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1

Partial-likelihood analysis of spatio-temporal point-process data.  

PubMed

We investigate the use of a partial likelihood for estimation of the parameters of interest in spatio-temporal point-process models. We identify an important distinction between spatially discrete and spatially continuous models. We focus our attention on the spatially continuous case, which has not previously been considered. We use an inhomogeneous Poisson process and an infectious disease process, for which maximum-likelihood estimation is tractable, to assess the relative efficiency of partial versus full likelihood, and to illustrate the relative ease of implementation of the former. We apply the partial-likelihood method to a study of the nesting pattern of common terns in the Ebro Delta Natural Park, Spain. PMID:19673863

Diggle, Peter J; Kaimi, Irene; Abellana, Rosa

2010-06-01

2

Spatio-temporal processing of tactile stimuli in autistic children.  

PubMed

Altered multisensory integration has been reported in autism; however, little is known concerning how the autistic brain processes spatio-temporal information concerning tactile stimuli. We report a study in which a crossed-hands illusion was investigated in autistic children. Neurotypical individuals often experience a subjective reversal of temporal order judgments when their hands are stimulated while crossed, and the illusion is known to be acquired in early childhood. However, under those conditions where the somatotopic representation is given priority over the actual spatial location of the hands, such reversals may not occur. Here, we showed that a significantly smaller illusory reversal was demonstrated in autistic children than in neurotypical children. Furthermore, in an additional experiment, the young boys who had higher Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores generally showed a smaller crossed hands deficit. These results suggest that rudimentary spatio-temporal processing of tactile stimuli exists in autistic children, and the altered processing may interfere with the development of an external frame of reference in real-life situations. PMID:25100146

Wada, Makoto; Suzuki, Mayuko; Takaki, Akiko; Miyao, Masutomo; Spence, Charles; Kansaku, Kenji

2014-01-01

3

Spatio-temporal processing of tactile stimuli in autistic children  

PubMed Central

Altered multisensory integration has been reported in autism; however, little is known concerning how the autistic brain processes spatio-temporal information concerning tactile stimuli. We report a study in which a crossed-hands illusion was investigated in autistic children. Neurotypical individuals often experience a subjective reversal of temporal order judgments when their hands are stimulated while crossed, and the illusion is known to be acquired in early childhood. However, under those conditions where the somatotopic representation is given priority over the actual spatial location of the hands, such reversals may not occur. Here, we showed that a significantly smaller illusory reversal was demonstrated in autistic children than in neurotypical children. Furthermore, in an additional experiment, the young boys who had higher Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores generally showed a smaller crossed hands deficit. These results suggest that rudimentary spatio-temporal processing of tactile stimuli exists in autistic children, and the altered processing may interfere with the development of an external frame of reference in real-life situations. PMID:25100146

Wada, Makoto; Suzuki, Mayuko; Takaki, Akiko; Miyao, Masutomo; Spence, Charles; Kansaku, Kenji

2014-01-01

4

Motion analysis and segmentation through spatio-temporal slices processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new approaches in characterizing and segmenting the content of video. These approaches are developed based upon the pattern analysis of spatio-temporal slices. While tradi- tional approaches to motion sequence analysis tend to formulate computational methodologies on two or three adjacent frames, spatio-temporal slices provide rich visual patterns along a larger temporal scale. In this paper, we first

Chong-Wah Ngo; Ting-Chuen Pong; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2003-01-01

5

Modeling spatio-temporal wildfire ignition point patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze and model the structure of spatio-temporal wildfire ignitions in the St. Johns River Water Management District\\u000a in northeastern Florida. Previous studies, based on the K-function and an assumption of homogeneity, have shown that wildfire events occur in clusters. We revisit this analysis based\\u000a on an inhomogeneous K-function and argue that clustering is less important than initially thought. We

Amanda S. Hering; Cynthia L. Bell; Marc G. Genton

2009-01-01

6

FROM SINGLE POINT GAUGE TO SPATIO-TEMPORAL MEASUREMENT OF OCEAN WAVES PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES  

E-print Network

FROM SINGLE POINT GAUGE TO SPATIO-TEMPORAL MEASUREMENT OF OCEAN WAVES ­ PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES With the recent advancement of spatial measurements of ocean waves, we are clearly facing new challenges regarding world of truly spatial ocean waves. INTRODUCTION Since the first successful development of a wave gauge

7

Modeling sediment transport as a spatio-temporal Markov process.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a century of research about sediment transport by bedload occuring in rivers, its constitutive laws remain largely unknown. The proof being that our ability to predict mid-to-long term transported volumes within reasonable confidence interval is almost null. The intrinsic fluctuating nature of bedload transport may be one of the most important reasons why classical approaches fail. Microscopic probabilistic framework has the advantage of taking into account these fluctuations at the particle scale, to understand their effect on the macroscopic variables such as sediment flux. In this framework, bedload transport is seen as the random motion of particles (sand, gravel, pebbles...) over a two-dimensional surface (the river bed). The number of particles in motion, as well as their velocities, are random variables. In this talk, we show how a simple birth-death Markov model governing particle motion on a regular lattice accurately reproduces the spatio-temporal correlations observed at the macroscopic level. Entrainment, deposition and transport of particles by the turbulent fluid (air or water) are supposed to be independent and memoryless processes that modify the number of particles in motion. By means of the Poisson representation, we obtained a Fokker-Planck equation that is exactly equivalent to the master equation and thus valid for all cell sizes. The analysis shows that the number of moving particles evolves locally far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Several analytical results are presented and compared to experimental data. The index of dispersion (or variance over mean ratio) is proved to grow from unity at small scales to larger values at larger scales confirming the non Poisonnian behavior of bedload transport. Also, we study the one and two dimensional K-function, which gives the average number of moving particles located in a ball centered at a particle centroid function of the ball's radius.

Heyman, Joris; Ancey, Christophe

2014-05-01

8

Tipping Points, Butterflies, and Black Swans: A Vision for Spatio-temporal Data Mining Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tipping points represent significant shifts that change the general understanding or belief of a given study area. The recent\\u000a late winter 2011 events in the Mid-East and climate-level changes raise issues of whether such events are the result of random\\u000a factors, tipping points, chaos theory or completely unpredicted black swans. Our vision is to understand how spatio-temporal\\u000a data mining analysis

James M. Kang; Daniel L. Edwards

9

Bilinear Models for Spatio-Temporal Point Distribution Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we describe the usage of bilinear statistical models as a means of factoring the shape variability into two components\\u000a attributed to inter-subject variation and to the intrinsic dynamics of the human heart. We show that it is feasible to reconstruct\\u000a the shape of the heart at discrete points in the cardiac cycle. Provided we are given a

Corné Hoogendoorn; Federico M. Sukno; Sebastián Ordas; Alejandro F. Frangi

2009-01-01

10

Spatio-temporal array processing for CDMA\\/SDMA downlink transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of performing optimum spatio-temporal processing when using adaptive antenna arrays at the base stations for multiuser downlink transmission in CDMA systems, using periodic spreading sequences and assuming a knowledge of the channel of all the users. This assumption typically holds in TDD based mobile communication systems. We consider the SDMA strategy for using antenna arrays to

G. Montalbano; I. Ghauri; D. T. M. Slock

1998-01-01

11

Spatio-temporal array processing for matched filter bound optimization in SDMA downlink transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of performing optimum spatio-temporal processing when using adaptive antenna arrays at base stations for multiuser downlink transmission, assuming a knowledge of the channel related to each user. This assumption typically holds in the context of time division duplex (TDD), time division multiple access (TDMA) based mobile communication systems. For frequency division duplex (FDD) based systems that

Giuseppe Montalbano; D. T. M. Slock

1998-01-01

12

Semi-blind spatio-temporal processing with temporal scanning for short burst SDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-blind approach for the adjustment of spatio-temporal filter coefficients in short burst spatial division multiple access (SDMA) systems is proposed. The case of imperfect time localization of the desired burst of data is examined. The known temporal structure of a burst of data is used to search and locate the appropriate data processing time frame, which corresponds to the

Alexandr M. Kuzminskiy; Dimitrios Hatzinakos

2000-01-01

13

Spatio-temporal clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal clustering is a process of grouping objects based on their spatial and temporal similarity. It is relatively new subfield of data mining which gained high popularity especially in geographic information sciences due to the pervasiveness of all kinds of location-based or environmental devices that record position, time or/and environmental properties of an object or set of objects in real-time. As a consequence, different types and large amounts of spatio-temporal data became available that introduce new challenges to data analysis and require novel approaches to knowledge discovery. In this chapter we concentrate on the spatio-temporal clustering in geographic space. First, we provide a classification of different types of spatio-temporal data. Then, we focus on one type of spatio-temporal clustering - trajectory clustering, provide an overview of the state-of-the-art approaches and methods of spatio-temporal clustering and finally present several scenarios in different application domains such as movement, cellular networks and environmental studies.

Kisilevich, Slava; Mansmann, Florian; Nanni, Mirco; Rinzivillo, Salvatore

14

Spatio-temporal array processing for FDD\\/CDMA\\/SDMA downlink transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of performing optimum spatio-temporal processing when using adaptive antenna arrays at base stations for multiuser downlink transmission in DS-CDMA systems, using periodic spreading sequences and assuming partial knowledge of the channel parameters of all users. This assumption typically holds in frequency-division duplex (FDD) based mobile communication systems. We consider the SDMA strategy for using antenna arrays

Giuseppe Montalbano; Irfan Ghauri; Dirk T. M. Slock

1999-01-01

15

Spatio-Temporal Process Variability in Watershed Scale Wetland Restoration Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed scale restoration decision making processes are increasingly informed by quantitative methodologies providing site-specific restoration recommendations - sometimes referred to as "systematic planning." The more advanced of these methodologies are characterized by a coupling of search algorithms and ecological models to discover restoration plans that optimize environmental outcomes. Yet while these methods have exhibited clear utility as decision support toolsets, they may be critiqued for flawed evaluations of spatio-temporally variable processes fundamental to watershed scale restoration. Hydrologic and non-hydrologic mediated process connectivity along with post-restoration habitat dynamics, for example, are commonly ignored yet known to appreciably affect restoration outcomes. This talk will present a methodology to evaluate such spatio-temporally complex processes in the production of watershed scale wetland restoration plans. Using the Tuscarawas Watershed in Eastern Ohio as a case study, a genetic algorithm will be coupled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to reveal optimal wetland restoration plans as measured by their capacity to maximize nutrient reductions. Then, a so-called "graphical" representation of the optimization problem will be implemented in-parallel to promote hydrologic and non-hydrologic mediated connectivity amongst existing wetlands and sites selected for restoration. Further, various search algorithm mechanisms will be discussed as a means of accounting for temporal complexities such as post-restoration habitat dynamics. Finally, generalized patterns of restoration plan optimality will be discussed as an alternative and possibly superior decision support toolset given the complexity and stochastic nature of spatio-temporal process variability.

Evenson, G. R.

2012-12-01

16

Spatio-temporal evolution of biogeochemical processes at a landfill site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictions of fate and transport of contaminants are strongly dependent on spatio-temporal variability of soil hydraulic and geochemical properties. This study focuses on time-series signatures of hydrological and geochemical properties at different locations within the Norman landfill site. Norman Landfill is a closed municipal landfill site with prevalent organic contamination. Monthly data at the site include specific conductance, ?18O, ?2H, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate) from 1998-2006. Column scale data on chemical concentrations, redox gradients, and flow parameters are also available on daily and hydrological event (infiltration, drainage, etc.) scales. Since high-resolution datasets of contaminant concentrations are usually unavailable, Wavelet and Fourier analyses were used to infer the dominance of different biogeochemical processes at different spatio-temporal scales and to extract linkages between transport and reaction processes. Results indicate that time variability controls the progression of reactions affecting biodegradation of contaminants. Wavelet analysis suggests that iron-sulfide reduction reactions had high seasonal variability at the site, while fermentation processes dominated at the annual time scale. Findings also suggest the dominance of small spatial features such as layered interfaces and clay lenses in driving biogeochemical reactions at both column and landfill scales. A conceptual model that caters to increased understanding and remediating structurally heterogeneous variably-saturated media is developed from the study.

Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

2011-12-01

17

OFDM Radar Space-Time Adaptive Processing by Exploiting Spatio-Temporal Sparsity  

SciTech Connect

We propose a sparsity-based space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm to detect a slowly-moving target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar. We observe that the target and interference spectra are inherently sparse in the spatio-temporal domain. Hence, we exploit that sparsity to develop an efficient STAP technique that utilizes considerably lesser number of secondary data and produces an equivalent performance as the other existing STAP techniques. In addition, the use of an OFDM signal increases the frequency diversity of our system, as different scattering centers of a target resonate at different frequencies, and thus improves the target detectability. First, we formulate a realistic sparse-measurement model for an OFDM radar considering both the clutter and jammer as the interfering sources. Then, we apply a residual sparse-recovery technique based on the LASSO estimator to estimate the target and interference covariance matrices, and subsequently compute the optimal STAP-filter weights. Our numerical results demonstrate a comparative performance analysis of the proposed sparse-STAP algorithm with four other existing STAP methods. Furthermore, we discover that the OFDM-STAP filter-weights are adaptable to the frequency-variabilities of the target and interference responses, in addition to the spatio-temporal variabilities. Hence, by better utilizing the frequency variabilities, we propose an adaptive OFDM-waveform design technique, and consequently gain a significant amount of STAP-performance improvement.

Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL

2013-01-01

18

Spatio-temporal processing of words and nonwords: hemispheric laterality and acute alcohol intoxication.  

PubMed

This study examined neurofunctional correlates of reading by modulating semantic, lexical, and orthographic attributes of letter strings. It compared the spatio-temporal activity patterns elicited by real words (RW), pseudowords, orthographically regular, pronounceable nonwords (PN) that carry no meaning, and orthographically illegal, nonpronounceable nonwords (NN). A double-duty lexical decision paradigm instructed participants to detect RW while ignoring nonwords and to additionally respond to words that refer to animals (AW). Healthy social drinkers (N=22) participated in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Whole-head MEG signals were analyzed with an anatomically-constrained MEG method. Simultaneously acquired ERPs confirm previous evidence. Spatio-temporal MEG estimates to RW and PN are consistent with the highly replicable left-lateralized ventral visual processing stream. However, the PN elicit weaker activity than other stimuli starting at ~230 ms and extending to the M400 (magnetic equivalent of N400) in the left lateral temporal area, indicating their reduced access to lexicosemantic stores. In contrast, the NN uniquely engage the right hemisphere during the M400. Increased demands on lexicosemantic access imposed by AW result in greater activity in the left temporal cortex starting at ~230 ms and persisting through the M400 and response preparation stages. Alcohol intoxication strongly attenuates early visual responses occipito-temporally overall. Subsequently, alcohol selectively affects the left prefrontal cortex as a function of orthographic and semantic dimensions, suggesting that it modulates the dynamics of the lexicosemantic processing in a top-down manner, by increasing difficulty of semantic retrieval. PMID:24565928

Marinkovic, Ksenija; Rosen, Burke Q; Cox, Brendan; Hagler, Donald J

2014-04-16

19

A sensitivity analysis of the point reference global correlation (PRGC) technique for spatio-temporal correlations in turbulent flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The point reference global correlation (PRGC) technique which combines single and global measurements as proposed by Chatellier and Fitzpatrick (Exp Fluids 38(5):563-757, 2005) is of significant interest for the analysis of the turbulent statistics for noise source modeling in jet flows as it allows the 2D spatio-temporal correlation functions to be obtained over a region of the flow. This enables the statistical characteristics including inhomogeneous and anisotropic features to be determined. The sensitivity of the technique is examined in some detail for the specific case of laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Simulated data are used to enable a parametric study of the accuracy of the PRGC technique to be determined as a function of the various measurement parameters. The sample frequencies and the number of samples of both the LDV and PIV signals are shown to be critical to errors associated with the estimated spatio-temporal correlations and that low data rates can lead to significant errors in the estimates. Measurements performed in single stream and co-axial jet flows at Mach 0.24 using PIV and LDV systems are reported and the 2D space-time correlation functions for these flows are determined using the PRGC technique. The results are discussed in the context of noise source modeling for jet flows.

Kerhervé, F.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Chatellier, Ludovic

2008-04-01

20

Time-Resolved and Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Complex Cognitive Processes and their Role in Disorders like Developmental Dyscalculia  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to report on the importance and challenges of a time-resolved and spatio-temporal analysis of fMRI data from complex cognitive processes and associated disorders using a study on developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants underwent fMRI while judging the incorrectness of multiplication results, and the data were analyzed using a sequence of methods, each of which progressively provided more a detailed picture of the spatio-temporal aspect of this disease. Healthy subjects and subjects with DD performed alike behaviorally though they exhibited parietal disparities using traditional voxel-based group analyses. Further and more detailed differences, however, surfaced with a time-resolved examination of the neural responses during the experiment. While performing inter-group comparisons, a third group of subjects with dyslexia (DL) but with no arithmetic difficulties was included to test the specificity of the analysis and strengthen the statistical base with overall fifty-eight subjects. Surprisingly, the analysis showed a functional dissimilarity during an initial reading phase for the group of dyslexic but otherwise normal subjects, with respect to controls, even though only numerical digits and no alphabetic characters were presented. Thus our results suggest that time-resolved multi-variate analysis of complex experimental paradigms has the ability to yield powerful new clinical insights about abnormal brain function. Similarly, a detailed compilation of aberrations in the functional cascade may have much greater potential to delineate the core processing problems in mental disorders. PMID:22368322

Mórocz, István Akos; Janoos, Firdaus; van Gelderen, Peter; Manor, David; Karni, Avi; Breznitz, Zvia; von Aster, Michael; Kushnir, Tammar; Shalev, Ruth

2012-01-01

21

A Spatio-Temporal Point Process Model for Ambulance Demand  

E-print Network

, Ithaca, NY 14853 (E-mail: zz254@cornell.edu; Webpage: http://www.cam.cornell.edu/~zz254/). Matteson, NY 14853 (Email: matteson@cornell.edu; Webpage: http://www.stat.cornell.edu/~matteson/). Woodard, 228 Rhodes Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (Webpage: http://people.orie.cornell.edu/woodard/). Henderson

Henderson, Shane

22

Point processes, spatialtemporal  

E-print Network

­time or spatio-temporal point process) is a random collection of points, where each point rep- resents the time and location of an event. Examples of events include incidence of disease, sightings or births of a species County, CA, recorded by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works (times of the events not shown

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

23

Two-dimensional spatio-temporal dynamics of analog image processing neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical analog image-processing neural network consists of a 2D array of simple processing elements. When it is implemented with CMOS LSI, two dynamics issues naturally arise: (1) parasitic capacitors of MOS transistors induce temporal dynamics. Since a processed image is given as the stable equilibrium point of temporal dynamics, a temporally unstable chip is unusable; and (2) because of

Haruo Kobayashi; Takashi Matsumoto; Jun Sanekata

1995-01-01

24

Spatio-Temporal Chaos in Thermal Convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I will report on experimental and theoretical results on the pattern-formation processes occuring in Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC). After an introduction to pattern-formation in extended systems I will introduce RBC and discuss recent andvances in the understanding of spatio-temporal chaos. more details can be found at http://milou.msc.cornell.edu/stc.html

Bodenschatz, Eberhard

1999-11-01

25

Synthesis of neural networks for spatio-temporal spike pattern recognition and processing.  

