couple of years offer unique opportunities to effectively support scientists in their effort to collaborate. Communication among environmental researchers often involves not only work with geographical (spatial), but also with temporal data and information. Literature still provides limited documentation when it comes to user requirements for effective geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data. To start filling this gap, our study adopted a User-Centered Design approach and first explored the user requirements of environmental researchers working on distributed research projects for collaborative dissemination, exchange and work with spatio-temporal data. Our results show that system design will be mainly influenced by the nature and type of data users work with. From the end-users' perspective, optimal conversion of huge files of spatio-temporal data for further dissemination, accuracy of conversion, organization of content and security have a key role for effective geo-collaboration. PMID:23164199

Yovcheva, Zornitza; van Elzakker, Corné P J M; Köbben, Barend

2013-11-01

226

Land use information extraction and spatio-temporal variation analysis of Poyang Lake Basin based on remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poyang Lake Basin is the biggest freshwater lake in China and a significant wetland of the world. The study of the land use changes on there is a great significance for regional sustainable development. In this paper, using the RS image as the main data source, the study area was divided into six land use types. With the acquired land use data of three periods, the spatio-temporal dynamic variation characteristics were analyzed with the area changes and land use dynamic index (LUDI). The analysis shows that the largest land use type is woodland, followed by cultivated land and grassland, and area of the rest types all account for less than 10%. Through the analysis of the area transfer matrix of LUCC, it shows that woodland and construction land increased in each period while cultivated land reduced. Unused land increased a lot during 1990 to 2000 before decreased dramatically during 2000 to 2008, grassland and water experienced a significant increase after an obvious decline and came out to increase finally. The analysis of LUDI indicates that construction land changed the most quickly, followed by unused land and cultivated land, yet the other land use types changed slowly.

Liu, Hai; Xia, Huiqiong; Zhou, Bo

2013-10-01

227

Enhancing the emergence rate of coherent wavefronts from ocean ambient noise correlations using spatio-temporal filters.  

PubMed

Extracting coherent wavefronts between passive receivers using cross-correlations of ambient noise (CAN) provides a means for monitoring the seismoacoustic environment without using active sources. However, using cross-correlations between single receivers can require a long recording time in order to extract stable coherent arrivals from CAN. This becomes an issue if the propagation medium fluctuates significantly during the recording period. To address this issue, this article presents a general spatio-temporal filtering procedure to enhance the emergence rate for coherent wavefronts extracted from time-averaged ambient noise correlations between two spatially separated arrays. The robustness of this array-based CAN technique is investigated using ambient shipping noise recorded over 24 h in the frequency band [250-850 Hz] on two vertical line arrays deployed 143 m apart in shallow water (depth 20 m). Experimental results confirm that the array-based CAN technique can significantly reduce the recording duration (e.g., from 22 h to 30 min) required for extracting coherent wavefronts of sufficient amplitude (e.g., 20 dB over residual temporal fluctations) when compared to conventional CAN implementations between single pairs of hydrophones. These improvements of the CAN technique could benefit the development of noise-based ocean monitoring applications such as passive acoustic tomography. PMID:22894211

Leroy, Charlotte; Lani, Shane; Sabra, Karim G; Hodgkiss, William S; Kuperman, W A; Roux, Philippe

2012-08-01

228

A Spatio-Temporal Algorithmic Procedure for Environmental Policymaking in the Municipality of Arkalochori in the Greek Island of Crete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with a methodological framework designed/developed under the form of a spatio-temporal algorithmic procedure for environmental policymaking at local level. The procedure includes 25 activity stages and 9 decision nodes, putting emphasis on (i) mapping on GIS layers water supply/demand and modeling of aquatic pollution coming from point and non-point sources, (ii) environmental monitoring by periodically measuring the main pollutants in situ and in the laboratory, (iii) design of environmental projects, decomposition of them into sub-projects and combination of the latter to form attainable alternatives, (iv) multicriteria ranking of alternatives, according to a modified Delphi method, by using as criteria the expected environmental benefit, the attitude of inhabitants, the priority within the programme of regional development, the capital required for the investment and the operating cost, and (v) knowledge Base (KB) operation/enrichment, functioning in combination with a data mining mechanism to extract knowledge/information/data from external Bases. An implementation is presented referring to the Municipality of Arkalochori in the Greek island of Crete.

Batzias, F. A.; Sidiras, D. K.; Giannopoulos, Ch.; Spetsidis, I.

2009-08-01

229

Spatio-temporal dynamics of security investments in an interdependent risk environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a globalised world where risks spread through contagion, the decision of an entity to invest in securing its premises from stochastic risks no longer depends solely on its own actions but also on the actions of other interacting entities in the system. This phenomenon is commonly seen in many domains including airline, logistics and computer security and is referred to as Interdependent Security (IDS). An IDS game models this decision problem from a game-theoretic perspective and deals with the behavioural dynamics of risk-reduction investments in such settings. This paper enhances this model and investigates the spatio-temporal aspects of the IDS games. The spatio-temporal dynamics are studied using simple replicator dynamics on a variety of network structures and for various security cost tradeoffs that lead to different Nash equilibria in an IDS game. The simulation results show that the neighbourhood configuration has a greater effect on the IDS game dynamics than network structure. An in-depth empirical analysis of game dynamics is carried out on regular graphs, which leads to the articulation of necessary and sufficient conditions for dominance in IDS games under spatial constraints.

Shafi, Kamran; Bender, Axel; Zhong, Weicai; Abbass, Hussein A.

2012-10-01

230

Spatio-temporal modelling of individual exposure to air pollution and its uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a generic spatio-temporal model to quantify individual exposure to air pollution, using personal activity profiles derived from GPS and diaries, ambient air quality, and an indoor model. To enhance accessibility and reusability, the model approach is deployed as a web service. The model is applied to estimate personal exposure towards PM10 and PM2.5 for ten individuals in Münster, Germany. Modelled daily averages range for PM10 between 17 and 126 and between 6 and 84 ?g m-3 for PM2.5. Comparison with personal monitoring data shows good agreement at temporal resolutions from 5 min to one day. Uncertainties in the model results are considerable and increase with higher exposure levels. Large deviations between modelled and measured exposure can often be explained by missing data on indoor emissions or insufficiently detailed activity diaries. The developed model allows the assessment of individual exposure with uncertainties on a high spatio-temporal resolution. By providing the methodology through a web service interface and using generic indoor parameter distributions, the model can be easily transferred to new application areas or could be provided for public use to identify hazardous exposure events.

Gerharz, Lydia E.; Klemm, Otto; Broich, Anna V.; Pebesma, Edzer

2013-01-01

231

Quantifying human sensitivity to spatio-temporal information in dynamic faces.  

PubMed

A great deal of perceptual and social information is conveyed by facial motion. Here, we investigated observers' sensitivity to the complex spatio-temporal information in facial expressions and what cues they use to judge the similarity of these movements. We motion-captured four facial expressions and decomposed them into time courses of semantically meaningful local facial actions (e.g., eyebrow raise). We then generated approximations of the time courses which differed in the amount of information about the natural facial motion they contained, and used these and the original time courses to animate an avatar head. Observers chose which of two animations based on approximations was more similar to the animation based on the original time course. We found that observers preferred animations containing more information about the natural facial motion dynamics. To explain observers' similarity judgments, we developed and used several measures of objective stimulus similarity. The time course of facial actions (e.g., onset and peak of eyebrow raise) explained observers' behavioral choices better than image-based measures (e.g., optic flow). Our results thus revealed observers' sensitivity to changes of natural facial dynamics. Importantly, our method allows a quantitative explanation of the perceived similarity of dynamic facial expressions, which suggests that sparse but meaningful spatio-temporal cues are used to process facial motion. PMID:24784699

Dobs, Katharina; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Breidt, Martin; Vuong, Quoc C; Curio, Crist?bal; Schultz, Johannes

2014-07-01

232

A geomatic methodology for spatio-temporal analysis of climatologic variables and water related diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this research is to propose, by the way of geomatic developments, an integrated tool to analyze and model the spatio-temporal pattern of human diseases related to environmental conditions, in particular the ones that are linked to water resources. The geomatic developments follows four generic steps : requirement analysis, conceptual modeling, geomatic modeling and implementation (in Idrisi GIS software). A first development consists of the preprocessing of water, population and health data in order to facilitate the conversion and validation of tabular data into the required structure for spatio-temporal analysis. Three parallel developments follow : water balance, demographic state and evolution, epidemiological measures (morbidity and mortality rates, diseases burden). The new geomatic modules in their actual state have been tested on various regions of Mexico Republic (Lerma watershed, Chiapas state) focusing on diarrhea and vector borne diseases (dengue and malaria) and considering records over the last decade : a yearly as well as seasonal spreading trend can be observed in correlation with precipitation and temperature data. In an ecohealth perspective, the geomatic approach results particularly appropriate since one of its purposes is the integration of the various spatial themes implied in the study problem, environmental as anthropogenic. By the use of powerful spatial analysis functions, it permits the detection of spatial trends which, combined to the temporal evolution, can be of particularly use for example in climate change context, if sufficiently valid historical data can be obtain.

Quentin, E.; Gómez Albores, M. A.; Díaz Delgado, C.

2009-04-01

233

Mapping spatio-temporal filtering algorithms used in fluoroscopy to single core and multicore DSP architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low dose X-ray image sequences, as obtained in fluoroscopy, exhibit high levels of noise that must be suppressed in real-time, while preserving diagnostic structures. Multi-step adaptive filtering approaches, often involving spatio-temporal filters, are typically used to achieve this goal. In this work typical fluoroscopic image sequences, corrupted with Poisson noise, were processed using various filtering schemes. The noise suppression of the schemes was evaluated using objective image quality measures. Two adaptive spatio-temporal schemes, the first one using object detection and the second one using unsharp masking, were chosen as representative approaches for different fluoroscopy procedures and mapped on to Texas Instrument's (TI) high performance digital signal processors (DSP). The paper explains the fixed point design of these algorithms and evaluates its impact on overall system performance. The fixed point versions of these algorithms are mapped onto the C64x+TM core using instruction-level parallelism to effectively use its VLIW architecture. The overall data flow was carefully planned to reduce cache and data movement overhead, while working with large medical data sets. Apart from mapping these algorithms on to TI's single core DSP architecture, this work also distributes the operations to leverage multi-core DSP architectures. The data arrangement and flow were optimized to minimize inter-processor messaging and data movement overhead.

Dasgupta, Udayan; Ali, Murtaza

2011-03-01

234

Spatio-temporal patterns of antennal movements in the searching cockroach.  

PubMed

To characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of antennal behavior in insects, the voluntary movement of both right and left antennae was examined in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. The position of the tip of the antenna (flagellum) is controlled by two mobile joints at its base (the scape and the pedicel) and by the neck. Horizontal and vertical components of movement at the antennal basal joints exhibited rhythmic activities during locomotory (walking) and non-locomotory (pausing) states in the searching animal. In both states, the horizontal component was slower than vertical one. Joint-manipulation experiments suggested that the faster vertical component is due mainly to movements of the scape-pedicel joint, while the slower horizontal component may originate from the head-scape joint. Large horizontal deflections of the antenna corresponded consistently with the yaw component of head movement. The trajectories of the antennae showed little patterned regularity in most animals. In a few cases, however, loop-like patterns appeared. The area scanned by an antenna was narrower in the walking state than in the pausing state, mainly because of a decrease in the horizontal angular range. Cross-correlation analyses revealed that the coupling between right and left horizontal antennal motor systems and that for the vertical systems were both significantly stronger in the walking state than during pausing. These results indicate that the spatio-temporal pattern of antennal movements changes dynamically depending on the animal's behavioral state. PMID:15371477

Okada, Jiro; Toh, Yoshihiro

2004-10-01

235

Hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling and entropy-based network design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical spatio-temporal data include temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, ozone concentration, personal income, infection prevalence, mosquito populations, among others. To model such data in a given region by hierarchical Bayesian kriging is undertaken in this paper. In addition, an environmental network design problem is also explored. For demonstration, we consider the ozone concentrations in the Toronto region of Ontario, Canada. There are many missing observations in the data. To proceed, we first formulate the hierarchical spatio-temporal model in terms of observed data. We then fill in some missing observations such that the data has the staircase structure. Thus, in light of Le and Zidek (2006), we model the ozone concentrations in Toronto region by hierarchical Bayesian kriging and derive a conditional predictive distribution of the ozone concentrations over unknown locations. To decide if a new monitoring station needs to be added or an existing station can be closed down, we solve this environmental network design problem by using the principle of maximum entropy.

Wu, Y.; Jin, B.; Chan, E.

2012-12-01

236

Spatio-temporal dynamics of fructan metabolism in developing barley grains.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development follows a series of defined morphological and physiological stages and depends on the supply of assimilates (mainly sucrose) from the mother plant. Here, spatio-temporal patterns of sugar distributions were investigated by mass spectrometric imaging, targeted metabolite analyses, and transcript profiling of microdissected grain tissues. Distinct spatio-temporal sugar balances were observed, which may relate to differentiation and grain filling processes. Notably, various types of oligofructans showed specific distribution patterns. Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity. In the shrunken endosperm mutant seg8, with a decreased sucrose flux toward the endosperm, fructan accumulation was impaired. The tight partitioning of oligofructan biosynthesis hints at distinct functions of the various fructan types in the young endosperm prior to starch accumulation and in the endosperm transfer cells that accomplish the assimilate supply toward the endosperm at the storage phase. PMID:25271242

Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Peshev, Darin; Weschke, Winfriede; Van den Ende, Wim; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea

2014-09-01

237

Spatio-Temporal Image Segmentation Using Optical Flow and Clustering Algorithm  

E-print Network

Image segmentation is an important and challenging problem in image analysis. Segmentation of moving objects in image sequences is even more difficult and computationally expensive. In this work we propose a technique for spatio-temporal segmentation of medical image sequences based on clustering in the feature vector space. The motivation for spatio-temporal approach is the fact that motion is a useful clue for object segmentation. Two- dimensional feature vector has been used for clustering in the feature space. The first feature is image brightness which reveals the structure of interest in the image. The second feature is the Euclidean norm of the optical flow vector. The optical flow field is computed using a Horn-Schunck algorithm. By clustering in the feature space, it is possible to detect a moving object in the image. Experiments have been conducted using a sequence of ECG-gated magnetic resonance (MR) images of a beating heart. The method is also tested on images with moving ...

Sasa Galic; Sven Loncaric; Ericsson Nikola Tesla

238

Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Brenner, G.; Döppner, T.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fletcher, L.; Förster, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Hartley, N. J.; Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Skruszewicz, S.; Sperling, P.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Zastrau, U.

2014-09-01

239

Two spatio-temporal filters in human vision. 1. Temporal and spatial frequency response characteristics.  

PubMed

We have studied visual detection of a circular target moving across a spatially and/or temporally modulated background. Illumination, It, for threshold detection of the target has been measured as a function of background modulation frequency and changes in It associated with background modulation provide a means of determining the frequency response characteristics of visual channels. Temporal frequency responses obtained with temporally modulated, spatially uniform backgrounds have pass-band characteristics and the temporal frequency for peak response increases with increase in mean background illumination. These temporal frequency responses resemble those of the de Lange (1954) filter, but the latter incorporates the incremental thresholds for steady backgrounds. The amplitude of this temporal response saturates at low (approximately 40%) background modulation, decreases to zero as the target velocity falls to zero, and is maximum for a circular target of diameter 2 degrees. The spatial characteristics of this temporal filter were measured with a background field consisting of alternate steady and flickering bars. The resulting spatial frequency curve peaks at 1 cycle deg-1 for all background illuminations and is independent of the background grating orientation. This spatial response differs significantly from the IMG spatial functions observed with a background grating (Barbur and Ruddock, 1980). The spatial and temporal responses reviewed above exhibit similar parametric variations and we therefore associate them with a single spatio-temporal filter, ST2. A second temporal response, with low-pass frequency characteristics, was observed with a background field consisting of two matched gratings, presented in spatial and temporal antiphase. This response has parametric properties similar to those of the IMG spatial response described previously by Barbur and Ruddock (1980), thus we associated the two sets of data with a single spatio-temporal filter, ST1. We show that the ST2 responses can be obtained by combining ST1 responses, and we present a network incorporating the two filters. We review other psychophysical studies which imply the activity of two spatio-temporal filters with properties of the kind revealed in our studies. We argue that filter ST1 has properties equivalent to those of X-type and filter ST2 has properties equivalent to those of Y-type electrophysiological mechanisms. PMID:6615916

Holliday, I E; Ruddock, K H

1983-01-01

240

Challenges for modelling spatio-temporal variations of malaria risk in Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Malawi with more than 6 million episodes reported each year. Malaria poses a huge economic burden to Malawi in terms of the direct cost of treating malaria patients and also indirect costs resulting from workdays lost in agriculture and industry and absenteeism from school. Malawi implements malaria control activities within the Roll Back Malaria framework, with the objective to provide those most at risk (i.e. children under five years, pregnant woman and individuals with suppressed immune systems) access to personal and community protective measures. However, at present there is no mechanism by which to target the most 'at risk' populations ahead of an impending epidemic. Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the mosquito and the availability of breeding sites, but also socio-economic conditions such as levels of urbanisation, poverty and education, which influence human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for modelling of malaria risk in space and time. Using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases at the district level from July 2004 - June 2011, we use a spatio-temporal modelling framework to model variations in malaria risk in Malawi. Climatic and topographic variations are accounted for using an interpolation method to relate gridded products to administrative districts. District level data is tested in the model to account for confounding factors, including the proportion of the population living in urban areas; residing in traditional housing; with no toilet facilities; who do not attend school, etc, the number of health facilities per population and yearly estimates of insecticide-treated mosquito net distribution. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a negative binomial generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) is adopted, which includes structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. The parameters in this spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This allows posterior predictive distributions for disease risk to be derived for each spatial location and time period. A novel visualisation technique is then used to display seasonal probabilistic forecasts of malaria risk, derived from the developed model using pre-defined risk category thresholds, on a map. This technique allows decision makers to identify areas where the model predicts with certainty a particular malaria risk category (high, medium or low); in order to effectively target limited resources to those districts most at risk for a given season.

Lowe, R.; Chirombo, J.; Tompkins, A. M.

2012-04-01

241

Fish and Plankton Interplay Determines Both Plankton Spatio-Temporal Pattern Formation and Fish School Walks: A Theoretical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fascinating variety of spatio-temporal patterns in aquatic ecosystems and the understanding of the governing mechanisms of its generation and further dynamics requires ongoing experimental and theoretical studies. After introducing a certain hybrid mathematical model, this paper makes an attempt to demonstrate that the predation of a mobile planktivorous fish school on zooplankton can initiate both plankton pattern formation and

Alexander B. Medvinsky; Dmitry A. Tikhonov; Jörg Enderlein; Horst Malchow

2000-01-01

242

On the efficacy of mobility modeling for DTN evaluation: Analysis of encounter statistics and spatio-temporal preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mobile networking, the main goal of mobility modeling and simulation is the ability to accurately reproduce effects of realistic mobility on the performance of networking protocols. In the areas of adhoc and delay tolerant networks (DTNs), recent work on mobility modeling focused on replicating metrics of encounter statistics and spatio-temporal preferences. No studies have been conducted, however, to show

Gautam S. Thakur; Udayan Kumar; Ahmed Helmy; Wei-Jen Hsu

2011-01-01

243

Spatio-temporal evolution and time-stable characteristics of soil moisture within remote sensing footprints with varying soil,  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal evolution and time-stable characteristics of soil moisture within remote sensing measure soil moisture at the footprint scale, a scale of several hundred square meters or kilometers of within-footprint variability of soil moisture are needed to determine the factors governing hydrologic

Mohanty, Binayak P.

244

A software framework for construction of process-based stochastic spatio-temporal models and data assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process-based spatio-temporal models simulate changes over time using equations that represent real world processes. They are widely applied in geography and earth science. Software implementation of the model itself and integrating model results with observations through data assimilation are two important steps in the model development cycle. Unlike most software frameworks that provide tools for either implementation of the model

Derek Karssenberg; Oliver Schmitz; Peter Salamon; Kor De Jong; Marc F. P. Bierkens

2010-01-01

245

Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk in Georgia, USA: 2000-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in Georgia, USA. However, the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer risk in Georgia have not been fully studied. Hierarchical Bayesian models are used here to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk by race and gender in Georgia for the period of 2000-2007. With the census tract level as the spatial scale and the 2-year period aggregation as the temporal scale, we compare a total of seven Bayesian spatio-temporal models including two under a separate modeling framework and five under a joint modeling framework. One joint model outperforms others based on the deviance information criterion. Results show that the northwest region of Georgia has consistently high lung cancer incidence risk for all population groups during the study period. In addition, there are inverse relationships between the socioeconomic status and the lung cancer incidence risk among all Georgian population groups, and the relationships in males are stronger than those in females. By mapping more reliable variations in lung cancer incidence risk at a relatively fine spatio-temporal scale for different Georgian population groups, our study aims to better support healthcare performance assessment, etiological hypothesis generation, and health policy making.

Yin, Ping; Mu, Lan; Madden, Marguerite; Vena, John E.

2014-10-01

246

A spatio-temporal analysis of BSE cases born before and after the reinforced feed ban in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatio-temporal analysis was carried out to see how the risk distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in France changed depending on the period of birth. The data concerned the 539 BSE cases born in France after the ban (BAB) of meat and bone meal (MBM) in 1990 and detected between July 1, 2001 and December 31, 2003, when the

Christian Ducrot; David Abrial; Didier Calavas; Tim Carpenter

2005-01-01

247

Complex, Dynamic Combination of Physical, Chemical and Nutritional Variables Controls Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sandy Beach Community Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a

Kelly Ortega Cisneros; Albertus J. Smit; Jürgen Laudien; David S. Schoeman

2011-01-01

248

Abstract--The exact spatio-temporal changes leading to epileptic seizures, although widely studied, are not well  

E-print Network

Abstract--The exact spatio-temporal changes leading to epileptic seizures, although widely studied, are not well understood yet. We propose to investigate the mechanisms leading to epileptic seizures by using-time analyses. Application of SOM-based SI measure on epileptic seizure data reveals interesting aspects

Slatton, Clint

249

Fire, native species, and soil resource interactions influence the spatio-temporal invasion pattern of Bromus tectorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is an invasive annual that occupies perennial grass and shrub communities throughout the western United States. Bromus tectorum exhibits an intriguing spatio-temporal pattern of invasion in low elevation ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa\\/bunchgrass communities in western Montana where it forms dense rings beneath solitary pines following fire. This pattern provides a unique opportunity to investigate several indirect effects

Michael J. Gundale; Steve Sutherland; Thomas H. DeLuca

2008-01-01

250

Analysing the space–time distribution of soil water storage of a forest ecosystem using spatio-temporal kriging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forest the soil water balance is strongly influenced by tree species composition. For example, differences in transpiration rate lead to differences in soil water storage (SWS) and differences in canopy interception cause differences in infiltration. To analyse the influence of tree species composition on SWS at the scale of a forest stand, we compare spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation and

G. Jost; G. B. M. Heuvelink; A. Papritz

2005-01-01

251

Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Brain Activity - Description of Interictal EEG in Paediatric Frontal Lobe Epilepsy  

E-print Network

A method for the quantitative assessment of spatio-temporal structuring of brain activity is presented. This approach is employed in a longitudinal case study of a child with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and tested against an age-matched control group. Several correlation measures that are sensitive to linear and/or non-linear relations in multichannel scalp EEG are combined with an hierarchical cluster algorithm. Beside a quantitative description of the overall degree of synchronization the spatial relations are investigated by means of the cluster characteristics. The chosen information measures not only demonstrate their suitability in the characterization of the ictal and interictal phases but they also follow the course of delayed recovery of the psychiatric symptomatology during successful medication. The results based on this single case study suggest testing this approach for quantitative control of therapy in an extended clinical trial.

Bunk, W; Kluger, G; Springer, S

2009-01-01

252

Coexistence through spatio-temporal heterogeneity and species sorting in grassland plant communities.  

PubMed

The effect of spatial heterogeneity on species coexistence relies on the degree of niche heterogeneity in the habitat and the ability of species to exploit the available niche opportunities. We studied species coexistence in a perennial grassland, and tested whether small-scale disturbances create environmental heterogeneity that affects coexistence and whether the functional diversity of species in the species pool affects the ability of community composition to reflect heterogeneity through species sorting. We manipulated the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of disturbance and the functional diversity of species added as seed and measured their impact on the spatial turnover of species composition. Disturbance increased environmental heterogeneity and spatial turnover, and the effect of heterogeneity on turnover was greatest in the presence of a functionally diverse species pool, showing the importance of trait variation among species for exploiting environmental heterogeneity, and suggesting that coexistence occurred due to species sorting among heterogeneous niches. PMID:18445035

Questad, Erin J; Foster, Bryan L

2008-07-01

253

Spatio-Temporal Segregation-Pattern Drift in Particle-Laden Rimming Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ref. [1] we described a new banding pattern developing from particle segregation in particle-laden flow inside a partially fluid-filled, horizontal, rotating cylinder. Hitherto we believed that the pattern was quasi stationary once developed. However, long-term observations have revealed that this is not the case. The system can display an extremely rich spatio- temporal behaviour that emerges as the patterns drift extremely slowly along the axis of rotation. Due to these low average pattern-drift velocities the complex system dynamics often only reveal themselves when conducting experiments extending over several weeks. Here we discuss some of the observed typical aspects of the long-term behaviour of the system for the first time. [1] Boote, O.A.M. & Thomas, P.J. 1999 Effects of granular additives on transition boundaries between flow states of rimming flow, Phys. Fluids vol. 11, 2020-2029.