PubMed

The advent of large scale neural computational platforms has highlighted the lack of algorithms for synthesis of neural structures to perform predefined cognitive tasks. The Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) offers one such synthesis, but it is most effective for a spike rate representation of neural information, and it requires a large number of neurons to implement simple functions. We describe a neural network synthesis method that generates synaptic connectivity for neurons which process time-encoded neural signals, and which makes very sparse use of neurons. The method allows the user to specify-arbitrarily-neuronal characteristics such as axonal and dendritic delays, and synaptic transfer functions, and then solves for the optimal input-output relationship using computed dendritic weights. The method may be used for batch or online learning and has an extremely fast optimization process. We demonstrate its use in generating a network to recognize speech which is sparsely encoded as spike times. PMID:24009550

Tapson, Jonathan C; Cohen, Greg K; Afshar, Saeed; Stiefel, Klaus M; Buskila, Yossi; Wang, Runchun Mark; Hamilton, Tara J; van Schaik, André

2013-01-01

26

Synthesis of neural networks for spatio-temporal spike pattern recognition and processing  

PubMed Central

The advent of large scale neural computational platforms has highlighted the lack of algorithms for synthesis of neural structures to perform predefined cognitive tasks. The Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) offers one such synthesis, but it is most effective for a spike rate representation of neural information, and it requires a large number of neurons to implement simple functions. We describe a neural network synthesis method that generates synaptic connectivity for neurons which process time-encoded neural signals, and which makes very sparse use of neurons. The method allows the user to specify—arbitrarily—neuronal characteristics such as axonal and dendritic delays, and synaptic transfer functions, and then solves for the optimal input-output relationship using computed dendritic weights. The method may be used for batch or online learning and has an extremely fast optimization process. We demonstrate its use in generating a network to recognize speech which is sparsely encoded as spike times. PMID:24009550

Tapson, Jonathan C.; Cohen, Greg K.; Afshar, Saeed; Stiefel, Klaus M.; Buskila, Yossi; Wang, Runchun Mark; Hamilton, Tara J.; van Schaik, André

2013-01-01

27

Integrating Population Genetics with Landscape Ecology to Infer Spatio-temporal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen the rise of the research fields of DNA analysis and population or ecological genetics.They have the\\u000a potential to allow the revision of landscape ecological concepts such as habitat connectivity or fragmentation. In this chapter,\\u000a we first ask how population genetics can support and extend landscape ecological research from analysing patterns to understanding\\u000a processes, and we

Rolf Holderegger; Felix Gugerli; Christoph Scheidegger; Pierre Taberlet

28

Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Error Processing Dysfunctions in Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Context Depression is characterized by executive dysfunctions and abnormal reactions to errors; however, little is known about the brain mechanisms that underlie these deficits. Objective To examine whether abnormal reactions to errors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with exaggerated paralimbic activation and/or a failure to recruit subsequent cognitive control to account for mistakes in performance. Design Between February 15, 2005, and January 19, 2006, we recorded 128-channel event-related potentials while study participants performed a Stroop task, modified to incorporate performance feedback. Setting Patients with MDD and healthy comparison subjects were recruited from the general community. Participants Study participants were 20 unmedicated patients with MDD and 20 demographically matched comparison subjects. Main Outcome Measures The error-related negativity and error positivity were analyzed through scalp and source localization analyses. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted to investigate group differences in the spatiotemporal dynamics of brain mechanisms that underlie error processing. Results Relative to comparison subjects, patients with MDD displayed significantly lower accuracy after incorrect responses, larger error-related negativity, and higher current density in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) (Brodmann area 10/32) 80 milliseconds after committing an error. Functional connectivity analyses revealed that for the comparison subjects, but not the patients with MDD, rostral ACC and medial PFC activation 80 milliseconds after committing an error predicted left dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann area 8/9) activation 472 milliseconds after committing an error. Conclusions Unmedicated patients with MDD showed reduced accuracy and potentiated error-related negativity immediately after committing errors, highlighting dysfunctions in the automatic detection of unfavorable performance outcomes. New analytic procedures allowed us to show that abnormal reaction to committing errors was accompanied by hyperactivation in rostral ACC and medial PFC regions 80 milliseconds after committing errors and a failure to recruit dorsolateral PFC-based cognitive control. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether these dysfunctions might foster the emergence and maintenance of negative processing biases and thus increase vulnerability to depression. PMID:18250256

Holmes, Avram J.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

2008-01-01

29

An ontology-based spatio-temporal data model and query language for use in GIS-type applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a Web Ontology language (OWL) -based spatio-temporal data model that introduces the 'spatio-temporal coordinate' concept and makes use of 'temporal lifting'. The ontology-based data model captures application data features. A process for application data model development that incorporates spatio-temporal dependencies is presented. Standardized spatial concepts can be utilized. Spatio-temporal querying is supported; it makes use

M. Lyell; D. Voyadgis; M. Song; P. Ketha; P. Dibner

2011-01-01

30

CUTOFF: A spatio-temporal imputation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missing values occur frequently in many different statistical applications and need to be dealt with carefully, especially when the data are collected spatio-temporally. We propose a method called CUTOFF imputation that utilizes the spatio-temporal nature of the data to accurately and efficiently impute missing values. The main feature of this method is that the estimate of a missing value is produced by incorporating similar observed temporal information from the value's nearest spatial neighbors. Extensions to this method are also developed to expand the method's ability to accommodate other data generating processes. We develop a cross-validation procedure that optimally chooses parameters for CUTOFF, which can be used by other imputation methods as well. We analyze some rainfall data from 78 gauging stations in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia using the CUTOFF imputation method and compare its performance to four well-studied competing imputation methods, namely, k-nearest neighbors, singular value decomposition, multiple imputation and random forest. Empirical results show that our method captures the temporal patterns well and is effective at imputing large gaps in the data. Compared to the competing methods, CUTOFF is more accurate and much faster. We analyze further examples to demonstrate CUTOFF's applications to two different data sets and provide extra evidence of its validity and usefulness. We implement a simulation study based on the Murray-Darling Basin data to evaluate the method; the results show that our method performs well in both accuracy and computational efficiency.

Feng, Lingbing; Nowak, Gen; O'Neill, T. J.; Welsh, A. H.

2014-11-01

31

Spatio-Temporal Querying in Video Databases Mesru Kprl1  

E-print Network

. Objects, events, activities performed by objects are main interests of the model. The model supports fuzzy various spatio-temporal queries along with the fuzzy ones and it is prone to implement compound queries technology, which have made the storage and processing capabilities increase while the costs decrease

�içekli, Nihan Kesim

32

Discriminability limits in spatio-temporal stereo block matching.  

PubMed

Disparity estimation is a fundamental task in stereo imaging and is a well-studied problem. Recently, methods have been adapted to the video domain where motion is used as a matching criterion to help disambiguate spatially similar candidates. In this paper, we analyze the validity of the underlying assumptions of spatio-temporal disparity estimation, and determine the extent to which motion aids the matching process. By analyzing the error signal for spatio-temporal block matching under the sum of squared differences criterion and treating motion as a stochastic process, we determine the probability of a false match as a function of image features, motion distribution, image noise, and number of frames in the spatio-temporal patch. This performance quantification provides insight into when spatio-temporal matching is most beneficial in terms of the scene and motion, and can be used as a guide to select parameters for stereo matching algorithms. We validate our results through simulation and experiments on stereo video. PMID:24733012

Jain, Ankit K; Nguyen, Truong Q

2014-05-01

33

A hybrid spatio-temporal data indexing method for trajectory databases.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type. PMID:25051028

Ke, Shengnan; Gong, Jun; Li, Songnian; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yeting

2014-01-01

34

A Hybrid Spatio-Temporal Data Indexing Method for Trajectory Databases  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type. PMID:25051028

Ke, Shengnan; Gong, Jun; Li, Songnian; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yeting

2014-01-01

35

Spatio-Temporal Saliency Perception via Hypercomplex Frequency Spectral Contrast  

PubMed Central

Salient object perception is the process of sensing the salient information from the spatio-temporal visual scenes, which is a rapid pre-attention mechanism for the target location in a visual smart sensor. In recent decades, many successful models of visual saliency perception have been proposed to simulate the pre-attention behavior. Since most of the methods usually need some ad hoc parameters or high-cost preprocessing, they are difficult to rapidly detect salient object or be implemented by computing parallelism in a smart sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal saliency perception method based on spatio-temporal hypercomplex spectral contrast (HSC). Firstly, the proposed HSC algorithm represent the features in the HSV (hue, saturation and value) color space and features of motion by a hypercomplex number. Secondly, the spatio-temporal salient objects are efficiently detected by hypercomplex Fourier spectral contrast in parallel. Finally, our saliency perception model also incorporates with the non-uniform sampling, which is a common phenomenon of human vision that directs visual attention to the logarithmic center of the image/video in natural scenes. The experimental results on the public saliency perception datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to eleven state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we extend the proposed model to moving object extraction in dynamic scenes, and the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional algorithms. PMID:23482090

Li, Ce; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning; Lan, Xuguang; Tian, Zhiqiang

2013-01-01

36

Spatio–temporal dynamics of olfactory processing in the human brain: an event-related source imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although brain structures involved in central nervous olfactory processing in humans have been well identified with functional neuroimaging, little is known about the temporal sequence of their activation. We recorded olfactory event-related potentials (ERP) to H2S stimuli presented to the left and right nostril in 12 healthy subjects. Topographic and source analysis identified four distinct processing steps between 200 and

A. M. Lascano; T. Hummel; J.-S. Lacroix; B. N. Landis; C. M. Michel

2010-01-01

37

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Yeast Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Yeast Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Transcriptional and Post that unknown genes from this module code for important elements of mitochondrial biogenesis is supported-transcriptional processes in mitochondrial biogenesis, highlighting close connections between nuclear transcription

Boyer, Edmond

38

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere during geospace storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear dynamical models have became powerful tools for studying and forecasting magnetospheric dynamics driven by solar wind inputs. In this thesis, the techniques of phase space reconstruction from time series data are used to develop new methods for modeling and predicting the spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere. For these studies, new databases covering the solar maximum period were compiled to enable accurate modeling of the magnetosphere during intense geospace storms. The main contributions of the thesis are: Weighted Mean Field Model and Its Application to the Intense Storms. The nonlinear dynamical models of the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere system derived from observational data yield efficient forecasts of space weather. An improved version of the mean field model, derived from a set of nearest neighbors in the phase space reconstructed from the data, was developed by assigning weights to the nearest neighbors. A new correlated database was compiled and used to model and forecast the geospace storms of October-November 2003 and April 2002, and resulted in improved forecasts of the intense storms. Mutual Information Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics. The mutual information functions enable studies of the nonlinear correlations of dynamical systems. A high resolution database for a six month period of solar wind and ground-based magnetometer data from 12 high latitude stations was used to compute the mutual information functions representing the correlations inherent in the system. Using two different window lengths of 6 and 24 hr, the spatio-temporal dynamics was analyzed using these functions for the different stations. The spreads in the average mutual information show strong correlations with the solar wind changes and the time evolution of mutual information yields a westward expansion of the disturbed region, starting from the near midnight sectors. Modeling and Predictions of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the Magnetosphere. The spatial structure of the magnetospheric dynamics is crucial to space weather forecasting. The database of the magnetic field perturbations at 39 magnetometers belonging to the IMAGE and CANOPUS during year 2002 was used to study the spatio-temporal structure. A longitudinal sampling process utilizing the daily rotation of Earth was used to construct a two-dimensional representation of the high latitude magnetic perturbations. The nonlinear model was used to predict the spatial structure of geomagnetic disturbances during geospace storms. Results presented in this dissetation provide a comprehensive study of the magnetosphere using nonlinear data derived models. The new weighted mean field model, mutual information analysis and spatio-temporal dynamics advance our understanding of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. These results can be used to develop new and more detailed space weather forecasting tools.

Chen, Jian

2007-08-01

39

Spatio-temporal ranging behaviour and its relevance to foraging strategies in wide-ranging wolverines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of carnivores in an increasingly changing environment is greatly helped by understanding the decision-making processes underlying habitat patch choice. Foraging theory may give us insight into spatio-temporal search patterns and consequent foraging decisions that carnivores make in heterogeneous and fluctuating environments. Constraints placed on central-place foragers in particular are likely to influence both foraging decisions and related spatio-temporal movement

Roel May; Jiska van Dijk; Arild Landa; Roy Andersen; Reidar Andersen

2010-01-01

40

A stochastic marked point process model for earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified stochastic model for earthquake occurrence focusing on the spatio-temporal interactions between earthquakes is presented. The model is a marked point process model in which each earthquake is represented by its magnitude and coordinates in space and time. The model incorporates the occurrence of aftershocks as well as the build-up and subsequent release of strain. The parameters of the

L. Holden; S. Sannan; H. Bungum

2003-01-01

41

Spatio-temporal Feature Recogntion using Randomised Ferns  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal Feature Recogntion using Randomised Ferns Olusegun Oshin, Andrew Gilbert, John Bayesian classifier of Ferns to the spatio-temporal domain and learn clas- sifiers that duplicate video sequence. We extend a Naive Bayesian classifier called Ferns [1] to the spatio-temporal domain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Spatio-temporal dynamics induced by competing instabilities in two asymmetrically coupled nonlinear evolution equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological, and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue, we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular, revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations, a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of a weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.

Schüler, D.; Alonso, S.; Torcini, A.; Bär, M.

2014-12-01

43

Spatio-temporal dynamics in the origin of genetic information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolutionary processes induced by spatio-temporal dynamics in prebiotic evolution. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that hypercycles emerge from complex interaction structures in multispecies systems. In this work, we also find that ‘hypercycle hybrid’ protects the hypercycle from its environment during the growth process. There is little selective advantage for one hypercycle to maintain coexistence with others. This brings the possibility of the outcompetition between hypercycles resulting in the negative effect on information diversity. To enrich the information in hypercycles, symbiosis with parasites is suggested. It is shown that symbiosis with parasites can play an important role in the prebiotic immunology.

Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

2005-04-01

44

Mining moving object trajectories in location-based services for spatio-temporal database update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in wireless transmission and mobile technology applied to LBS (Location-based Services) flood us with amounts of moving objects data. Vast amounts of gathered data from position sensors of mobile phones, PDAs, or vehicles hide interesting and valuable knowledge and describe the behavior of moving objects. The correlation between temporal moving patterns of moving objects and geo-feature spatio-temporal attribute was ignored, and the value of spatio-temporal trajectory data was not fully exploited too. Urban expanding or frequent town plan change bring about a large amount of outdated or imprecise data in spatial database of LBS, and they cannot be updated timely and efficiently by manual processing. In this paper we introduce a data mining approach to movement pattern extraction of moving objects, build a model to describe the relationship between movement patterns of LBS mobile objects and their environment, and put up with a spatio-temporal database update strategy in LBS database based on trajectories spatiotemporal mining. Experimental evaluation reveals excellent performance of the proposed model and strategy. Our original contribution include formulation of model of interaction between trajectory and its environment, design of spatio-temporal database update strategy based on moving objects data mining, and the experimental application of spatio-temporal database update by mining moving objects trajectories.

Guo, Danhuai; Cui, Weihong

2008-10-01

45

Forecasting the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the Magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere is a crucial component of effective space weather forecasting. The extensive data of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction has been used to build predictive models of the magnetosphere based on nonlinear dynamical approaches. The time series data of the distributed observations are used to develop spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere. In this approach the solar wind - magnetosphere coupling is modeled as an input-output system with the solar wind variables as the input and the magnetic field variations at the ground stations as the magnetospheric response. The magnetic field perturbation at the ground and the corresponding solar wind data stations during the solar maximum period are compiled for these studies. The ground magnetometer data are from from CANOPUS, IMAGE and WDC magnetometer chain of stations. This new data set is used to study the spatio-temporal structure, including the coupling between the high and mid-latitude regions. A technique that utilizes the daily rotation of the Earth as a longitudinal sampling process is used to construct a two dimensional representation of the high latitude magnetic perturbations both in magnetic latitude and magnetic local time. This nonlinear model is used to predict the spatial structure of geomagnetic disturbances during intense geospace storms. In order to understand the predictability of space weather, the correlated database is used to study the causal relationships based on information theoretic approaches. This yields the mutual information between the solar wind variables and the ground magnetic field variations, and among the ground stations themselves. The information flow within the coupled system is analyzed by computing the transfer entropy among them.

Chen, J.; Sharma, A.; Veeramani, T.

2007-12-01

46

Large scale stochastic spatio-temporal modelling with PCRaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCRaster is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (http://www.pcraster.eu). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations are available to model builders as Python functions. The software comes with Python framework classes providing control flow for spatio-temporal modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, and data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter and Particle Filter). Models are built by combining the spatial operations in these framework classes. This approach enables modellers without specialist programming experience to construct large, rather complicated models, as many technical details of modelling (e.g., data storage, solving spatial operations, data assimilation algorithms) are taken care of by the PCRaster toolbox. Exploratory modelling is supported by routines for prompt, interactive visualisation of stochastic spatio-temporal data generated by the models. The high computational requirements for stochastic spatio-temporal modelling, and an increasing demand to run models over large areas at high resolution, e.g. in global hydrological modelling, require an optimal use of available, heterogeneous computing resources by the modelling framework. Current work in the context of the eWaterCycle project is on a parallel implementation of the modelling engine, capable of running on a high-performance computing infrastructure such as clusters and supercomputers. Model runs will be distributed over multiple compute nodes and multiple processors (GPUs and CPUs). Parallelization will be done by parallel execution of Monte Carlo realizations and sub regions of the modelling domain. In our approach we use multiple levels of parallelism, improving scalability considerably. On the node level we will use OpenCL, the industry standard for low-level high performance computing kernels. To combine multiple nodes we will use software from the eScience Technology Platform (eSTeP), developed at the Netherlands eScience Center. This will allow us to scale up to hundreds of machines, with thousands of compute cores. A key requirement is not to change the user experience of the software. PCRaster operations and the use of the Python framework classes should work in a similar manner on machines ranging from a laptop to a supercomputer. This enables a seamless transfer of models from small machines, where model development is done, to large machines used for large-scale model runs. Domain specialists from a large range of disciplines, including hydrology, ecology, sedimentology, and land use change studies, currently use the PCRaster Python software within research projects. Applications include global scale hydrological modelling and error propagation in large-scale land use change models. The software runs on MS Windows, Linux operating systems, and OS X.

Karssenberg, Derek; Drost, Niels; Schmitz, Oliver; de Jong, Kor; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2013-04-01

47

Galilean-diagonalized spatio-temporal interest operators Tony Lindeberg, Amir Akbarzadeh and Ivan Laptev  

E-print Network

Laptev Computational Vision and Active Perception Laboratory (CVAP) Department of Numerical Analysis stabilization was used when computing the spatio-temporal derivatives. (Laptev The support from the Swedish & Schmid 2002), see also the related notion of space-time interest points in (Laptev & Lindeberg 2003

Lindeberg, Tony

48

Pong: Diagnosing Spatio-Temporal Internet Congestion Leiwen Deng and Aleksandar Kuzmanovic  

E-print Network

Pong: Diagnosing Spatio-Temporal Internet Congestion Properties Leiwen Deng and Aleksandar our un- derstanding of how the Internet operates. In this paper we present Pong, a novel measurement-scales, and simultaneously locating congested points on an end-to-end path at the granularity of a single link. Pong (i) uses

Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

49

Spatio-Temporal Updating in the Left Posterior Parietal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Adopting an unusual posture can sometimes give rise to paradoxical experiences. For example, the subjective ordering of successive unseen tactile stimuli delivered to the two arms can be affected when people cross them. A growing body of evidence now highlights the role played by the parietal cortex in spatio-temporal information processing when sensory stimuli are delivered to the body or when actions are executed; however, little is known about the neural basis of such paradoxical feelings resulting from such unusual limb positions. Here, we demonstrate increased fMRI activation in the left posterior parietal cortex when human participants adopted a crossed hands posture with their eyes closed. Furthermore, by assessing tactile temporal order judgments (TOJs) in the same individuals, we observed a positive association between activity in this area and the degree of reversal in TOJs resulting from crossing arms. The strongest positive association was observed in the left intraparietal sulcus. This result implies that the left posterior parietal cortex may be critically involved in monitoring limb position and in spatio-temporal binding when serial events are delivered to the limbs. PMID:22768126

Wada, Makoto; Takano, Kouji; Ikegami, Shiro; Ora, Hiroki; Spence, Charles; Kansaku, Kenji

2012-01-01

50

Stochastic spatio-temporal modelling with PCRaster Python  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCRaster Python is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (Karssenberg, Schmitz, Salamon, De Jong, & Bierkens, 2010; PCRaster, 2012). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations, developed in C++, are available to model builders as Python functions. Users create models by combining these functions in a Python script. As construction of large iterative models is often difficult and time consuming for non-specialists in programming, the software comes with a set of Python framework classes that provide control flow for static modelling, temporal modelling, stochastic modelling using Monte Carlo simulation, and data assimilation techniques including the Ensemble Kalman filter and the Particle Filter. A framework for integrating model components with different time steps and spatial discretization is currently available as a prototype (Schmitz, de Jong, & Karssenberg, in review). The software includes routines for visualisation of stochastic spatio-temporal data for prompt, interactive, visualisation of model inputs and outputs. Visualisation techniques include animated maps, time series, probability distributions, and animated maps with exceedance probabilities. The PCRaster Python software is used by researchers from a large range of disciplines, including hydrology, ecology, sedimentology, and land use change studies. Applications include global scale hydrological modelling and error propagation in large-scale land use change models. The software runs on MS Windows and Linux operating systems, and OS X (under development).

Karssenberg, D.; Schmitz, O.; de Jong, K.

2012-04-01

51

Risk management in spatio-temporally varying field by true slime mold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revealing how lower organisms solve complicated problems is a challenging research area, which could reveal the evolutionary origin of biological information processing. Here we report on the ability of a single-celled organism, true slime mold, to find a smart solution of risk management under spatio-temporally varying conditions. We designed test conditions under which there were three food-locations at vertices of equilateral triangle and a toxic light illuminated the organism on alternating halves of the triangle. We found that the organism behavior depended on the period of the repeated illumination, even though the total exposure time was kept the same . A simple mathematical model for the experimental results is proposed from a dynamical system point of view. We discuss our results in the context of a strategy of risk management by Physarum.

Ito, Kentaro; Sumpter, David; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

52

Dynamic maps: a visual-analytic methodology for exploring spatio-temporal disease patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies are often confounded by the human and environmental interactions that are complex and dynamic spatio-temporal processes. Hence, it is difficult to discover nuances in the data and generate pertinent hypotheses. Dynamic mapping, a method to simultaneously visualize temporal and spatial information, was introduced to elucidate such complexities. A conceptual framework for dynamic mapping regarding principles and implementation

Denise A Castronovo; Kenneth KH Chui; Elena N Naumova

2009-01-01

53

Interactive Visual Exploration of a Large Spatio-temporal Dataset: Reflections on a Geovisualization Mashup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory visual analysis is useful for the preliminary investigation of large structured, multifaceted spatio-temporal datasets. This process requires the selection and aggregation of records by time, space and attribute, the ability to transform data and the flexibility to apply appropriate visual encodings and interactions. We propose an approach inspired by geographical 'mashups' in which freely-available functionality and data are loosely

Jo Wood; Jason Dykes; Aidan Slingsby; Keith Clarke

2007-01-01

54

Physica D 203 (2005) 8899 Spatio-temporal dynamics in the origin of genetic information  

E-print Network

in the negative effect on information diversity. To enrich the information in hypercycles, symbiosis Abstract We study evolutionary processes induced by spatio-temporal dynamics in prebiotic evolution. Using with parasites is suggested. It is shown that symbiosis with parasites can play an important role

Jeong, Hawoong

55

BLIND EQUALIZATION OF SIMO CHANNELS VIA SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANTI-HEBBIAN  

E-print Network

BLIND EQUALIZATION OF SIMO CHANNELS VIA SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANTI-HEBBIAN LEARNING RULE Seungjin CHOIy distributed processing ap- proach to \\direct" blind equalization of Single Input Multiple Out- put (SIMO scaled and delayed version by decorrelating the equalizer (neural network) outputs in spatio

Cichocki, Andrzej

56

A new point process model for trajectory-based events annotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human actions annotation in videos has received an increase attention from the scientific community these last years mainly due to its large implication in many computer vision applications. The current leading paradigm to perform human actions annotation is based on local features. Local features robust to geometric transformations and occlusion are extracted from a video and aggregated to obtain a global video signature. However, current aggregation schemes such as Bag-of-Words or spatio-temporal grids have no or limited information about the local features spatio-temporal localization in videos. It has been shown that local features localization can be hepful for detecting a concept or an action. In this work we improve on the aggregation step by embedding local features spatio-temporal information in the final video representation by introducing a point process model. We propose an event recognition system involving two main steps: (1) local features extraction based on robust point trajectories, and (2) a global action representation capturing the spatio-temporal context information through an innovative point process clustering. A point process provides indeed a well-defined formalism to characterize local features localization along with their interactions information. Results are evaluated on the HOllywood in Human Action (HOHA) dataset showing an improvement over the state-of-art.

Ballas, Nicolas; Delezoide, Bertrand; Pr"teux, Françoise

2012-01-01

57

On fitting spatio-temporal disease mapping models using approximate Bayesian inference.  

PubMed

Spatio-temporal disease mapping comprises a wide range of models used to describe the distribution of a disease in space and its evolution in time. These models have been commonly formulated within a hierarchical Bayesian framework with two main approaches: an empirical Bayes (EB) and a fully Bayes (FB) approach. The EB approach provides point estimates of the parameters relying on the well-known penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) technique. The FB approach provides the posterior distribution of the target parameters. These marginal distributions are not usually available in closed form and common estimation procedures are based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. However, the spatio-temporal models used in disease mapping are often very complex and MCMC methods may lead to large Monte Carlo errors and a huge computation time if the dimension of the data at hand is large. To circumvent these potential inconveniences, a new technique called integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), based on nested Laplace approximations, has been proposed for Bayesian inference in latent Gaussian models. In this paper, we show how to fit different spatio-temporal models for disease mapping with INLA using the Leroux CAR prior for the spatial component, and we compare it with PQL via a simulation study. The spatio-temporal distribution of male brain cancer mortality in Spain during the period 1986-2010 is also analysed. PMID:24713158

Ugarte, María Dolores; Adin, Aritz; Goicoa, Tomas; Militino, Ana Fernandez

2014-12-01

58

A Comparison of Neighbourhood Selection Techniques in Spatio-Temporal Forecasting Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal neighbourhood (STN) selection is an important part of the model building procedure in spatio-temporal forecasting. The STN can be defined as the set of observations at neighbouring locations and times that are relevant for forecasting the future values of a series at a particular location at a particular time. Correct specification of the STN can enable forecasting models to capture spatio-temporal dependence, greatly improving predictive performance. In recent years, deficiencies have been revealed in models with globally fixed STN structures, which arise from the problems of heterogeneity, nonstationarity and nonlinearity in spatio-temporal processes. Using the example of a large dataset of travel times collected on London's road network, this study examines the effect of various STN selection methods drawn from the variable selection literature, varying from simple forward/backward subset selection to simultaneous shrinkage and selection operators. The results indicate that STN selection methods based on L1 penalisation are effective. In particular, the maximum concave penalty (MCP) method selects parsimonious models that produce good forecasting performance.

Haworth, J.; Cheng, T.

2014-11-01

59

A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates.  

PubMed

The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implemented in an R package, SpatioTemporal, available on CRAN. The model is used by the EPA funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) to produce estimates of ambient air pollution; MESA Air uses the estimates to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In this paper we use the model to predict long-term average concentrations of NOx in the Los Angeles area during a ten year period. Predictions are based on measurements from the EPA Air Quality System, MESA Air specific monitoring, and output from a source dispersion model for traffic related air pollution (Caline3QHCR). Accuracy in predicting long-term average concentrations is evaluated using an elaborate cross-validation setup that accounts for a sparse spatio-temporal sampling pattern in the data, and adjusts for temporal effects. The predictive ability of the model is good with cross-validated R (2) of approximately 0.7 at subject sites. Replacing four geographic covariate indicators of traffic density with the Caline3QHCR dispersion model output resulted in very similar prediction accuracy from a more parsimonious and more interpretable model. Adding traffic-related geographic covariates to the model that included Caline3QHCR did not further improve the prediction accuracy. PMID:25264424

Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

2014-09-01

60

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere during intense geospace storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During geomagnetically active periods the magnetosphere exhibits global, regional and local features. The global features are in general captured by the geomagnetic indices and the regional and local features are measured by spacecraft-based imagers and ground-based instruments. The global features of the magnetosphere have been studied extensively using nonlinear dynamical techniques, such as phase space reconstruction from observational data. The time series data of the distributed observations are used to develop spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere using phase space reconstruction techniques. In this approach the solar wind - magnetosphere coupling is modeled as an input-output system with the solar wind variables as the input and the ground-based magnetic field variations as the magnetospheric response. The magnetic field perturbation at 57 ground stations during year 2002 and the corresponding solar wind data are compiled for this study. The ground magnetometer data are from the three chains of stations: CANOPUS (13), IMAGE (26) and WDC (18). This new data set, with 1-minute resolution, is used to study the spatio-temporal structure, including the coupling between the high and mid-latitude regions. A technique that utilizes the daily rotation of the Earth as a longitudinal sampling process is used to construct a two dimensional representation of the high latitude magnetic perturbations both in magnetic latitude and magnetic local time. This model is used to predict the spatial structure of geomagnetic disturbances during intense geospace storms. From the point of view of space weather the predictions of the spatial structure are crucial, as it is important to identify the regions of strong disturbances during intense geospace storms

Chen, J.; Sharma, A.

2005-12-01

61

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere during intense geospace storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During geomagnetically active periods the magnetosphere exhibits global, regional and local features. The global features are in general captured by the geomagnetic indices and the regional and local features are measured by spacecraft-based imagers and ground-based instruments. The global features of the magnetosphere have been studied extensively using nonlinear dynamical techniques, such as phase space reconstruction from observational data. The time series data of the distributed observations are used to develop spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere using phase space reconstruction techniques. In this approach the solar wind - magnetosphere coupling is modeled as an input-output system with the solar wind variables as the input and the ground-based magnetic field variations as the magnetospheric response. The magnetic field perturbation at 57 ground stations during year 2002 and the corresponding solar wind data are compiled for this study. The ground magnetometer data are from the three chains of stations: CANOPUS (13), IMAGE (26) and WDC (18). This new data set, with 1-minute resolution, is used to study the spatio-temporal structure, including the coupling between the high and mid-latitude regions. A technique that utilizes the daily rotation of the Earth as a longitudinal sampling process is used to construct a two dimensional representation of the high latitude magnetic perturbations both in magnetic latitude and magnetic local time. This linear and nonlinear model is used to predict the spatial structure of geomagnetic disturbances during intense geospace storms. From the point of view of space weather the predictions of the spatial structure are crucial, as it is important to identify the regions of strong disturbances during intense geospace storms

Chen, J.; Sharma, A.

2006-05-01

62

Sensor Web for Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of a Hydrological Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sensor Web is a macroinstrument concept that allows for the spatio-temporal understanding of an environment through coordinated efforts between multiple numbers and types of sensing platforms, including, in its most general form, both orbital and terrestrial and both fixed and mobile. Each of these platforms, or pods, communicates within its local neighborhood and thus distributes information to the instrument as a whole. The result of sharing and continual processing of this information among all the Sensor Web elements will result in an information flow and a global perception of and reactive capability to the environment. As illustrated, the Sensor Web concept also allows for the recursive notion of a web of webs with individual distributed instruments possibly playing the role of a single node point on a larger Sensor Web instrument. In particular, the fusion of inexpensive, yet sophisticated, commercial technology from both the computation and telecommunication revolutions has enabled the development of practical, fielded, and embedded in situ systems that have been the focus of the NASA/JPL Sensor Webs Project (http://sensorwebs.jpl.nasa.gov/). These Sensor Webs are complete systems consisting of not only the pod elements that wirelessly communicate among themselves, but also interfacing and archiving software that allows for easy use by the end-user. Previous successful deployments have included environments as diverse as coastal regions, Antarctica, and desert areas. The Sensor Web has broad implications for Earth and planetary science and will revolutionize the way experiments and missions are conceived and performed. As part of our current efforts to develop a macrointelligence within the system, we have deployed a Sensor Web at the Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) facility located west of Tucson, AZ. This particular site was selected because it is ideal for studying spatio-temporal phenomena and for providing a test site for more sophisticated hydrological studies in the future.

Delin, K. A.; Jackson, S. P.; Johnson, D. W.; Burleigh, S. C.; Woodrow, R. R.; McAuley, M.; Britton, J. T.; Dohm, J. M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ip, Felipe

2004-01-01

63

Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Monitoring Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan has much diversity in seasonal variation of different locations. Some areas are in desserts and remain very hot and waterless, for example coastal areas are situated along the Arabian Sea and have very warm season and a little rainfall. Some areas are covered with mountains, have very low temperature and heavy rainfall; for instance Karakoram ranges. The most important variables that have an impact on the climate are temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and elevation. Furthermore, it is hard to find homogeneous regions in Pakistan with respect to climate variation. Identification of homogeneous regions in Pakistan can be useful in many aspects. It can be helpful for prediction of the climate in the sub-regions and for optimizing the number of monitoring sites. In the earlier literature no one tried to identify homogeneous regions of Pakistan with respect to climate variation. There are only a few papers about spatio-temporal clustering of monitoring network. Steinhaus (1956) presented the well-known K-means clustering method. It can identify a predefined number of clusters by iteratively assigning centriods to clusters based. Castro et al. (1997) developed a genetic heuristic algorithm to solve medoids based clustering. Their method is based on genetic recombination upon random assorting recombination. The suggested method is appropriate for clustering the attributes which have genetic characteristics. Sap and Awan (2005) presented a robust weighted kernel K-means algorithm incorporating spatial constraints for clustering climate data. The proposed algorithm can effectively handle noise, outliers and auto-correlation in the spatial data, for effective and efficient data analysis by exploring patterns and structures in the data. Soltani and Modarres (2006) used hierarchical and divisive cluster analysis to categorize patterns of rainfall in Iran. They only considered rainfall at twenty-eight monitoring sites and concluded that eight clusters existed. Soltani and Modarres (2006) classified the sites by using only average rainfall of sites, they did not consider time replications and spatial coordinates. Kerby et.al (2007) purposed spatial clustering method based on likelihood. They took account of the geographic locations through the variance covariance matrix. Their purposed method works like hierarchical clustering methods. Moreovere, it is inappropiriate for time replication data and could not perform well for large number of sites. Tuia.et.al (2008) used scan statistics for identifying spatio-temporal clusters for fire sequences in the Tuscany region in Italy. The scan statistics clustering method was developed by Kulldorff et al. (1997) to detect spatio-temporal clusters in epidemiology and assessing their significance. The purposed scan statistics method is used only for univariate discrete stochastic random variables. In this paper we make use of a very simple approach for spatio-temporal clustering which can create separable and homogeneous clusters. Most of the clustering methods are based on Euclidean distances. It is well known that geographic coordinates are spherical coordinates and estimating Euclidean distances from spherical coordinates is inappropriate. As a transformation from geographic coordinates to rectangular (D-plane) coordinates we use the Lambert projection method. The partition around medoids clustering method is incorporated on the data including D-plane coordinates. Ordinary kriging is taken as validity measure for the precipitation data. The kriging results for clusters are more accurate and have less variation compared to complete monitoring network precipitation data. References Casto.V.E and Murray.A.T (1997). Spatial Clustering with Data Mining with Genetic Algorithms. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.56.8573 Kaufman.L and Rousseeuw.P.J (1990). Finding Groups in Data: An Introduction to Cluster Analysis. Wiley series of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, New York. Kulldorf.M (1997). A spatial scan statistic. Commun. Stat.-Theor. Math. 26(6)

Hussain, I.; Pilz, J.