Guyez, Estelle; Thomas, Peter J.

2007-11-01

254

Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident. PMID:23995073

Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

2013-01-01

255

Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Preferences and Encounter Statistics for DTN Performance  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal preferences and encounter statistics provide realistic measures to understand mobile user's behavioral preferences and transfer opportunities in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). The time dependent behavior and periodic reappearances at specific locations can approximate future online presence while encounter statistics can aid to forward the routing decisions. It is theoretically shown that such characteristics heavily affect the performance of routing protocols. Therefore, mobility models demonstrating such characteristics are also expected to show identical routing performance. However, we argue models despite capturing these properties deviate from their expected routing performance. We use realistic traces to validate this observation on two mobility models. Our empirical results for epidemic routing show those models' largely differ (delay 67% & reachability 79%) from the observed values. This in-turn call for two important activities: (i) Analogous to routing, explore structural prope...

Thakur, Gautam S; Helmy, Ahmed; Hsu, Wei-Jen

2010-01-01

256

Spatio-temporal features for tracking and quadruped/biped discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques such as SIFT and SURF facilitate efficient and robust image processing operations through the use of sparse and compact spatial feature descriptors and show much potential for defence and security applications. This paper considers the extension of such techniques to include information from the temporal domain, to improve utility in applications involving moving imagery within video data. In particular, the paper demonstrates how spatio-temporal descriptors can be used very effectively as the basis of a target tracking system and as target discriminators which can distinguish between bipeds and quadrupeds. Results using sequences of video imagery of walking humans and dogs are presented, and the relative merits of the approach are discussed.

Rickman, Rick; Copsey, Keith; Bamber, David C.; Page, Scott F.

2012-05-01

257

Assessment of soil organic carbon distribution in Europe scale by spatio-temporal data and geostatistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted using combination of LUCAS soil samples with local soil data and ten spatio-temporal predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, average temperature and precipitation) with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found.

Aksoy, Ece; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

2013-04-01

258

Spatio-temporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window  

E-print Network

We demonstrate experimentally the isolation of single attosecond pulses at the carbon K- shell edge in the soft-X-ray water window. Attosecond pulses at photon energies that cover the principal absorption edges of the building blocks of materials are a prerequisite for time resolved probing of the triggering events leading to electronic dynamics such as exciton formation and annihilation. Herewith, we demonstrate successful isolation of individual attosecond pulses at the carbon K edge (284 eV) with a pulse duration below 400 as and with a bandwidth supporting a 30 as pulse duration. Our approach is based on spatio-temporal isolation of ponderomotively shifted harmonics and validates a straightforward and scalable approach for robust and reproducible attosecond pulse isolation.

Silva, Francisco; Cousin, Seth L; Hemmer, Michael; Biegert, Jens

2014-01-01

259

Measurement of the spatio-temporal gas density profile of a supersonic jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersonic jets are important for many experiments in physics, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Characterization of the density profile of the gas released from the nozzle is crucial for many applications and generally requires complicated measurements. A method that uses a common microphone to characterize the spatio-temporal gas profile of the supersonic jet is demonstrated here. Calibrating the microphone signals with the pressure change in the stagnation chamber, it is shown that it is possible to measure the complete density profile of the conical gas emission from the supersonic jet. It is shown that any conical section has a gaussian radial profile and that the peak densities decrease as 1/z'2, where z ' is the distance from the nozzle.

Rajeev, R.; Raja, S. V.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

2013-08-01

260

Geographic boundary analysis in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology: Perspective and prospects  

PubMed Central

Geographic boundary analysis is a relatively new approach that is just beginning to be applied in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology to quantify spatial variation in health outcomes, predictors and correlates; generate and test epidemiologic hypotheses; to evaluate health-environment relationships; and to guide sampling design. Geographic boundaries are zones of rapid change in the value of a spatially distributed variable, and mathematically may be defined as those locations with a large second derivative of the spatial response surface. Here we introduce a pattern analysis framework based on Value, Change and Association questions, and boundary analysis is shown to fit logically into Change and Association paradigms. This article addresses fundamental questions regarding what boundary analysis can tell us in public health and epidemiology. It explains why boundaries are of interest, illustrates analysis approaches and limitations, and concludes with prospects and future research directions. PMID:21218153

Jacquez, Geoffrey M.

2010-01-01

261

The spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of Ebola virus proteins and RNA in infected cells  

PubMed Central

Here, we used a biologically contained Ebola virus system to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of Ebola virus proteins and RNA during virus replication. We found that viral nucleoprotein (NP), the polymerase cofactor VP35, the major matrix protein VP40, the transcription activator VP30, and the minor matrix protein VP24 were distributed in cytoplasmic inclusions. These inclusions enlarged near the nucleus, became smaller pieces, and subsequently localized near the plasma membrane. GP was distributed in the cytoplasm and transported to the plasma membrane independent of the other viral proteins. We also found that viral RNA synthesis occurred within the inclusions. Newly synthesized negative-sense RNA was distributed inside the inclusions, whereas positive-sense RNA was distributed both inside and outside. These findings provide useful insights into Ebola virus replication. PMID:23383374

Nanbo, Asuka; Watanabe, Shinji; Halfmann, Peter; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

262

A satellite-remote-sensing-based marine and atmospheric spatio-temporal data model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a marine and atmospheric spatio-temporal data model (MASTDM) based on satellite remote sensing has been developed to support the global oceanic and atmospheric research and application in the Marine and Atmospheric Geographical Information System (MAGIS). MASTDM conceptualizes the spatial distribution and temporal sampling of the satellite remote sensing data. The model has provided a mechanism service to store data and some subroutines to retrieve and manipulate data. These subroutines can be classified into the fundamental functions (definition, access, inquiry, export) and the advanced functions (transform, operation, validation and mend and etc). MASTDM is not only a solid foundation of the three modules (database management, spatial-temporal analysis and visualization) of MAGIS, but also a key to integrate these three modules seamlessly. In this paper, the conceptual and logical designs of MASTDM have been presented. A prototype system based on MASTDM has been implemented in MAGIS, it is also illustrated by some case study.

Fang, Chaoyang; Lin, Hui; Guilbert, Eric; Chen, Ge

2006-10-01

263

A collaborative large spatio-temporal data visual analytics architecture for emergence response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unconventional emergency, usually outbreaks more suddenly, and is diffused more quickly, but causes more secondary damage and derives more disaster than what it is usually expected. The data volume and urgency of emergency exceeds the capacity of current emergency management systems. In this paper, we propose a three-tier collaborative spatio-temporal visual analysis architecture to support emergency management. The prototype system, based on cloud computation environment, supports aggregation of massive unstructured and semi-structured data, integration of various computing model sand algorithms; collaborative visualization and visual analytics among users with a diversity of backgrounds. The distributed data in 100TB scale is integrated in a unified platform and shared with thousands of experts and government agencies by nearly 100 models. The users explore, visualize and analyse the big data and make a collaborative countermeasures to emergencies.

Guo, D.; Li, J.; Cao, H.; Zhou, Y.

2014-02-01

264

Holographic frequency resolved optical gating for spatio-temporal characterization of ultrashort optical pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a novel method for characterizing the spatio-temporal evolution of ultrashort optical field by recording the spectral hologram of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) trace. We show that FROG holography enables the measurement of phase (up to an overall constant) and group delay of the pulse which cannot be measured by conventional FROG method. To illustrate our method, we perform numerical simulation to generate holographic collinear FROG (cFROG) trace of a chirped optical pulse and retrieve its complex profile at multiple locations as it propagates through a hypothetical dispersive medium. Further, we experimentally demonstrate our method by retrieving a 67 fs pulse at three axial locations in the vicinity of focus of an objective lens and compute its group delay.

Mehta, Nikhil; Yang, Chuan; Xu, Yong; Liu, Zhiwen

2014-09-01

265

On the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil moisture at the field scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we review the state of the art of characterizing and analyzing spatio-temporal dynamics of soil moisture content at the field scale. We discuss measurement techniques that have become available in recent years and that provide unique opportunities to characterize field scale soil moisture variability with high spatial and/or temporal resolution. These include soil moisture sensor networks, hydrogeophysical measurement techniques, novel remote sensing platforms, and cosmic ray probes. Techniques and methods to analyze soil moisture fields are briefly discussed and include temporal stability analysis, wavelet analysis and empirical orthogonal functions. We revisit local and non-local controls on field scale soil moisture dynamics and discuss approaches to model these dynamics at the field scale. Finally, we address the topic of optimal measurement design and provide an outlook and future research perspectives.

Vereecken, H.; Huisman, J. A.; Pachepsky, Y.; Montzka, C.; van der Kruk, J.; Bogena, H.; Weihermüller, L.; Herbst, M.; Martinez, G.; Vanderborght, J.

2014-08-01

266

Detecting nonlinear dynamics in spatio-temporal systems, examples from ecological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical models of marine populations exhibit chaotic dynamics. However, we hypothesize that in moving water, Eulerian sampling of spatially heterogeneous populations may obscure any deterministic signal beyond the resolving capabilities of presently available nonlinear signal processing techniques. To examine this hypothesis we created two spatio-temporal models of population dynamics. To caricature actual ocean sampling limitations, we sampled the model output in two ways, random walks to simulate Eulerian sampling, and spatial averages to simulate population measurements from finite volumes. Results indicate that the ability to identify underlying nonlinear dynamics quickly degrades as the step size of a random walk sampling increases. On the other hand, the analysis techniques used are more robust in the face of spatial averaging.

Little, Sarah; Ellner, Stephen; Pascual, Mercedes; Neubert, Michael; Kaplan, Daniel; Sauer, Timothy; Caswell, Hal; Solow, Andy

267

Automated analysis of spatio-temporal features for non-masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-mass enhancing lesions represent one of the most challenging types of lesions when it comes to both manual and computer-assisted diagnosis. Compared to the well-characterized mass-enhancing lesions, non-masses have not well-defined and blurred tumor borders and a kinetic behavior that is not easily generalizable and thus non-discriminative for malignant and benign non-masses. A valuable feature descriptor should capture the heterogeneity of enhancement as well as the speed of enhancement in the tissue. We apply and evaluate both textural and spatio-temporal descriptors to the pertinent feature extraction of these lesions. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally considers the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

Hoffmann, Sebastian; Lobbes, Marc; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

2013-05-01

268

Variability of spatio-temporal patterns in non-homogeneous rings of spiking neurons.  

PubMed

We show that a ring of unidirectionally delay-coupled spiking neurons may possess a multitude of stable spiking patterns and provide a constructive algorithm for generating a desired spiking pattern. More specifically, for a given time-periodic pattern, in which each neuron fires once within the pattern period at a predefined time moment, we provide the coupling delays and/or coupling strengths leading to this particular pattern. The considered homogeneous networks demonstrate a great multistability of various travelling time- and space-periodic waves which can propagate either along the direction of coupling or in opposite direction. Such a multistability significantly enhances the variability of possible spatio-temporal patterns and potentially increases the coding capability of oscillatory neuronal loops. We illustrate our results using FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons interacting via excitatory chemical synapses as well as limit-cycle oscillators. PMID:22225385

Yanchuk, Serhiy; Perlikowski, Przemyslaw; Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

2011-12-01

269

Variability of spatio-temporal patterns in non-homogeneous rings of spiking neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a ring of unidirectionally delay-coupled spiking neurons may possess a multitude of stable spiking patterns and provide a constructive algorithm for generating a desired spiking pattern. More specifically, for a given time-periodic pattern, in which each neuron fires once within the pattern period at a predefined time moment, we provide the coupling delays and/or coupling strengths leading to this particular pattern. The considered homogeneous networks demonstrate a great multistability of various travelling time- and space-periodic waves which can propagate either along the direction of coupling or in opposite direction. Such a multistability significantly enhances the variability of possible spatio-temporal patterns and potentially increases the coding capability of oscillatory neuronal loops. We illustrate our results using FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons interacting via excitatory chemical synapses as well as limit-cycle oscillators.

Yanchuk, Serhiy; Perlikowski, Przemyslaw; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

2011-12-01

270

Spatio-Temporally Restricted Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules during Chicken Embryonic Development  

PubMed Central

Differential cell adhesive properties are known to regulate important developmental events like cell sorting and cell migration. Cadherins and protocadherins are known to mediate these cellular properties. Though a large number of such molecules have been predicted, their characterization in terms of interactive properties and cellular roles is far from being comprehensive. To narrow down the tissue context and collect correlative evidence for tissue specific roles of these molecules, we have carried out whole-mount in situ hybridization based RNA expression study for seven cadherins and four protocadherins. In developing chicken embryos (HH stages 18, 22, 26 and 28) cadherins and protocadherins are expressed in tissue restricted manner. This expression study elucidates precise expression domains of cell adhesion molecules in the context of developing embryos. These expression domains provide spatio-temporal context in which the function of these genes can be further explored. PMID:24806091

Roy, Priti; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

2014-01-01

271

Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident. PMID:23995073

Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

2013-01-01

272

Multivariate testing of spatio-temporal consistence of daily precipitation records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project KLIDADIGI of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) systematically rescues historical daily climate data of Germany by keying and imaging. Up to now, daily nearly gap-free precipitation time series at 118 locations for the period 1901-2000 are collected and extended by digitalization of hand-written protocols. To screen the spatio-temporal consistence of these raw data, we apply principal component analysis (PCA) in S (spatial) mode for daily precipitation records as well as for indices such as the number of rainy days above a certain threshold, intensity and absolute daily maximum in monthly, seasonal or annual resolution. Results of this screening test indicate that the PCA is a useful tool for detection of questionable stations and data preprocessing for further quality control and homogenization.

Mächel, H.; Kapala, A.

2013-06-01

273

Efficient Bayesian multivariate fMRI analysis using a sparsifying spatio-temporal prior.  

PubMed

Bayesian logistic regression with a multivariate Laplace prior is introduced as a multivariate approach to the analysis of neuroimaging data. It is shown that, by rewriting the multivariate Laplace distribution as a scale mixture, we can incorporate spatio-temporal constraints which lead to smooth importance maps that facilitate subsequent interpretation. The posterior of interest is computed using an approximate inference method called expectation propagation and becomes feasible due to fast inversion of a sparse precision matrix. We illustrate the performance of the method on an fMRI dataset acquired while subjects were shown handwritten digits. The obtained models perform competitively in terms of predictive performance and give rise to interpretable importance maps. Estimation of the posterior of interest is shown to be feasible even for very large models with thousands of variables. PMID:19958837

van Gerven, Marcel A J; Cseke, Botond; de Lange, Floris P; Heskes, Tom

2010-03-01

274

New model diagnostics for spatio-temporal systems in epidemiology and ecology.  

PubMed

A cardinal challenge in epidemiological and ecological modelling is to develop effective and easily deployed tools for model assessment. The availability of such methods would greatly improve understanding, prediction and management of disease and ecosystems. Conventional Bayesian model assessment tools such as Bayes factors and the deviance information criterion (DIC) are natural candidates but suffer from important limitations because of their sensitivity and complexity. Posterior predictive checks, which use summary statistics of the observed process simulated from competing models, can provide a measure of model fit but appropriate statistics can be difficult to identify. Here, we develop a novel approach for diagnosing mis-specifications of a general spatio-temporal transmission model by embedding classical ideas within a Bayesian analysis. Specifically, by proposing suitably designed non-centred parametrization schemes, we construct latent residuals whose sampling properties are known given the model specification and which can be used to measure overall fit and to elicit evidence of the nature of mis-specifications of spatial and temporal processes included in the model. This model assessment approach can readily be implemented as an addendum to standard estimation algorithms for sampling from the posterior distributions, for example Markov chain Monte Carlo. The proposed methodology is first tested using simulated data and subsequently applied to data describing the spread of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) across Great Britain over a 30-year period. The proposed methods are compared with alternative techniques including posterior predictive checking and the DIC. Results show that the proposed diagnostic tools are effective in assessing competing stochastic spatio-temporal transmission models and may offer improvements in power to detect model mis-specifications. Moreover, the latent-residual framework introduced here extends readily to a broad range of ecological and epidemiological models. PMID:24522782

Lau, Max S Y; Marion, Glenn; Streftaris, George; Gibson, Gavin J

2014-04-01

275

Spatio-temporal malaria transmission patterns in Navrongo demographic surveillance site, northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between entomological measures of malaria transmission intensity and mortality remains uncertain. This is partly because transmission is heterogeneous even within small geographical areas. Studying this relationship requires high resolution, spatially structured, longitudinal entomological data. Geostatistical models that have been used to analyse the spatio-temporal heterogeneity have not considered the uncertainty in both sporozoite rate (SR) and mosquito density data. This study analysed data from Kassena-Nankana districts in northern Ghana to obtain small area estimates of malaria transmission rates allowing for this uncertainty. Methods Independent Bayesian geostatistical models for sporozoite rate and mosquito density were fitted to produce explicit entomological inoculation rate (EIR) estimates for small areas and short time periods, controlling for environmental factors. Results Mosquitoes were trapped from 2,803 unique locations for three years using mainly CDC light traps. Anopheles gambiae constituted 52%, the rest were Anopheles funestus. Mean biting rates for An. funestus and An. gambiae were 32 and 33 respectively. Most bites occurred in September, the wettest month. The sporozoite rates were higher in the dry periods of the last two years compared with the wet period. The annual EIR varied from 1,132 to 157 infective bites. Monthly EIR varied between zero and 388 infective bites. Spatial correlation for SR was lower than that of mosquito densities. Conclusion This study confirms the presence of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in malaria transmission within a small geographical area. Spatial variance was stronger than temporal especially in the SR. The estimated EIR will be used in mortality analysis for the area. PMID:23405912

2013-01-01

276

Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years  

PubMed Central

It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

2013-01-01

277

Spatio-temporal interpolation of daily temperatures for global land areas at 1 km resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined Global Surface Summary of Day and European Climate Assessment and Dataset daily meteorological data sets (around 9000 stations) were used to build spatio-temporal geostatistical models and predict daily air temperature at ground resolution of 1 km for the global land mass. Predictions in space and time were made for the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures using spatio-temporal regression-kriging with a time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8 day images, topographic layers (digital elevation model and topographic wetness index), and a geometric temperature trend as covariates. The accuracy of predicting daily temperatures was assessed using leave-one-out cross validation. To account for geographical point clustering of station data and get a more representative cross-validation accuracy, predicted values were aggregated to blocks of land of size 500×500 km. Results show that the average accuracy for predicting mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperatures is root-mean-square error (RMSE) =±2°C for areas densely covered with stations and between ±2°C and ±4°C for areas with lower station density. The lowest prediction accuracy was observed at high altitudes (>1000 m) and in Antarctica with an RMSE around 6°C. The model and predictions were built for the year 2011 only, but the same methodology could be extended for the whole range of the MODIS land surface temperature images (2001 to today), i.e., to produce global archives of daily temperatures (a next-generation http://WorldClim.org repository) and to feed various global environmental models.

Kilibarda, Milan; Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gräler, Benedikt; Pebesma, Edzer; Per?ec Tadi?, Melita; Bajat, Branislav

2014-03-01

278

Spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns across gradients of vegetation and topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture dynamics control hydrological processes on various scales: changes in local water storage and potential activation of preferential flow paths influence connectivity and runoff from hillslopes and ultimately the discharge response of the stream. The spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture, however, are dependent on a combination of local parameters such as soil type, vegetation and topography as well as meteorological conditions, antecedent moisture and seasonality. In an integrative monitoring study carried out within the CAOS observatory in Luxemburg (http://www.caos-project.de/), soil moisture was measured at 21 sites with 3 soil moisture profiles each. These sites include grassland as well as forest on the one hand and cover different hillslope positions on the other hand. This setup allows us to study both vegetation and topographic effects. The spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture were analysed using two approaches: 1) we examined temporal persistence of soil moisture patterns with rank stability plots and addressed the variability within and between sites for contrasting meteorological conditions. 2) In a next step we focused on specific hydrologic events: two periods during summer recession were distinguished, first the drying out of the soils during a period of no precipitation, but also the continuing decline even after summer rains have started. Furthermore, the soil moisture response to three different rainfall events was examined, varying in intensity and antecedent moisture conditions. The emerging contrasts in patterns were put into context of site-specific characteristics such as vegetation and topographical position to identify controls on soil moisture dynamics for our range of sites. Ultimately, linking similarity in soil moisture response in landscapes to these controls can elucidate the hydrological functioning of landscape units and thus facilitate modelling efforts.

Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

2014-05-01

279

Influence of groundwater pumping and rainfall spatio-temporal variation on streamflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater pumping and surface water management structures, i.e. dams and water flow diversions, have been raising serious concerns about the declines in groundwater levels and streamflow in different watersheds throughout the world. Small island watersheds with complex land use, and strong spatio-temporal climate and edaphic variability (e.g. Hawaiian watersheds) offer an ideal environment to help improve our understanding of groundwater-surface water interaction and the hydrological processes it involves. In this study, we investigate the spatio-temporal relationships between streamflow, rainfall, and groundwater using long-term (>40 years) data records from a small Hawaiian watershed. A suite of Mann-Kendall tests were used to evaluate trends and shifts in time series data. The impact of groundwater pumping in the valley on streamflow was also investigated; multiple linear regression analysis was used to quantify the effect of pumping on streamflow. Stream base flow and total flow have declined significantly since 1960, while rainfall showed no statistically significant trends since the 1960s. Groundwater pumping has significantly increased since 1960, and our findings indicate it is a significant contributing factor to streamflow decline. Watershed yield experienced two successive downward shifts: first around 1971-1972 and then again around 1991-1992. The first downward shift appears to be related to the pumping of groundwater from the mid-valley area which began in 1968. The second downward shift is the result of pumping in the upper valley, which began in 1991. Regression models and double mass curve analyses indicate that pumping may have captured significant amounts of groundwater that otherwise would have comprised stream base flow. Streamflow has been reduced by 19-22% since 1971 and as much as 36% since 1991.

Mair, Alan; Fares, Ali

2010-11-01

280

In-situ, high spatio-temporal resolution measurements of CO2 flux and isotopic composition on Mammoth Mountain, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of CO2 emissions from volcano flanks and in ground waters has become an integral part of many monitoring programs, as spatial and temporal variations in these emissions may be indicative of volcanic unrest. The source and magnitude of CO2 emissions have been intensely studied at Mammoth Mountain, a dacitic volcano located on the rim of Long Valley caldera, California. These observations, combined with multiple geophysical data sets, suggest that unrest at Mammoth Mountain is driven by periodic release of CO2-rich magmatic fluid derived from basaltic dikes and sills at mid-crustal depths. While measurements of CO2 flux and determination of CO2 sources at volcanoes can place important constraints on gas transport and its relationship to volcanic activity, the spatio-temporal resolution of these measurements has been limited by the time and cost associated with making “point” CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber (AC) method and sample collection and analysis of isotopic (14C-CO2 and 13C-CO2) compositions. We present a novel instrument platform for real-time monitoring of spatio-temporal distribution, emission rate and source of CO2 in volcanic systems. Time and space averaged CO2 fluxes are measured every half hour by the eddy covariance (EC) method. Least-squares inversions of EC data and modeled footprint functions provide estimates of CO2 emission rate and surface flux spatial distribution. AC measurements of soil CO2 flux yield detailed maps of flux spatial distribution and comparative emission rate estimates. A new field-portable isotopic analyzer provides, for the first time, in-situ, high frequency measurements of 14C and 13C compositions of CO2 in the atmosphere, soil gas, and dissolved in ground water. We tested the CO2 flux-monitoring component of this platform at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill area on Mammoth Mountain from 8 September to 24 October 2006. EC CO2 fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m-2d-1. Maps of surface CO2 flux were simulated based on AC measurements made repeatedly on a grid over a ten-day period; large meteorologically driven variations in surface flux distributions and emission rates (16 to 52 t d-1) were observed. Using footprint modeling, we compared EC to AC measurements of CO2 flux. Half-hour EC CO2 fluxes were moderately correlated (R2 = 0.42) with AC fluxes, whereas average-daily EC and AC fluxes were well correlated (R2 = 0.70). The integrated CO2 flux and isotopic monitoring platform will be deployed and tested in Fall 2010 at Mammoth Mountain. EC and AC measurements of CO2 fluxes will be made at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill area and modeled CO2 surface flux distributions and emission rates will be compared. Measurements of 14C and 13C compositions of atmospheric, soil, and ground water CO2 will provide real-time determination of CO2 source.

Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.; Marino, B.; Bergfeld, D.; Fischer, M. L.; Hancyk, J.; Xu, L.

2010-12-01

281

Spatio-temporal dynamics and laterality effects of face inversion, feature presence and configuration, and face outline  

PubMed Central

Although a crucial role of the fusiform gyrus (FG) in face processing has been demonstrated with a variety of methods, converging evidence suggests that face processing involves an interactive and overlapping processing cascade in distributed brain areas. Here we examine the spatio-temporal stages and their functional tuning to face inversion, presence and configuration of inner features, and face contour in healthy subjects during passive viewing. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) combines high-density whole-head MEG recordings and distributed source modeling with high-resolution structural MRI. Each person's reconstructed cortical surface served to constrain noise-normalized minimum norm inverse source estimates. The earliest activity was estimated to the occipital cortex at ~100 ms after stimulus onset and was sensitive to an initial coarse level visual analysis. Activity in the right-lateralized ventral temporal area (inclusive of the FG) peaked at ~160 ms and was largest to inverted faces. Images containing facial features in the veridical and rearranged configuration irrespective of the facial outline elicited intermediate level activity. The M160 stage may provide structural representations necessary for downstream distributed areas to process identity and emotional expression. However, inverted faces additionally engaged the left ventral temporal area at ~180 ms and were uniquely subserved by bilateral processing. This observation is consistent with the dual route model and spared processing of inverted faces in prosopagnosia. The subsequent deflection, peaking at ~240 ms in the anterior temporal areas bilaterally, was largest to normal, upright faces. It may reflect initial engagement of the distributed network subserving individuation and familiarity. These results support dynamic models suggesting that processing of unfamiliar faces in the absence of a cognitive task is subserved by a distributed and interactive neural circuit.