2009-04-01

64

A Spatio-Temporal Downscaler for Output From Numerical Models  

PubMed Central

Often, in environmental data collection, data arise from two sources: numerical models and monitoring networks. The first source provides predictions at the level of grid cells, while the second source gives measurements at points. The first is characterized by full spatial coverage of the region of interest, high temporal resolution, no missing data but consequential calibration concerns. The second tends to be sparsely collected in space with coarser temporal resolution, often with missing data but, where recorded, provides, essentially, the true value. Accommodating the spatial misalignment between the two types of data is of fundamental importance for both improved predictions of exposure as well as for evaluation and calibration of the numerical model. In this article we propose a simple, fully model-based strategy to downscale the output from numerical models to point level. The static spatial model, specified within a Bayesian framework, regresses the observed data on the numerical model output using spatially-varying coefficients which are specified through a correlated spatial Gaussian process. As an example, we apply our method to ozone concentration data for the eastern U.S. and compare it to Bayesian melding (Fuentes and Raftery 2005) and ordinary kriging (Cressie 1993; Chilès and Delfiner 1999). Our results show that our method outperforms Bayesian melding in terms of computing speed and it is superior to both Bayesian melding and ordinary kriging in terms of predictive performance; predictions obtained with our method are better calibrated and predictive intervals have empirical coverage closer to the nominal values. Moreover, our model can be easily extended to accommodate for the temporal dimension. In this regard, we consider several spatio-temporal versions of the static model. We compare them using out-of-sample predictions of ozone concentration for the eastern U.S. for the period May 1–October 15, 2001. For the best choice, we present a summary of the analysis. Supplemental material, including color versions of Figures 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and MCMC diagnostic plots, are available online. PMID:21113385

Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.

2010-01-01

65

SuperFly: a comparative database for quantified spatio-temporal gene expression patterns in early dipteran embryos.  

PubMed

We present SuperFly (http://superfly.crg.eu), a relational database for quantified spatio-temporal expression data of segmentation genes during early development in different species of dipteran insects (flies, midges and mosquitoes). SuperFly has a special focus on emerging non-drosophilid model systems. The database currently includes data of high spatio-temporal resolution for three species: the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita and the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata. At this point, SuperFly covers up to 9 genes and 16 time points per species, with a total of 1823 individual embryos. It provides an intuitive web interface, enabling the user to query and access original embryo images, quantified expression profiles, extracted positions of expression boundaries and integrated datasets, plus metadata and intermediate processing steps. SuperFly is a valuable new resource for the quantitative comparative study of gene expression patterns across dipteran species. Moreover, it provides an interesting test set for systems biologists interested in fitting mathematical gene network models to data. Both of these aspects are essential ingredients for progress toward a more quantitative and mechanistic understanding of developmental evolution. PMID:25404137

Cicin-Sain, Damjan; Pulido, Antonio Hermoso; Crombach, Anton; Wotton, Karl R; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Taly, Jean-François; Roma, Guglielmo; Jaeger, Johannes

2015-01-28

66

A spatio-temporal extension to the map cube operator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) is a set of techniques and operators to facilitate the data analysis usually stored in a data warehouse. In this paper, we extend the functionality of an OLAP operator known as Map Cube with the definition and incorporation of a function that allows the formulation of spatio-temporal queries. For example, consider a data warehouse about crimes that includes data about the places where the crimes were committed. Suppose we want to find and visualize the trajectory (a trajectory is just the path that an object follows through space as a function of time) of the crimes of a suspect beginning with his oldest crime and ending with his most recent one. In order to meet this requirement, we extend the Map Cube operator.

Alzate, Juan C.; Moreno, Francisco J.; Echeverri, Jaime

2012-09-01

67

Spatio-temporal view interpolation in real-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm is presented to view interpolation of dynamic events in real-time across time and space. Two temporal and two spatial flow fields are estimated from four images captured by two cameras at two different times. Hybrid gradient- and correlation-based motion estimation is used to compute optical flow fields with high density and accuracy. Based on the flow fields, texture coordinates of small textured squares are computed and a new image is composed at an arbitrary viewpoint and time. Real-time processing is possible through vectorized implementation of computational demanding functions and visualization using OpenGL and standard graphics hardware. The spatio-temporal view interpolation algorithm is applicable to non-rigid events, does not use explicit 3D models, and requires no user input.

Radtke, Torsten

2003-06-01

68

Hippocampal-cerebellar interaction during spatio-temporal prediction.  

PubMed

The hippocampus and cerebellum play a role in the process of temporal memory formation. The interaction between these brain regions during the prediction of motor executions nevertheless remains unclear. Using fMRI, we show here that the hippocampus and cerebellum are co-activated during a timing-dependent task that requires accurate prediction timing of finger movements following preceding visual cues, but not during 2 control tasks: a reaction task requiring identical coordination of individual and combined fingers without predicting the motor timing, or an imagery task. In addition, functional connectivity analyses reveal that the hippocampus showed increased functional connectivity with the bilateral hemispheres of the cerebellum. These results suggest that hippocampal-cerebellar interplay occurs during spatio-temporal prediction of movements on the basis of visuomotor integration. PMID:23968839

Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

2015-02-01

69

Spatio-temporal characteristics of Trichel pulse at low pressure  

SciTech Connect

Trichel pulses are investigated using a needle-to-plane electrode geometry at low pressure. The evolution of current and voltage, the spatio-temporal discharge images of Trichel pulse are measured. The rising time and duration time in a pulse are about 10??s and several tens of microseconds, respectively. One period of pulse can be divided into three stages: the stage preceding cathode breakdown, cathode glow formation, and discharge decaying process. Besides a cathode glow and a dark space, an anode glow is also observed. The emission spectra mainly originate from the C{sup 3}?{sub u} ? B{sup 3}?{sub g} transition for nitrogen. In addition, the capacitances in parallel connected with the discharge cell have important influence on the pulsing frequency.

He, Shoujie, E-mail: hedajingdian@126.com [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding (China); Jing, Ha [Institute of Science, Hebei Agriculture University, Baoding (China)] [Institute of Science, Hebei Agriculture University, Baoding (China)

2014-01-15

70

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere during geospace storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetospheric response to strong driving by the solar wind is highly structured, and spatially resolved data are essential for the understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics. The global features of the magnetosphere have been studied extensively using nonlinear dynamical techniques. A database of the solar wind data from ISEE3 and IMP8 spacecraft, and ground-based magnetometer data from high latitude stations [Kamide et al., JGR, 17,705, 1998] is used to study the magnetospheric response to solar wind variables by mutual information functions. A key feature of the mutual information function is its ability to bring out the linear as well as nonlinear correlations and such functions are needed to study the magnetospheric dynamics, which is inherently nonlinear. The minimum window length required for computing robust functions is found to be about 6 hrs. Another window length of 24 hrs is used in these studies to analyze the dynamics on longer time scales. The spreads in the average mutual information show strong correlations with the solar wind convective electric field and the sudden changes in the dynamic pressure. The time evolution of mutual information shows a westward expansion of the disturbed region in the night side magnetosphere, starting from near the midnight sectors. In order to study the spatial structure in more detail the magnetic field perturbation at 39 ground stations during year 2002 and the corresponding solar wind data are compiled. The ground magnetometer data are from the two chains of stations: CANOPUS (13) and IMAGE (26). This new data set, with 1-minute resolution, is used to study the spatio-temporal structure. A technique that utilizes the daily rotation of the Earth as a longitudinal sampling process is used to construct a two dimensional representation of the high latitude magnetic perturbations both in magnetic latitude and magnetic local time. This model is used to predict the spatial structure of geomagnetic disturbances during intense geospace substorms, which are important natural hazards.

Chen, J.; Sharma, A.; Edwards, J. W.; Shao, X.; Kamide, Y.

2007-05-01

71

A LANGUAGE FOR MODULAR SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATION (R824766)  

EPA Science Inventory

Creating an effective environment for collaborative spatio-temporal model development will require computational systems that provide support for the user in three key areas: (1) Support for modular, hierarchical model construction and archiving/linking of simulation modules; (2)...

72

Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area) may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF) across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice), adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm). Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA) sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems, there are marked sex differences in vision. The CSFs we measure are largely determined by inputs from specific sets of thalamic neurons to individual neurons in primary visual cortex. This convergence from thalamus to cortex is guided by cortex during embryogenesis. We suggest that testosterone plays a major role, leading to different connectivities in males and in females. But, for whatever reasons, we find that males have significantly greater sensitivity for fine detail and for rapidly moving stimuli. One interpretation is that this is consistent with sex roles in hunter-gatherer societies. PMID:22943466

2012-01-01

73

Video texture indexing using spatio-temporal wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new compact spatio-temporal tex- ture descriptor designed for indexing dynamic video content. Video texture provides a way to characterize spatio-temporal features such as those corresponding to splashing water, flying birds, blow- ing trees, and so forth, which are not easily characterized by static feature descriptors. The video texture descriptor measures the 3-D wavelet energy

Milind R. Naphade; Ching-yung Lin; John R. Smith

2002-01-01

74

From upright to upside-down presentation: A spatio-temporal ERP study of the parametric effect of rotation on face and house processing  

PubMed Central

Background While there is a general agreement that picture-plane inversion is more detrimental to face processing than to other seemingly complex visual objects, the origin of this effect is still largely debatable. Here, we address the question of whether face inversion reflects a quantitative or a qualitative change in processing mode by investigating the pattern of event-related potential (ERP) response changes with picture plane rotation of face and house pictures. Thorough analyses of topographical (Scalp Current Density maps, SCD) and dipole source modeling were also conducted. Results We find that whilst stimulus orientation affected in a similar fashion participants' response latencies to make face and house decisions, only the ERPs in the N170 latency range were modulated by picture plane rotation of faces. The pattern of N170 amplitude and latency enhancement to misrotated faces displayed a curvilinear shape with an almost linear increase for rotations from 0° to 90° and a dip at 112.5° up to 180° rotations. A similar discontinuity function was also described for SCD occipito-temporal and temporal current foci with no topographic distribution changes, suggesting that upright and misrotated faces activated similar brain sources. This was confirmed by dipole source analyses showing the involvement of bilateral sources in the fusiform and middle occipital gyri, the activity of which was differentially affected by face rotation. Conclusion Our N170 findings provide support for both the quantitative and qualitative accounts for face rotation effects. Although the qualitative explanation predicted the curvilinear shape of N170 modulations by face misrotations, topographical and source modeling findings suggest that the same brain regions, and thus the same mechanisms, are probably at work when processing upright and rotated faces. Taken collectively, our results indicate that the same processing mechanisms may be involved across the whole range of face orientations, but would operate in a non-linear fashion. Finally, the response tuning of the N170 to rotated faces extends previous reports and further demonstrates that face inversion affects perceptual analyses of faces, which is reflected within the time range of the N170 component. PMID:19691846

Jemel, Boutheina; Coutya, Julie; Langer, Caroline; Roy, Sylvain

2009-01-01

75

Spatio-temporal patterns of forest fires: a comprehensive application of the K-function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of uncontrolled hazardous events, such as forest fires, is largely investigated from the scientific community with the purpose of finding out the more vulnerable areas. Mapping the location of spatio-temporal sequences for a given environmental dataset is of great impact; however, the majority of the studies miss the analysis of the aggregation over time. Nonetheless discovering unusual temporal pattern for a given time sequence is fundamental to understand the phenomena and underlying processes. The present study aims investigating both the spatial and the temporal cluster behaviour of forest fires occurrences registered in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) over a period of about 40 years and testing if space and time interact in generate clusters. To do this, the purely spatial, the time and the space-time extensions of the Ripley's K-function were applied. The Ripley's K-function is a statistic exploratory method which enables detecting whether or not a point process (e.g. the location of the ignition points) is randomly distributed. The purely spatial K-function K(r) is defined as the expected number of further events within an area of radius r around an arbitrary point of the pattern, divided by the intensity of the phenomenon. Under completely spatial randomness, the value of the K(r) is equal to the area around the point (=?r2), while observations above this theoretical value imply a clustering behaviour at the corresponding distance r. For the purely time analysis, the Ripley's K-function K(t) can be taught as a reformulation of the spatial version to detect unexpected aggregation of events over the temporal scale. For its computation, the value of the intensity used in K(r) is replaced by the total duration of the time sequence divided by the total number of observed events, and the distance r is replaced by the time interval t. Under time-regularity, K(t) equals 2t, whereas, observed measures above this theoretical value indicate a temporal cluster behaviour at the corresponding temporal scale t. For the analysis of the space-time clustering, we applied the spatio-temporal (bivariate) K-function K(r,t), which evaluates if events are closer in both space and time. Intuitively, if there is no space-time interaction K(r,t) = K(r) * K(t). Accordingly, if K(r,t) minus K(r) * K(t) is positive, this indicates an interaction between space and time in producing clusters, which arise from a well detectable spatial and temporal scales. This study allowed detecting: 1) the purely spatial and the purely temporal scales at which the registered forest fires events are clustered, given by the results of the K(r) and the K(t) computations; and 2) the time period where spatial clusters take place at a given distance scale, exhibited by the results of the K(r,t) computation. Key words: spatio-temporal sequences, cluster, Ripley's K-function, forest fires. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Bivand R., Rowlingson B., and Diggle P. (2012) - splancs package in R project - Diggle P., Chetwynd A., Haggkvist R. and Morris S. (1995) Second-order analysis of space-time clustering. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, vol. 4(2): 124-136. - R Development Core Team (2012). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL: http://www.R-project.org/. - Vega Orozco C., Tonini M., Conedera M., Kanveski M. (2012) Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires, GeoInformatica, vol. 16(4): 653-673.

Tonini, Marj; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Conedera, Marco

2013-04-01

76

Characterizations of spatio-temporal complex systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis develops two characterizations of spatio-temporal complex patterns. While these are developed for the patterns of fluid flow in experiments on Rayleigh-Benard Convection (RBC), they are adaptable to a wide range of spatially extended systems. The characterizations may be especially useful in cases where one does not have good models describing the dynamics, making numerical and analytic studies difficult. In Spiral Defect Chaos (SDC), a weakly turbulent regime of RBC, the convective rolls exhibit complex spatial and temporal dynamics. We study the dynamics of SDC through local defect formations between convective rolls as well as the topological rearrangements of these rolls at a global scale. A laser based thermal actuation system is developed to reproducibly impose initial states for the fluid flow and construct ensembles of trajectories in the neighborhood of defect nucleation. This is used to extract the modes and their growth rates, characterizing the linear manifold corresponding to defect nucleation. The linear manifold corresponding to instabilities resulting in defect formation is key to building efficient schemes to control the dynamics exhibited. We also develop the use of computational homology as a tool to study spatially extended dynamical systems. A quantitative measure of the topological features of patterns is shown to provide insights into the underlying dynamics not easily uncovered otherwise. In the case of RBC, the homology of the patterns is seen to indicate asymmetries between hot and cold regions of the flow, stochastic evolution at a global scale as well as bifurcations occurring well into the turbulent regime of the flow.

Krishan, Kapilanjan

2005-11-01

77

A spatio-temporal model of housing prices based on individual sales transactions over time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatio-temporal model of housing price trends is developed that focuses on individual housing sales over time. The model allows for both the spatio-temporal lag effects of previous sales in the vicinity of each housing sale, and for general autocorrelation effects over time. A key feature of this model is the recognition of the unequal spacing between individual housing sales over time. Hence the residuals are modeled as a first-order autoregressive process with unequally spaced events. The maximum-likelihood estimation of this model is developed in detail, and tested in terms of simulations based on selected data. In addition, the model is applied to a small data set in the Philadelphia area.

Smith, Tony E.; Wu, Peggy

2009-12-01

78

Spatio-temporal chaos in a chemotaxis model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the dynamics of a one-dimensional Keller-Segel type model for chemotaxis incorporating a logistic cell growth term. We demonstrate the capacity of the model to self-organise into multiple cellular aggregations which, according to position in parameter space, either form a stationary pattern or undergo a sustained spatio-temporal sequence of merging (two aggregations coalesce) and emerging (a new aggregation appears). This spatio-temporal patterning can be further subdivided into either a time-periodic or time-irregular fashion. Numerical explorations into the latter indicate a positive Lyapunov exponent (sensitive dependence to initial conditions) together with a rich bifurcation structure. In particular, we find stationary patterns that bifurcate onto a path of periodic patterns which, prior to the onset of spatio-temporal irregularity, undergo a “periodic-doubling” sequence. Based on these results and comparisons with other systems, we argue that the spatio-temporal irregularity observed here describes a form of spatio-temporal chaos. We discuss briefly our results in the context of previous applications of chemotaxis models, including tumour invasion, embryonic development and ecology.

Painter, Kevin J.; Hillen, Thomas

2011-02-01

79

Ontology Driven Analysis of Spatio-temporal Phenomena, Aimed At Spatial Planning And Environmental Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial planning is a crucial area for balancing civilization development with environmental protection. Spatial planning has a multidisciplinary nature. It must take into account the dynamics of the processes, which could affect the integrity of the environmental system. That is why we need a new approach to modelling phenomena occurring in space. Such approach is offered by ontologies, based on Description Logic (DL) and related to inference systems. Ontology is a system for the knowledge representation, including conceptual scheme and based on this scheme representation of reality. Ontologies can be enriched with additional logical systems. The authors present a way of building domain ontologies for spatial planning, including the representation of spatio-temporal phenomena. Description Logic is supplemented by structures of temporal logic. As a result, the analysis for exploring the topological relations between spatial objects will be extended to include temporal relationships: coincidence, precedence and succession, cause and effect relationship. Spatio-temporal models with temporal logic structures, encoded in ontologies, could be a subject of inference process, performed by semantic reasoners (reasoner engines). Spatio-temporal representations are offered, by so-called upper ontologies, such as GFO, BFO, OCHRE and others. Temporal structures provided in such ontologies, are useful for the analysis of data obtained from environmental and development monitoring systems and for description and representation of historical phenomena. They allow creating the models and scenarios of expected spatial transformation. They will support analysis for spatial development design, decision-making in spatial planning and forecasting of environmental impact.

Iwaniak, A.; ?ukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Kaczmarek, I.

2013-10-01

80

Spatio-Temporal Signal Twice-Whitening Algorithms on the hx3100 Ultra-Low Power Multicore Processor  

SciTech Connect

While modern signal detection theory fully accounts for spatially distributed sensors, exploiting these techniques for real-time sensing using large, underwater acoustic arrays requires advances in the spatio-temporal signal processing algorithms. In particular, the computational complexity of many spatio-temporal processing techniques is so large that conventional computer processors lack sufficient throughput to provide real-time processing of large spatio-temporal data sets. These limits are exacerbated when constraints, such as power consumption or footprint, reduce the available computational resources. In this report, we demonstrate an implementation of a signal twice-whitening algorithm that is better suited for processing spatio-temporal data in real time. We emphasize these advances by implementing data whitening on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a programmable multicore processor intended for low-power and high-throughput signal processing. These results serve as an example of how the novel capabilities available from emerging multicore processor platforms can provide real-time, software-defined processing of large data sets acquired by spatially distributed sensing.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Mitra, Pramita [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL; Schleck, Bryan [Coherent Logix, Inc.; Polcari, John [Science Applications International Corporation, Arlington, VA; Traweek, Michael [Office of Naval Research

2010-01-01

81

Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's centre of mass trajectory during walking, algorithms were developed to determine spatio- temporal gait parameters from trunk acceleration

Wiebren Zijlstra

2003-01-01

82

An Accessible Method for Implementing Hierarchical Models with Spatio-Temporal Abundance Data  

PubMed Central

A common goal in ecology and wildlife management is to determine the causes of variation in population dynamics over long periods of time and across large spatial scales. Many assumptions must nevertheless be overcome to make appropriate inference about spatio-temporal variation in population dynamics, such as autocorrelation among data points, excess zeros, and observation error in count data. To address these issues, many scientists and statisticians have recommended the use of Bayesian hierarchical models. Unfortunately, hierarchical statistical models remain somewhat difficult to use because of the necessary quantitative background needed to implement them, or because of the computational demands of using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms to estimate parameters. Fortunately, new tools have recently been developed that make it more feasible for wildlife biologists to fit sophisticated hierarchical Bayesian models (i.e., Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation, ‘INLA’). We present a case study using two important game species in North America, the lesser and greater scaup, to demonstrate how INLA can be used to estimate the parameters in a hierarchical model that decouples observation error from process variation, and accounts for unknown sources of excess zeros as well as spatial and temporal dependence in the data. Ultimately, our goal was to make unbiased inference about spatial variation in population trends over time. PMID:23166658

Ross, Beth E.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Koons, David N.

2012-01-01

83

An Accessible Method for Implementing Hierarchical Models with Spatio-Temporal Abundance Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A common goal in ecology and wildlife management is to determine the causes of variation in population dynamics over long periods of time and across large spatial scales. Many assumptions must nevertheless be overcome to make appropriate inference about spatio-temporal variation in population dynamics, such as autocorrelation among data points, excess zeros, and observation error in count data. To address these issues, many scientists and statisticians have recommended the use of Bayesian hierarchical models. Unfortunately, hierarchical statistical models remain somewhat difficult to use because of the necessary quantitative background needed to implement them, or because of the computational demands of using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms to estimate parameters. Fortunately, new tools have recently been developed that make it more feasible for wildlife biologists to fit sophisticated hierarchical Bayesian models (i.e., Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation, ‘INLA’). We present a case study using two important game species in North America, the lesser and greater scaup, to demonstrate how INLA can be used to estimate the parameters in a hierarchical model that decouples observation error from process variation, and accounts for unknown sources of excess zeros as well as spatial and temporal dependence in the data. Ultimately, our goal was to make unbiased inference about spatial variation in population trends over time.

Ross, Beth E.; Hooten, Melvin B.; Koons, David N.

2012-01-01

84

The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database  

E-print Network

The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database implemented using Open Source tools Bruce countries #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;System components PostgreSQL (relational database) PostGIS (geospatial) GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library) Perl, PHP, Shapelib, ... #12;GLIMS Glacier Database System

Raup, Bruce H.

85

Topological Edge Cost Estimation through Spatio-Temporal Integration of  

E-print Network

Topological Edge Cost Estimation through Spatio-Temporal Integration of Low-level Behaviour that increasingly accurate cost estimates can indeed be derived using this strategy. This allows the use terrain, where consistent edge traversal cost estimates are indispensable for efficient path computation

Berns, Karsten

86

Cubic map algebra functions for spatio-temporal analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose an extension of map algebra to three dimensions for spatio-temporal data handling. This approach yields a new class of map algebra functions that we call "cube functions." Whereas conventional map algebra functions operate on data layers representing two-dimensional space, cube functions operate on data cubes representing two-dimensional space over a third-dimensional period of time. We describe the prototype implementation of a spatio-temporal data structure and selected cube function versions of conventional local, focal, and zonal map algebra functions. The utility of cube functions is demonstrated through a case study analyzing the spatio-temporal variability of remotely sensed, southeastern U.S. vegetation character over various land covers and during different El Nin??o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases. Like conventional map algebra, the application of cube functions may demand significant data preprocessing when integrating diverse data sets, and are subject to limitations related to data storage and algorithm performance. Solutions to these issues include extending data compression and computing strategies for calculations on very large data volumes to spatio-temporal data handling.

Mennis, J.; Viger, R.; Tomlin, C.D.

2005-01-01

87

Algebraic Properties of Qualitative Spatio-Temporal Calculi  

E-print Network

Algebraic Properties of Qualitative Spatio-Temporal Calculi Frank Dylla1 , Till Mossakowski1,2 , Thomas Schneider3 , and Diedrich Wolter1 1 Collaborative Research Center on Spatial Cognition (SFB/TR 8@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract Qualitative spatial and temporal reasoning is based on so- called qualitative calculi. Algebraic

Lutz, Carsten

88

Spatio-temporal video segmentation using a joint similarity measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new morphological spatio-temporal segmentation algorithm. The algorithm incorporates luminance and motion information simultaneously and uses morphological tools such as morphological filters and watershed algorithm. The procedure toward complete segmentation consists of three steps: joint marker extraction, boundary decision, and motion-based region fusion. First, the joint marker extraction identifies the presence of homogeneous regions in both motion

Jae Gark Choi; Si-Woong Lee; Seong-Dae Kim

1997-01-01

89

Spatio-temporal evaluation matrices for geospatial data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global geospatial community is investing substantial effort in providing tools for geospatial data-quality information analysis and systematizing the criteria for geospatial data quality. The importance of these activities is increasing, especially in the last decade, which has witnessed an enormous expansion of geospatial data use in general and especially among mass users. Although geospatial data producers are striving to define and present data-quality standards to users and users increasingly need to assess the fitness for use of the data, the success of these activities is still far from what is expected or required. As a consequence, neglect or misunderstanding of data quality among users results in misuse or risks. This paper presents an aid in spatio-temporal quality evaluation through the use of spatio-temporal evaluation matrices (STEM) and the index of spatio-temporal anticipations (INSTANT) matrices. With the help of these two simple tools, geospatial data producers can systematically categorize and visualize the granularity of their spatio-temporal data, and users can present their requirements in the same way using business intelligence principles and a Web 2.0 approach. The basic principles and some examples are presented in the paper, and potential further applied research activities are briefly described.

Triglav, Joc; Petrovi?, Dušan; Stopar, Bojan

2011-02-01

90

SPATIO-TEMPORAL REGISTRATION OF EMBRYO IMAGES L. Guignard  

E-print Network

SPATIO-TEMPORAL REGISTRATION OF EMBRYO IMAGES L. Guignard C. Godin U.-M. Fiuza L. Hufnagel P. Stitching together sequences captured from different embryos may help producing a sequence covering is to describe cell and/or embryo shapes through development, to analyze their dy- namics and variability within

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Football analysis using spatio-temporal tools Joachim Gudmundsson  

E-print Network

Football analysis using spatio-temporal tools Joachim Gudmundsson University of Sydney and NICTA, Australia thomas.wolle@gmail.com ABSTRACT Analysing a football match is without doubt an important task specifically for analysing the performance of football players and teams. The aim, functionality

Wolle, Thomas

92

Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Political Tweets in Indonesia  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Political Tweets in Indonesia Anisha Mazumder, Arun Das activity in the provinces of Indonesia. Based on analysis of radical/counter radical sentiments expressed in tweets by Twitter users, we create a Heat Map of Indonesia which visually demonstrates the degree

Davulcu, Hasan

93

BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION WITH ADAPTIVE SPATIO-TEMPORAL NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION WITH ADAPTIVE SPATIO-TEMPORAL NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS Marco Cristani, Vittorio- ground subtraction are proven to be effective in discovering foreground objects in cluttered scenes of quality of the detection with respect to the frame rate achieved. 1 Introduction Background subtraction

Cristani, Marco

94

A Case Study: Ordinal Responses With Spatio-Temporal Dependencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data structures with spatial and temporal dependencies are not uncom- mon in environmental and agronomic flelds. We consider the modeling and estima- tion problem for these type of structures, in particular we consider proportional odds models with spatio-temporal covariables with estimation via maximum pseudlikeli- hood. We end by presenting a testing problem on treatment efiects on data from a fleld

Rogelio Ramos-Quiroga; Graciela Gonzalez-Far

95

Efficient Spatio-temporal Edge Descriptor Claudiu Tanase1  

E-print Network

by comparing to the initial edge histogram descriptor and the potential of feature fusion with other classifiers. Keywords: spatio-temporal, descriptor, content-based video retrieval, high-level feature extraction, classification, concept, edge histogram 1 Introduction High-level feature extraction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Video Dissolve and Wipe Detection via Spatio-Temporal  

E-print Network

-temporal approach has been developed by Ngo et al. [Ngo99] which uses one horizontal, one vertical, and one diagonal) then the spatio-temporal image formed by contiguous frames, for that row, may roughly show a diagonal edge [Ngo99

Drew, Mark S.

97

Spatio-Temporal Patterns for a Generalized Innovation Diffusion Model  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Patterns for a Generalized Innovation Diffusion Model Fariba Hashemi Ecole and Mobility Laboratory (Transp-OR) August 31, 2010 Abstract We construct a model of innovation diffusion;Keywords: Diffusion of innovation - Bass' model - interactive multi- agent systems - local interactions

Bierlaire, Michel

98

Spatio-temporal spectral analysis by eigenstructure methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new algorithms for estimating the spatio-temporal spectrum of the signals received by a passive array. The algorithms are based on the eigenstructure of the covariance and spectral density matrices of the received signals. They allow partial correlation between the sources and thus are applicable to certain kinds of multipath problems. Simulation results that illustrate the performance of

M. Wax; Tie-Jun Shan; T. Kailath

1984-01-01

99

Globally optimal spatio-temporal reconstruction from cluttered videos  

E-print Network

Globally optimal spatio-temporal reconstruction from cluttered videos Ehsan Aganj1 , Jean Abstract. We propose a method for multi-view reconstruction from videos adapted to dynamic cluttered scenes-view reconstruction from videos adapted to dynamic cluttered scenes under uncontrolled imaging conditions. Taking

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

100

Fast Spatio-Temporal Data Mining from Large Geophysical Datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of the UCLA CONQUEST (CONtent-based Querying in Space and Time) is reviewed for performance of automatic cyclone extraction and detection of spatio-temporal blocking conditions on MPP. CONQUEST is a data analysis environment for knowledge and data mining to aid in high-resolution modeling of climate modeling.

Stolorz, P.; Mesrobian, E.; Muntz, R.; Santos, J. R.; Shek, E.; Yi, J.; Mechoso, C.; Farrara, J.

1995-01-01

101

Discovering SpatioTemporal Mobility Profiles of Cellphone Users  

E-print Network

Discovering SpatioTemporal Mobility Profiles of Cellphone Users Murat Ali Bayir Computer Sci. & Eng: nathan@mit.edu Abstract-- Mobility path information of cellphone users play a crucial role in a wide range of cellphone applications, including context-based search and advertising, early warning systems

Demirbas, Murat

102

Spatio-temporal mapping of intracardiac pressure gradients. A solution to Euler's equation from digital postprocessing of color Doppler M-mode echocardiograms.  

PubMed

Doppler assessment of intracardiac pressure gradients using the simplified Bernoulli equation is inaccurate in the absence of a restricted orifice. The purpose of this study is to develop a new general method to map instantaneous pressure gradients inside the heart using Doppler echocardiography. Color Doppler M-mode recordings are digitally postprocessed with a software algorithm that decodes flow velocity and fits a bivariate spatio-temporal tensor-product smoothing spline. Temporal and spatial accelerations are then calculated by analytical derivation of the fitted velocity data, allowing solution of both inertial and convective terms of Euler's equation. A database of 39 transmitral inflow and transaortic outflow color Doppler M-mode recordings from 20 patients with a number of cardiac conditions was analysed, along with matched pulsed-wave spectral recordings. A close agreement was observed between the spectral and postprocessed color Doppler velocity values (error = 0.8 +/- 11.7 cm/s), validating the data decoding and fitting process. Spatio-temporal pressure-gradient maps were obtained from all studies, allowing visualisation of instantaneous pressure gradients from the atrium to the apex during left ventricular filling, and from the apex to the outflow tract during ejection. Instantaneous pressure differences between localised intracardiac sample points closely matched previously published catheterization findings, both in magnitude and waveform shape. Our method shows that intracardiac instantaneous pressure gradients can be analysed noninvasively using color Doppler M-mode echocardiography combined with image postprocessing methods. PMID:11397526

Bermejo, J; Antoranz, J C; Yotti, R; Moreno, M; García-Fernández, M A

2001-05-01

103

Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Earth Science Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary work in using data mining techniques to find interesting spatio-temporal patterns from Earth Science data. The data consists of time series measurements for various Earth science and climate variables (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, and precipitation), along with additional data from existing ecosystem models (e.g. Net Primary Production). The ecological patterns of interest include associations, clusters, predictive

Pang-Ning Tan; Michael Steinbach; Vipin Kumar; Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; Alicia Torregrosa

2001-01-01

104

Western Antarctic Peninsula physical oceanography and spatio–temporal variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on 12 years of physical oceanography data, collected during the Palmer, Antarctica, Long-Term Ecological Research program (PAL LTER) over the continental margin of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The dataset offers the most long-lived consistent CTD-gridded observations of Antarctic waters collected anywhere in the Southern Ocean. The physical characteristics, water column structure and spatio–temporal variability of the

Douglas G. Martinson; Sharon E. Stammerjohn; Richard A. Iannuzzi; Raymond C. Smith; Maria Vernet

2008-01-01

105

On the impact of single cell biomechanics on the spatio-temporal organization of regenerative tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Collective phenomena in multi-cellular assemblies can be modeled on different levels of complexity. So-called agent-based\\u000a or individual-based models (IBMs) consider the dynamics of each individual cell. As a special feature, these models allow\\u000a to account for intracellular decision processes which are triggered by biomechanical cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions.\\u000a In simulation studies of lattice-free IBMs we analyzed the spatio-temporally organization of

J. Galle; A. Krinner; P. Buske; D. Drasdo; M. Loeffler

106

Spatio-temporal filtration of dynamic CT data using diffusion filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for spatio-temporal filtration of dynamic CT data, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of image data at the same time maintaining image quality, in particular spatial and temporal sharpness of the images. Alternatively, the radiation dose applied to the patient can be reduced at the same time maintaining the noise level and the image sharpness. In contrast to classical methods, which generally operate on the three spatial dimensions of image data, noise statistics is improved by extending the filtration to the temporal dimension. Our approach is based on nonlinear and anisotropic diffusion filters, which are based on a model of heat diffusion adapted to medical CT data. Bilateral filters are a special class of diffusion filters, which do not need iteration to reach a convergence image, but represent the fixed point of a dedicated diffusion filter. Spatio-temporal, anisotropic bilateral filters are developed and applied to dynamic CT image data. The potential was evaluated using data from perfusion CT and cardiac dual source CT (DSCT) data, respectively. It was shown, that in perfusion CT, SNR can be improved by a factor of 4 at the same radiation dose. On basis of clinical data it was shown, that alternatively the radiation dose to the patient can be reduced by a factor of at least 2. A more accurate evaluation of the perfusion parameters blood flow, blood volume and time-to-peak is supported. In DSCT noise statistics can be improved using more projection data than needed for image reconstruction, however, as a consequence the temporal resolution is significantly impaired. Due to the anisotropy of the spatio-temporal bilateral filter temporal contrast edges between adjacent time samples are preserved, at the same time substantially smoothing image data in homogeneous regions. Also temporal contrast edges are preserved, maintaining the very high temporal resolution of DSCT acquisitions (~ 80 ms). CT examinations of the heart require careful dose management to reduce the radiation dose burden to the patient. The use of spatio-temporal diffusion filters allows for dose reduction at the same noise level, at the same time preserving spatial and temporal image resolution. Our approach can be extended to any imaging method, that is based on dynamic data, as an efficient tool for edge-preserving noise reduction.