Marinkovic, Ksenija; Courtney, Maureen G.; Witzel, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric

2014-01-01

282

Spatio-temporal hazard estimation in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, with a new event-order model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) with 49 eruptive centres in the last c. 250 ka presents many challenges to our understanding of distributed volcanic field construction and evolution. We re-examine the age constraints within the AVF and perform a correlation exercise matching the well-dated record of tephras from cores distributed throughout the field to the most likely source volcanoes, using thickness and location information and a simple attenuation model. Combining this augmented age information with known stratigraphic constraints, we produce a new age-order algorithm for the field, with errors incorporated using a Monte Carlo procedure. Analysis of the new age model discounts earlier appreciations of spatio-temporal clustering in the AVF. Instead the spatial and temporal aspects appear independent; hence the location of the last eruption provides no information about the next location. The temporal hazard intensity in the field has been highly variable, with over 63% of its centres formed in a high-intensity period between 40 and 20 ka. Another, smaller, high-intensity period may have occurred at the field onset, while the latest event, at 504 ± 5 years B.P., erupted 50% of the entire field's volume. This emphasises the lack of steady-state behaviour that characterises the AVF, which may also be the case in longer-lived fields with a lower dating resolution. Spatial hazard intensity in the AVF under the new age model shows a strong NE-SW structural control of volcanism that may reflect deep-seated crustal or subduction zone processes and matches the orientation of the Taupo Volcanic Zone to the south.

Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.

2011-01-01

283

Blind source separation using block-coordinate relative Newton method  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION The term blind source separation (BSS) refers to a wide class of problems in acoustics, medical case, consider the problem of equal number of sources and mixtures, in which a N-channel sensor signal (images) are parsed into vectors. Under the assumption that the sources are stationary and white (i

Zibulevsky, Michael

284

Quantifying spatio-temporal variability of soil water storage and their controls at multiple scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water is the primary limiting factor in semiarid ecosystems and determinant of environmental health. The distribution of soil water in space and time has important hydrologic applications. However, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water is a major challenge in hydrology as their distribution in the landscape is controlled many factors and processes acting in different intensities over a variety of scales. Quantification of these variability and their dominant controls at multiple scales can only lead to a better understanding on the soil water dynamics in space and time and on the underlying processes causing the variability. In order to quantify spatio-temporal variability, soil water content (later converted to soil water storage, SWS) was measured down to 1.4 m (0.2 m depth interval) at 128 regularly spaced locations along a transect of 576 m over a five-year period from the Hummocky landscape of central Canada. The spatial pattern of SWS was very similar (large values of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) over the entire study period and was almost a mirror image of the spatial pattern of the relative elevation. The similarity was stronger within a season (intra-season) than the same season from different years (inter-annual) and between seasons (inter-season). The variability at multiple scales was quantified using the wavelet transform. The strongest large scale (>72 m) variability contributed from the macro-topography and a moderate medium scale (18-72 m) variability contributed from the landform elements were persistent over the entire measurement period (time stability). The locations and the scales of the most persistent spatial patterns over time and depth were quantified using the wavelet coherency. The changes in the persistent patterns indicated the changes in the scales and locations of underlying hydrological processes, which can be used to identify change in sampling domain. The similarities/dissimilarities in the spatial pattern between the surface and sub-surface measurements at different scales and locations were used to infer the whole profile hydrological dynamics (depth persistence). The variability in SWS spatial patterns was controlled by different factors at different scales. Scale specific dominant controls were identified after separating the variance contribution of each scale towards the overall variance using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The large scale macro-topographical control and medium scale landform control were much stronger than very large scale soil textural control on SWS. The scale-specific relationship with controlling factors improved the prediction of SWS.

Biswas, Asim

2014-05-01

285

The changing spatio-temporal dynamics of thaw lake development, Seward Peninsula, Alaska.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary anthropogenic climatic warming is having an accelerated, and more pronounced effect upon Arctic regions than any other environment on Earth. Increased surface temperatures have led to widespread permafrost degradation and a shift in dynamics. One landscape manifestation of localised permafrost decay, seen to be ubiquitous across low-lying tundra regions of Alaska, Canada and Siberia, is the thermokarst lake - or 'thaw' lake. These features are seen to be truly dynamic, with a relatively rapid evolution and decay. The exact impacts of climatic perturbation on thaw lake development are in contention; however, recent studies have suggested an increased vulnerability of these features, owing to the susceptibility of the fundamental processes of initiation, expansion and drainage to climatic variation. It is often hypothesised that with current trends, thaw lakes will see a net increase in expansion rate, and areal extent, with a potential for increased drainage events. Increased permafrost thaw and thermokarst activity has also led to shifts in biogeochemical cycles, leading to an amplified release from large carbon reservoirs currently sequestered within permafrost. An example of carbon release exhibited from thaw lakes is that of methane ebullition (gas bubble formation); this has been theorised to have the potential to initiate a major positive climatic feedback leading to a continued rise in global temperatures. Due to the remote nature and large area over which these landforms occur, remotely sensed data has been widely used in order to both accurately classify features and measure change over spatially large and great temporal extents. As well as studies interpreting data collected in the visible and near-infrared spectra, studies have recently made use of radar or microwave products in order to capture imagery avoiding adverse atmospheric conditions, most notably cloud cover. Data from Envisat ASAR operating in Wide Swath Mode was acquired for this study region; however, the core of this research relied upon the analysis of the changing lake morphology using visible and near-infrared spectra from MODIS and Landsat products. This research explored: (1) intra-annual variability of freeze-thaw cycles and resultant effects on thaw lake development; and (2) the spatio-temporal trends and changing dynamism of thaw lake activity. Research presented here within suggests that although climatic trends do indeed influence widespread changes within thaw lake characteristics, site-specific phenomena of sediment type and ice-content and fluvial activity also play integral roles. Understanding and observing changing spatio-temporal dynamics, particularly on an intra-annual basis, has helped to gather more information concerning complex lake processes, and increase the understanding of permafrost decay and thaw lake development.

Cooper, Michael; Rees, Gareth; Bartsch, Annett

2014-05-01

286

Benefiting from a migratory prey: spatio-temporal patterns in allochthonous subsidization of an Arctic predator.  

PubMed

1.?Flows of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries have the potential to subsidize consumer populations and modify the dynamics of food webs, but how spatio-temporal variations in autochthonous and allochthonous resources affect consumers' subsidization remains largely unexplored. 2.?We studied spatio-temporal patterns in the allochthonous subsidization of a predator living in a relatively simple ecosystem. We worked on Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada), where arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus L.) feed preferentially on lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus and Dicrostonyx groenlandicus Traill), and alternatively on colonial greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus L.). Geese migrate annually from their wintering grounds (where they feed on farmlands and marshes) to the Canadian Arctic, thus generating a strong flow of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries. 3.?We examined the influence of spatial variations in availability of geese on the diet of fox cubs (2003-2005) and on fox reproductive output (1996-2005) during different phases of the lemming cycle. 4.?Using stable isotope analysis and a simple statistical routine developed to analyse the outputs of a multisource mixing model (SIAR), we showed that the contribution of geese to the diet of arctic fox cubs decreased with distance from the goose colony. 5.?The probability that a den was used for reproduction by foxes decreased with distance from the subsidized goose colony and increased with lemming abundance. When lemmings were highly abundant, the effect of distance from the colony disappeared. The goose colony thus generated a spatial patterning of reproduction probability of foxes, while the lemming cycle generated a strong temporal variation of reproduction probability of foxes. 6.?This study shows how the input of energy owing to the large-scale migration of prey affects the functional and reproductive responses of an opportunistic consumer, and how this input is spatially and temporally modulated through the foraging behaviour of the consumer. Thus, perspectives of both landscape and foraging ecology are needed to fully resolve the effects of subsidies on animal demographic processes and population dynamics. PMID:22268371

Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Berteaux, Dominique; Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Szor, Guillaume; Bêty, Joël

2012-05-01

287

Spatio-temporal analysis on enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Severe epidemics of enterovirus have occurred frequently in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Cambodia, and China, involving cases of pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and encephalitis, and an effective vaccine has not been available. The specific aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of mild and severe enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance data. Methods All enterovirus cases in Taiwan over almost ten years from three main databases, including national notifiable diseases surveillance, sentinel physician surveillance and laboratory surveillance programs from July 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were analyzed. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied for measuring the consistency of the trends in the cases between different surveillance systems. Cross correlation analysis in a time series model was applied for examining the capability to predict severe enterovirus infections. Poisson temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics were used for identifying the most likely clusters of severe enterovirus outbreaks. The directional distribution method with two standard deviations of ellipse was applied to measure the size and the movement of the epidemic. Results The secular trend showed that the number of severe EV cases peaked in 2008, and the number of mild EV cases was significantly correlated with that of severe ones occurring in the same week [r?=?0.553, p?spatio-temporal clusters in June 2008, the mild cases had begun to rise since May 2008, and the outbreak spread from south to north. Conclusions Local public health professionals can monitor the temporal and spatial trends plus spatio-temporal clusters and isolation rate of EV-71 in mild and severe EV cases in a community when virus transmission is high, to provide early warning signals and to prevent subsequent severe epidemics. PMID:24400725

2014-01-01

288

Spatio-temporal modeling with GIS and remote sensing for schistosomiasis control in Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. Its transmission requires certain kind of snail as the intermediate host. Some efforts have been made to mapping snail habitats with remote sensing and schistosomiasis transmission modeling. However, the modeling is limited to isolated residential groups and does not include spatial interaction among those groups. Remotely sensed data are only used in snail habitat classification, not in estimation of snail abundance that is an important parameter in schistosomiasis transmission modeling. This research overcomes the above two problems using innovative geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technology. A mountainous environment near Xichang, China, is chosen as the test site. Environmental and epidemiological data are stored in a GIS to support modeling. Snail abundance is estimated from land-cover and land-use fractions derived from high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite data. Spatial interaction is determined in consideration of neighborhoods, group areas, relative slopes among groups, and natural barriers. Land-cover and land-use information extracted from 4 m high resolution IKONOS data is used as reference in scaling up to the regional level. The scale-up is done with coarser resolution satellite data including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion data all at 30 m resolution. Snail abundance is estimated by regressing snail survey data with land-cover and land-use fractions. An R2 of 0.87 is obtained between the average snail density predicted and that surveyed at the group level. With such a model, a snail density map is generated for all residential groups in the study area. A spatio-temporal model of schistosomiasis transmission is finally built to incorporate the spatial interaction caused by miracidia and cercaria migration. Comparing the model results with and without spatial interaction has revealed a number of advantages of the spatio-temporal model. Particularly, with the inclusion of spatial interaction, more effective control of schistosomiasis transmission over the whole study area can be achieved.

Xu, Bing

289

Spatio-temporal analysis of brain electrical activity in epilepsy based on cellular nonlinear networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio-temporal autoregressive filter models are considered, for a prediction of EEG signal values. Thus Signal features values for successive, short, quasi stationary segments of brain electrical activity can be obtained, with the objective of detecting distinct changes prior to impending epileptic seizures. Furthermore long term recordings gained during presurgical diagnostics in temporal lobe epilepsy are analyzed and the predictive performance of the extracted features is evaluated statistically. Therefore a Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis is considered, assessing the distinguishability between distributions of supposed preictal and interictal periods.

Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald

2009-05-01

290

Detection of Fight or Flight Reaction on Facial Skin Thermogram using Spatio-Temporal Spectrum Differential Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known that human being exhibits the Fight or Flight Reaction(FFR) when they feel anxiety, strain and threat. This paper describes experiments that were conducted to arouse the fight or flight reaction. Facial skin thermograms in which the temperature fluctuation in specific regions was identified were measured, and the characteristics of the temperature fluctuations in the relevant regions were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that, for nine of the ten subjects, the FFR was confirmed in the form of reacted areas indicating acute increases in skin temperature, primarily in facial expression muscles such as the procerus muscle and cheek muscles. Additionally, the spatio-temporal spectrum differential analysis method for facial skin thermograms was proposed, and as a result of detecting spatio-temporal skin temperature fluctuations in the facial skin thermograms accompanying manifestation of the FFR, a detection rate of 76.5% was obtained. Thus, the effectiveness of the proposed technique was confirmed.

Nozawa, Akio; Tomono, Satoshi; Mizuno, Tota; Ide, Hideto

291

Spatio-temporal spike train analysis for large scale networks using the maximum entropy principle and Monte Carlo method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles.

Nasser, Hassan; Marre, Olivier; Cessac, Bruno

2013-03-01

292

Spatio-temporal characteristics of low-frequency BOLD signal fluctuations in isoflurane-anesthetized rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the spatio-temporal characteristics of the resting state low-frequency fluctuations in fMRI-BOLD signal in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. fMRI-BOLD measurements at 9.4 T were made during normal and exsanguinated condition previously known to alter cerebral blood flow (CBF) fluctuations in anesthetized rats. fMRI signal time series were low pass filtered and studied by spectral analysis. During normal conditions, baseline mean arterial

Sridhar S. Kannurpatti; Bharat B. Biswal; Young Ro Kim; Bruce R. Rosen

2008-01-01

293

Spatio-temporal variation in coral recruitment at different scales on Heron Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment of scleractinian corals on settlement plates at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, was examined over four years\\u000a (September 1991–September 1995) to quantify spatio-temporal patterns at different scales and to assess post settlement mortality.\\u000a Recruitment was dominated by pocilloporid corals which accounted for 80.1% of the 8627 spat counted, whereas non-isoporan\\u000a acroporids represented only 16.4%. Poritids, faviids and isoporan acroporids

P. K. Dunstan; C. R. Johnson

1998-01-01

294

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of Rac1 Localization and Lamellipodia Dynamics during Epithelial Cell-Cell Adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadherin-dependent epithelial cell-cell adhesion is thought to be regulated by Rho family small GTPases and PI 3-kinase, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Using time-lapse microscopy and quantitative image analysis, we show that cell-cell contact in MDCK epithelial cells coincides with a spatio-temporal reorganization of plasma membrane Rac1 and lamellipodia from noncontacting to contacting surfaces. Within contacts, Rac1 and

Jason S. Ehrlich; Marc D. H. Hansen; W. James Nelson

2002-01-01

295

Noise-adaptive spatio-temporal filter for real-time noise removal in low light level images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise reduction gradually becomes one of the most important features in consumer cameras. The video signal is easily interfered by noise during acquisition process especially in low light environment. Many of the state-of-the-art filters for noise reduction perform-well for high contrast images. However, for low light images, the filter performance degrades seriously. In this paper, we propose a noise-adaptive spatio-temporal

Seong-Won Lee; Vivek Maik; Jihoon Jang; Jeongho Shin; Joonki Paik

2005-01-01

296

Spatio-temporal variations of reference crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation in the West Songnen Plain of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal variations of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETref) reflect the combined effects of meteorological variables, primarily wind speed, relative humidity, net radiation and air temperature. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal trends of ETref (calculated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation), pan evaporation (Epan) and pan coefficient (Kp) in a 140?×?10 km semi-humid to semi-arid area in China. The

Liqiao Liang; Lijuan Li; Qiang Liu

2011-01-01

297

Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease at the County Level in Guangxi, China  

PubMed Central

Background Amid numerous outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia over the past decade, studies on spatio-temporal clustering are limited. Without this information the distribution of severe cases assumed to be sporadic. We analyzed surveillance data with onset dates between 1 May 2008 to 31 October 2013 with the aim to document the spatio-temporal clustering of HFMD cases and severe cases at the county level. Methods Purely temporal and purely spatial descriptive analyses were done. These were followed by a space-time scan statistic for the whole study period and by year to detect the high risk clusters based on a discrete Poisson model. Results The annual incidence rate of HFMD in Guangxi increased whereas the severe cases peaked in 2010 and 2012. EV71 and CoxA16 were alternating viruses. Both HFMD cases and severe cases had a seasonal peak in April to July. The spatio-temporal cluster of HFMD cases were mainly detected in the northeastern, central and southwestern regions, among which three clusters were observed in Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin city and their neighbouring areas lasting from 1.2 to 2.5 years. The clusters of severe cases were less consistent in location and included around 40–70% of all severe cases in each year. Conclusions Both HFMD cases and severe cases occur in spatio-temporal clusters. The continuous epidemic in Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin cities and their neighbouring areas and the clusters of severe cases indicate the need for further intensive surveillance. PMID:24505378

Xie, Yi-hong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Tang, Zhenzhu; McNeil, Edward B.; Tan, Yi

2014-01-01

298

Spatio-temporal alignment and hyperspherical radon transform for 3D gait recognition in multi-view environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a view-invariant approach to gait recognition in multi-camera scenarios exploiting a joint spatio-temporal data representation and analysis. First, multi-view information is employed to generate a 3D voxel reconstruction of the scene under study. The analyzed subject is tracked and its centroid and orientation allow recentering and aligning the volume associated to it, thus obtaining a representation invariant

C. Canton-Ferrer; J. R. Casas; M. Pardas

2010-01-01

299

AutoConViz: automating the conversion and visualization of spatio-temporal query results in GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, large multifaceted spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal databases have attained significant popularity and importance in the database community. In order to perform preliminary investigation, exploratory visual analysis of such data-sets is highly desirable. To facilitate the convenient and efficient visualization, scientists and practitioners often need to convert the spatial component of the data-set into a more usable format.

Sugam SHARMA; Udoyara Sunday TIM; Shashi GADIA

2012-01-01

300

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Photospheric Turbulent Velocity Fields Using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal dynamics of the solar photosphere are studied by performing a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of line-of-sight velocity fields computed from high-resolution data coming from the SOHO/MDI instrument. Using this technique, we are able to identify and characterize the different dynamical regimes acting in the system. All of the POD modes are characterized by two well-separated peaks in the frequency spectra. In particular, low-frequency oscillations, with frequencies in the range 20 130 ?Hz, dominate the most energetic POD modes (excluding solar rotation) and are characterized by spatial patterns with typical scales of about 3 Mm. Patterns with larger typical scales, of about 10 Mm, are dominated by p-mode oscillations at frequencies of about 3000 ?Hz. The p-mode properties found by POD are in agreement with those obtained with the classical Fourier analysis. The spatial properties of high-energy POD modes suggest the presence of a strong coupling between low-frequency modes and turbulent convection.

Vecchio, A.; Carbone, V.; Lepreti, F.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Straus, T.; Veltri, P.

2008-09-01

301

Insight into others’ minds: spatio-temporal representations by intrinsic frame of reference  

PubMed Central

Recent research has seen a growing interest in connections between domains of spatial and social cognition. Much evidence indicates that processes of representing space in distinct frames of reference (FOR) contribute to basic spatial abilities as well as sophisticated social abilities such as tracking other’s intention and belief. Argument remains, however, that belief reasoning in social domain requires an innately dedicated system and cannot be reduced to low-level encoding of spatial relationships. Here we offer an integrated account advocating the critical roles of spatial representations in intrinsic frame of reference. By re-examining the results from a spatial task (Tamborello etal., 2012) and a false-belief task (Onishi and Baillargeon, 2005), we argue that spatial and social abilities share a common origin at the level of spatio-temporal association and predictive learning, where multiple FOR-based representations provide the basic building blocks for efficient and flexible partitioning of the environmental statistics. We also discuss neuroscience evidence supporting these mechanisms. We conclude that FOR-based representations may bridge the conceptual as well as the implementation gaps between the burgeoning fields of social and spatial cognition. PMID:24592226

Sun, Yanlong; Wang, Hongbin

2014-01-01

302

Coexistence of productive and non-productive populations by fluctuation-driven spatio-temporal patterns.  

PubMed

Cooperative interactions, their stability and evolution, provide an interesting context in which to study the interface between cellular and population levels of organization. Here we study a public goods model relevant to microorganism populations actively extracting a growth resource from their environment. Cells can display one of two phenotypes - a productive phenotype that extracts the resources at a cost, and a non-productive phenotype that only consumes the same resource. Both proliferate and are free to move by diffusion; growth rate and diffusion coefficient depend only weakly phenotype. We analyze the continuous differential equation model as well as simulate stochastically the full dynamics. We find that the two sub-populations, which cannot coexist in a well-mixed environment, develop spatio-temporal patterns that enable long-term coexistence in the shared environment. These patterns are purely fluctuation-driven, as the corresponding continuous spatial system does not display Turing instability. The average stability of coexistence patterns derives from a dynamic mechanism in which the producing sub-population equilibrates with the environmental resource and holds it close to an extinction transition of the other sub-population, causing it to constantly hover around this transition. Thus the ecological interactions support a mechanism reminiscent of self-organized criticality; power-law distributions and long-range correlations are found. The results are discussed in the context of general pattern formation and critical behavior in ecology as well as in an experimental context. PMID:25058368

Behar, Hilla; Brenner, Naama; Louzoun, Yoram

2014-09-01

303

Analysis of single-molecule mechanical measurements with high spatio-temporal resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers allow recording mechanical data from single biological molecules such as molecular motors, DNA processing enzymes, nucleic acids. Such data consist of time series that are dominated by thermal noise and such noisy recordings require proper analysis to correctly extract kinetic and mechanical information. Several different analysis approaches have been established in the past years. Here, we propose an analysis method for optical trapping recordings of non-processive motor proteins. The method does not assume any particular interaction kinetics, allows detection of sub-millisecond interactions and quantification of the number of false and lost events. Precise alignment of interaction events and ensemble averaging allow the investigation of the stepping dynamics of non-processive motors with a temporal resolution of few tens of microseconds and a spatial resolution of few angstroms. Our analysis is applied to the study of the motor protein myosin from fast skeletal muscle. Thanks to the high spatio-temporal resolution, we can distinguish three mechanical pathways in the acto-myosin interaction, with several orders of magnitude different kinetics, which contribute in a load-dependent manner to the myosin working stroke.

Capitanio, Marco; Gardini, Lucia; Pavone, Francesco S.

2013-09-01

304

Semi-supervised joint spatio-temporal feature selection for P300-based BCI speller.  

PubMed

In this paper, we address the important problem of feature selection for a P300-based brain computer interface (BCI) speller system in several aspects. Firstly, time segment selection and electroencephalogram channel selection are jointly performed for better discriminability of P300 and background signals. Secondly, in view of the situation that training data with labels are insufficient, we propose an iterative semi-supervised support vector machine for joint spatio-temporal feature selection as well as classification, in which both labeled training data and unlabeled test data are utilized. More importantly, the semi-supervised learning enables the adaptivity of the system. The performance of our algorithm has been evaluated through the analysis of a P300 dataset provided by BCI Competition 2005 and another dataset collected from an in-house P300 speller system. The results show that our algorithm for joint feature selection and classification achieves satisfactory performance, meanwhile it can significantly reduce the training effort of the system. Furthermore, this algorithm is implemented online and the corresponding results demonstrate that our algorithm can improve the adaptiveness of the P300-based BCI speller. PMID:23115595

Long, Jinyi; Gu, Zhenghui; Li, Yuanqing; Yu, Tianyou; Li, Feng; Fu, Ming

2011-11-01

305

The influence of spatio-temporal resource fluctuations on insular rat population dynamics  

PubMed Central

Local spatio-temporal resource variations can strongly influence the population dynamics of small mammals. This is particularly true on islands which are bottom-up driven systems, lacking higher order predators and with high variability in resource subsidies. The influence of resource fluctuations on animal survival may be mediated by individual movement among habitat patches, but simultaneously analysing survival, resource availability and habitat selection requires sophisticated analytical methods. We use a Bayesian multi-state capture–recapture model to estimate survival and movement probabilities of non-native black rats (Rattus rattus) across three habitats seasonally varying in resource availability. We find that survival varies most strongly with temporal rainfall patterns, overwhelming minor spatial variation among habitats. Surprisingly for a generalist forager, movement between habitats was rare, suggesting individuals do not opportunistically respond to spatial resource subsidy variations. Climate is probably the main driver of rodent population dynamics on islands, and even substantial habitat and seasonal spatial subsidies are overwhelmed in magnitude by predictable annual patterns in resource pulses. Marked variation in survival and capture has important implications for the timing of rat control. PMID:21775327

Russell, James C.; Ruffino, Lise

2012-01-01

306

Bayesian spatio-temporal discard model in a demersal trawl fishery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial management of discards has recently been proposed as a useful tool for the protection of juveniles, by reducing discard rates and can be used as a buffer against management errors and recruitment failure. In this study Bayesian hierarchical spatial models have been used to analyze about 440 trawl fishing operations of two different metiers, sampled between 2009 and 2012, in order to improve our understanding of factors that influence the quantity of discards and to identify their spatio-temporal distribution in the study area. Our analysis showed that the relative importance of each variable was different for each metier, with a few similarities. In particular, the random vessel effect and seasonal variability were identified as main driving variables for both metiers. Predictive maps of the abundance of discards and maps of the posterior mean of the spatial component show several hot spots with high discard concentration for each metier. We argue how the seasonal/spatial effects, and the knowledge about the factors influential to discarding, could potentially be exploited as potential mitigation measures for future fisheries management strategies. However, misidentification of hotspots and uncertain predictions can culminate in inappropriate mitigation practices which can sometimes be irreversible. The proposed Bayesian spatial method overcomes these issues, since it offers a unified approach which allows the incorporation of spatial random-effect terms, spatial correlation of the variables and the uncertainty of the parameters in the modeling process, resulting in a better quantification of the uncertainty and accurate predictions.