Bruder, H.; Raupach, R.; Klotz, E.; Stierstorfer, K.; Flohr, T.

2009-02-01

107

McMaster Mesonet soil moisture dataset: description and spatio-temporal variability analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces and describes the hourly high resolution soil moisture dataset continuously recorded by the McMaster Mesonet located in the Hamilton-Halton Watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada. The McMaster Mesonet consists of a network of time domain reflectometer (TDR) probes collecting hourly soil moisture data at six depths between 10 cm and 100 cm at nine locations per site spread across four sites in the 1250 km2 watershed. The sites for the soil moisture arrays are designed to further improve understanding of soil moisture dynamics in a cold and snowy climate and to capture soil moisture transitions in areas that have different topography, soil and land-cover. The McMaster Mesonet soil moisture constitutes a unique database in Canada because of its high spatio-temporal resolution. In order to provide some insight into the dominant processes at the McMaster Mesonet sites a spatio-temporal and temporal stability analysis were conducted to identify spatio-temporal patterns in the data and to suggest some physical interpretation of soil moisture variability. It was found that the seasonal Canadian climate causes a transition in soil moisture patterns at seasonal time scales. During winter and early spring months, and at the meadow sites, soil moisture distribution is governed by topographic redistribution, whereas following efflorescence in the spring and summer, soil moisture spatial distribution at the forested site was equally dominated by vegetation canopy. Analysis of short-term temporal stability revealed that the relative difference between sites was maintained unless there was significant rainfall (> 20 mm) or wet conditions a priori. Following a disturbance in the spatial soil moisture distribution due to wetting, the relative soil moisture pattern re-emerged in 18 to 24 h. Access to the McMaster Mesonet data can be provided by visiting http://www.hydrology.mcmaster.ca.

Kornelsen, K. C.; Coulibaly, P.

2012-12-01

108

Sensitivity of cochlear nucleus neurons to spatio-temporal changes in auditory nerve activity  

PubMed Central

The spatio-temporal pattern of auditory nerve (AN) activity, representing the relative timing of spikes across the tonotopic axis, contains cues to perceptual features of sounds such as pitch, loudness, timbre, and spatial location. These spatio-temporal cues may be extracted by neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) that are sensitive to relative timing of inputs from AN fibers innervating different cochlear regions. One possible mechanism for this extraction is “cross-frequency” coincidence detection (CD), in which a central neuron converts the degree of coincidence across the tonotopic axis into a rate code by preferentially firing when its AN inputs discharge in synchrony. We used Huffman stimuli (Carney LH. J Neurophysiol 64: 437–456, 1990), which have a flat power spectrum but differ in their phase spectra, to systematically manipulate relative timing of spikes across tonotopically neighboring AN fibers without changing overall firing rates. We compared responses of CN units to Huffman stimuli with responses of model CD cells operating on spatio-temporal patterns of AN activity derived from measured responses of AN fibers with the principle of cochlear scaling invariance. We used the maximum likelihood method to determine the CD model cell parameters most likely to produce the measured CN unit responses, and thereby could distinguish units behaving like cross-frequency CD cells from those consistent with same-frequency CD (in which all inputs would originate from the same tonotopic location). We find that certain CN unit types, especially those associated with globular bushy cells, have responses consistent with cross-frequency CD cells. A possible functional role of a cross-frequency CD mechanism in these CN units is to increase the dynamic range of binaural neurons that process cues for sound localization. PMID:22972956

Wang, Grace I.

2012-01-01

109

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach for Learning Sparse Spatio-Temporal Decomposition of Multichannel EEG  

PubMed Central

Multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) offers a non-invasive tool to explore spatio-temporal dynamics of brain activity. With EEG recordings consisting of multiple trials, traditional signal processing approaches that ignore inter-trial variability in the data may fail to accurately estimate the underlying spatio-temporal brain patterns. Moreover, precise characterization of such inter-trial variability per se can be of high scientific value in establishing the relationship between brain activity and behavior. In this paper, a statistical modeling framework is introduced for learning spatiotemporal decomposition of multiple-trial EEG data recorded under two contrasting experimental conditions. By modeling the variance of source signals as random variables varying across trials, the proposed two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model is able to capture inter-trial amplitude variability in the data in a sparse way where a parsimonious representation of the data can be obtained. A variational Bayesian (VB) algorithm is developed for statistical inference of the hierarchical model. The efficacy of the proposed modeling framework is validated with the analysis of both synthetic and real EEG data. In the simulation study we show that even at low signal-to-noise ratios our approach is able to recover with high precision the underlying spatiotemporal patterns and the evolution of source amplitude across trials; on two brain-computer interface (BCI) data sets we show that our VB algorithm can extract physiologically meaningful spatio-temporal patterns and make more accurate predictions than other two widely used algorithms: the common spatial patterns (CSP) algorithm and the Infomax algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA). The results demonstrate that our statistical modeling framework can serve as a powerful tool for extracting brain patterns, characterizing trial-to-trial brain dynamics, and decoding brain states by exploiting useful structures in the data. PMID:21420499

Wu, Wei; Chen, Zhe; Gao, Shangkai; Brown, Emery N.

2011-01-01

110

A Comparison Between Complexity and Temporal GIS Models for Spatio-temporal Urban Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatio-temporal modeling for urban applications has received special attention lately. Due to the recent advances in computer\\u000a and geospatial technologies, the temporal aspect of urban applications which was ignored in conventional systems, is under\\u000a consideration nowadays. This new interest in spatio-temporal modeling, in spite of all its deficiencies, has brought about\\u000a great advances in spatio-temporal modeling and will enhance the

Majeed Pooyandeh; Saadi Mesgari; Abbas Alimohammadi; Rouzbeh Shad

2007-01-01

111

Spatio-Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spatio-temporal equalizer has been conceived as an improved means of suppressing multipath effects in the reception of aeronautical telemetry signals, and may be adaptable to radar and aeronautical communication applications as well. This equalizer would be an integral part of a system that would also include a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal antenna that would be nominally aimed at or near the aircraft that would be the source of the signal that one seeks to receive (see Figure 1). This spatio-temporal equalizer would consist mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters one for each element in the array - and the outputs of the filters would be summed (see Figure 2). The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank would afford better multipath-suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The seven-element feed array would supplant the single feed horn used in a conventional paraboloidal ground telemetry-receiving antenna. The radio-frequency telemetry signals re ceiv ed by the seven elements of the array would be digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to the FIR filter bank, which would adapt itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of multipath of the type found at many flight test ranges.

Mukai, Ryan; Lee, Dennis; Vilnrotter, Victor

2010-01-01

112

Dim moving target detection algorithm based on spatio-temporal classification sparse representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dim moving target detection algorithm based on spatio-temporal classification sparse representation, which can characterize the motion information and morphological feature of target and background clutter, is proposed to enhance the performance of target detection. A spatio-temporal redundant dictionary is trained according to the content of infrared image sequence, and then is subdivided into target spatio-temporal redundant dictionary describing moving target, and background spatio-temporal redundant dictionary embedding background by the criterion that the target spatio-temporal atom could be decomposed more sparsely over Gaussian spatio-temporal redundant dictionary. The target and background clutter can be sparsely decomposed over their corresponding spatio-temporal redundant dictionary, yet could not be sparsely decomposed on their opposite spatio-temporal redundant dictionary, and so their residuals after reconstruction by the prescribed number of target and background spatio-temporal atoms would differ very visibly. Some experimental results show this proposed approach could not only improve the sparsity more efficiently, but also enhance the target detection performance more effectively.

Li, Zhengzhou; Dai, Zhen; Fu, Hongxia; Hou, Qian; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Lijiao; Jin, Gang; Liu, Changju; Li, Ruzhang

2014-11-01

113

Spatio-temporal skin strain distributions evoke low variability spike responses in cuneate neurons  

PubMed Central

A common method to explore the somatosensory function of the brain is to relate skin stimuli to neurophysiological recordings. However, interaction with the skin involves complex mechanical effects. Variability in mechanically induced spike responses is likely to be due in part to mechanical variability of the transformation of stimuli into spiking patterns in the primary sensors located in the skin. This source of variability greatly hampers detailed investigations of the response of the brain to different types of mechanical stimuli. A novel stimulation technique designed to minimize the uncertainty in the strain distributions induced in the skin was applied to evoke responses in single neurons in the cat. We show that exposure to specific spatio-temporal stimuli induced highly reproducible spike responses in the cells of the cuneate nucleus, which represents the first stage of integration of peripheral inputs to the brain. Using precisely controlled spatio-temporal stimuli, we also show that cuneate neurons, as a whole, were selectively sensitive to the spatial and to the temporal aspects of the stimuli. We conclude that the present skin stimulation technique based on localized differential tractions greatly reduces response variability that is exogenous to the information processing of the brain and hence paves the way for substantially more detailed investigations of the brain's somatosensory system. PMID:24451390

Hayward, Vincent; Terekhov, Alexander V.; Wong, Sheng-Chao; Geborek, Pontus; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Jörntell, Henrik

2014-01-01

114

Quantifying human sensitivity to spatio-temporal information in dynamic faces.  

PubMed

A great deal of perceptual and social information is conveyed by facial motion. Here, we investigated observers' sensitivity to the complex spatio-temporal information in facial expressions and what cues they use to judge the similarity of these movements. We motion-captured four facial expressions and decomposed them into time courses of semantically meaningful local facial actions (e.g., eyebrow raise). We then generated approximations of the time courses which differed in the amount of information about the natural facial motion they contained, and used these and the original time courses to animate an avatar head. Observers chose which of two animations based on approximations was more similar to the animation based on the original time course. We found that observers preferred animations containing more information about the natural facial motion dynamics. To explain observers' similarity judgments, we developed and used several measures of objective stimulus similarity. The time course of facial actions (e.g., onset and peak of eyebrow raise) explained observers' behavioral choices better than image-based measures (e.g., optic flow). Our results thus revealed observers' sensitivity to changes of natural facial dynamics. Importantly, our method allows a quantitative explanation of the perceived similarity of dynamic facial expressions, which suggests that sparse but meaningful spatio-temporal cues are used to process facial motion. PMID:24784699

Dobs, Katharina; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Breidt, Martin; Vuong, Quoc C; Curio, Crist?bal; Schultz, Johannes

2014-07-01

115

Working with Spatio-Temporal Data Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several aspects of spatiotemporal databases have been explored in past decades, ranging from basic data structure to query processing and indexing. But today, operational temporal GIS does not exist. The key impediments have been the complexity of integrating space and time and the lack of standards. OpenGIS standards for simple feature access (spatial type) do exist, but unlike the spatial type, standards for spatiotemporal data type do not exist. This paper explores a new approach to modeling space and time to provide the basis for implementing a temporal GIS. This approach is based on the concept of data types in databases. A data type provides constructors, accessors, and operators. Most commercial and open source databases provide data types to deal with the spatial component of a GIS, called spatial type. Oracle Spatial, DB2 Spatial Extender and Informix Spatial DataBlade, ST_Geometry for PostgreSQL and Oracle from Esri, PostGIS for PostgreSQL, etc., are some examples. This new spatiotemporal data type is called spatiotemporal type (STT). This STT is implemented in PostgreSQL, an open source relational database management system. The STT is an extension of Esri's ST_Geometry type for PostgreSQL, in which each spatial object has a life span. Constructors, accessors, and relational functions are provided to create STT and support spatial, spatiotemporal, and temporal queries. Some functions are extended based on OpenGIS standards for the spatial type. Examples are provided to demonstrate the application of these functions. The paper concludes with limitations and challenges of implementing STT.

Raza, A.

2012-07-01

116

Multilevel Methodology for Simulation of Spatio-Temporal Systems with Heterogeneous Activity; Application to Spread of Valley Fever Fungus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report consists of a dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate College, The University of Arizona, 2008. Spatio-temporal systems with heterogeneity in their structure and behavior have two major problems associated with them. The first one is that such complex real world systems extend over very large spatial and temporal domains and consume so many computational resources to simulate that they are infeasible to study with current computational platforms. The second one is that the data available for understanding such systems is limited because they are spread over space and time making it hard to obtain micro and macro measurements. This also makes it difficult to get the data for validation of their constituent processes while simultaneously considering their global behavior. For example, the valley fever fungus considered in this dissertation is spread over a large spatial grid in the arid Southwest and typically needs to be simulated over several decades of time to obtain useful information. It is also hard to get the temperature and moisture data (which are two critical factors on which the survival of the valley fever fungus depends) at every grid point of the spatial domain over the region of study. In order to address the first problem, we develop a method based on the discrete event system specification which exploits the heterogeneity in the activity of the spatio-temporal system and which has been shown to be effective in solving relatively simple partial differential equation systems. The benefit of addressing the first problem is that it now makes it feasible to address the second problem. We address the second problem by making use of a multilevel methodology based on modeling and simulation and systems theory. This methodology helps us in the construction of models with different resolutions (base and lumped models). This allows us to refine an initially constructed lumped model with detailed physics-based process models and assess whether they improve on the original lumped models. For that assessment, we use the concept of experimental frame to delimit where the improvement is needed. This allows us to work with the available data, improve the component models in their own experimental frame and then move them to the overall frame. In this dissertation, we develop a multilevel methodology and apply it to a valley fever model. Moreover, we study the model's behavior in a particular experimental frame of interest, namely the formation of new sporing sites.

Jammalamadaka, Rajanikanth

2009-01-01

117

Spatio-temporal Granger causality: a new framework  

PubMed Central

That physiological oscillations of various frequencies are present in fMRI signals is the rule, not the exception. Herein, we propose a novel theoretical framework, spatio-temporal Granger causality, which allows us to more reliably and precisely estimate the Granger causality from experimental datasets possessing time-varying properties caused by physiological oscillations. Within this framework, Granger causality is redefined as a global index measuring the directed information flow between two time series with time-varying properties. Both theoretical analyses and numerical examples demonstrate that Granger causality is a monotonically increasing function of the temporal resolution used in the estimation. This is consistent with the general principle of coarse graining, which causes information loss by smoothing out very fine-scale details in time and space. Our results confirm that the Granger causality at the finer spatio-temporal scales considerably outperforms the traditional approach in terms of an improved consistency between two resting-state scans of the same subject. To optimally estimate the Granger causality, the proposed theoretical framework is implemented through a combination of several approaches, such as dividing the optimal time window and estimating the parameters at the fine temporal and spatial scales. Taken together, our approach provides a novel and robust framework for estimating the Granger causality from fMRI, EEG, and other related data. PMID:23643924

Luo, Qiang; Lu, Wenlian; Cheng, Wei; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Wen, Xiaotong; Ding, Mingzhou; Feng, Jianfeng

2015-01-01

118

Event Detection using Twitter: A Spatio-Temporal Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Every day, around 400 million tweets are sent worldwide, which has become a rich source for detecting, monitoring and analysing news stories and special (disaster) events. Existing research within this field follows key words attributed to an event, monitoring temporal changes in word usage. However, this method requires prior knowledge of the event in order to know which words to follow, and does not guarantee that the words chosen will be the most appropriate to monitor. Methods This paper suggests an alternative methodology for event detection using space-time scan statistics (STSS). This technique looks for clusters within the dataset across both space and time, regardless of tweet content. It is expected that clusters of tweets will emerge during spatio-temporally relevant events, as people will tweet more than expected in order to describe the event and spread information. The special event used as a case study is the 2013 London helicopter crash. Results and Conclusion A spatio-temporally significant cluster is found relating to the London helicopter crash. Although the cluster only remains significant for a relatively short time, it is rich in information, such as important key words and photographs. The method also detects other special events such as football matches, as well as train and flight delays from Twitter data. These findings demonstrate that STSS is an effective approach to analysing Twitter data for event detection. PMID:24893168

Cheng, Tao; Wicks, Thomas

2014-01-01

119

Gait recognition using spatio-temporal silhouette-based features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new algorithm for human gait recognition based on Spatio-temporal body biometric features using wavelet transforms. The proposed algorithm extracts the Gait cycle depending on the width of boundary box from a sequence of Silhouette images. Gait recognition is based on feature level fusion of three feature vectors: the gait spatio-temporal feature represented by the distances between (feet, knees, hands, shoulders, and height); binary difference between consecutive frames of the silhouette for each leg detected separately based on hamming distance; a vector of statistical parameters captured from the wavelet low frequency domain. The fused feature vector is subjected to dimension reduction using linear discriminate analysis. The Nearest Neighbour with a certain threshold used for classification. The threshold is obtained by experiment from a set of data captured from the CASIA database. We shall demonstrate that our method provides a non-traditional identification based on certain threshold to classify the outsider members as non-classified members.