Grazia Pennino, M.; Muñoz, Facundo; Conesa, David; López-Quílez, Antonio; Bellido, José M.

2014-07-01

307

Spatio-temporal patterns of genome evolution in allotetraploid species of the genus Oryza.  

PubMed

Despite knowledge that polyploidy is widespread and a major evolutionary force in flowering plant diversification, detailed comparative molecular studies on polyploidy have been confined to only a few species and families. The genus Oryza is composed of 23 species that are classified into ten distinct 'genome types' (six diploid and four polyploid), and is emerging as a powerful new model system to study polyploidy. Here we report the identification, sequence and comprehensive comparative annotation of eight homoeologous genomes from a single orthologous region (Adh1-Adh2) from four allopolyploid species representing each of the known Oryza genome types (BC, CD, HJ and KL). Detailed comparative phylogenomic analyses of these regions within and across species and ploidy levels provided several insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics of genome organization and evolution of this region in 'natural' polyploids of Oryza. The major findings of this study are that: (i) homoeologous genomic regions within the same nucleus experience both independent and parallel evolution, (ii) differential lineage-specific selection pressures do not occur between polyploids and their diploid progenitors, (iii) there have been no dramatic structural changes relative to the diploid ancestors, (iv) a variation in the molecular evolutionary rate exists between the two genomes in the BC complex species even though the BC and CD polyploid species appear to have arisen <2?million years ago, and (v) there are no clear distinctions in the patterns of genome evolution in the diploid versus polyploid species. PMID:20487382

Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Fan, Chuanzhu; Yu, Yeisoo; Song, Xiang; Cranston, Karen A; Pontaroli, Ana Clara; Lu, Fei; Sanyal, Abhijit; Jiang, Ning; Rambo, Teri; Currie, Jennifer; Collura, Kristi; Talag, Jayson; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Chen, Mingsheng; Jackson, Scott; Wing, Rod A

2010-08-01

308

Spatio-temporal analysis of soil erosion risk and runoff using AnnAGNPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion is one form of land degradation in Ethiopia deteriorating the fertility and productivity of the land. This fact indicates the need to delineate high erosion risk areas for appropriate soil and conservation measures. Land use/cover change is one of the important factors in soil erosion. This study attempts test and implement AnnAGNPS model to estimate the spatio-temporal patterns of soil erosion and runoff associated with land use changes in the past 50 years in the 9900 ha upstream part of the Koga catchment. High erosion risk areas will then be delineated for simulation of the appropriate soil and water conservation measures that would reduce the soil loss. The study is based on two years high temporal resolution data on discharge, sediment, and rain fall accompanied by historical land use/cover data generated from satellite imagery. In addition, it uses several documented physical parameters of the study area. The Koga catchment is one of the agriculture dominated typical catchments in the North Western Ethiopian highlands with high population density that lead to increased pressure on natural resources.

Yeshaneh, Eleni; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

2014-05-01

309

Sedimentological constraints to the spatio-temporal evolution of the first Cenozoic Antarctic glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial Isostatic Adjustement (GIA) modeling of solid Earth and gravitational perturbations induced by the Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT; ~34 Ma) predicts a relative sea level (rsl) rise over-ice proximal marine marginal settings. Accordingly, available sedimentary records from the Ross Sea (CIROS1, CRP-3), Prydz Bay (ODP 739, 1166) and Wilkes Land (IOPD U1356, U1360) provide evidence for progressively deeper depositional environments across the late Eocene towards the Oligocene isotope event-1 (Oi-1; 33.7 Ma, which marks a major glacial advancement episode. Since bathymetric changes at these near-field sites are controlled by GIA, the analysis and inter-site comparison of their sedimentary records provide insights into the spatio-temporal evolution of the nascent Antarctic Ice Sheet. In this work we simulate the inception of the Antarctic glaciation by means of a thermomechanical ice sheet-shelf model dynamically coupled to a sea level model based on the gravitationally self-consistent Sea Level Equation (SLE). We generate a set of ice-sheet and rsl scenarios according to (i) different values for the Earth rheological parameters, (ii) initial topographic/bathymetric conditions and (iii) precipitation/temperature patterns. By comparing the observations with the modeling solutions we find that the initial undeformed topography/bathymetry, and consequently its deformations driven by the GIA described by the SLE, are important conditions for a realistic development of the Antarctic ice-sheet.

Stocchi, P.; Galeotti, S.; De Boer, B.; Escutia, C.; DeConto, R.; Houben, A. J.; Passchier, S.; Vermeersen, B. L.; Van de Wal, R.; Brinkhuis, H.

2012-12-01

310

Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter  

PubMed Central

In the present study we investigate the rules governing the perception of audiovisual synchrony within spatio-temporally cluttered visual environments. Participants viewed a ring of 19 discs modulating in luminance while hearing an amplitude modulating tone. Each disc modulated with a unique temporal phase (40?ms intervals), with only one synchronized to the tone. Participants searched for the synchronised disc whose spatial location varied randomly across trials. Square-wave modulation facilitated search: the synchronized disc was frequently chosen, with tight response distributions centred near zero-phase lag. In the sinusoidal condition responses were equally distributed over the 19 discs regardless of phase. To investigate whether subjective synchrony in the square-wave condition was limited by spatial or temporal factors we repeated the experiment with either reduced spatial density (9 discs) or temporal density (80?ms phase intervals). Reduced temporal density greatly facilitated synchrony perception but left the synchrony bandwidth unchanged, while no influence of spatial density was found. We conclude that audio-visual synchrony is not strongly constrained by the spatial or temporal density of the visual display, but by a temporal window within which audio-visual events are perceived as synchronous, with a full bandwidth of ~185?ms. PMID:24872325

Van der Burg, Erik; Cass, John; Alais, David

2014-01-01

311

Spatio-temporal activity in real time (STAR): optimization of regional fMRI feedback.  

PubMed

The use of real-time feedback has expanded fMRI from a brain probe to include potential brain interventions with significant therapeutic promise. However, whereas time-averaged blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal measurement is usually sufficient for probing a brain state, the real-time (frame-to-frame) BOLD signal is noisy, compromising feedback accuracy. We have developed a new real-time processing technique (STAR) that combines noise-reduction properties of multi-voxel (e.g., whole-brain) techniques with the regional specificity critical for therapeutics. Nineteen subjects were given real-time feedback in a cognitive control task (imagining repetitive motor activity vs. spatial navigation), and were all able to control a visual feedback cursor based on whole-brain neural activity. The STAR technique was evaluated, retrospectively, for five a priori regions of interest in these data, and was shown to provide significantly better (frame-by-frame) classification accuracy than a regional BOLD technique. In addition to regional feedback signals, the output of the STAR technique includes spatio-temporal activity maps (movies) providing insight into brain dynamics. The STAR approach offers an appealing optimization for real-time fMRI applications requiring an anatomically-localized feedback signal. PMID:21232612

Magland, Jeremy F; Tjoa, Christopher W; Childress, Anna Rose

2011-04-01

312

Object-based rate allocation with spatio-temporal trade-offs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a bit allocation algorithm that can achieve a constant bit rate when coding multiple video objects (MVOs), while improving the rate-distortion (R-D) performance over the reference method for MPEG-4 object-based rate control. In object-based coding, bit allocation is performed at the object level and temporal rates of different objects may vary. The proposed algorithm in this paper deals with these two issues. We pay particular attention to maintenance of buffer occupancy levels and propose a new method for spatio-temporal trades-offs for object-based coding. In order to improve the coding efficiency, we also consider several new R-D coding modes. These modes are available at the encoder to determine the best R-D performance under different coding conditions and are chosen automatically. Simulation results demonstrate moderate improvements at low and high bit rates. One important key aspect of the proposed algorithm is that the actual coded bits in the proposed algorithm are similar to the target bits over a wide range of bit rates. Consequently, the proposed algorithm has not experienced the buffer overflow/underflow over the entire range of bit rates.

Lee, Jeong-Woo; Vetro, Anthony; Wang, Yao; Ho, Yo-Sung

2002-01-01

313

Spatio-temporal distribution of dengue fever under scenarios of climate change in the southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue fever has been recognized as the most important widespread vector-borne infectious disease in recent decades. Over 40% of the world's population is risk from dengue and about 50-100 million people are infected world wide annually. Previous studies have found that dengue fever is highly correlated with climate covariates. Thus, the potential effects of global climate change on dengue fever are crucial to epidemic concern, in particular, the transmission of the disease. This present study investigated the nonlinearity of time-delayed impact of climate on spatio-temporal variations of dengue fever in the southern Taiwan during 1998 to 2011. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) is used to assess the nonlinear lagged effects of meteorology. The statistically significant meteorological factors are considered, including weekly minimum temperature and maximum 24-hour rainfall. The relative risk and the distribution of dengue fever then predict under various climate change scenarios. The result shows that the relative risk is similar for different scenarios. In addition, the impact of rainfall on the incidence risk is higher than temperature. Moreover, the incidence risk is associated to spatially population distribution. The results can be served as practical reference for environmental regulators for the epidemic prevention under climate change scenarios.

Lee, Chieh-Han; Yu, Hwa-Lung

2014-05-01

314

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

315

Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio Temporal Model Comparison on the Earth Trapped Particle Forecast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared two hierarchical Bayesian spatio temporal (HBST) results, Gaussian process (GP) and autoregressive (AR) models, on the Earth trapped particle forecast. Two models were employed on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. Electron of >30 keV (mep0e1) from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 15-18 satellites data was chosen as the particle modeled. We used two weeks data to perform the model fitting on a 5°x5° grid of longitude and latitude, and 31 August 2007 was set as the date of forecast. Three statistical validations were performed on the data, i.e. the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and bias (BIAS). The statistical analysis showed that GP model performed better than AR with the average of RMSE = 0.38 and 0.63, MAPE = 11.98 and 17.30, and BIAS = 0.32 and 0.24, for GP and AR, respectively. Visual validation on both models with the NOAA map's also confirmed the superior of the GP than the AR. The variance of log flux minimum = 0.09 and 1.09, log flux maximum = 1.15 and 1.35, and in successively represents GP and AR.

Suparta, Wayan; Gusrizal

2014-10-01

316

A spatio-temporal understanding of growth regulation during the salt stress response in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plant environmental responses involve dynamic changes in growth and signaling, yet little is understood as to how progress through these events is regulated. Here, we explored the phenotypic and transcriptional events involved in the acclimation of the Arabidopsis thaliana seedling root to a rapid change in salinity. Using live-imaging analysis, we show that growth is dynamically regulated with a period of quiescence followed by recovery then homeostasis. Through the use of a new high-resolution spatio-temporal transcriptional map, we identify the key hormone signaling pathways that regulate specific transcriptional programs, predict their spatial domain of action, and link the activity of these pathways to the regulation of specific phases of growth. We use tissue-specific approaches to suppress the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and demonstrate that ABA likely acts in select tissue layers to regulate spatially localized transcriptional programs and promote growth recovery. Finally, we show that salt also regulates many tissue-specific and time point-specific transcriptional responses that are expected to modify water transport, Casparian strip formation, and protein translation. Together, our data reveal a sophisticated assortment of regulatory programs acting together to coordinate spatially patterned biological changes involved in the immediate and long-term response to a stressful shift in environment. PMID:23898029

Geng, Yu; Wu, Rui; Wee, Choon Wei; Xie, Fei; Wei, Xueliang; Chan, Penny Mei Yeen; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Dinneny, José R

2013-06-01

317

Processing discontinuous displacement fields by a spatio-temporal derivative technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a digital image correlation (DIC) method coupling cross-correlation with spatio-temporal differential techniques was proposed for assessing discontinuous displacement fields. The accuracy and robustness of the algorithm was assessed on a set of numerical tests by processing computer generated speckled-pattern images. Fracture mechanical tests in mode I were considered, in which both in-plane and out-of-plane rigid-body movements were taken into account. The ability for recovering the analytical asymptotic displacement field in mode I was analysed, and stress intensity factor, crack opening displacement and crack tip location were used as quantitative parameters for validation purposes. Throughout these tests, the results obtained with the proposed method were systematically compared to the ones from Aramis DIC-2D commercial code. Globally, the results computed from both methods are in good agreement with reference values. However, due to the high spatial resolution (point-wise characteristic), a better matching of the displacements in the neighbour of discontinuities could be obtained by the proposed method.

Sousa, A. M. R.; Xavier, J.; Morais, J. J. L.; Filipe, V. M. J.; Vaz, M.

2011-12-01

318

[Spatio-temporal variation of subtidal meiofauna in a sandy beach from Northeastern Venezuela].  

PubMed

Meiofauna organisms that play an important role in the trophic ecology of soft bottom benthos, have short life cycles and they respond quickly to disturbance and pollution. The present study shows the spatio-temporal variation ofsubtidal meiofauna (metazoans passing a 500im sieve but retained on meshes of 40-63micro m) in four shallow subtidal stations. Samples were taken in the sandy beach of San Luis, in the Northeastern coast of Venezuela, from October 2005 until September 2006. For this, three replicate sediment core samples (4.91cm2), were collected monthly to a depth of 10cm into the sediment, and preserved in 6% formalin stained with rose Bengal. Specimens of 14 meiofaunal groups (Foraminifera excluded) were collected, being the nematodes, ostracods and harpacticoid copepods the most abundant. Monthly density was comprised between 64 and 503ind./10cm2, and mean density of stations between 173 and 449ind./10cm2. There is a trend of low densities from October to February (end of the rainy season until the middle of the dry season). The San Luis beach control of the meiofaunal community is shared by climatic conditions and by the biology of the species found. The meiofauna mean density in San Luis beach (263ind./10cm2) was low when compared to other studies in tropical areas. PMID:23894963

Arana, Ildefonso Liñero; Ojeda, Sol; Amaro, María Elena

2013-03-01

319

Spatio-temporal hierarchy in the dynamics of a minimalist protein model.  

PubMed

A method for time series analysis of molecular dynamics simulation of a protein is presented. In this approach, wavelet analysis and principal component analysis are combined to decompose the spatio-temporal protein dynamics into contributions from a hierarchy of different time and space scales. Unlike the conventional Fourier-based approaches, the time-localized wavelet basis captures the vibrational energy transfers among the collective motions of proteins. As an illustrative vehicle, we have applied our method to a coarse-grained minimalist protein model. During the folding and unfolding transitions of the protein, vibrational energy transfers between the fast and slow time scales were observed among the large-amplitude collective coordinates while the other small-amplitude motions are regarded as thermal noise. Analysis employing a Gaussian-based measure revealed that the time scales of the energy redistribution in the subspace spanned by such large-amplitude collective coordinates are slow compared to the other small-amplitude coordinates. Future prospects of the method are discussed in detail. PMID:24320403

Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Baba, Akinori; Li, Chun-Biu; Straub, John E; Toda, Mikito; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Berry, R Stephen

2013-12-01

320

Segmentation of 3D Radio Frequency Echocardiography Using a Spatio-temporal Predictor  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting left ventricular endocardial boundaries from RF ultrasound. Our method incorporates a computationally efficient linear predictor that exploits short-term spatio-temporal coherence in the RF data. Segmentation is achieved jointly using an independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) spatial model for RF intensity and a multiframe conditional model that relates neighboring frames in the image sequence. Segmentation using the RF data overcomes challenges due to image inhomogeneities often amplified in B-mode segmentation and provides geometric constraints for RF phase-based speckle tracking. The incorporation of multiple frames in the conditional model significantly increases the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm. Results are generated using between 2 and 5 frames of RF data for each segmentation and are validated by comparison with manual tracings and automated B-mode boundary detection using standard (Chan and Vese-based) level sets on echocardiographic images from 27 3D sequences acquired from 6 canine studies. PMID:22078842

Pearlman, P.C.; Tagare, H.D.; Lin, B.A.; Sinusas, A.J.; Duncan, J.S.

2011-01-01

321

Theoretical analysis of the spatio-temporal structure of bone multicellular units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone multicellular units (BMUs) maintain the viability of the skeletal tissue by coordinating locally the sequence of bone resorption and bone formation performed by cells of the osteoclastic and osteoblastic lineage. Understanding the emergence and the net bone balance of such structured microsystems out of the complex network of biochemical interactions between bone cells is fundamental for many bone-related diseases and the evaluation of fracture risk. Based on current experimental knowledge, we propose a spatio-temporal continuum model describing the interactions of osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. We show that this model admits travelling-wave-like solutions with well-confined cell profiles upon specifying external conditions mimicking the environment encountered in cortical bone remodelling. The shapes of the various cell concentration profiles within this travelling structure are intrinsically linked to the parameters of the model such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis rates of bone cells. The internal structure of BMUs is reproduced, allowing for experimental calibration. The spatial distribution of the key regulatory factors can also be exhibited, which in diseased states could give hints as to the biochemical agent most accountable for the disorder.

Buenzli, P. R.; Pivonka, P.; Gardiner, B. S.; Smith, D. W.; Dunstan, C. R.; Mundy, G. R.

2010-06-01

322

1996-2007 Interannual Spatio-Temporal Variability in Snowmelt in Two Montane Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowmelt is a primary water resource for urban/agricultural centers and ecosystems near mountain regions. Stream chemistry from montane catchments is controlled by the flowpaths of water from snowmelt and the timing and duration of snow coverage. A process level understanding of the variability in these processes requires an understanding of the effect of changing climate and anthropogenic loading on spatio-temporal snowmelt patterns. With this as our objective, we applied a snow reconstruction model (SRM) to two well-studied montane watersheds, Tokopah Basin (TOK), California and Green Lake 4 Valley (GLV), Colorado, to examine interannual variability in the timing and location of snowmelt in response to variable climate conditions during the period from 1996 to 2007. The reconstruction model back solves for snowmelt by combining surface energy fluxes, inferred from meteorological data, with sequences of melt season snow images derived from satellite data (i.e., snowmelt depletion curves). The SRM explained 84% of the observed interannual variability in maximum watershed SWE in TOK, with errors ranging from -23 to +27% for the different years. For GLV4, the SRM explained 61% of the interannual variability, with errors ranging from -37 to +34%. In GLV4, interannual variability in snowmelt timing is a factor of four greater than the variability in streamflow timing, unlike in TOK where the ratio is nearly 1:1. We attribute this difference primarily to differences in the magnitude of the turbulent fluxes and the hydrogeology of the two study areas.

Jepsen, S. M.; Molotch, N. P.; Williams, M. W.; Rittger, K. E.; Sickman, J. O.

2010-12-01

323

Fish in a ring: spatio-temporal pattern formation in one-dimensional animal groups  

PubMed Central

In this work, we study the collective behaviour of fish shoals in annular domains. Shoal mates are modelled as self-propelled particles moving on a discrete lattice. Collective decision-making is determined by information exchange among neighbours. Neighbourhoods are specified using the perceptual limit and numerosity of fish. Fish self-propulsion and obedience to group decisions are described through random variables. Spatio-temporal schooling patterns are measured using coarse observables adapted from the literature on coupled oscillator networks and features of the time-varying network describing the fish-to-fish information exchange. Experiments on zebrafish schooling in an annular tank are used to validate the model. Effects of group size and obedience parameter on coarse observables and network features are explored to understand the implications of perceptual numerosity and spatial density on fish schooling. The proposed model is also compared with a more traditional metric model, in which the numerosity constraint is released and fish interactions depend only on physical configurations. Comparison shows that the topological regime on which the proposed model is constructed allows for interpreting characteristic behaviours observed in the experimental study that are not captured by the metric model. PMID:20413559

Abaid, Nicole; Porfiri, Maurizio

2010-01-01

324

On the angle between the first and the second Lyapunov vectors in spatio-temporal chaos  

E-print Network

In a dynamical system the first Lyapunov vector (LV) is associated with the largest Lyapunov exponent and indicates ---at some point on the attractor--- the direction of maximal growth in tangent space. The LV corresponding to the second largest Lyapunov exponent generally points at a different direction, but tangencies between both vectors can in principle occur. Here we find that the probability density function (PDF) of the angle \\psi spanned by the first and the second LVs should be expected approximately symmetric around \\pi/4 and peaked at 0 and \\pi/2. Moreover, for small angles we uncover a scaling law for the PDF Q of \\psi_l=\\ln\\psi with the system size L: Q(\\psi_l)=L^{-1/2} f(\\psi_l L^{-1/2}). We give a theoretical argument that justifies this scaling form and also explains why it should be universal (irrespective of the system details) for spatio-temporal chaos in one spatial dimension.

Diego Pazó; Juan M. López; Miguel A. Rodríguez

2013-11-29

325

Spatio-temporal coherence mapping of few-cycle vortex pulses.  

PubMed

Light carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM) displays an optical phase front rotating in space and time and a vanishing intensity, a so-called vortex, in the center. Beyond continuous-wave vortex beams, optical pulses with a finite OAM are important for many areas of science and technology, ranging from the selective manipulation and excitation of matter to telecommunications. Generation of vortex pulses with a duration of few optical cycles requires new methods for characterising their coherence properties in space and time. Here we report a novel approach for flexibly shaping and characterising few-cycle vortex pulses of tunable topological charge with two sequentially arranged spatial light modulators. The reconfigurable optical arrangement combines interferometry, wavefront sensing, time-of-flight and nonlinear correlation techniques in a very compact setup, providing complete spatio-temporal coherence maps at minimum pulse distortions. Sub-7?fs pulses carrying different optical angular momenta are generated in single and multichannel geometries and characterised in comparison to zero-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the shortest pulse durations reported for direct vortex shaping and detection with spatial light modulators. This access to space-time coupling effects with sub-femtosecond time resolution opens new prospects for tailored twisted light transients of extremely short duration. PMID:25413789

Grunwald, R; Elsaesser, T; Bock, M

2014-01-01

326

Spatio-temporal analysis of tamoxifen-induced bystander effects in breast cancer cells using microfluidics  

PubMed Central

The bystander effect in cancer therapy is the inhibition or killing of tumor cells that are adjacent to those directly affected by the agent used for treatment. In the case of chemotherapy, little is known as to how much and by which mechanisms bystander effects contribute to the elimination of tumor cells. This is mainly due to the difficulty to distinguish between targeted and bystander cells since both are exposed to the pharmaceutical compound. We here studied the interaction of tamoxifen-treated human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with their neighboring counterparts by exploiting laminar flow patterning in a microfluidic chip to ensure selective drug delivery. The spatio-temporal evolution of the bystander response in non-targeted cells was analyzed by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential under conditions of free diffusion. Our data show that the bystander response is detectable as early as 1 hour after drug treatment and reached effective distances of at least 2.8?mm. Furthermore, the bystander effect was merely dependent on diffusible factors rather than cell contact-dependent signaling. Taken together, our study illustrates that this microfluidic approach is a promising tool for screening and optimization of putative chemotherapeutic drugs to maximize the bystander response in cancer therapy. PMID:23750189

Rios-Mondragon, Ivan; Wang, Xiang; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann

2012-01-01

327

Computational Studies of Multiple-Particle Nonlinear Dynamics in a Spatio-Temporally periodic potential  

E-print Network

The spatio-temporally periodic (STP) potential is interesting in Physics due to the intimate coupling between its time and spatial components. In this paper we begin with a brief discussion of the dynamical behaviors of a single particle in a STP potential and then examine the dynamics of multiple particles interacting in a STP potential via the electric Coulomb potential. For the multiple particle case, we focus on the occurrence of bifurcations when the amplitude of the STP potential varies. It is found that the particle concentration of the system plays an important role; the type of bifurcations that occur and the number of attractors present in the Poincar\\'e sections depend on whether the number of particles in the simulation is even or odd. In addition to the nonlinear dynamical approach we also discuss dependence of the squared fractional deviation of particles kinetic energy of the multiple particle system on the amplitude of the STP potential which can be used to elucidate certain transitions of states; this approach is simple and useful particularly for experimental studies of complicated interacting systems.

Owen D. Myers; Junru Wu; Jeffrey S. Marshall; Christopher M. Danforth

2014-09-03

328

Understanding the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass distribution in a microtidal Mediterranean estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton in aquaculture zones is necessary for the prevention and/or prediction of harmful algal bloom events. Synoptic cruises, time series analyses of physical and biological parameters, and 3D modeling were combined to investigate the variability of phytoplankton biomass in Alfacs Bay at basin scale. This microtidal estuary located in the NW Mediterranean is an important area of shellfish and finfish exploitation, which is regularly affected by toxic outbreaks. Observations showed the existence of a preferential phytoplankton accumulation area on the NE interior of the bay. This pattern can be observed throughout the year, and we show that it is directly linked to the physical forcing in the bay, in particular, the interplay between freshwater input and wind-induced turbulence. Both drivers affect the strength of the estuarine circulation, explaining nearly 75% of the variability in phytoplankton biomass. More cells are retained when stratification is weakened and the estuarine circulation reduced, while flushing rates are higher during times of increased stratification and stronger estuarine flow. This has been confirmed by using a 3D hydrodynamic model with Eulerian tracers. Nutrients, while important to support phytoplankton populations, have been found to play only a secondary role in explaining this variability at basin scale.

Artigas, M. L.; Llebot, C.; Ross, O. N.; Neszi, N. Z.; Rodellas, V.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Masqué, P.; Piera, J.; Estrada, M.; Berdalet, E.

2014-03-01

329

Spatio-temporal animation of army logistics simulations, facilitating analysis of military deployments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization techniques for simulations are often limited to statistical reports, graphs, and charts, but simulations can be enhanced through the use of animation. A spatio-temporal animation allows a viewer to observe a simulation operate, rather than deduce it from numerical output. The Route Viewer, developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is a two-dimensional animation model that animates the objects and events produced by a discrete event simulation. It operates in a playback mode, whereby a simulated scenario is animated after the simulation has completed. The Route Viewer is used to verify the simulation's processes and data, but it also benefits the simulation as an analytical tool by facilitating spatial and temporal analysis. By visualizing the events of a simulated scenario in two-dimensional space, it is possible to determine whether the scenario, or simulation model, is reasonable. Further, the Route Viewer provides an awareness of what happens in a scenario, when it happens, and the completeness and efficiency of the scenario and its processes. For Army deployments, it highlights utilization of resources and where bottlenecks are occurring. This paper discusses how the Route Viewer facilitates the analysis of military deployment simulation model results.

Love, Richard; Horsthemke, William; Macal, Charles; Van Groningen, Charles

2004-07-01

330

Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigate the rules governing the perception of audiovisual synchrony within spatio-temporally cluttered visual environments. Participants viewed a ring of 19 discs modulating in luminance while hearing an amplitude modulating tone. Each disc modulated with a unique temporal phase (40?ms intervals), with only one synchronized to the tone. Participants searched for the synchronised disc whose spatial location varied randomly across trials. Square-wave modulation facilitated search: the synchronized disc was frequently chosen, with tight response distributions centred near zero-phase lag. In the sinusoidal condition responses were equally distributed over the 19 discs regardless of phase. To investigate whether subjective synchrony in the square-wave condition was limited by spatial or temporal factors we repeated the experiment with either reduced spatial density (9 discs) or temporal density (80?ms phase intervals). Reduced temporal density greatly facilitated synchrony perception but left the synchrony bandwidth unchanged, while no influence of spatial density was found. We conclude that audio-visual synchrony is not strongly constrained by the spatial or temporal density of the visual display, but by a temporal window within which audio-visual events are perceived as synchronous, with a full bandwidth of ~185?ms. PMID:24872325

Van der Burg, Erik; Cass, John; Alais, David

2014-01-01

331

Spatio-temporal variation of the diterpene steviol in Stevia rebaudiana grown under different photoperiods.  

PubMed

As part of an ongoing study on the effects of photoperiodism on the metabolism of steviol glycosides (SVglys) in Stevia rebaudiana, the spatio-temporal variations of free steviol (SV) have now been evaluated. For its quantitation, an internal standard method was used, based upon a specific fluorometric detection of SV as its methoxycoumarinyl derivative. The level of free SV in leaves did not exceed 30 ?g/g dry wt and was at least 1000-fold smaller than that of its glycosidic conjugates. In other organs, free SV was mainly measured in stem tissue and apices, with relatively large amounts measured in the latter. Similarly to SVglys, the content of free SV was influenced by photoperiod and genotype. In plants grown under long-days (LD) of 16 h, more spatial variations were seen compared to those under short-days (SD) of 8h. In the former, upper leaves contained almost four times more free SV compared to lower ones near the end of vegetative growth. In addition, the correlation between SV and its glycosidic conjugates was more linear under SD. Despite the variability of SV levels, a decrease was noted in all conditions after flower opening, which can be related a decreased transcription of the biosynthetic genes involved. PMID:23402803

Ceunen, Stijn; Geuns, Jan M C

2013-05-01

332

Short-term growth (RNA\\/DNA ratio) of yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ) in relation to environmental influences and spatio-temporal variation in a shallow fluvial lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow fluvial lakes are heterogeneous ecosystems in which marked spatio-temporal variation renders diffi- cult the analysis of key ecological processes, such as growth. In this study, we used generalized additive modelling of the RNA\\/DNA ratio, an index of short-term growth, to investigate the influence of environmental variables and spatio- temporal variation on growth of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in Lake

Hélène Glémet; Marco A. Rodríguez

2007-01-01

333

One-channel inverse filter: Spatio-temporal control of a complex wave-field from a single point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can we make good use of the degrees of freedom of a wave-field trapped in a cavity to perform complete spatio-temporal inversion from a single emitter? To answer these questions, we used experiments conducted in the ultrasonic regime to investigate the wave-field in a water cavity where the energy was not homogeneously distributed over all of the degrees of freedom. While the time reversal from a single emitter gives poor results, we show the possibility to recover optimal spatio-temporal focusing by converting the multi-channel focusing technique of the spatio-temporal inverse filter into a single-channel method that we call the one-channel inverse filter. In particular, this method has the advantage of leaving the choice open for the duration of the time window for the inversion of the wave-field. We, thus, demonstrate that the shorter the time window, the better optimized the inversion. We believe that in addition to demonstrating the possibility of controlling the waves in a cavity, this method might have an interesting role in the improvement of solid imaging devices that are based on the exploitation of reverberations in cavities.

Rupin, Matthieu; Roux, Philippe; Catheline, Stefan

2014-06-01

334

Blind Source Recovery: Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Environments  

E-print Network

Blind Source Recovery: Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Environments Fathi M. Salam1 , Gail Erten2 may be represented by an unknown dynamic process H with inputs being the independent sources. The processing network H must be constructed with the capability to compute the "inverse" (or the "closest

Salem, Fathi M.

335

Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids of superficial sediments from three contrasted areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA and EHHA) and EHAA/THAA ratios of superficial sediments were assessed during 1997-1999 in three areas (i.e., the Gulf of Lions, the Bay of Biscay, and Central Chile) differing in their primary productivity. In all three areas, and even off Central Chile where a strong El Niño event took place during 1997-1998, spatial changes were always much greater than temporal ones. The factors affecting the spatial distributions of amino acid concentrations differed among areas. In the Gulf of Lions, sediment granulometry was apparently the most important driving force of THAA, EHAA, and EHAA/THAA, and there was no marked difference between stations located on the open slope and those in submarine canyons. Conversely, in the Bay of Biscay, there were clear differences between the stations located off Cap-Breton, on the open slope, and those in the Cap-Ferret canyon; the latter two featuring lower EHAA and THAA but higher EHAA/THAA. This pattern is likely to result from the predominance of different sources of organic matter and especially from the importance of continental inputs to the Cap-Breton canyon. Off Central Chile, amino acid concentrations and ratios were both maximal around 100 m depth, probably reflecting the interaction between the primary productivity gradient and the presence of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) reducing the degradation of sedimentary organics. When comparing the average values collected in the three areas studied, THAA and EHAA were highest in Central Chile, intermediate in the Bay of Biscay and lowest in the Gulf of Lions. EHAA/THAA ratios were also highest in Central Chile but were lowest in the Bay of Biscay. Differences between the Gulf of Lions and the Bay of Biscay could have been affected by sampling design. In Central Chile, the use of labile organic carbon to total organic carbon (C-LOM/TOC) and EHAA/THAA as indices of organic matter lability led to very similar results. This was not the case in the Bay of Biscay. It is therefore argued that the use of C-LOM/TOC should be restricted to highly productive areas.

Grémare, Antoine; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Anschutz, Pierre; Amouroux, Jean Michel; Deflandre, Bruno; Vétion, Gilles

2005-04-01

336

Extensive spatio-temporal analysis of surface ozone over South Korea for 1999-2010 considering meteorological factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal variations of surface ozone are investigated using the KZ-filter considering meteorological factors based on measurement data at 124 air quality monitoring sites and 72 weather stations over South Korea for the time period of 1999-2010. We use hourly data of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), temperature (°C), dew-point temperature (°C), sea-level pressure (hPa), wind speed (m/s) and direction (16 cardinal directions), relative humidity (%), and solar insolation (W/m²). Over the Korean peninsula, surface O3 levels at the coastal cities are generally high due to the dynamic effects of the sea breeze and short-lived chlorine species from the sea salt, while those at the Seoul metropolitan area and other inland cities are low due to the NOx titration by anthropogenic emissions. The concentrations of surface O3 have generally increased for the analyzed period with the nationwide average linear trend of +0.26 ppbv/yr (+1.15 %/yr). We also examine the meteorological influences on the surface O3 levels over South Korea using a combined analysis of KZ-filter and multiple linear regressions between surface O3 and meteorological variables. Time-series of surface O3 are decomposed into the short-term, seasonal, and long-term components by the KZ-filter and regressed on meteorological variables. Through probability distribution analysis of the decomposed O3 time-series classified by wind direction, the O3 short-term variation at monitoring sites shows transport effects from the source regions. Impacts of surface temperature on the surface O3 levels are found to be significantly high in the highly populated metropolitan area and inland cities. It implies that those regions will be experiencing more frequent high-ozone events in the future climate conditions with the increase of global temperature. Especially in Seoul, the most populated area in South Korea, the probability of high O3 exceeding air quality standard is almost doubled for the temperature increase of about 4°C. Additional SVD analysis between O3 and NO2 shows similar temporal evolution with spatial patterns of the long-term O3 and NO2 components. This study would provide a reference for appropriate ozone control policy and for the performance evaluation of chemistry climate models over East Asia.

Seo, Jihoon; Youn, Daeok; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Wookap

2013-04-01

337

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Cholera during the First Year of the Epidemic in Haiti  

PubMed Central

Background In October 2010, cholera importation in Haiti triggered an epidemic that rapidly proved to be the world's largest epidemic of the seventh cholera pandemic. To establish effective control and elimination policies, strategies rely on the analysis of cholera dynamics. In this report, we describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of cholera and the associated environmental factors. Methodology/Principal findings Cholera-associated morbidity and mortality data were prospectively collected at the commune level according to the World Health Organization standard definition. Attack and mortality rates were estimated and mapped to assess epidemic clusters and trends. The relationships between environmental factors were assessed at the commune level using multivariate analysis. The global attack and mortality rates were 488.9 cases/10,000 inhabitants and 6.24 deaths/10,000 inhabitants, respectively. Attack rates displayed a significantly high level of spatial heterogeneity (varying from 64.7 to 3070.9 per 10,000 inhabitants), thereby suggesting disparate outbreak processes. The epidemic course exhibited two principal outbreaks. The first outbreak (October 16, 2010–January 30, 2011) displayed a centrifugal spread of a damping wave that suddenly emerged from Mirebalais. The second outbreak began at the end of May 2011, concomitant with the onset of the rainy season, and displayed a highly fragmented epidemic pattern. Environmental factors (river and rice fields: p<0.003) played a role in disease dynamics exclusively during the early phases of the epidemic. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the epidemic is still evolving, with a changing transmission pattern as time passes. Such an evolution could have hardly been anticipated, especially in a country struck by cholera for the first time. These results argue for the need for control measures involving intense efforts in rapid and exhaustive case tracking. PMID:23593516

Gaudart, Jean; Rebaudet, Stanislas; Barrais, Robert; Boncy, Jacques; Faucher, Benoit; Piarroux, Martine; Magloire, Roc; Thimothe, Gabriel; Piarroux, Renaud

2013-01-01

338

Spatio-temporal footprints of urbanisation in Surat, the Diamond City of India (1990-2009).  

PubMed

Urbanisation is a ubiquitous phenomenon with greater prominence in developing nations. Urban expansion involves land conversions from vegetated moisture-rich to impervious moisture-deficient land surfaces. The urban land transformations alter biophysical parameters in a mode that promotes development of heat islands and degrades environmental health. This study elaborates relationships among various environmental variables using remote sensing dataset to study spatio-temporal footprint of urbanisation in Surat city. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data were used in conjugation with geo-spatial techniques to study urbanisation and correlation among various satellite-derived biophysical parameters, [Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, Normalised Difference Built-up Index, Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Bareness Index, Modified NDWI and land surface temperature (LST)]. Land use land cover was prepared using hierarchical decision tree classification with an accuracy of 90.4 % (kappa?=?0.88) for 1990 and 85 % (kappa?=?0.81) for 2009. It was found that the city has expanded over 42.75 km(2) within a decade, and these changes resulted in elevated surface temperatures. For example, transformation from vegetation to built-up has resulted in 5.5?±?2.6 °C increase in land surface temperature, vegetation to fallow 6.7?±?3 °C, fallow to built-up is 3.5?±?2.9 °C and built-up to dense built-up is 5.3?±?2.8 °C. Directional profiling for LST was done to study spatial patterns of LST in and around Surat city. Emergence of two new LST peaks for 2009 was observed in N-S and NE-SW profiles. PMID:22828979

Sharma, Richa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Joshi, Pawan Kumar

2013-04-01

339

Diffusive spatio-temporal noise in a first-passage time model for intracellular calcium release.  

PubMed

The intracellular release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by ion channels. The resulting calcium signals exhibit a rich spatio-temporal signature, which originates at least partly from microscopic fluctuations. While stochasticity in the gating transition of ion channels has been incorporated into many models, the distribution of calcium is usually described by deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Here we test the validity of the latter modeling approach by using two different models to calculate the frequency of localized calcium signals (calcium puffs) from clustered IP3 receptor channels. The complexity of the full calcium system is here limited to the basic opening mechanism of the ion channels and, in the mathematical reduction simplifies to the calculation of a first passage time. Two models are then studied: (i) a hybrid model, where channel gating is treated stochastically, while calcium concentration is deterministic and (ii) a fully stochastic model with noisy channel gating and Brownian calcium ion motion. The second model utilises the recently developed two-regime method [M. B. Flegg, S. J. Chapman, and R. Erban, "The two-regime method for optimizing stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations," J. R. Soc., Interface 9, 859-868 (2012)] in order to simulate a large domain with precision required only near the Ca(2+) absorbing channels. The expected time for a first channel opening that results in a calcium puff event is calculated. It is found that for a large diffusion constant, predictions of the interpuff time are significantly overestimated using the model (i) with a deterministic non-spatial calcium variable. It is thus demonstrated that the presence of diffusive noise in local concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+) ions can substantially influence the occurrence of calcium signals. The presented approach and results may also be relevant for other cell-physiological first-passage time problems with small ligand concentration and high cooperativity. PMID:23614408

Flegg, Mark B; Rüdiger, Sten; Erban, Radek

2013-04-21

340

Spatio-temporal sequence of cross-regulatory events in root meristem growth  

PubMed Central

A central question in developmental biology is how multicellular organisms coordinate cell division and differentiation to determine organ size. In Arabidopsis roots, this balance is controlled by cytokinin-induced expression of SHORT HYPOCOTYL 2 (SHY2) in the so-called transition zone of the meristem, where SHY2 negatively regulates auxin response factors (ARFs) by protein–protein interaction. The resulting down-regulation of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is considered the key event in promoting differentiation of meristematic cells. Here we show that this regulation involves additional, intermediary factors and is spatio-temporally constrained. We found that the described cytokinin–auxin crosstalk antagonizes BREVIS RADIX (BRX) activity in the developing protophloem. BRX is an auxin-responsive target of the prototypical ARF MONOPTEROS (MP), a key promoter of vascular development, and transiently enhances PIN3 expression to promote meristem growth in young roots. At later stages, cytokinin induction of SHY2 in the vascular transition zone restricts BRX expression to down-regulate PIN3 and thus limit meristem growth. Interestingly, proper SHY2 expression requires BRX, which could reflect feedback on the auxin responsiveness of SHY2 because BRX protein can directly interact with MP, likely acting as a cofactor. Thus, cross-regulatory antagonism between BRX and SHY2 could determine ARF activity in the protophloem. Our data suggest a model in which the regulatory interactions favor BRX expression in the early proximal meristem and SHY2 prevails because of supplementary cytokinin induction in the later distal meristem. The complex equilibrium of this regulatory module might represent a universal switch in the transition toward differentiation in various developmental contexts. PMID:21149702

Scacchi, Emanuele; Salinas, Paula; Gujas, Bojan; Santuari, Luca; Krogan, Naden; Ragni, Laura; Berleth, Thomas; Hardtke, Christian S.

2010-01-01

341

Swim-Training Changes the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Skeletogenesis in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical loading induced by muscle forces plays a role in prioritizing the development of these structures. Mechanical loading by muscle forces has been shown to affect larval and embryonic bone development in vertebrates, but these investigations were limited to the appendicular skeleton. To explore the role of mechanical load during chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton, we subjected zebrafish larvae to swim-training, which increases physical exercise levels and presumably also mechanical loads, from 5 until 14 days post fertilization. Here we show that an increased swimming activity accelerated growth, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during larval development in zebrafish. Interestingly, swim-training accelerated both perichondral and intramembranous ossification. Furthermore, swim-training prioritized the formation of cartilage and bone structures in the head and tail region as well as the formation of elements in the anal and dorsal fins. This suggests that an increased swimming activity prioritized the development of structures which play an important role in swimming and thereby increasing the chance of survival in an environment where water velocity increases. Our study is the first to show that already during early zebrafish larval development, skeletal tissue in the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton is competent to respond to swim-training due to increased water velocities. It demonstrates that changes in water flow conditions can result into significant spatio-temporal changes in skeletogenesis. PMID:22529905

Fiaz, Ansa W.; Leon-Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Gort, Gerrit; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Kranenbarg, Sander

2012-01-01

342

Spatio-temporal structure of diatom assemblages in a temperate estuary. A STATICO analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the spatio-temporal structure of diatom assemblages in a temperate estuary (Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal). Eighteen monthly surveys were conducted, from January 2002 to June 2003, at three sampling sites (at both high and low tide) along the estuarine salinity gradient. The relationship of diatom assemblages and environmental variables was analysed using the STATICO method, which has been designed for the simultaneous analysis of paired ecological tables. This method allowed examination of the stable part of the environment-diatom relationship, and also the variations of this relationship through time. The interstructure factor map showed that the relationship between the 11 environmental variables and the abundance of the 231 diatom species considered was strongest in the months May and September 2002 and January, February and May 2003. The stable part of the species-environment relationships mainly consisted of a combined phosphate, chlorophyll a and salinity gradient linked to a freshwater-marine species gradient. A more pronounced gradient was observed in January, February and May 2003. Diatom assemblages showed clear longitudinal patterns due to the presence of both marine and freshwater components. May and September 2002 had the least structured gradients with marine-estuarine species appearing in the freshwater side of the gradient. The most complete gradient in February 2003 could be considered, in terms of bio-ecological categories, as the most structured period of the year, with a combination of strong marine influence in the lower zone and freshwater influence in the upper. The best-structured gradients were during periods of a diatom bloom. Stable diatom assemblages (with a strong structure and a good fit between the diatoms and environment) are described and characterized. This study shows the efficiency of the STATICO analysis. The inclusion of space-time data analysis tools in ecological studies may therefore improve the knowledge of the dynamics of species-environmental assemblages.

Mendes, Susana; Fernández-Gómez, M. a. José; Resende, Paula; Jorge Pereira, Mário; Galindo-Villardón, M. a. Purificación; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda

2009-10-01

343

Spatio-temporal attributes of left ventricular pressure decay rate during isovolumic relaxation.  

PubMed

Global left ventricular (LV) isovolumic relaxation rate has been characterized: 1) via the time constant of isovolumic relaxation ? or 2) via the logistic time constant ?(L). An alternate kinematic method, characterizes isovolumic relaxation (IVR) in accordance with Newton's Second Law. The model's parameters, stiffness E(k), and damping/relaxation ? result from best fit of model-predicted pressure to in vivo data. All three models (exponential, logistic, and kinematic) characterize global relaxation in terms of pressure decay rates. However, IVR is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. Apical and basal LV wall segments untwist at different times and rates, and transmural strain and strain rates differ due to the helically variable pitch of myocytes and sheets. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the exponential model (?) or kinematic model (? and E(k)) parameters will elucidate the spatiotemporal variation of IVR rate. Left ventricular pressures in 20 subjects were recorded using a high-fidelity, multipressure transducer (3 cm apart) catheter. Simultaneous, dual-channel pressure data was plotted in the pressure phase-plane (dP/dt vs. P) and ?, ?, and E(k) were computed in 1631 beats (average: 82 beats per subject). Tau differed significantly between the two channels (P < 0.05) in 16 of 20 subjects, whereas ? and E(k) differed significantly (P < 0.05) in all 20 subjects. These results show that quantifying the relaxation rate from data recorded at a single location has limitations. Moreover, kinematic model based analysis allows characterization of restoring (recoil) forces and resistive (crossbridge uncoupling) forces during IVR and their spatio-temporal dependence, thereby elucidating the relative roles of stiffness vs. relaxation as IVR rate determinants. PMID:22210748

Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J

2012-03-01

344

Spatio-temporal localization of membrane lipid rafts in mouse oocytes and cleaving preimplantation embryos  

PubMed Central

We report for the first time the detection of membrane lipid rafts in mouse oocytes and cleaving preimplantation embryos. Cholera toxin ? (CT?), which binds to the raft-enriched ganglioside GM1, was selected to label rafts. In a novel application a Qdot reagent was used to detect CT? labeling. This is the first reported use of nanocrystals in mammalian embryo imaging. Comparative membrane labeling with CT? and lipophilic membrane dyes containing saturated or unsaturated aliphatic tails showed that the detection of GM1 in mouse oocytes and embryo membranes was consistent with the identification of cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched rafts in the cell membrane. Distribution of the GM1 was compared with the known distribution of non-raft membrane components, and disruption of membrane rafts with detergents confirmed the cholesterol-dependence of GM1 on lipid raft labeling. Complementary functional studies showed that cholesterol depletion using methyl-?-cyclodextrin inhibited preimplantation development in culture. Our results show that the membranes of the mouse oocyte and zygote are rich in lipid rafts, with heterogeneous and stage-dependent distribution. In dividing embryos, the rafts were clearly associated with the cleavage furrow. At the morula stage, rafts were also apically enriched in each blastomere. In blastocysts, rafts were detectable in the trophectoderm layer, but could not be detected in the inner cell mass without prior fixation and permeabilization of the embryo. Lipid rafts and their associated proteins are, therefore, spatio-temporally positioned to a play a critical role in preimplantation developmental events. PMID:17258703

Comiskey, Martina; M.Warner, Carol

2007-01-01

345

Spatio-temporal modelling and assessment of within-species phenological variability using thermal time methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenological observations of flowering date, budding date or senescence provide very valuable time series. They hold out the prospect for relating plant growth to environmental and climatic factors and hence for engendering a better understanding of plant physiology under natural conditions. The statistical establishment of associations between time series of phenological data and climatic factors provides a means of aiding forecasts of the biological impacts of future climatic change. However, it must be kept in mind that plant growth and behaviour vary spatially as well as temporally. Environmental, climatic and genetic diversity can give rise to spatially structured variation on a range of scales. The variations extend from large-scale geographical (clinal) trends, through medium-scale population and sub-population fluctuations, to micro-scale differentiation among neighbouring plants, where spatially close individuals are found to be genetically more alike than those some distance apart. We developed spatio-temporal phenological models that allow observations from multiple locations to be analysed simultaneously. We applied the models to the first-flowering dates of Prunus padus and Tilia cordata from localities as far apart as Norway and the Caucasus. Our growing-degree-day approach yielded a good fit to the available phenological data and yet involved only a small number of model parameters. It indicated that plants should display different sensitivities to temperature change according to their geographical location and the time of year at which they flower. For spring-flowering plants, we found strong temperature sensitivities for islands and archipelagos with oceanic climates, and low sensitivities in the interiors of continents.

Thompson, R.; Clark, R. M.

2006-05-01

346

Radioactivity from Fukushima Dai-ichi in air over Europe; part 1: spatio-temporal analysis.  

PubMed

Radionuclides emitted from the Fukushima I nuclear power plant have been detected in air all over Europe. Concentrations remained far below levels which could have caused radiological concern: probably the committed thyroid dose due to inhalation remained below about 1 ?Sv (for 10 y children), within the investigated region. They provided, however, a spatio-temporal signal which could be used to develop and test tools to provide additional information on the large-scale situation (Europe-wide, in this case) during a nuclear emergency. In this part we discuss the spatial distribution of the contaminated air masses over Europe. Using (131)I as an example, we present a method to construct maps of the time-cumulated (131)I concentration in air and of the peak concentrations. Procedures to deal with the statistical limitations of a data set stemming from different monitoring schemes are discussed. As over all results, the mean (over the investigated region) cumulated concentration of particular (131)I is estimated about 9 mBq d/m(3), with observed maximum of about 23 mBq d/m(3). The probability that much higher concentrations occurred at unsampled locations, than have been observed anywhere, is assessed low, e.g. about 2.5% for the cumulated (131)I(part.) concentration to exceed 30 mBq d/m(3). Our method can be used in nuclear emergencies for providing spatial analyses if radionuclide concentrations of health concern are detected by atmospheric monitoring stations. We suggest considering such methods of data harmonization if synoptic assessment based on heterogeneous datasets is attempted. PMID:22227180

Bossew, P; Kirchner, G; De Cort, M; de Vries, G; Nishev, A; de Felice, L

2012-12-01

347

Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Frizzled Receptors after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Wnt proteins are a large family of molecules that are critically involved in multiple central nervous system (CNS) developmental processes. Experimental evidences suggest a role for this family of proteins in many CNS disorders, including spinal cord injury (SCI), which is a major neuropathology owing to its high prevalence and chronic sensorimotor functional sequelae. Interestingly, most Wnt proteins and their inhibitors are expressed in the uninjured spinal cord, and their temporal expression patterns are dramatically altered after injury. However, little is known regarding the expression of their better-known receptors, the Frizzled family, after SCI. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of Frizzled receptors in the damaged spinal cord. Findings Based on the evidence that Wnts are expressed in the spinal cord and are transcriptionally regulated by SCI in adulthood, we analysed the spatio-temporal mRNA and protein expression patterns of Frizzled receptors after contusive SCI using quantitative RT-PCR and single and double immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results show that almost all of the 10 known Frizzled receptors were expressed in specific spatial patterns in the uninjured spinal cords. Moreover, the Frizzled mRNAs and proteins were expressed after SCI, although their expression patterns were altered during the temporal progression of SCI. Finally, analysis of cellular Frizzled 5 expression pattern by double immunohistochemistry showed that, in the uninjured spinal cord, this receptor was expressed in neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia and NG2+ glial precursors. After injury, Frizzled 5 was not only still expressed in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and NG2+ glial precursors but also in axons at all evaluated time points. Moreover, Frizzled 5 was expressed in reactive microglia/macrophages from 3 to 14 days post-injury. Conclusions Our data suggest the involvement of Frizzled receptors in physiological spinal cord function and in the cellular and molecular events that characterise its neuropathology. PMID:23251385

Arenas, Ernest; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier

2012-01-01

348

Spatio-temporal diffusion pattern and hotspot detection of dengue in Chachoengsao province, Thailand.  