Sabir, Azhin; Al-jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

2013-05-01

120

Hierarchical Representation of Videos with Spatio-Temporal Fibers Ratnesh Kumar Guillaume Charpiat Monique Thonnat  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Representation of Videos with Spatio-Temporal Fibers Ratnesh Kumar Guillaume Charpiat representation of videos, as spatio- temporal fibers. These fibers are clusters of trajectories that are meshed spatially in the image domain. They form a hier- archical partition of the video into regions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

Discovering Order in Chaos by Deriving Spatio-Temporal Data on the Fly  

E-print Network

Discovering Order in Chaos by Deriving Spatio- Temporal Data on the Fly Kristin Stock and Didier spatio-temporal data models have been proposed across a range of disciplines, including the simple data modelling expertise is available for data maintenance and use, they are often too complex

Stock, Kristin

122

Methods for ad-hoc delineation and analysis of categories of spatio-temporal events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysts are faced with increasing volume and complexity of spatially and spatio-temporally referenced events to analyze. One means of taming this volume and complexity is to develop methods and tools that can identify patterns, including spatio-temporal structure like clusters, in event data. To understand these methods and tools, we first present some of the motivation for the work, and then

Frank Hardisty; Donna Peuquet; Sen Xu; Anthony Robinson

2011-01-01

123

Spatio-temporal curvature and the visual coding of motion Erhardt Barth  

E-print Network

. The assumption is then validated by noting that human observers and cortical neurons are sensitive to parametersSpatio-temporal curvature and the visual coding of motion Erhardt Barth Institute for Signal input itself, i.e. the geometry of the spatio-temporal hypersurface defined by image intensity

124

The emerging role and benefits of boundary analysis in spatio-temporal epidemiology and public health  

E-print Network

This special issue on geographic boundary analysis in spatio-temporal epidemiology and public health seeks, conduct and assess the effectiveness of public health interventions. Consider some examplesThe emerging role and benefits of boundary analysis in spatio- temporal epidemiology and public

125

Mercury: A Memory-Constrained Spatio-temporal Real-time Search on Microblogs  

E-print Network

Mercury: A Memory-Constrained Spatio-temporal Real-time Search on Microblogs Amr Magdy1§ , Mohamed Mercury; a system for real-time support of top-k spatio-temporal queries on microblogs, where users are able to browse recent microblogs near their locations. With high arrival rates of microblogs, Mercury

Bernstein, Phil

126

A 3-D spatio-temporal deconvolution approach for MR perfusion in the brain  

E-print Network

A 3-D spatio-temporal deconvolution approach for MR perfusion in the brain Carole Frindel , Marc C al., 1998), in con- trast-enhanced MRI for spatio-temporal reconstruction (Schmid et al., 2006), the cere- bral blood flow (CBF), the mean transit time (MTT) and the time- to-peak of the residue function

Robini, Marc - Pôle de Mathématiques, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon

127

VIDEO REGION SEGMENTATION BY SPATIO-TEMPORAL WATERSHEDS M. A. El Saban and B. S. Manjunath  

E-print Network

VIDEO REGION SEGMENTATION BY SPATIO-TEMPORAL WATERSHEDS M. A. El Saban and B. S. Manjunath}@ece.ucsb.edu Abstract We propose a video region segmentation scheme combin- ing spatio-temporal edges and watershed is used as a topological surface for a watershed grouping stage. Considering the video as a 3-D volume

California at Santa Barbara, University of

128

A Spatio-temporal Design Problem for a Damped Wave Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze in this work a spatio-temporal optimal design problem governed by a linear damped 1-D wave equation. The problem consists in seeking simultaneously the spatio- temporal layout of two isotropic materials and the static position of the damping set in order to minimize a functional depending quadratically on the gradient of the state. The lack of classical solutions for

Faustino Maestre; Arnaud Münch; Pablo Pedregal

2007-01-01

129

A SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODEL OF HOUSING PRICES BASED ON INDIVIDUAL  

E-print Network

A SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODEL OF HOUSING PRICES BASED ON INDIVIDUAL SALES TRANSACTIONS OVER TIME Tony E price trends is developed that focuses on individual housing sales over time. The model allows for both in the Philadelphia area. Key Words: Housing Prices, Spatio-temporal models, Autocorrelation We owe special thanks

Smith, Tony E.

130

Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Earth Science Data * Pang-Ning Tan+  

E-print Network

1 Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Earth Science Data * Pang-Ning Tan+ Michael Steinbach+ Vipin-temporal patterns from Earth Science data. The data consists of time series measurements for various Earth science of the spatio-temporal issues. Earth Science data has strong seasonal components that need to be removed prior

Kumar, Vipin

131

Self-Healing Spatio-Temporal Data Streams Using Error Signatures  

E-print Network

Self-Healing Spatio-Temporal Data Streams Using Error Signatures Shigeru Imai, Richard Klockowski, NY 12180, USA Email: {imais,klockr,cvarela}@cs.rpi.edu Abstract--Self-healing spatio-temporal data streaming systems enable error detection and data correction based on error signatures. Error signatures

Bystroff, Chris

132

A Spatio-Temporal GIS Database for Monitoring Alpine Glacier Change  

E-print Network

A Spatio-Temporal GIS Database for Monitoring Alpine Glacier Change Jeremy L. Mennis Department describes the design and implementation of a spatio- temporal GIS database for monitoring glacier geometry-aerial surface, we developed a geographic information system (GIS) database for glacier monitoring. This effort

Mennis, Jeremy

133

Scale-free model for spatio-temporal distribution of outbreaks of avian influenza  

E-print Network

Scale-free model for spatio-temporal distribution of outbreaks of avian influenza Michael Small influenza outbreaks among wild and domestic birds, we show that this model is not appropriate. We find the global spatio-temporal distribution of avian influenza cases in both wild and domestic birds and find

Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

134

Spatio-temporal operator formalism for holographic recording and diffraction in a photorefractive-based true-time-delay phased-array processor.  

PubMed

We present a spatio-temporal operator formalism and beam propagation simulations that describe the broadband efficient adaptive method for a true-time-delay array processing (BEAMTAP) algorithm for an optical beamformer by use of a photorefractive crystal. The optical system consists of a tapped-delay line implemented with an acoustooptic Bragg cell, an accumulating scrolling time-delay detector achieved with a traveling-fringes detector, and a photorefractive crystal to store the adaptive spatio-temporal weights as volume holographic gratings. In this analysis, linear shift-invariant integral operators are used to describe the propagation, interference, grating accumulation, and volume holographic diffraction of the spatio-temporally modulated optical fields in the system to compute the adaptive array processing operation. In addition, it is shown that the random fluctuation in time and phase delays of the optically modulated and transmitted array signals produced by fiber perturbations (temperature fluctuations, vibrations, or bending) are dynamically compensated for through the process of holographic wavefront reconstruction as a byproduct of the adaptive beam-forming and jammer-excision operation. The complexity of the cascaded spatial-temporal integrals describing the holographic formation, and subsequent readout processes, is shown to collapse to a simple imaging condition through standard operator manipulation. We also present spatio-temporal beam propagation simulation results as an illustrative demonstration of our analysis and the operation of a BEAMTAP beamformer. PMID:14503701

Kiruluta, Andrew; Pati, Gour S; Kriehn, Gregory; Silveira, Paulo E X; Sarto, Anthony W; Wagner, Kelvin

2003-09-10

135

Evolving Time Fronts: Spatio-Temporal Video Warping Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski Shmuel Peleg  

E-print Network

Evolving Time Fronts: Spatio-Temporal Video Warping Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski of this swimming competition? Spatio-temporal warping enables time to flow differently at different locations framework for spatio- temporal warping of video. The proposed framework is simple yet general, allowing

Peleg, Shmuel

136

Dual spectral-band interferometry for spatio-temporal characterization of high-power femtosecond lasers.  

PubMed

We present and demonstrate a technique called RED-SEA TADPOLE for the spatio-temporal characterization of high peak power femtosecond lasers. It retains the basic principle of an existing method, where a scanning monomode fiber is utilized in an interferometric scheme to measure the spectral amplitude and phase at all points across an ultrashort laser beam. We combine this approach with dual spectral-band interferometry, to correct for all phase errors occurring in this interferometer, thus allowing for the simultaneous measurement of the beam wavefront and pulse front in a collimated beam of large diameter. The generic phase correction procedure implemented here can also be extended to other fiber optic device applications sensitive to phase fluctuations. PMID:25121849

Gallet, V; Kahaly, S; Gobert, O; Quéré, F

2014-08-15

137

Final report: spatio-temporal data mining of scientific trajectory data  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing availability of massive observational and experimental data sets (across a wide variety of scientific disciplines) there is an increasing need to provide scientists with efficient computational tools to explore such data in a systematic manner. For example, techniques such as classification and clustering are now being widely used in astronomy to categorize and organize stellar objects into groups and catalogs, which in turn provide the impetus for scientific hypothesis formation and discovery (e.g., see Fayyad, Djorgovski and Weir (1996); or Cheeseman and Stutz (1996) or Fayyad and Smyth (1999) in a more general context). Data-driven exploration of massive spatio-temporal data sets is an area where there is particular need of data mining techniques. Scientists are overwhelmed by the vast quantities of data which simulations, experiments, and observational instruments can produce. Analysis of spatio-temporal data is inherently challenging, yet most current research in data mining is focused on algorithms based on more traditional feature-vector data representations. Scientists are often not particularly interested in raw grid-level data, but rather in the phenomena and processes which are ''driving'' the data. In particular, they are often interested in the temporal and spatial evolution of specific ''spatially local'' structures of interest, e.g., birth-death processes for vortices and interfaces in fluid-flow simulations and experiments, trajectories of extra-tropical cyclones from sea-level pressure data over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and sunspot shape and size evolution over time from daily chromospheric images of the Sun. The ability to automatically detect, cluster, and catalog such objects in principle provides an important ''data reduction front-end'' which can convert 4-d data sets (3 spatial and 1 temporal dimension) on a massive grid to a much more abstract representation of local structures and their evolution. In turn, these higher-level representations provide a general framework and basis for further scientific hypothesis generation and investigation, e.g., investigating correlations between local phenomena (such as storm paths) and global trends (such as temperature changes). In this work we focused on detecting and clustering trajectories of individual objects in massive spatio-temporal data sets. There are two primary technical problems involved. First, the local structures of interest must be detected, characterized, and extracted from the mass of overall data. Second, the evolution (in space and/or time) of these structures needs to be modeled and characterized in a systematic manner if the overall goal of producing a reduced and interpretable description of the data is to be met.

Gaffney, S; Smyth, P

2001-01-10

138

Big Data Standards in Action: Spatio-Temporal Analytics with EarthServer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the transatlantic EarthServer initiative, a set of value-adding services on massive spatio-temporal data are being established for all Earth Sciences. Already at a volume exceeding 10 Terabyte in total, several of the services will break the 100 TB barrier this summer. The common EarthServer platform rigorously relies on the open OGC standards only. At the heart is the core OGC Big Geo Data standard, Web Coverage Service (WCS), together with its analytics extension Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). We present OGC's coverage data and processing model. On the example of the WCS Core Reference Implementation, rasdaman, we discuss how scalable implementations are supported. Time and Internet permitting a live demo will be included.

Baumann, Peter

2014-05-01

139

Automatic validation of computational models using pseudo-3D spatio-temporal model checking.  

PubMed

BackgroundComputational models play an increasingly important role in systems biology for generating predictions and in synthetic biology as executable prototypes/designs. For real life (clinical) applications there is a need to scale up and build more complex spatio-temporal multiscale models; these could enable investigating how changes at small scales reflect at large scales and viceversa. Results generated by computational models can be applied to real life applications only if the models have been validated first. Traditional in silico model checking techniques only capture how non-dimensional properties (e.g. concentrations) evolve over time and are suitable for small scale systems (e.g. metabolic pathways). The validation of larger scale systems (e.g. multicellular populations) additionally requires capturing how spatial patterns and their properties change over time, which are not considered by traditional non-spatial approaches.ResultsWe developed and implemented a methodology for the automatic validation of computational models with respect to both their spatial and temporal properties. Stochastic biological systems are represented by abstract models which assume a linear structure of time and a pseudo-3D representation of space (2D space plus a density measure). Time series data generated by such models is provided as input to parameterised image processing modules which automatically detect and analyse spatial patterns (e.g. cell) and clusters of such patterns (e.g. cellular population). For capturing how spatial and numeric properties change over time the Probabilistic Bounded Linear Spatial Temporal Logic is introduced. Given a collection of time series data and a formal spatio-temporal specification the model checker Mudi (http://mudi.modelchecking.org) determines probabilistically if the formal specification holds for the computational model or not. Mudi is an approximate probabilistic model checking platform which enables users to choose between frequentist and Bayesian, estimate and statistical hypothesis testing based validation approaches. We illustrate the expressivity and efficiency of our approach based on two biological case studies namely phase variation patterning in bacterial colony growth and the chemotactic aggregation of cells.ConclusionsThe formal methodology implemented in Mudi enables the validation of computational models against spatio-temporal logic properties and is a precursor to the development and validation of more complex multidimensional and multiscale models. PMID:25440773

Pârvu, Ovidiu; Gilbert, David

2014-12-01

140

Predicting gross primary production with high spatio-temporal resolution remote sensing datasets at regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing has great potential for estimating gross primary production (GPP) without resorting to interpolation of many surface observations. Meanwhile, it can be applied to analyzing the variation of GPP at different ecosystems across a wide range of spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. However, the availability of input data for remote-sensing-based GPP models is the bottleneck. The input data of remote-sensing-based greenness and radiation (GR) model is more independent on climate or ground-based observations, and the result is promising. Previous work using this modeling approach only used coarse spatial resolution data (e.g. MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS), the estimated spatio-temporal distributions of GPP with higher resolution remains unclear. To overcome this limitation, a modified image fusion method was developed based on Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (mESTARFM), producing images with high spatial and temporal resolutions based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) / Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+) (high spatial resolution, low temporal resolution) and MODIS (low spatial resolution, high temporal resolution). Meanwhile, the Simple Analytical Footprint model on Eulerian coordinates (SAFE) model to estimate the flux tower's footprint, which will be helpful for GR model's calibration, and improve the accuracy of GPP estimate. In the study, twelve flux sites belonging to Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN)/Canadian Carbon Program (CCP) were selected, covering grassland, forest, and wetland biomes. The remote sensing dataset acquired in this study for each site include MODIS reflectance product (MOD09A1, 500 m), Landsat TM /ETM+ (30 m), MODIS BRDF/ Albedo model parameter product (MCD43A1, 500 m), MODIS BRDF/ Albedo quality product (MCD43A2, 500 m). The steps are as follows:: (i) Landsat TM /ETM+ and MODIS data were used as mESTARFM inputs to produce reflectance datasets with high spatio-temporal resolution; (ii) the estimated GPP is produced by GR model using available reflectance data with high spatial resolution; (iii) the GR model's calibration process is done combined with SAFE model's pure footprint result and the observations of flux sites; (iv) the spatio-temporal distribution of GPP values at regional scale are predicted with specific parameters correspond to different ecosystem.

Fu, D.; Chen, B.

2012-04-01

141

Spontaneous switching among multiple spatio-temporal patterns in three-oscillator systems constructed with oscillatory cells of true slime mold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-oscillator systems with plasmodia of true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, which is an oscillatory amoeba-like unicellular organism, were experimentally constructed and their spatio-temporal patterns were investigated. Three typical spatio-temporal patterns were found: rotation ( R), partial in-phase ( PI), and partial anti-phase with double frequency ( PA). In pattern R, phase differences between adjacent oscillators were almost 120 ?. In pattern PI, two oscillators were in-phase and the third oscillator showed anti-phase against the two oscillators. In pattern PA, two oscillators showed anti-phase and the third oscillator showed frequency doubling oscillation with small amplitude. Actually each pattern is not perfectly stable but quasi-stable. Interestingly, the system shows spontaneous switching among the multiple quasi-stable patterns. Statistical analyses revealed a characteristic in the residence time of each pattern: the histograms seem to have Gamma-like distribution form but with a sharp peak and a tail on the side of long period. That suggests the attractor of this system has complex structure composed of at least three types of sub-attractors: a “Gamma attractor”-involved with several Poisson processes, a “deterministic attractor”-the residence time is deterministic, and a “stable attractor”-each pattern is stable. When the coupling strength was small, only the Gamma attractor was observed and switching behavior among patterns R, PI, and PA almost always via an asynchronous pattern named O. A conjecture is as follows: Internal/external noise exposes each pattern of R, PI, and PA coexisting around bifurcation points: That is observed as the Gamma attractor. As coupling strength increases, the deterministic attractor appears then followed by the stable attractor, always accompanied with the Gamma attractor. Switching behavior could be caused by regular existence of the Gamma attractor.

Takamatsu, Atsuko

2006-11-01

142

Spatio-Temporal Structure of Hooded Gull Flocks  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor’s position in terms of coordinates based on each individual’s motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock. PMID:24339960

Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

143

SPATIO-TEMPORAL COMPLEXITY OF THE AORTIC SINUS VORTEX.  

PubMed

The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatio-temporal characteristics of aortic sinus voxtex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High resolution time-resolved (2KHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in time-scales as revealed using time bin averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small time-scale vortices and a large time-scale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatio-temporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and time-scales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics. PMID:25067881

Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2014-06-01

144

A spatio-temporal mining approach towards summarizing and analyzing protein folding trajectories.  

PubMed

Understanding the protein folding mechanism remains a grand challenge in structural biology. In the past several years, computational theories in molecular dynamics have been employed to shed light on the folding process. Coupled with high computing power and large scale storage, researchers now can computationally simulate the protein folding process in atomistic details at femtosecond temporal resolution. Such simulation often produces a large number of folding trajectories, each consisting of a series of 3D conformations of the protein under study. As a result, effectively managing and analyzing such trajectories is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a spatio-temporal mining approach to analyze protein folding trajectories. It exploits the simplicity of contact maps, while also integrating 3D structural information in the analysis. It characterizes the dynamic folding process by first identifying spatio-temporal association patterns in contact maps, then studying how such patterns evolve along a folding trajectory. We demonstrate that such patterns can be leveraged to summarize folding trajectories, and to facilitate the detection and ordering of important folding events along a folding path. We also show that such patterns can be used to identify a consensus partial folding pathway across multiple folding trajectories. Furthermore, we argue that such patterns can capture both local and global structural topology in a 3D protein conformation, thereby facilitating effective structural comparison amongst conformations. We apply this approach to analyze the folding trajectories of two small synthetic proteins-BBA5 and GSGS (or Beta3S). We show that this approach is promising towards addressing the above issues, namely, folding trajectory summarization, folding events detection and ordering, and consensus partial folding pathway identification across trajectories. PMID:17407611

Yang, Hui; Parthasarathy, Srinivasan; Ucar, Duygu

2007-01-01

145

Spatio-temporal Features of Neurogenesis in the Retina of Medaka, Oryzias latipes  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate retina is very well conserved in evolution. Its structure and functional features are very similar in phyla as different as primates and teleost fish. Here we describe the spatio-temporal characteristics of neurogenesis in the retina of a teleost, medaka, and compare them to other species, primarily the zebrafish. Several intriguing differences are observed between medaka and zebrafish. For example, photoreceptor differentiation in the medaka retina starts independently in two different areas, and at more advanced stages of differentiation, medaka and zebrafish retinae display obviously different patterns of the photoreceptor cell mosaic. Medaka and zebrafish evolutionary lineages are thought to have separated from each other 110 million years ago, and so the differences between these species are not unexpected, and may be exploited to gain insight into the architecture of developmental pathways. Importantly, this work highlights the benefits of using multiple teleost models in parallel to understand a developmental process. PMID:19035349

Kitambi, Satish S.; Malicki, Jarema J.