PubMed

In recent years, dengue has become a major international public health concern. In Thailand it is also an important concern as several dengue outbreaks were reported in last decade. This paper presents a GIS approach to analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics. The major objective of this study was to examine spatial diffusion patterns and hotspot identification for reported dengue cases. Geospatial diffusion pattern of the 2007 dengue outbreak was investigated. Map of daily cases was generated for the 153 days of the outbreak. Epidemiological data from Chachoengsao province, Thailand (reported dengue cases for the years 1999-2007) was used for this study. To analyze the dynamic space-time pattern of dengue outbreaks, all cases were positioned in space at a village level. After a general statistical analysis (by gender and age group), data was subsequently analyzed for temporal patterns and correlation with climatic data (especially rainfall), spatial patterns and cluster analysis, and spatio-temporal patterns of hotspots during epidemics. The results revealed spatial diffusion patterns during the years 1999-2007 representing spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. Villages on the urban fringe reported higher incidences. The space and time of the cases showed outbreak movement and spread patterns that could be related to entomologic and epidemiologic factors. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of dengue diffusion. This study presents useful information related to the dengue outbreak patterns in space and time and may help public health departments to plan strategies to control the spread of disease. The methodology is general for space-time analysis and can be applied for other infectious diseases as well. PMID:21318014

Jeefoo, Phaisarn; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Souris, Marc

2011-01-01

349

Spatio-temporal features of vegetation restoration and variation after the Wenchuan earthquake with satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wenchuan earthquake was a deadly earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008, in Sichuan province of China. With the help of classic statistic methods, including arithmetic mean, standard deviation and linear trend estimation, vegetation restoration was recognized by analyzing spatio-temporal features of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) before and after this earthquake. Results indicate: (1) spatial distribution of NDVI mean values remains similar from 1998 to 2011. Higher values are mainly found in north, whereas lower values are mainly distributed over southeast, which is in good correlation with elevation and landform. Vegetation damage is at different levels in different seismic intensity (SI) regions: the higher SI is, the worse vegetation damage is. (2) Over the whole region, standard deviation is bigger after earthquake than before. Both absolute and relative changes in ecosystem stability increase with increasing SI. In different counties, variation of ecosystem stability is more obvious after earthquake, increase of standard deviation is approximately 6.5 times. Relatively, vegetation regionalization is the smallest analysis unit. Consequently, changes resulting from earthquake are unobvious. (3) Linear trend estimation coefficient increases from 0.0079 before the earthquake to 0.0359 after the earthquake in this whole region. This indicates that the plant ecosystem is rapidly restored between 2009 and 2011. The biggest linear trend is for the hill region, indicating good plant restoration and increase after earthquake. Fluctuation of linear trend estimation coefficient in different counties is more obvious after earthquake. Vegetation restoration after earthquake is most obvious in the regions that suffered the greatest SI (SI10 and SI11). In contrast, fluctuation in linear trend estimation coefficient of annual NDVI mean value for different classes of vegetation is more obvious before earthquake.

Peng, Hou; Qiao, Wang; Yipeng, Yang; Weiguo, Jiang; Bingfeng, Yang; Qiang, Chen; Lihua, Yuan; Fanming, Kong; Xi, Chen; Guanjie, Wang

2014-01-01

350

Application of spatio-temporal image correlation technology in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Congenital heart disease is the birth defect with the highest incidence in China. Its timely and accurate prenatal diagnosis is critical for appropriate perinatal and postnatal management and salvage treatment. With improvements in the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound and clinical manipulation techniques, prenatal diagnosis is conducted increasingly early and with greater accuracy. However, the representations of tiny blood vessels and the determination of abnormal spatial structures in the fetal period continue to cause difficulties in prenatal diagnosis. In theory, spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) technology is able to compensate for the defects of previous traditional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and improve the diagnostic accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical application value of STIC technology combined with traditional 2D ultrasound in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities. A total of 1,286 fetuses were subjected to sequential echocardiographic examination, during which STIC technology was used to collect heart volume data and carry out image post-processing and off-line analysis. In addition, the prenatal and postnatal echocardiography results were compared with the pathology results following the induced labor of fetuses with cardiac abnormalities. The sensitivity, specificity, misdiagnosis rate and rate of missed diagnosis for the STIC technology in the diagnosis of prenatal fetal cardiac abnormalities were 97.4, 99.6, 0.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The total coincidence rate was 99.2% and the positive and negative predictive values were 97.9 and 99.4%, respectively; the statistics for the consistency check of the STIC technology in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities are ?=0.991, P=0.000. STIC technology combined with fetal echocardiography may be used for the definite diagnosis of fetal heart malformations, with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23837046

HE, YIHUA; WANG, JUNLAN; GU, XIAOYAN; ZHANG, YE; HAN, JIANCHENG; LIU, XIAOWEI; LI, ZHIAN

2013-01-01

351

Diffusive spatio-temporal noise in a first-passage time model for intracellular calcium release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intracellular release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by ion channels. The resulting calcium signals exhibit a rich spatio-temporal signature, which originates at least partly from microscopic fluctuations. While stochasticity in the gating transition of ion channels has been incorporated into many models, the distribution of calcium is usually described by deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Here we test the validity of the latter modeling approach by using two different models to calculate the frequency of localized calcium signals (calcium puffs) from clustered IP3 receptor channels. The complexity of the full calcium system is here limited to the basic opening mechanism of the ion channels and, in the mathematical reduction simplifies to the calculation of a first passage time. Two models are then studied: (i) a hybrid model, where channel gating is treated stochastically, while calcium concentration is deterministic and (ii) a fully stochastic model with noisy channel gating and Brownian calcium ion motion. The second model utilises the recently developed two-regime method [M. B. Flegg, S. J. Chapman, and R. Erban, ``The two-regime method for optimizing stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations,'' J. R. Soc., Interface 9, 859-868 (2012)] in order to simulate a large domain with precision required only near the Ca2+ absorbing channels. The expected time for a first channel opening that results in a calcium puff event is calculated. It is found that for a large diffusion constant, predictions of the interpuff time are significantly overestimated using the model (i) with a deterministic non-spatial calcium variable. It is thus demonstrated that the presence of diffusive noise in local concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ ions can substantially influence the occurrence of calcium signals. The presented approach and results may also be relevant for other cell-physiological first-passage time problems with small ligand concentration and high cooperativity.

Flegg, Mark B.; Rüdiger, Sten; Erban, Radek

2013-04-01

352

PROPAGATION OF SEISMIC WAVES THROUGH A SPATIO-TEMPORALLY FLUCTUATING MEDIUM: HOMOGENIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of seismic wave travel times at the photosphere of the Sun have enabled inferences of its interior structure and dynamics. In interpreting these measurements, the simplifying assumption that waves propagate through a temporally stationary medium is almost universally invoked. However, the Sun is in a constant state of evolution, on a broad range of spatio-temporal scales. At the zero-wavelength limit, i.e., when the wavelength is much shorter than the scale over which the medium varies, the WKBJ (ray) approximation may be applied. Here, we address the other asymptotic end of the spectrum, the infinite-wavelength limit, using the technique of homogenization. We apply homogenization to scenarios where waves are propagating through rapidly varying media (spatially and temporally), and derive effective models for the media. One consequence is that a scalar sound speed becomes a tensorial wave speed in the effective model and anisotropies can be induced depending on the nature of the perturbation. The second term in this asymptotic two-scale expansion, the so-called corrector, contains contributions due to higher-order scattering, leading to the decoherence of the wave field. This decoherence may be causally linked to the observed wave attenuation in the Sun. Although the examples we consider here consist of periodic arrays of perturbations to the background, homogenization may be extended to ergodic and stationary random media. This method may have broad implications for the manner in which we interpret seismic measurements in the Sun and for modeling the effects of granulation on the scattering of waves and distortion of normal-mode eigenfunctions.

Hanasoge, Shravan M. [Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Gizon, Laurent [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Bal, Guillaume [Department of Applied and Physical Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2013-08-20

353

Spatio-temporal PM and AOD estimations over Northeast Asia during DRAGON NE-Asia campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) is closely related to human health, air quality, and climate changes. It has been directly measured on the surface level. However, ground-based measurements have a limitation in spatial coverage of PM concentrations. In order to overcome this spatial limitation of ground measurements, AOD, which is considered as a proxy to PM concentration, was used in this study. AOD was first utilized to figure out the characteristics of PM and was then used to estimate the PM concentrations in Northeast Asia during the DRAGON Northeast-Asia campaign (March-May 2012), using CMAQ-estimated AOD, COMS/GOCI-retrieved AOD, and the AOD data from the DRAGON NE-Asia campaign. First of all, current emission inventories (MEIC and INTEX-B based emission inventories) were evaluated to improve CMAQ modeling results. Next, several algorithms to convert aerosol composition to AOD were evaluated using intensive measurement data from the DRAGON NE-Asia campaign. The accuracy of the CMAQ-estimated AOD was further evaluated with hourly observing GOCI-retrieved AOD. After the evaluation, CMAQ-calculated AOD was mathematically combined with GOCI-retrieved AOD via data assimilation. After this, AERONET AOD measured by the DRAGON NE-Asia campaign was again combined with the assimilated AOD from CMAQ and GOCI AODs to produce more accurate spatio-temporal AOD fields over Northeast Asia. Using several relationships between PM (PM10 and PM2.5) and AOD, the best surface-PM concentrations over the entire domain were calculated. It was then evaluated with ground-based PM2.5 measurements from the DRAGON NE-Asia campaign. A good agreement between estimated PM2.5 and measured PM2.5 over the domain was found. Finally, the PM and AOD information was used to investigate the effects of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula.

Park, M.; Song, C.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

354

Nonholonomic Orthogonal Learning Algorithms for Blind Source Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent component analysis or blind source separation extracts in- dependent signals from their linear mixtures without assuming prior knowledge of their mixing coefficients. It is known that the independent signals in the observed mixtures can be successfully extracted except for their order and scales. In order to resolve the indeterminacy of scales, most learning algorithms impose some constraints on the

Shun-ichi Amari; Tian-Ping Chen; Andrzej Cichocki

2000-01-01

355

Structural analysis of the cerebral cortex using blind source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods have become ubiquitous, but their performance varies greatly depending on how well their assumptions are satisfied by the data. Cortical thickness and sulcal folding patterns are ideal datasets for BSS analysis because there is limited prior knowledge on how they are affected by brain development and pathologies of the central nervous system. However, to date

David Wheland; Dimitrios Pantazis; Richard M. Leahy

2011-01-01

356

A review of Blind Source Separation in NMR Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

M to �M for classical NMR ). Remarkably, the resolution of 2D NMR spectra is such that even by visA review of Blind Source Separation in NMR Spectroscopy Ichrak Toumi, Stefano Caldarelli iSm2, UMR naturally associated to most NMR experi- ments. Notable exceptions are Pulse Field Gradient and relaxation

357

PROBABILISTIC BLIND DECONVOLUTION OF NON-STATIONARY SOURCES  

E-print Network

PROBABILISTIC BLIND DECONVOLUTION OF NON-STATIONARY SOURCES Rasmus Kongsgaard Olsson and Lars Kai mixture of colored noise signals with additive white noise. We derive a time-domain EM algorithm `Ka] is based on second order statistics and is attractive for its rela- tive simplicity and implementation, yet

358

MULTICHANNEL BLIND SEPARATION AND DECONVOLUTION OF SOURCES WITH  

E-print Network

signal analysis, acoustics, communications, and signal and image processing. In blind source separation. The measured sensor signals are processed by a linear single-layer feed-forward network as y(k) = W(k)x(k) (2 (n m)-dimensionalmatrixof mixingcoe cients at lag p. The goal is to calculate a vector y

Cichocki, Andrzej

359

SOLAP technology: Merging business intelligence with geospatial technology for interactive spatio-temporal exploration and analysis of data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support their analytical processes, today's organizations deploy data warehouses and client tools such as OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) to access, visualize, and analyze their integrated, aggregated and summarized data. Since a large part of these data have a spatial component, better client tools are required to take full advantage of the geometry of the spatial phenomena or objects being analyzed. With this regard, Spatial OLAP (SOLAP) technology offers promising possibilities. A SOLAP tool can be defined as "a type of software that allows rapid and easy navigation within spatial databases and that offers many levels of information granularity, many themes, many epochs and many display modes synchronized or not: maps, tables and diagrams" [Bédard, Y., Proulx, M.J., Rivest, S., 2005. Enrichissement du OLAP pour l'analyse géographique: exemples de réalisation et différentes possibilités technologiques. In: Bentayeb, F., Boussaid, O., Darmont, J., Rabaseda, S. (Eds.), Entrepôts de Données et Analyse en ligne, RNTI B_1. Paris: Cépaduès, pp. 1-20]. SOLAP tools offer a new user interface and are meant to be client applications sitting on top of multi-scale spatial data warehouses or datacubes. As they are based on the multidimensional paradigm, they facilitate the interactive spatio-temporal exploration of data. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how SOLAP concepts support spatio-temporal exploration of data and then to present the geovisualization, interactivity, and animation features of the SOLAP software developed by our research group. This paper first reviews the general concepts behind OLAP and SOLAP systems. This is followed by a discussion of how these SOLAP concepts support spatio-temporal exploration of data. In the subsequent section, SOLAP software is introduced along with features that enable geovisualization, interactivity and animation.

Rivest, Sonia; Bédard, Yvan; Proulx, Marie-Josée; Nadeau, Martin; Hubert, Frederic; Pastor, Julien

360

Trophic ecology of the invasive argentine ant: spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation and isotopic enrichment.  

PubMed

Studies of food webs often employ stable isotopic approaches to infer trophic position and interaction strength without consideration of spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation by constituent species. Using results from laboratory diet manipulations and monthly sampling of field populations, we illustrate how nitrogen isotopes may be used to quantify spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation in ants. First, we determined nitrogen enrichment using a controlled laboratory experiment with the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). After 12 weeks, worker ?(15)N values from colonies fed an animal-based diet had ?(15)N values that were 5.51% greater compared to colonies fed a plant-based diet. The shift in ?(15)N values in response to the experimental diet occurred within 10 weeks. We next reared Argentine ant colonies with or without access to honeydew-producing aphids and found that after 8 weeks workers from colonies without access to aphids had ?(15)N values that were 6.31% larger compared to colonies with access to honeydew. Second, we sampled field populations over a 1-year period to quantify spatio-temporal variability in isotopic ratios of L. humile and those of a common native ant (Solenopsis xyloni). Samples from free-living colonies revealed that fluctuations in ?(15)N were 1.6-2.4‰ for L. humile and 1.8-2.9‰ for S. xyloni. Variation was also detected among L. humile castes: time averaged means of ?(15)N varied from 1.2 to 2.5‰ depending on the site, with ?(15)N values for queens ? workers > brood. The estimated trophic positions of L. humile and S. xyloni were similar within a site; however, trophic position for each species differed significantly at larger spatial scales. While stable isotopes are clearly useful for examining the trophic ecology of arthropod communities, our results suggest that caution is warranted when making ecological interpretations when stable isotope collections come from single time periods or life stages. PMID:20577762

Menke, Sean B; Suarez, Andy V; Tillberg, Chadwick V; Chou, Cheng T; Holway, David A

2010-11-01

361

Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure.  

PubMed

Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C?N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy beaches as functional ecosystems in their own right. PMID:21858213

Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S

2011-01-01

362

Mapping the spatio-temporal structure of motor cortical LFP and spiking activities during reach-to-grasp movements.  

PubMed

Grasping an object involves shaping the hand and fingers in relation to the object's physical properties. Following object contact, it also requires a fine adjustment of grasp forces for secure manipulation. Earlier studies suggest that the control of hand shaping and grasp force involve partially segregated motor cortical networks. However, it is still unclear how information originating from these networks is processed and integrated. We addressed this issue by analyzing massively parallel signals from population measures (local field potentials, LFPs) and single neuron spiking activities recorded simultaneously during a delayed reach-to-grasp task, by using a 100-electrode array chronically implanted in monkey motor cortex. Motor cortical LFPs exhibit a large multi-component movement-related potential (MRP) around movement onset. Here, we show that the peak amplitude of each MRP component and its latency with respect to movement onset vary along the cortical surface covered by the array. Using a comparative mapping approach, we suggest that the spatio-temporal structure of the MRP reflects the complex physical properties of the reach-to-grasp movement. In addition, we explored how the spatio-temporal structure of the MRP relates to two other measures of neuronal activity: the temporal profile of single neuron spiking activity at each electrode site and the somatosensory receptive field properties of single neuron activities. We observe that the spatial representations of LFP and spiking activities overlap extensively and relate to the spatial distribution of proximal and distal representations of the upper limb. Altogether, these data show that, in motor cortex, a precise spatio-temporal pattern of activation is involved for the control of reach-to-grasp movements and provide some new insight about the functional organization of motor cortex during reaching and object manipulation. PMID:23543888

Riehle, Alexa; Wirtssohn, Sarah; Grün, Sonja; Brochier, Thomas

2013-01-01

363

A novel right ventricle segmentation strategy using local spatio-temporal MRI information with a prior regularizer term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work is presented a novel strategy that tracks the right ventricle (RV) shape during a whole cardiac cycle in magnetic resonance sequences (MRC). The proposed approach obtains a set of spatio-temporal observations from a bidirectional per pixel motion descriptor which are each time fused with prior learned edges. A main advantage of the proposed approach is a robust MRI heart characterization that is regularized by a prior information, obtaining in each cardiac state coherent results. The proposed approach achieves a Dice Score of 0.64 evaluated over 16 patients.

Atehortúa, Angélica; Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo

2013-11-01

364

Spatio-temporal organization of sediment dynamics at the hillslope scale in a loess landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hilly landscapes, where erosion rates do not exceed the weathering rates of bedrock material, the shape of hillslopes is typically convex near the hilltop and becomes increasingly planar further downslope with the steepest descent in the middle of the slope and a concave shaped hillfoot. This convex-concave shape is the result of long term erosion and sediment redistribution processes driven by climatic forcing. We hypothesize that this typical shape is related to optimized sediment transport dynamics when examined in a thermodynamic perspective. We used the process based model CATFLOW-SED to analyze the spatio-temporal organization of sediment dynamics at the hillslope scale. The model simulates overland flow using the diffusion wave equation. Soil detachment is a threshold process and depends on the attacking forces of rainfall and overland flow and the model parameter erosion resistance, which is characterized by soil properties, land use and management practice. Transport capacity and deposition are modeled for different grain size fractions. For the hillslope studies, data of the Weiherbach catchment was used, which is located in an intensively cultivated loess region in Southwest Germany. We designed convex and convex/concave shaped slopes similar to the hillslopes in the Weiherbach catchment, with identical gradients, slope lengths, soil properties and vegetation but varying curvatures. Then we modeled sediment dynamics using observed rainfall and climate data and quantified the power generated by water and sediment flux for the different slopes. We found a minimum of the power generated by sediment flux for the convex-concave shaped hillslopes which represent the hypsometric curve of the Weiherbach catchment. The typically shaped hillslopes are thus in a state of minimum work performed on the hillslope, resulting in a steady hillslope shape and minimum sediment export. This tendency for a hillslope to develop towards an 'optimal' shape and sediment export rate should be generally applicable; a thermodynamically formulated principle of minimum work performed on hillslopes in steady state could hence serve as a constraint when estimating sediment export rates in similar landscapes.

Scherer, Ulrike; Zehe, Erwin; Ehret, Uwe; Kleidon, Axel

2013-04-01

365

Spatio-temporal patterns of soil water storage under dryland agriculture at the watershed scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySpatio-temporal patterns of soil water are major determinants of crop yield potential in dryland agriculture and can serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones. Soil water patterns can vary significantly due to differences in seasonal precipitation, soil properties and topographic features. In this study we used empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to characterize the spatial variability of soil water at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) near Pullman, WA. During the period 1999-2006, the CAF was divided into three roughly equal blocks (A, B, and C), and soil water at 0.3 m intervals to a depth of 1.5 m measured gravimetrically at approximately one third of the 369 geo-referenced points on the 37-ha watershed. These data were combined with terrain attributes, soil bulk density and apparent soil conductivity (EC a). The first EOF generated from the three blocks explained 73-76% of the soil water variability. Field patterns of soil water based on EOF interpolation varied between wet and dry conditions during spring and fall seasons. Under wet conditions, elevation and wetness index were the dominant factors regulating the spatial patterns of soil water. As soil dries out during summer and fall, soil properties (EC a and bulk density) become more important in explaining the spatial patterns of soil water. The EOFs generated from block B, which represents average topographic and soil properties, provided better estimates of soil water over the entire watershed with larger Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE) values, especially when the first two EOFs were retained. Including more than the first two EOFs did not significantly increase the NSCE of soil water estimate. The EOF interpolation method to estimate soil water variability worked slightly better during spring than during fall, with average NSCE values of 0.23 and 0.20, respectively. The predictable patterns of stored soil water in the spring could serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones as yield potential is largely driven by water availability. The EOF-based method has the advantage of estimating the soil water variability based on soil water data from several measurement times, whereas in regression methods only soil water measurement at a single time are used. The EOF-based method can also be used to estimate soil water at any time other than measurement times, assuming the average soil water of the watershed is known at that time.

Ibrahim, Hesham M.; Huggins, David R.

2011-07-01

366

Plasmonic Antennas for Optical Nanocrystallography and Femtosecond Spatio-Temporal Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling optical fields on nanometer length scales has been a long standing problem in optics, driven by the desire to image spatial inhomogeneities of condensed matter on the natural length scales of molecular, electronic, or lattice correlations. The concept of optical antennas based on plasmon resonant nanostructures has emerged as an attractive solution for concentrating and confining light to the nanoscale with a high degree of spatial confinement achieved in the evanescent field. This dissertation focuses on the fundamental characteristics of the antenna properties of plasmonic metal tips and their application for nanometer-resolved optical scanning probe spectroscopy and imaging. First this work demonstrates the extension of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) to optical nanocrystallography in order to study ferroelectric domain order by using the symmetry selective Raman selection rules for polar phonon modes in combination with the polarization-dependent TERS enhancement. After the derivation of the polar phonon TERS selection rules, ferroelectric domains arising from finite size effects within individual BaTiO3 nanorods are imaged. The second part of this work explores the fundamental characteristics and applications of adiabatic surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nanofocusing as an optical antenna for far- to near-field mode transformation. This process, resulting from the radius-dependent index of refraction experienced by SPP's propagating on tapered waveguides, is shown to result in a nanoconfined optical excitation at the apex of Au tips 10's of nm in size. To demonstrate the general application for background-free spectroscopy, adiabatic nanofocusing TERS is shown to improve contrast and sensitivity, and enables the extension to the near-IR spectral range. Lastly, due to the phase, wavelength, and amplitude independent nanofocusing mechanism, the independent and simultaneous nanometer-femtosecond spatio-temporal control of ultrafast pulses is possible. Combining the frequency domain shaping of optical transients with nanofocusing, we demonstrate the deterministic control of pulses as short as 16 fs and the generation of arbitrary waveforms at the tip apex. These results demonstrate the capability of these plasmonic optical antennas to not only generate enhanced optical fields for the study of matter on the nanoscale, but also to control ultrafast nano-optical excitations with applications for imaging and spectroscopy.

Berweger, Samuel

367

Models for Complex Spatio-temporal Relationships and their Implementation using Open Source Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal aspects of an object, site, area, region, event, age, era or epoch have always been important in historical or archaeological documentation or description. The visualization of spatial dimensionality is well modeled by geospatial systems. Timelines are used for visualizing serial progression along the temporal dimension. It is often the linkage between the temporal and spatial dimensions that

Riyaz Fazal

2009-01-01

368

Generic Blind Source Separation Using Second-Order Local Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting the fact that one is dealing with time signals, it is possible to formulate certain blind source (or signal) separation\\u000a tasks in terms of a simple generalized eigenvalue decomposition based on two matrices. Many of the techniques determine these\\u000a two matrices using second-order statistics, e.g., variance, covariance, autocorrelation, etc.\\u000a \\u000a In this work, we present a second-order, covariance-based method to

Marco Loog

2006-01-01

369

In situ spatio-temporal changes in pollution-induced community tolerance to zinc in autotrophic and heterotrophic biofilm communities.  

PubMed

Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) uses increased tolerance in populations at contaminated sites as an indicator of contaminant effects. However, given the broad structural and functional complexity that characterizes biological communities, the acquisition of PICT could vary with (i) target community, (ii) intensity of toxicant exposure, (iii) the species succession stage, and (iv) the physicochemical characteristics of the studied site. To assess the spatio-temporal changes of zinc-induced tolerance in fluvial biofilm communities, we conducted an in situ study in Osor River (North-East Catalonia, Spain), which has zinc contamination. Biofilms were developed for 5 weeks in a non-metal-polluted site, and were then transferred to different sites in Osor River with different levels of zinc contamination. The spatio-temporal changes of biofilm PICT to zinc was determined using photosynthetic activity bioassays and respiration-induced aerobic bioassays at T(0), and at 1, 3 and 5 weeks of exposure. We also performed physicochemical characterization of the sites, taxonomic analysis of diatoms, bacterial and fungal diversity and profiled pigments of phototrophic communities. We used multivariate ordination to analyze results. In addition to natural species succession, the intensity of metal pollution exerted structural pressure by selecting the most metal-tolerant species, but differently depending on the type of biofilm. Zn-tolerance values indicated that exposure to high levels of zinc had effects that were similar to a longer exposure to lower levels of zinc. PMID:21701844

Tlili, Ahmed; Corcoll, Natalia; Bonet, Berta; Morin, Soizic; Montuelle, Bernard; Bérard, Annette; Guasch, Helena

2011-11-01

370

Modeling self-organized spatio-temporal patterns of PIP3 and PTEN during spontaneous cell polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During spontaneous cell polarization of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphoshpate (PIP3) and PTEN (phosphatase tensin homolog) have been identified as key signaling molecules which govern the process of polarization in a self-organized manner. Recent experiments have quantified the spatio-temporal dynamics of these signaling components. Surprisingly, it was found that membrane-bound PTEN can be either in a high or low state, that PIP3 waves were initiated in areas lacking PTEN through an excitable mechanism, and that PIP3 was degraded even though the PTEN concentration remained low. Here we develop a reaction-diffusion model that aims to explain these experimental findings. Our model contains bistable dynamics for PTEN, excitable dynamics for PIP3, and postulates the existence of two species of PTEN with different dephosphorylation rates. We show that our model is able to produce results that are in good qualitative agreement with the experiments, suggesting that our reaction-diffusion model underlies the self-organized spatio-temporal patterns observed in experiments.

Knoch, Fabian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

2014-08-01

371

Time-Resolved and Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Complex Cognitive Processes and their Role in Disorders like Developmental Dyscalculia  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to report on the importance and challenges of a time-resolved and spatio-temporal analysis of fMRI data from complex cognitive processes and associated disorders using a study on developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants underwent fMRI while judging the incorrectness of multiplication results, and the data were analyzed using a sequence of methods, each of which progressively provided more a detailed picture of the spatio-temporal aspect of this disease. Healthy subjects and subjects with DD performed alike behaviorally though they exhibited parietal disparities using traditional voxel-based group analyses. Further and more detailed differences, however, surfaced with a time-resolved examination of the neural responses during the experiment. While performing inter-group comparisons, a third group of subjects with dyslexia (DL) but with no arithmetic difficulties was included to test the specificity of the analysis and strengthen the statistical base with overall fifty-eight subjects. Surprisingly, the analysis showed a functional dissimilarity during an initial reading phase for the group of dyslexic but otherwise normal subjects, with respect to controls, even though only numerical digits and no alphabetic characters were presented. Thus our results suggest that time-resolved multi-variate analysis of complex experimental paradigms has the ability to yield powerful new clinical insights about abnormal brain function. Similarly, a detailed compilation of aberrations in the functional cascade may have much greater potential to delineate the core processing problems in mental disorders. PMID:22368322

Morocz, Istvan Akos; Janoos, Firdaus; van Gelderen, Peter; Manor, David; Karni, Avi; Breznitz, Zvia; von Aster, Michael; Kushnir, Tammar; Shalev, Ruth

2012-01-01

372

Nutrients and toxin producing phytoplankton control algal blooms - a spatio-temporal study in a noisy environment.  

PubMed

A phytoplankton-zooplankton prey-predator model has been investigated for temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal dissipative pattern formation in a deterministic and noisy environment, respectively. The overall carrying capacity for the phytoplankton population depends on the nutrient level. The role of nutrient concentrations and toxin producing phytoplankton for controlling the algal blooms has been discussed. The local analysis yields a number of stationary and/or oscillatory regimes and their combinations. Correspondingly interesting is the spatio-temporal behaviour, modelled by stochastic reaction-diffusion equations. The present study also reveals the fact that the rate of toxin production by toxin producing phytoplankton (TPP) plays an important role for controlling oscillations in the plankton system. We also observe that different mortality functions of zooplankton due to TPP have significant influence in controlling oscillations, coexistence, survival or extinction of the zoo-plankton population. External noise can enhance the survival and spread of zooplankton that would go extinct in the deterministic system due to a high rate of toxin production. PMID:16388147

Sarkar, Ram Rup; Malchow, Horst

2005-12-01

373

Spatio-temporal variations in the diversity and abundance of commercially important Decapoda and Stomatopoda in subtropical Hong Kong waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subtropical Hong Kong, western waters (WW) are strongly influenced by the freshwater input from the Pearl River estuary, especially during summer monsoon, whereas eastern waters (EW) are predominantly influenced by oceanic currents throughout the year. Such hydrographical differences may lead to spatio-temporal differences in biodiversity of benthic communities. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of commercially important decapods and stomatopods in EW (i.e. Tolo Harbour and Channel) and WW (i.e. Tuen Mun and Lantau Island) of Hong Kong using monthly trawl surveys (August 2003-May 2005). In total, 22 decapod and nine stomatopod species were recorded. The penaeid Metapenaeopsis sp. and stomatopod Oratosquillina interrupta were the most abundant and dominant crustaceans in EW and WW, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that WW supported significantly higher abundance, biomass and diversity of crustaceans than EW, although there were significant between-site and within-site variations in community structure. Higher abundance and biomass of crustaceans were recorded in summer than winter. Such spatio-temporal variations could be explained by differences in the hydrography, environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts between the two areas. Temporal patterns in the abundance-biomass comparison curves and negative W-statistics suggest that the communities have been highly disturbed in both areas, probably due to anthropogenic activities such as bottom trawling and marine pollution.

Lui, Karen K. Y.; Ng, Jasmine S. S.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

2007-05-01

374

Spatio-temporal development of microdischarges in a surface barrier discharge arrangement in air at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal development of single microdischarges in an asymmetric surface barrier discharge arrangement was investigated. The arrangement consisted of two needle electrodes laid on a dielectric plate. The discharge was operated in dry air at atmospheric pressure with a sinusoidal applied voltage. The discharge was investigated by current-voltage measurements as well as two optical techniques, the intensified CCD imaging (equipped with a far-field microscope) and the cross-correlation spectroscopy. While the combined methods of iCCD imaging and far-field microscope recorded two-dimensional pictures with a high spatial resolution, the CCS recorded the spatio-temporal development of the luminosity of the 0-0 transitions of the second positive system (? = 337.1 nm) and first negative system ( ? = 391.5 nm) of molecular nitrogen. The intensities of these two bands were measured with a fine spatial and temporal resolution. It was found that both half periods have significant differences in the mechanism. While the positive half period behaves similar as volume or coplanar barrier discharges, during the negative half period no positive streamer was detected.

Grosch, H.; Hoder, T.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Brandenburg, R.

2010-12-01

375

Assessing spatio-temporal variability of rainfall using a simple physically based statistical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable assessment of spatio-temporal variability of observed rainfall is difficult in the current climate because of the complex spatial variability displayed by daily and shorter time scale rainfall data. As demonstrated in a recent analysis of Canadian daily precipitation data by Hutchinson et al. (2009), direct interpolation of short time scale precipitation data is a poor way to address spatial patterns of rainfall extremes. Addressing the behaviour of projected future precipitation extremes is made even more difficult by the limited temporal and spatial resolution of precipitation as simulated by global climate models. The “uniform drizzle” that tends to be produced by these models makes the assessment of even straightforward statistics, such as daily rainfall occurrence, problematic. Putting aside significant inter-model variability, the more reliable outputs of global models include mean fluxes, such as monthly rainfall amounts, and associated insight into the nature of the modelled precipitation in relation to forcing synoptic systems. The truncated power of normal distribution, as described by Hutchinson (1995), offers a relatively simple way to make progress. Two of the three model parameters are simply calibrated in terms of monthly mean fluxes and the model is able to accurately describe precipitation extremes. These model parameters can also be robustly determined from serially incomplete data. It can be argued that the model has a broad physical process basis by modelling rainfall as an event that occurs as an appropriate threshold is exceeded. This analysis extends the approach of Stidd (1954, 1973) who suggested the cube root as a universal normalising power. We show that the power parameter, once robustly calibrated, displays a broadly spatially varying distribution of around 0.5. This corresponds well with the two dimensional synoptic convergence that is required to produce precipitation. The power parameter appears to be related to the degree of convection associated with observed precipitation, a key aspect of current and projected future precipitation. The paper demonstrates the accuracy and interpretability of the model in describing daily rainfall variability and extremes in the current climate. The mean rainfall is a dominant factor in the observed trends but there are also significant departures from this dependence. The model offers a robust observational benchmark against which more sophisticated models of atmospheric variability can be compared. References: Hutchinson, M.F., Mckenney, D.W., Lawrence, K., Pedlar, J., Hopkinson, R., Milewska, E. and Papadopol, P. 2009. Development and testing of Canada-wide interpolated spatial models of daily minimum/maximum temperature and precipitation for 1961-2003. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48(4): 725-741. Hutchinson, M.F. 1995. Stochastic space-time weather models from ground-based data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 73: 237-264. Stidd, C.K., 1954. The use of correlation fields in relating precipitation to circulation. Journal of Meteorology 11:202-213. Stidd, C.K., 1973. Estimating the precipitation climate. Water Resources Research 9: 1235-1241.

Hutchinson, M. F.; Xu, T.; Kesteven, J.

2010-12-01

376

Remotely sensed spatio-temporal trends of irrigation agriculture in northwestern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigated agricultural production plays a key role in covering the world’s food demand. Its importance will grow in the future given increasing population numbers and uncertain climate. Irrigation, however, has also a major impact on water resources, esp. in the drylands on the planet. For example, most of the large-scale problems of aquifer mining can be linked to groundwater-irrigated agriculture. South Asia is one of these regions of concern where roughly 40 percent of the total global groundwater irrigated area is located. In India, almost half of the total agricultural area is irrigated and it is estimated that groundwater irrigation in the country sustains 27 million ha. Esp. in the northwestern part of the country, water tables are falling at increasing rates that give rise to concern about the future viability of irrigation there. Since the majority of food grains in India are produced in that region, this development is a direct threat to the national food security with potentially global implications. We present a novel remote sensing approach to map the temporal development of irrigated agriculture at large spatial scales with high accuracy. We use time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NDVI and surface temperature as well as high-resolution precipitation data from the Indian Meteorological Department from 2000 - 2008 and ancillary data for our supervised classification approach. A cascade of classifiers was chosen to deal with the problem of obtaining labeled examples. A first stage classifier uses large regions of known irrigated and non-irrigated areas to learn a rough estimate of the multi-dimensional time series signature on variables of interest in non-irrigated areas. An estimate of the probability of non-irrigation is generated and passed to a second stage classifier along with the variables used to derive it. The second stage classifier is trained with a small dataset of very high quality estimates of irrigated area, and builds on the output of the first stage to produce a final estimate of the percentage of area irrigated at the pixel scale. The choice of first stage classifier is driven by the need of producing reasonable estimates from large datasets of low-quality data with noise on predictors and labels. The second stage one is chosen with generalization capability in mind, even when small samples are used. We apply our method to northwestern India where our results complement, in a temporal sense, information on irrigation obtained from local census. Due to the linkage of groundwater overdraft and irrigation, the accurate determination of the spatio-temporal evolution of irrigated area coverage allows us to assess the impact of groundwater overdraft and anticipate the consequences of inappropriate water management policies in the region.

Cela Diaz, F.; Siegfried, T. U.; Vasquez, V.; Pollard, B. S.; Temimi, M.; Narula, K. K.; Lall, U.

2009-12-01

377

Blind Source Separation of More Sources Than Mixtures Using Overcomplete Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical results were obtained for the blind source separation of more sources than mixtures using a recently pro- posed framework for learning overcomplete representations. This technique assumes a linear mixing model with additive noise and involves two steps: 1) learning an overcomplete representation for the observed data and 2) inferring sources given a sparse prior on the coefficients. We demonstrate

Te-Won Lee; Michael S. Lewicki; Mark Girolami; Terrence J. Sejnowski

1998-01-01

378

BLIND DECONVOLUTION OF TIMELY-CORRELATED SOURCES BY HOMOMORPHIC FILTERING IN FOURIER SPACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to multi-channel blind deconvolution is developed, which uses an adaptive filter that performs blind source separation in the Fourier space. The approach keeps (during the learning process) the same permutation and provides appropriate scaling of components for all frequency bins in the frequency space. Experiments verify a proper blind deconvolution of convolution mixtures of sources.

Wodzimierz Kasprzak; Adam Okazaki

2003-01-01

379

Using google street view for systematic observation of the built environment: analysis of spatio-temporal instability of imagery dates  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, Google Street View (GSV) has been examined as a tool for remotely conducting systematic observation of the built environment. Studies have found it offers benefits over in-person audits, including efficiency, safety, cost, and the potential to expand built environment research to larger areas and more places globally. However, one limitation has been the lack of documentation on the date of imagery collection. In 2011, Google began placing a date stamp on images which now enables investigation of this concern. This study questions the spatio-temporal stability in the GSV date stamp. Specifically, is the imagery collected contemporaneously? If not, how frequently and where is imagery from different time periods woven together to represent environmental conditions in a particular place. Furthermore, how much continuity exists in imagery for a particular time period? Answering these questions will provide guidance on the use of GSV as a tool for built environment audits. Methods GSV was used to virtually “drive” five sites that are a part of the authors’ ongoing studies. Each street in the sites was “driven” one mouse-click at a time while observing the date stamp on each image. Every time the date stamp changed, this “disruption” was marked on the map. Every street segment in the site was coded by the date the imagery for that segment was collected. Spatial query and descriptive statistics were applied to understand the spatio-temporal patterns of imagery dates. Results Spatio-temporal instability is present in the dates of GSV imagery. Of the 353 disruptions, 82.4% occur close to (<25 m) intersections. The remainder occurs inconsistently in other locations. The extent of continuity for a set of images collected with the same date stamp ranged from 3.13 m to 3373.06 m, though the majority of continuous segments were less than 400 m. Conclusion GSV offers some benefits over traditional built environment audits. However, this investigation empirically identifies a previously undocumented limitation in its application for research. Imagery dates can change often and without warning. Caution should be used at intersections where these disruptions are most likely to occur, though caution should be used everywhere when using GSV as a data collection tool. PMID:24298903

2013-01-01

380

Modeling the spread of spatio-temporal phenomena through the incorporation of ANFIS and genetically controlled cellular automata: a case study on forest fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual representation and simulation of spatio-temporal phenomena is a promising goal for the production of an advanced digital earth. Spread modeling, which is one of the most helpful analyses in the geographic information system (GIS), plays a prominent role in meeting this objective. This study proposes a new model that considers both aspects of static and dynamic behaviors of spreadable

Mohammad H. Vahidnia; Ali A. Alesheikh; Saeed Behzadi; Sara Salehi

2011-01-01

381

Spatio-temporal characteristics and driving forces of annual runoff changes in northwest of China – taking the example of Yulin city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and human activities have changed a number of characteristics of river flow in the northwest of China. Numerous problems such as water resource shortage, drying up of rivers, water pollution are the direct consequences of these changes. In this paper, we used the example of Yulin city in northwest China to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving forces

Wang Xiao-jun; Zhang Jian-yun; Cai Huan-jie; Amgad ElMahdi; Mahtab Ali; He Rui-min; Guan Tie-sheng

2011-01-01

382

Simulating the effect of technical and environmental constraints on the spatio-temporal1 distribution of herbicide applications and stream losses2  

E-print Network

the impact of pesticides on human health and ecosystems, the French government44 introduced the `Ecophyto1 Simulating the effect of technical and environmental constraints on the spatio-temporal1 Author manuscript, published in "Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 140 (2011) 382-394" #12

Boyer, Edmond

383

Imaging and imagining the spatio-temporal variations of photosynthesis - remote sensing of sun-induced fluorescence to understand physiological changes of the photosynthetic apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light use efficiency of photosynthesis dynamically adapts to environmental factors, which lead to complex spatio-temporal variations of photosynthesis on various scales from the leaf to the canopy level. The need to scale leaf-level physiology to ecosystem responses and climate feedbacks has been emphasized recently in the context of global climate change research. Recently the FLuorescence EXplorer (FLEX) mission that proposed

Uwe Rascher

2010-01-01

384

1238 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 29, NO. 6, JUNE 2010 Spatio-Temporal Data Fusion for 3D+T Image  

E-print Network

for 3D+T Image Reconstruction in Cerebral Angiography Andrew D. Copeland, Rami S. Mangoubi*, Mukund N resolution time sequences of 3D images that show the dynamics of cerebral blood flow. These sequences have, brain, cerebral, flow, fusion, image, reconstruction, sparse, spatio-temporal, variational, vas- cular

Mitter, Sanjoy K.

385

An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

2013-05-01

386

Quantitative live-cell imaging reveals spatio-temporal dynamics and cytoplasmic assembly of the 26S proteasome.  

PubMed

The 26S proteasome is a 2.5-MDa multisubunit protease complex that degrades polyubiquitylated proteins. Although its functions and structure have been extensively characterized, little is known about its dynamics in living cells. Here, we investigate the absolute concentration, spatio-temporal dynamics and complex formation of the proteasome in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We find that the 26S proteasome complex is highly mobile, and that almost all proteasome subunits throughout the cell are stably incorporated into 26S proteasomes. The interaction between 19S and 20S particles is stable even in an importin-? mutant, suggesting that the 26S proteasome is assembled in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, a genetically stabilized 26S proteasome mutant is able to enter the nucleus. These results suggest that the 26S proteasome completes its assembly process in the cytoplasm and translocates into the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex as a holoenzyme. PMID:24598877

Pack, Chan-Gi; Yukii, Haruka; Toh-e, Akio; Kudo, Tai; Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Kaiho, Ai; Sakata, Eri; Murata, Shigeo; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Sako, Yasushi; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Tanaka, Keiji; Saeki, Yasushi

2014-01-01

387

A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view.  

PubMed

Acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) are promising ultrafast scanners for non-linear microscopy. Their use has been limited until now by their small scanning range and by the spatial and temporal dispersions of the laser beam going through the deflectors. We show that the use of AOD of large aperture (13mm) compared to standard deflectors allows accessing much larger field of view while minimizing spatio-temporal distortions. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) placed at distance of the AOD is used to compensate spatial and temporal dispersions. Fine tuning of the AOM-AOD setup using a frequency-resolved optical gating (GRENOUILLE) allows elimination of pulse front tilt whereas spatial chirp is minimized thanks to the large aperture AOD. PMID:18607414

Kremer, Y; Léger, J-F; Lapole, R; Honnorat, N; Candela, Y; Dieudonné, S; Bourdieu, L

2008-07-01

388

The Spatio-Temporal Distribution Patterns of Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in Salta Province, Argentina  

PubMed Central

The goal of this survey was to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Culicoides Latreille species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and their relationship with environmental variables in Salta, northwestern Argentina. Culicoides were collected monthly from January 2003 through December 2005. The influence of the climatic variables on population abundance was analyzed with a multilevel Poisson regression. A total of 918 specimens belonging to five species were collected. The most abundant species was Culicoides paraensis Goeldi (65.5%), followed by Culicoides lahillei Iches (14.6%) and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (7.6%). The highest seasonal abundance for C. paraensis, C. debilipalpis and C. lahillei occurred during the spring and summer. A Poisson regression analysis showed that the mean maximum and minimum temperature and the mean maximum and minimum humidity were the variables with the greatest influence on the population abundance of Culicoides species. PMID:23461794

Aybar, Cecilia A. Veggiani; Juri, María J. Dantur; Santana, Mirta; de Grosso, Mercedes S. Lizarralde; Spinelli, Gustavo R.

2012-01-01

389

A psychophysical and computational analysis of the spatio-temporal mechanisms underlying the flash-lag effect.  

PubMed

Several accounts put forth to explain the flash-lag effect (FLE) rely mainly on either spatial or temporal mechanisms. Here we investigated the relationship between these mechanisms by psychophysical and theoretical approaches. In a first experiment we assessed the magnitudes of the FLE and temporal-order judgments performed under identical visual stimulation. The results were interpreted by means of simulations of an artificial neural network, that was also employed to make predictions concerning the FLE. The model predicted that a spatio-temporal mislocalisation would emerge from two, continuous and abrupt-onset, moving stimuli. Additionally, a straightforward prediction of the model revealed that the magnitude of this mislocalisation should be task-dependent, increasing when the use of the abrupt-onset moving stimulus switches from a temporal marker only to both temporal and spatial markers. Our findings confirmed the model's predictions and point to an indissoluble interplay between spatial facilitation and processing delays in the FLE. PMID:19227376

Cravo, André M; Baldo, Marcus V C

2008-01-01

390

Partially Constrained Blind Source Separation for Localization of Unknown Sources Exploiting Nonhomogeneity of the Head Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new brain source localization technique using electroencephalograms (EEGs) is investigated in this paper. The information\\u000a which describes the location of certain known sources is used as the constraint within the proposed blind source separation\\u000a (BSS) algorithm and leads to a solution to the ill-posed inverse problem of source localization. Non-homogeneity of the head\\u000a tissues, on the other hand, is

Mohamed Amin Latif; Saeid Sanei; Jonathon A. Chambers; Loukianos Spyrou

2007-01-01

391

Spatio-temporal properties of rainfall events in Calabria (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed and hillslope models are becoming increasingly complex and require more detailed precipitation input to drive the modeled hydrologic processes. These inputs are rarely available at the appropriate scale of time, of the order of minutes, and do not have sufficient coverage in space. This paper describes spatio-temporal properties of rainfall with time step of 5 minutes in Calabria (Italy). For this study a storm was defined as a rain period in which there was no rain 6 hours before and after the event. The study begins with the availability of 152,575 storms of different durations that took place in different seasons and in 155 localities of Calabria between 1989 and 2008. First was carried out the analysis aims to characterize the data set: i) magnitude: erosivity, storm duration, total rainfall of the storm (Pev), maximum intensity in 30 minutes, ect.; ii) area, season; iii) within-storm temporal patterns. In order to classify rainfall events as "significant" with regard to their contribution to soil erosion, flooding and/or other geo-hydrological processes for analysis were selected 45533 storms, according Wischmeier and Smith (1978), including 27501 with Pev ? 12.7 mm and 18033 having a Pev < 12.7 mm but exceeding 6.35 mm in half-hour. The 45534 selected rainfall events: i) have Pev between 6.4 and 602.2 mm and mean value equal to 23.5 mm, ii) have lasted from 10 to 13990 minutes for a mean of 906 minutes, iii) have maximum intensity in 30 minutes ranging from negligible values up to 154.8 mm hour-1 with mean value 11.6 mm hour-1. Later in the study is proposed the use of standardized rainfall profiles, also known as dimensionless mass curves or "Huff curves" these profiles are a probabilistic representation of accumulated storm depths, 0?1, for corresponding accumulated storm durations, 0?1, expressed in dimensionless form and can be seen as a random variable whose two dimensional function shows a relationship type: FD(?) = P(? ?,?). In other words, Huff curves enable valid comparisons between storms and to simplify analyses and presentation of data. Rainfall profile is a very common tool in the literature and this approach can be seen between the methods for constructing the design storm hyetographs. The main attraction of this method lies in the fact of being based on actual data of intense regional precipitation. The weak point is that large sample sets of data are required to obtain regional profiles. The research needs for advancing the utility of Huff curves for storm disaggregation and the potential use of these curves are summarized on the basis of the state of knowledge. Based on the results of this study were obtained (for the entire region, for elevation bands and for the parts where it can be subdivided on the basis of previous studies) the median rainfall profile and those related to the four quartiles, into which can be classified profiles analyzed and that represent the first distinction regarding the location of the peak in the rainfall event. Other elaborations have allowed the differentiation of the profiles according to: i) the season in which occurred, ii) the range of duration of rainfall events, iii) the total rainfall of the event, and iv) the maximum rainfall intensity in 30 minutes. To apply the distributions relevant to storm profiles, the user only needs to specify Pev, the storm duration, and the desired quartile. Rainfall profiles can then be scaled up to give either a cumulative or an incremental design storm. By dividing up the mass curve for a specified time step, simple calculations allow to obtain the corresponding intensity of rain. The study conducted, using rainfall data from 155 rain gauges in Calabria (southern Italy), so far has resulted in important, albeit preliminary, information on the use of Huff curves, among the methods for constructing the design storm hyetographs, to be applied to different context in Calabria.

Terranova, O.; Iaquinta, P.

2009-09-01

392

Spatio-temporal effects of low severity grassland fire on soil colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire changes soil properties directly, through temperature, or indirectly with ash deposition and the temporal elimination of vegetal cover. Both influences change soil colour and soil properties. The degree of changes depends on fire severity that has important implications on soil organic matter, texture, mineralogy and hydrological properties and type of ash produced. The ash colour is different according to the temperature of combustion and burned specie and this property will have implications on soil colour. In addition, ash properties have a strong spatial variability. The aim of this work is to study the spatio-temporal effects of a low severity grassland fire on soil colour occurred in Lithuania, near Vilnius city (54° 42' N, 25° 08' E, 158 m.a.s.l.). After the fire it was designed a plot of 20x20m in a burned and unburned flat area. Soil colour was analysed immediately after the fire, and 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after the fire. In each sampling 25 soil samples were collected, carried out to the laboratory, dried at room temperature (20-24° C) and sieved with the <2mm mesh. Soil colour was observed with the Munsell colour chart and the soil chroma value (CV) was observed. Since data did not respected the Gaussian distribution a neperian logarithmic (ln) transformation was applied. Differences among time and between plots were observed with the repeated measures ANOVA test, followed by a Tukey HSD test. Differences were significant at a p<0.05. The spatial variability (SV) was assessed with the coefficient of variation using non transformed data. The results showed differences among time at a p<0.001, treatment at a p<0.01 and time x treatment at a p<0.01. This means that fire during the first 9 months changed significantly soil colour. The CV of the burned plot was lower than the control plot (darker colour), that is attributed to the deposition of charred material and charcoal. This ash produced in this fire was mainly black coloured. With the time the soil of the burned plot became lighter, due the movement of charred material and charcoal in depth through soil profile. After the fire SV was higher in the burned plot (13.27%) than in the unburned plot (7.95%). This major variability might be attributed to ash influence, since this fire did nit had direct effects on soil. Despite the reduced CV, some patches burned at higher severity, and ash was dark and light grey and this might had influences on soil colour SV. In the following measurements SV was very similar, but always slightly higher in the control plot than in the burned plot. Two months, unburned 15.52% and burned, 14.70%. Five months, unburned, 14.78% and burned 14.42%, Seven months, unburned, 15.15% and burned, 14.67%. Nine months, unburned, 18.96% and burned 17.84%. After the fire ash can be (re)distributed uncountable times. In the immediate period after the fire, finner ash produced at higher severities is easily transported by wind and can remix (Pereira et al., 2013a, Pereira et al., 2013b) and change soil colour. In this fire, vegetation recovered very fast, thus this process might occurred only in the first weeks after the fire (Pereira et al., 2013c). Since vegetation recovered fast, soil colour SV depended on carbon and charred material movement in depth soil profile. Further studies are needed on the soil colour evolution after the fire, since can be an indicator of soil properties such as temperature reached with implications in other soil properties. Acknowledgements The authors appreciated the support of the project "Litfire", Fire effects in Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-048/2011) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for funding through the HYDFIRE project CGL2010-21670-C02-01, FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/) and to Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca del DIUE de la Generalitat de Catalunya. References Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. (2013a) Mod

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Bolutiene, Violeta; Pranskevicius, Mantas; Úbeda, Xavier; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2013-04-01

393

Spatio-temporal modelling of climate-sensitive disease risk: Towards an early warning system for dengue in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the potential for using seasonal climate forecasts in developing an early warning system for dengue fever epidemics in Brazil. In the first instance, a generalised linear model (GLM) is used to select climate and other covariates which are both readily available and prove significant in prediction of confirmed monthly dengue cases based on data collected across the whole of Brazil for the period January 2001 to December 2008 at the microregion level (typically consisting of one large city and several smaller municipalities). The covariates explored include temperature and precipitation data on a 2.5°×2.5° longitude-latitude grid with time lags relevant to dengue transmission, an El Niño Southern Oscillation index and other relevant socio-economic and environmental variables. A negative binomial model formulation is adopted in this model selection to allow for extra-Poisson variation (overdispersion) in the observed dengue counts caused by unknown/unobserved confounding factors and possible correlations in these effects in both time and space. Subsequently, the selected global model is refined in the context of the South East region of Brazil, where dengue predominates, by reverting to a Poisson framework and explicitly modelling the overdispersion through a combination of unstructured and spatio-temporal structured random effects. The resulting spatio-temporal hierarchical model (or GLMM—generalised linear mixed model) is implemented via a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Dengue predictions are found to be enhanced both spatially and temporally when using the GLMM and the Bayesian framework allows posterior predictive distributions for dengue cases to be derived, which can be useful for developing a dengue alert system. Using this model, we conclude that seasonal climate forecasts could have potential value in helping to predict dengue incidence months in advance of an epidemic in South East Brazil.

Lowe, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor C.; Stephenson, David B.; Graham, Richard J.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Barcellos, Christovam

2011-03-01

394

Spatio-Temporal Factors Associated with Meningococcal Meningitis Annual Incidence at the Health Centre Level in Niger, 2004-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis (MM) recurrently strike the African Meningitis Belt. This study aimed at investigating factors, still poorly understood, that influence annual incidence of MM serogroup A, the main etiologic agent over 2004–2010, at a fine spatial scale in Niger. Methodology/Principal Findings To take into account data dependencies over space and time and control for unobserved confounding factors, we developed an explanatory Bayesian hierarchical model over 2004–2010 at the health centre catchment area (HCCA) level. The multivariate model revealed that both climatic and non-climatic factors were important for explaining spatio-temporal variations in incidence: mean relative humidity during November–June over the study region (posterior mean Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)?=?0.656, 95% Credible Interval (CI) 0.405–0.949) and occurrence of early rains in March in a HCCA (IRR?=?0.353, 95% CI 0.239–0.502) were protective factors; a higher risk was associated with the percentage of neighbouring HCCAs having at least one MM A case during the same year (IRR?=?2.365, 95% CI 2.078–2.695), the presence of a road crossing the HCCA (IRR?=?1.743, 95% CI 1.173–2.474) and the occurrence of cases before 31 December in a HCCA (IRR?=?6.801, 95% CI 4.004–10.910). At the study region level, higher annual incidence correlated with greater geographic spread and, to a lesser extent, with higher intensity of localized outbreaks. Conclusions Based on these findings, we hypothesize that spatio-temporal variability of MM A incidence between years and HCCAs result from variations in the intensity or duration of the dry season climatic effects on disease risk, and is further impacted by factors of spatial contacts, representing facilitated pathogen transmission. Additional unexplained factors may contribute to the observed incidence patterns and should be further investigated. PMID:24852960

Paireau, Juliette; Collard, Jean-Marc; Idi, Issa; Moulia-Pelat, Jean-Paul; Mueller, Judith E.; Fontanet, Arnaud

2014-01-01

395

An analytical comparison of three spatio-temporal regularization methods for dynamic linear inverse problems in a common statistical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic inverse problems, which occur in medical imaging and other fields, are inverse problems in which the quantities to be reconstructed vary in time, although they are related to the measurements through spatial operators only. Traditional methods solve these problems by frame-by-frame reconstruction, then extract temporal behaviour of the objects or regions of interest through curve fitting and other image-based processing. These approaches solve the inverse problem while exploiting only the spatial relationship between the object and the measurement data at each time instant, without using any temporal dynamics of the underlying process, and thus are not optimal unless the solution is temporally uncorrelated. If the spatial operators are linear, and if one, by contrast, solves the whole spatio-temporal process jointly, it falls into the category of general linear least-squares problems. Such approaches are generally difficult, both due to the challenge of modelling the temporal dynamics appropriately as well as to the high dimensionality of the associated large linear system. Several recent reports have approached this problem in different ways, making different prior assumptions on the spatial and temporal behaviour. In this paper we discuss three such approaches, which have been introduced from different points of view, in a common statistical regularization framework, and illuminate their relationships. The three methods are a state-space model, the separability condition and a multiple constraints model. The key result is that there is a clear relationship among the three methods; specifically, the inverse of the spatio-temporal autocovariance matrix has a block tri-diagonal form, a Kronecker product form or a Kronecker sum form, respectively. Some simple simulation examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical analysis.

Zhang, Yiheng; Ghodrati, Alireza; Brooks, Dana H.

2005-02-01

396

Blind source separation and the analysis of microarray data.  

PubMed

We develop an approach for the exploratory analysis of gene expression data, based upon blind source separation techniques. This approach exploits higher-order statistics to identify a linear model for (logarithms of) expression profiles, described as linear combinations of "independent sources." As a result, it yields "elementary expression patterns" (the "sources"), which may be interpreted as potential regulation pathways. Further analysis of the so-obtained sources show that they are generally characterized by a small number of specific coexpressed or antiexpressed genes. In addition, the projections of the expression profiles onto the estimated sources often provides significant clustering of conditions. The algorithm relies on a large number of runs of "independent component analysis" with random initializations, followed by a search of "consensus sources." It then provides estimates for independent sources, together with an assessment of their robustness. The results obtained on two datasets (namely, breast cancer data and Bacillus subtilis sulfur metabolism data) show that some of the obtained gene families correspond to well known families of coregulated genes, which validates the proposed approach. PMID:15662200

Chiappetta, P; Roubaud, M C; Torrésani, B

2004-01-01

397

Ultrafast subnanometric spatial accuracy of a fleeting quantum probe interaction with a biomolecule: innovating concept for spatio-temporal radiation biomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During cancer radiotherapy protocols, the early profile of energy deposition is decisive for the prediction and control of radiation-induced biomolecular and sub-cellular damage. A major challenge of spatio-temporal radiation biomedicine, a newly emerging interdisciplinary domain, concerns the complete understanding of biophysical events triggered by an initial energy deposition inside confined ionization clusters (tracks) and evolving over several orders of magnitude, typically from femtosecond (1 fs = 10-15 s) and sub-nanometer scales. The innovating advent of femtosecond laser sources providing ultra-short photon beam and relativistic electron bunches, in the eV and MeV domain respectively, open exciting opportunities for a real-time imaging of radiation-induced biomolecular alterations in nanoscopic tracks. Using a very short-lived quantum probe (2p-like excited electron) and high-time resolved laser spectroscopic methods in the near IR and the temporal window 500 - 5000 fs, we demonstrate that short-range coherent interactions between the quantum probe and a small biosensor of 20 atoms (disulfide molecule) are characterized by an effective reaction radius of 9.6 ± 0.2 angströms. For the first time, femtobioradical investigations performed with aqueous environments give correlated information on spatial and temporal biomolecular damages triggered by a very short lived quantum scalpel whose the gyration radius is around 6 angströms. This innovating approach would be applied to more complex biological architectures such as nucleosomes, healthy and tumour cells. In the framework of high-quality ultra-short penetrating radiation beams devoted to pulsed radiotherapy of cancers, this concept would foreshadow the development of real-time nanobiodosimetry combined to highly-selective targeted pro-drug activation.

Gauduel, Yann A.; Malka, Victor

2014-02-01

398

Spatio-temporal analysis of host preferences and feeding patterns of malaria vectors in the sylvo-pastoral area of Senegal: impact of landscape classes  

PubMed Central

Background The study of vector feeding behaviour is an important step in the understanding of the epidemiology of vector borne diseases. The main objective of this work was to study the spatio-temporal host preferences and blood-feeding patterns of malaria vectors in a pastoral area of Senegal where cattle breeding is the main human activity. Methods Malaria vectors were collected indoors by pyrethrum spray catch in 16 villages belonging to 4 different landscape classes (wooded savanna, shrubby savanna, bare soils and steppe). Blood meals sources were determined using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The blood meal origins of 1886 freshly fed An. gambiae s.l. were determined. Among these blood meals, most were taken on a single host: 40.1% on human and 37.1% on animal. The range in proportions of blood meals taken from human were 25–62.4% in wooded savanna villages, 23.5–61.9% in shrubby savanna villages, 31.3–70% in bare soils villages and 57.7–68.7 in steppe villages. Blood meals taken from bovines were very heterogeneous with two clusters localized in the Northeast and Southwest axis of the study area that corresponds to the distribution of the main water ponds. Patent mixed blood meals taken from human and non-human were significantly higher than those taken from two animals, the highest proportions being observed in September (shrubby savanna, bare soils and steppe villages) or October (wooded savanna villages). Conclusions These observations suggest that in this pastoral area, differences in feeding patterns of malaria vectors are merely linked to the specific localization of villages and are not influenced by landscape class distribution. In addition, the temporal variations in the anthropophilic rates are influenced by the presence of standing water in the study area. PMID:24252367

2013-01-01

399

Blind Source Separation Techniques for Percolation type Leakage Detection in Dikes using Fiber Optic DTS Signals  

E-print Network

Blind Source Separation Techniques for Percolation type Leakage Detection in Dikes using Fiber as a source separation problem, the goal of this paper is to compare various blind source separation advantage of DTS is their commercial viability (low-cost telecommunications grade fiber) and ability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

STATE SPACE BLIND SOURCE RECOVERY FOR MIXTURES OF MULTIPLE SOURCE DISTRIBUTIONS  

E-print Network

and Fathi M. Salam Circuits, Systems and Artificial Neural Networks Laboratory Department of Electrical) learning problem that includes well-known adaptive signal processing problems of multi-channel Blind Source solutions in this case has been shown by Salam et. al. [1,3, and the references therein]. This existence

Salem, Fathi M.

401

Environmental and socio-economic change in Thailand: quantifying spatio-temporal risk factors of dengue to inform decision making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio-temporal probabilistic predictions of dengue. Potential risk factors considered include altitude, land cover, proximity to road/rail networks and water bodies, temperature and precipitation, oceanic indicators, intervention activities, air traffic volume, population movement, urbanisation and sanitation indicators. In order to quantify unknown or unmeasured dengue risk factors, we use spatio-temporal random effects in the model framework. This helps identify those available indicators which could significantly contribute to a dengue early warning system. We use this model to quantify the extent to which climate indicators can explain variations in dengue risk. This allows us to assess the potential utility of forecast climate information in a dengue decision support system for Thailand. Taking advantage of lead times of several months provided by climate forecasts, public health officials may be able to more efficiently allocate intervention measures, such as targeted vector control activities and provision of medication to deal with more deadly forms of the disease, well ahead of an imminent dengue epidemic.

Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.

2013-12-01

402

Assessing spatio-temporal variability of risk surfaces using residential history data in a case control study of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Most analyses of spatial clustering of disease have been based on either residence at the time of diagnosis or current residence. An underlying assumption in these analyses is that residence can be used as a proxy for environmental exposure. However, exposures earlier in life and not just those in the most recent period may be of significance. In breast cancer, there is accumulating evidence that early life exposures may contribute to risk. We explored spatio-temporal patterns of risk surfaces using data on lifetime residential history in a case control study of breast cancer, and identified elevated areas of risk and areas potentially having more exposure opportunities, defined as risk surfaces in this study. This approach may be more relevant in understanding the environmental etiology of breast cancer, since lifetime cumulative exposures or exposures at critical times may be more strongly associated with risk for breast cancer than exposures from the recent period. Results A GIS-based exploratory spatial analysis was applied, and spatio-temporal variability of those risk surfaces was evaluated using the standardized difference in density surfaces between cases and controls. The significance of the resulting risk surfaces was tested and reported as p-values. These surfaces were compared for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and were obtained for each decade, from the 1940s to 1990s. We found strong evidence of clustering of lifetime residence for premenopausal women (for cases relative to controls), and a less strong suggestion of such clustering for postmenopausal women, and identified a substantial degree of temporal variability of the risk surfaces. Conclusion We were able to pinpoint geographic areas with higher risk through exploratory spatial analyses, and to assess temporal variability of the risk surfaces, thus providing a working hypothesis on breast cancer and environmental exposures. Geographic areas with higher case densities need further epidemiologic investigation for potential relationships between lifetime environmental exposures and breast cancer risk. Examination of lifetime residential history provided additional information on geographic areas associated with higher risk; limiting exploration of chronic disease clustering to current residence may neglect important relationships between location and disease. PMID:15826315

Han, Daikwon; Rogerson, Peter A; Bonner, Matthew R; Nie, Jing; Vena, John E; Muti, Paola; Trevisan, Maurizio; Freudenheim, Jo L

2005-01-01

403

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ?5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE). Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter. PMID:21247427

2011-01-01

404

Spatio-temporal variability of soil respiration in a spruce-dominated headwater catchment in western Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 production and transport from forest floors is an important component of the carbon cycle and is closely related to the global atmosphere CO2 concentration. If we are to understand the feedback between soil processes and atmospheric CO2, we need to know more about the spatio-temporal variability of this soil respiration under different environmental conditions. In this study, long-term measurements were conducted in a spruce-dominated forest ecosystem in western Germany. Multivariate analysis-based similarities between different measurement sites led to the detection of site clusters along two CO2 emission axes: (1) mainly controlled by soil temperature and moisture condition, and (2) mainly controlled by root biomass and the forest floor litter. The combined effects of soil temperature and soil moisture were used as a time-dependent rating factor affecting the optimal CO2 production and transport at cluster level. High/moderate/weak time-dependent rating factors were associated with the different clusters. The process-based, most distant clusters were identified using specified pattern characteristics: the reaction rates in the soil layers, the activation energy for bio-chemical reactions, the soil moisture dependency parameter, the root biomass factor, the litter layer factor and the organic matter factor. A HYDRUS-1D model system was inversely used to compute soil hydraulic parameters from soil moisture measurements. Heat transport parameters were calibrated based on observed soil temperatures. The results were used to adjust CO2 productions by soil microorganisms and plant roots under optimal conditions for each cluster. Although the uncertainty associated with the HYDRUS-1D simulations is higher, the results were consistent with both the multivariate clustering and the time-dependent rating of site production. Finally, four clusters with significantly different environmental conditions (i.e. permanent high soil moisture condition, accumulated litter amount, high variability in soil moisture content, and dominant temperature dependence) were found to be relevant in explaining the spatio-temporal variability of CO2 efflux and providing reference-specific characteristic values for the investigated area.

Bossa, A. Y.; Diekkrüger, B.

2014-08-01

405

Spatio-temporal characterization of the pleiotrophinergic system in mouse cerebellum: evidence for its key role during ontogenesis.  

PubMed

The development of the central nervous system requires an appropriate micro-environment that is conditioned by a combination of various extracellular components. Most of the known signaling factors, such as neurotransmitters or neuropeptides, are soluble and diffuse into the extracellular matrix. However, other secreted molecules like proteoglycans or glycosaminoglycans anchor in the extracellular matrix to influence cerebral ontogenesis. As such, pleiotrophin (PTN), which binds the proteoglycans syndecan-3 (SDC3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTP?), has been described as a pro-migratory and a pro-differentiating secreted cytokine on cortical neurons. In rat cerebellum, PTN is highly expressed during the first postnatal week, suggesting that this cytokine could participate to the development of the cerebellar cortex. According to this hypothesis, our spatio-temporal cartography of PTN, PTP? and SDC3 indicated that, in mouse, the PTNergic system was present in the cerebellum at least from the first postnatal day (P0). Until P12, PTN was mainly expressed by granule cell precursors and located in the extracellular matrix, while SDC3 was expressed by Purkinje cells, Golgi cells and granule cell precursors, and PTP? was present on Purkinje cells and Bergmann fibers. In vitro studies confirmed the presence of SDC3 on immature granule cells and demonstrated that PTN could stimulate directly their velocity in culture. In contrast, subarachnoidal injection of PTN in the cerebellum significantly reduced the rate of migration of granule cells, exacerbated their apoptosis and induced an atrophy of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. Since differentiated granule cells did not express SDC3 or PTP?, the PTN effect observed on migration and apoptosis may be indirectly mediated by Purkinje and/or Bergmann cells. From P21 to adulthood, the distribution of PTN, SDC3 and PTP? changed and their expression dramatically decreased even if they were still detectable. PTN and SDC3 immunolabeling was restricted around Purkinje cell bodies and Golgi cells, whereas PTP? was located around interneurons. These data suggested that, in the cerebellum of adult mice, PTN participates to the perineuronal nets that control neuronal plasticity. To conclude, the present work represents the first spatio-temporal characterization of the PTNergic system in the mouse cerebellum and indicates that PTN may contribute to cerebellum ontogenesis during the postnatal development as well as to neuronal plasticity at adulthood. PMID:23454176

Basille-Dugay, Magali; Hamza, Magda M; Tassery, Céline; Parent, Bénédicte; Raoult, Emilie; Bénard, Magalie; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Vaudry, David; Burel, Delphine C

2013-09-01

406

Spatio-temporal variability of soil respiration in a spruce-dominated headwater catchment in western Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 production and transport from forest floors is an important component of the carbon cycle and is closely related to the global atmosphere CO2 concentration. If we are to understand the feedback between soil processes and atmospheric CO2, we need to know more about the spatio-temporal variability of this soil respiration under different environmental conditions. In this study, long-term measurements were conducted in a spruce-dominated forest ecosystem in western Germany. Multivariate analysis-based similarities between different measurements sites led to the detection of site clusters along two CO2 emission axes: (1) mainly controlled by soil temperature and moisture condition, and (2) mainly controlled by root biomass and the forest floor litter. The combined effects of soil temperature and soil moisture were used as a time-dependent rating factor affecting the optimal CO2 production and transport at cluster level. High/moderate/weak time-dependent rating factors were associated with the different clusters. The process-based most distant clusters were identified using specified pattern characteristics: the reaction rates in the soil layers, the activation energy for bio-chemical reactions, the water sorption and desorption constant, the root biomass factor, the litter layer factor and the organic matter factor. A HYDRUS-1D model system was inversely used to compute soil hydraulic parameters from soil moisture measurements. Heat transport parameters were adjusted based on observed soil temperatures. The results were used to adjust CO2 production and transport characteristics such as the molecular diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in air and water and the CO2 production by soil microorganisms and plant roots under optimal conditions for each cluster. Although the uncertainty associated with the HYDRUS-1-D simulations is higher, the results were consistent with both the multivariate clustering and the time-dependent rating of site production/transport. Finally, four clusters with significantly different environmental conditions (i.e., permanent high soil moisture condition, accumulated litter amount, high variability in soil moisture content, dominant temperature-dependence) were found relevant in explaining the spatio-temporal variability of CO2 efflux and providing reference specific characteristic values for the investigated area.

Bossa, A. Y.; Diekkrüger, B.

2014-01-01

407

Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Reservoir Hosts, Vectors, and Human Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Review of the Recent Literature  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades West Nile Virus (WNV) has been responsible for significant disease outbreaks in humans and animals in many parts of the World. Its extremely rapid global diffusion argues for a better understanding of its geographic extent. The purpose of this inquiry was to explore spatio-temporal patterns of WNV using geospatial technologies to study populations of the reservoir hosts, vectors, and human hosts, in addition to the spatio-temporal interactions among these populations. Review of the recent literature on spatial WNV disease risk modeling led to the conclusion that numerous environmental factors might be critical for its dissemination. New Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based studies are monitoring occurrence at the macro-level, and helping pinpoint areas of occurrence at the micro-level, where geographically-targeted, species-specific control measures are sometimes taken and more sophisticated methods of surveillance have been used. PMID:24284356

Ozdenerol, Esra; Taff, Gregory N.; Akkus, Cem

2013-01-01

408

Evolution of Predator Dispersal in Relation to Spatio-Temporal Prey Dynamics: How Not to Get Stuck in the Wrong Place!  

PubMed Central

The eco-evolutionary dynamics of dispersal are recognised as key in determining the responses of populations to environmental changes. Here, by developing a novel modelling approach, we show that predators are likely to have evolved to emigrate more often and become more selective over their destination patch when their prey species exhibit spatio-temporally complex dynamics. We additionally demonstrate that the cost of dispersal can vary substantially across space and time. Perhaps as a consequence of current environmental change, many key prey species are currently exhibiting major shifts in their spatio-temporal dynamics. By exploring similar shifts in silico, we predict that predator populations will be most vulnerable when prey dynamics shift from stable to complex. The more sophisticated dispersal rules, and greater variance therein, that evolve under complex dynamics will enable persistence across a broader range of prey dynamics than the rules which evolve under relatively stable prey conditions. PMID:23408940

Travis, Justin M. J.; Palmer, Stephen C. F.; Coyne, Steven; Millon, Alexandre; Lambin, Xavier

2013-01-01

409

Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of reservoir hosts, vectors, and human hosts of West Nile virus: a review of the recent literature.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades West Nile Virus (WNV) has been responsible for significant disease outbreaks in humans and animals in many parts of the World. Its extremely rapid global diffusion argues for a better understanding of its geographic extent. The purpose of this inquiry was to explore spatio-temporal patterns of WNV using geospatial technologies to study populations of the reservoir hosts, vectors, and human hosts, in addition to the spatio-temporal interactions among these populations. Review of the recent literature on spatial WNV disease risk modeling led to the conclusion that numerous environmental factors might be critical for its dissemination. New Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based studies are monitoring occurrence at the macro-level, and helping pinpoint areas of occurrence at the micro-level, where geographically-targeted, species-specific control measures are sometimes taken and more sophisticated methods of surveillance have been used. PMID:24284356

Ozdenerol, Esra; Taff, Gregory N; Akkus, Cem

2013-11-01

410

A novel initialization approach for solving permutation ambiguity of frequency domain blind source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of speech signals in the recent years, many techniques have been proposed to solve the permutation ambiguity of blind source separation in frequency domain. Our goal in this paper is to present a new method based on initialization and navigation resources to solve the permutation ambiguity in blind source separation in the frequency domain. In this

Daneshkar Morteza; Ebrahimi Atani Reza

2012-01-01

411

Visibility conditions and diel period affect small-scale spatio-temporal behaviour of pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics.  

PubMed

Pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics were shown to have the highest habitat-change activity during dusk and to decrease preference for complex habitats in turbid water. As the behaviours indicate routine responses in the absence of behavioural interactions, E. lucius spatio-temporal distributions should be directly affected and thereby more easily assessed and avoided by prey, with potential consequences for encounter rates. PMID:22551189

Nilsson, P A; Baktoft, H; Boel, M; Meier, K; Jacobsen, L; Rokkjaer, E M; Clausen, T; Skov, C

2012-05-01