2010-01-01

146

Spatio-temporal development of the pairing instability in an infinite array of vortex rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the linear stability of an infinite vortex ring array with respect to the pairing instability, using a spectral code. The base flow solution, obtained after a short relaxation process, is composed of rings with a Gaussian azimuthal vorticity profile. The temporal stability properties are first obtained and compared to the theoretical predictions obtained by Levy and Forsedyke (1927 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 114 594–604). The spatio-temporal evolution of a localized perturbation is then computed. The growth rate ? ?ft( v \\right) of the perturbation in the frame moving at the speed v is obtained for all v. The variation of ? ?ft( v \\right) with respect to the parameters of the flow is provided.

Bolnot, H.; Le Dizès, S.; Leweke, T.

2014-12-01

147

Spatio-temporal Dynamics of a Multiple Predator-Single Prey System.  

E-print Network

??Although numerous examples exist of intra-guild dietary separation among co-existing species, studies of spatio-temporal niche partitioning among species sharing a single food resource are rare.… (more)

Garneau, Danielle

2005-01-01

148

Running head:1 Spatio-Temporal Actions of Seed Pectin Methylesterases2  

E-print Network

1 Running head:1 Spatio-Temporal Actions of Seed Pectin Methylesterases2 3 Corresponding author:4 Germination Involves Seed20 Compartment-Specific Expression and Activity of Pectin Methylesterases [W][OPEN]21

Chittka, Lars

149

Lips and Jaw Movements for Vowels and Consonants: Spatio-Temporal Characteristics and Bimodal Recognition Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the spatio-temporal characteristics of lips and jaw movements and on their relevance for lip-reading, bimodal communication theory and bimodal recognition applications. 3D visible articulatory targets for vowels and consonants are proposed. Relevant modifications on the spatio- temporal consonant targets due to coarticulatory phenomena are exemplified. When visual parameters are added to acoustic ones as inputs to

Piero Cosi; Emanuela Magno Caldognetto

150

Spatio-temporal analysis of Texas shoreline changes using GIS technique  

E-print Network

SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF TEXAS SHORELINE CHANGES USING GIS TECHNIQUE A Thesis by CESAR AUGUSTO ARIAS MORAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Geography SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF TEXAS SHORELINE CHANGES USING GIS TECHNIQUE A Thesis by CESAR AUGUSTO ARIAS MORAN...

Arias Moran, Cesar Augusto

2004-09-30

151

Spatio-temporal credit assignment in neuronal population learning.  

PubMed

In learning from trial and error, animals need to relate behavioral decisions to environmental reinforcement even though it may be difficult to assign credit to a particular decision when outcomes are uncertain or subject to delays. When considering the biophysical basis of learning, the credit-assignment problem is compounded because the behavioral decisions themselves result from the spatio-temporal aggregation of many synaptic releases. We present a model of plasticity induction for reinforcement learning in a population of leaky integrate and fire neurons which is based on a cascade of synaptic memory traces. Each synaptic cascade correlates presynaptic input first with postsynaptic events, next with the behavioral decisions and finally with external reinforcement. For operant conditioning, learning succeeds even when reinforcement is delivered with a delay so large that temporal contiguity between decision and pertinent reward is lost due to intervening decisions which are themselves subject to delayed reinforcement. This shows that the model provides a viable mechanism for temporal credit assignment. Further, learning speeds up with increasing population size, so the plasticity cascade simultaneously addresses the spatial problem of assigning credit to synapses in different population neurons. Simulations on other tasks, such as sequential decision making, serve to contrast the performance of the proposed scheme to that of temporal difference-based learning. We argue that, due to their comparative robustness, synaptic plasticity cascades are attractive basic models of reinforcement learning in the brain. PMID:21738460

Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

2011-06-01

152

Spatio-Temporal Credit Assignment in Neuronal Population Learning  

PubMed Central

In learning from trial and error, animals need to relate behavioral decisions to environmental reinforcement even though it may be difficult to assign credit to a particular decision when outcomes are uncertain or subject to delays. When considering the biophysical basis of learning, the credit-assignment problem is compounded because the behavioral decisions themselves result from the spatio-temporal aggregation of many synaptic releases. We present a model of plasticity induction for reinforcement learning in a population of leaky integrate and fire neurons which is based on a cascade of synaptic memory traces. Each synaptic cascade correlates presynaptic input first with postsynaptic events, next with the behavioral decisions and finally with external reinforcement. For operant conditioning, learning succeeds even when reinforcement is delivered with a delay so large that temporal contiguity between decision and pertinent reward is lost due to intervening decisions which are themselves subject to delayed reinforcement. This shows that the model provides a viable mechanism for temporal credit assignment. Further, learning speeds up with increasing population size, so the plasticity cascade simultaneously addresses the spatial problem of assigning credit to synapses in different population neurons. Simulations on other tasks, such as sequential decision making, serve to contrast the performance of the proposed scheme to that of temporal difference-based learning. We argue that, due to their comparative robustness, synaptic plasticity cascades are attractive basic models of reinforcement learning in the brain. PMID:21738460

Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

2011-01-01

153

Spatio-temporal self-organization in mudstones.  

SciTech Connect

Shales and other mudstones are the most abundant rock types in sedimentary basins, yet have received comparatively little attention. Common as hydrocarbon seals, these are increasingly being targeted as unconventional gas reservoirs, caprocks for CO2 sequestration, and storage repositories for waste. The small pore and grain size, large specific surface areas, and clay mineral structures lend themselves to rapid reaction rates, high capillary pressures, and semi-permeable membrane behavior accompanying changes in stress, pressure, temperature and chemical conditions. Under far from equilibrium conditions, mudrocks display a variety of spatio-temporal self-organized phenomena arising from nonlinear thermo-mechano-chemo-hydro coupling. Beginning with a detailed examination of nano-scale pore network structures in mudstones, we discuss the dynamics behind such self-organized phenomena as pressure solitons in unconsolidated muds, chemically-induced flow self focusing and permeability transients, localized compaction, time dependent well-bore failure, and oscillatory osmotic fluxes as they occur in clay-bearing sediments. Examples are draw from experiments, numerical simulation, and the field. These phenomena bear on the ability of these rocks to serve as containment barriers.

Dewers, Thomas A.

2010-12-01

154

Workload induced spatio-temporal distortions and safety of flight  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical analysis of the relationship between cognitive complexity and the perception of time and distance is presented and experimentally verified. Complex tasks produce high rates of mental representation which affect the subjective sense of duration and, through the subjective time scale, the percept of distance derived from dynamic visual cues (i.e., visual cues requiring rate integration). The analysis of the interrelationship of subjective time and subjective distance yields the prediction that, as a function of cognitive complexity, distance estimates derived from dynamic visual cues will be longer than the actual distance whereas estimates based on perceived temporal duration will be shorter than the actual distance. This prediction was confirmed in an experiment in which subjects (both pilots and non-pilots) estimated distances using either temporal cues or dynamic visual cues. The distance estimation task was also combined with secondary loading tasks in order to vary the overall task complexity. The results indicated that distance estimates based on temporal cues were underestimated while estimates based on visual cues were overestimated. This spatio-temporal distortion effect increased with increases in overall task complexity. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Barrett, C.L.; Weisgerber, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (USA))

1989-01-01

155

An object-relational spatio-temporal geoscience data model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for spatially and temporally indexed multi-dimensional geoscience data has been developed by first embedding a combinatorial topological model in terms of G-Maps in the domain Rm×Time(m?N), and then converting it into an object-relational model which can easily be implemented in an object-relational database system. Geoscience objects referring to space and time often have complex geometries which are usually partitioned into simpler cells and have geometrical, topological, geological, geophysical, geochemical and other relevant properties assigned to their cells. These objects may exist in a Euclidean space Rm of arbitrary dimension m depending on which properties are chosen as "coordinates", where usually m=3 and refers to three spatial dimensions, and evolve in one dimensional valid time (Time). The valid time is independent of geometry, topology and properties but not vice versa, i.e., the geometry of an object, for example, and all its properties are modeled as functions of the valid time. Then the objects are assumed to be sampled at arbitrary but fixed instances of time, and their evolution between these instances is modeled by appropriate interpolation. The structure of the data model is well adapted to the interpolation required to represent the objects in between the instances of their observation. The data model provides the basis prerequisite of our envisioned spatio-temporal geoscience information system.

Le, Hai Ha; Gabriel, Paul; Gietzel, Jan; Schaeben, Helmut

2013-08-01

156

Spatio-temporal effects of low impact development practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe increase in land development and urbanization experienced in the US and worldwide is causing environmental degradation. Traditional off-site stormwater management does not protect small streams. To mitigate the negative effects of land development, best management practices (BMPs) are being implemented into stormwater management policies for the purposes of controlling minor flooding and improving water quality. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of BMPs has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effects of both location and quantity of two types of BMPs: cisterns and bioretention pits. A spatio-temporal model of a microwatershed was developed to determine the effects of BMPs on single-family, townhome, and commercial lots. The effects of development and the BMPs on peak runoff rates and volumes were compared to pre-development conditions. The results show that cisterns alone are capable of controlling rooftop runoff for small storms. Both the spatial location and the volume of BMP storage on a microwatershed influences the effectiveness of BMPs. The volume of BMP storage is positively correlated to the percent reduction in the peak discharge rate and total runoff volume; however, location is a factor in the peak reduction and a maximum volume of effective storage for both hydrologic metrics does exist. These results provide guidelines for developing stormwater management policies that can potentially reduce pollution of first-order streams, lower the cost and maintenance requirements, enhance aesthetics, and increase safety.

Gilroy, Kristin L.; McCuen, Richard H.

2009-04-01

157

Mining Association Rules in Spatio-Temporal Data: An Analysis of Urban Socioeconomic and Land Cover Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrates the application of association rule mining to spatio-temporal data. Association rule mining seeks to discover associations among transactions encoded in a database. An association rule takes the form A ? B where A (the antecedent) and B (the consequent) are sets of predicates. A spatio-temporal association rule occurs when there is a spatio-temporal relationship in the antecedent

Jeremy L. Mennis; Jun Wei Liu

2005-01-01

158

Fast prototyping of wavelet spatio-temporal RS fusion with Raingauge time series with GDAL and Python-DWT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of rainfall time-series is limited in many parts of the World, and the continuity of such records is variable. This research endeavors to extend actual daily rainfall observations to ungauged areas using vegetation response as witnessed by remote sensing data and taking into account rainfall event histograms as well as cumulative total daily rainfall, over a period of 11 years. Open Source code development permitted to gain on several aspects. The first one pertains to space, Python and its numerical part (NumPy) are scientifically concise, as a bonus to be expressive. The second is the availability of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in Python already, which permitted to reduce the Wavelet Transform to a small set of instructions, clarifying and simplifying the understanding of the code once it reaches the Public Domain. GDAL interface permitted to load satellite imagery and write fused rainfall time-series in spatio-temporal dimensions. Other scientific tool from Numerical Python were also used in the process of developing the algorithm (scipy.stats.stats and scipy.interpolate.griddata). Due to the large amount of days (4019) and the kilometer based resolution of the vegetation RS data, it takes about a week for the code to resolve the fusion problem. An attempt at using an multicore interpolation implementation in Python (hpgl) which unfortunately was not an active project anymore, though certainly deserving interest. Results show that rainfall events histograms can be reconstructed, and that total cumulative rainfall is estimated with 85% accuracy, using a surrounding network of rain gauges at 30-50 km of distance from the point of study. This research can strengthen various types of research and applications such as ungauged basins research, regional climate modeling, agricultural insurance systems, etc. Further development aims at porting the code to distributed computing.

Chemin, Yann

2013-04-01

159

Predicting BCI Subject Performance Using Probabilistic Spatio-Temporal Filters  

PubMed Central

Recently, spatio-temporal filtering to enhance decoding for Brain-Computer-Interfacing (BCI) has become increasingly popular. In this work, we discuss a novel, fully Bayesian–and thereby probabilistic–framework, called Bayesian Spatio-Spectral Filter Optimization (BSSFO) and apply it to a large data set of 80 non-invasive EEG-based BCI experiments. Across the full frequency range, the BSSFO framework allows to analyze which spatio-spectral parameters are common and which ones differ across the subject population. As expected, large variability of brain rhythms is observed between subjects. We have clustered subjects according to similarities in their corresponding spectral characteristics from the BSSFO model, which is found to reflect their BCI performances well. In BCI, a considerable percentage of subjects is unable to use a BCI for communication, due to their missing ability to modulate their brain rhythms–a phenomenon sometimes denoted as BCI-illiteracy or inability. Predicting individual subjects’ performance preceding the actual, time-consuming BCI-experiment enhances the usage of BCIs, e.g., by detecting users with BCI inability. This work additionally contributes by using the novel BSSFO method to predict the BCI-performance using only 2 minutes and 3 channels of resting-state EEG data recorded before the actual BCI-experiment. Specifically, by grouping the individual frequency characteristics we have nicely classified them into the subject ‘prototypes’ (like ? - or ? -rhythm type subjects) or users without ability to communicate with a BCI, and then by further building a linear regression model based on the grouping we could predict subjects' performance with the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.581 with the performance later seen in the actual BCI session. PMID:24551050

Suk, Heung-Il; Fazli, Siamac; Mehnert, Jan; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

2014-01-01

160

Ultrashort relativistic electron bunches and spatio-temporal radiation biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensive developments of terawatt Ti:Sa lasers permit to extend laser-plasma interactions into the relativistic regime, providing very-short electron or proton bunches. Experimental researches developed at the interface of laser physics and radiation biology, using the combination of sub-picosecond electron beams in the energy range 2-15 MeV with femtosecond near-IR optical pulses might conjecture the real-time investigation of penetrating radiation effects. A perfect synchronization between the particle beam (pump) and optical beam at 820 nm (probe) allows subpicosecond time resolution. This emerging domain involves high-energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF) for which the early spatial energy deposition is decisive for the prediction of cellular and tissular radiation damages. With vacuum-focused intensities of 2.7 x 1019 W cm-2 and a high energy electron total charge of 2.5 nC, radiation events have been investigated in the temporal range 10-13 - 10-10s. The early radiation effects of secondary electron on biomolecular sensors may be investigated inside sub-micrometric ionisation, considering the radial direction of Gaussian electron bunches. It is shown that short range electron-biosensor interactions lower than 10 A take place in nascent track structures triggered by penetrating radiation bunches. The very high dose delivery 1013 Gy s-1 performed with laser plasma accelerator may challenge our understanding of nanodosimetry on the time scale of molecular target motions. High-quality ultrashort penetrating radiation beams open promising opportunities for the development of spatio-temporal radiation biology, a crucial domain of cancer therapy, and would favor novating applications in nanomedicine such as highly-selective shortrange pro-drug activation.

Gauduel, Y. A.; Faure, J.; Malka, V.

2008-08-01

161

Spatio-temporal drought forecasting within Bayesian networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variations of future droughts across the Gunnison River Basin in CO, USA, are evaluated in this study, using a recently developed probabilistic forecast model. The Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) is employed to analyze drought status across the spatial extent of the basin. The runoff generated at each spatial unit of the basin is estimated by a distributed-parameter and physically-based hydrologic model. Using the historical runoff at each spatial unit, a statistical forecast model is developed within Bayesian networks. The forecast model applies a family of multivariate distribution functions to forecast future drought conditions given the drought status in the past. Given the runoff in the past (January-June), the forecast model is applied in estimating the runoff across the basin in the forecast period (July-December). The main advantage of the forecast model is its probabilistic features in analyzing future droughts. It develops conditional probabilities of a given forecast variable, and returns the highest probable forecast along with an assessment of the uncertainty around that value. Bayesian networks can also estimate the probability of future droughts with different severities, given the drought status of the predictor period. Moreover, the model can be used to generate maps showing the runoff variation over the basin with the particular chance of occurrence in the future. Our results indicate that the statistical method applied in this study is a useful procedure in probabilistic forecast of future droughts given the spatio-temporal characteristics of droughts in the past. The techniques presented in this manuscript are suitable for probabilistic drought forecasting and have potential to improve drought characterization in different applications.

Madadgar, Shahrbanou; Moradkhani, Hamid

2014-05-01

162

Transfer of spatio-temporal multifractal properties of rainfall to simulated surface runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we suggest to use scaling laws and more specifically Universal Multifractals (UM) to analyse in a spatio-temporal framework both the radar rainfall and the simulated surface runoff. Such tools have been extensively used to analyse and simulate geophysical fields extremely variable over wide range of spatio-temporal scales such as rainfall, but have not often if ever been applied to surface runoff. Such novel combined analysis helps to improve the understanding of the rainfall-runoff relationship. Two catchments of the chair "Hydrology for resilient cities" sponsored by Véolia, and of the European Interreg IV RainGain project are used. They are both located in the Paris area: a 144 ha flat urban area in the Seine-Saint-Denis County, and a 250 ha urban area with a significant portion of forest located on a steep hillside of the Bièvre River. A fully distributed urban hydrological model currently under development called Multi-Hydro is implemented to represent the catchments response. It consists in an interacting core between open source software packages, each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environment. The fully distributed model is tested with pixels of size 5, 10 and 20 m. In a first step the model is validated for three rainfall events that occurred in 2010 and 2011, for which the Météo-France radar mosaic with a resolution of 1 km in space and 5 min in time is available. These events generated significant surface runoff and some local flooding. The sensitivity of the model to the rainfall resolution is briefly checked by stochastically generating an ensemble of realistic downscaled rainfall fields (obtained by continuing the underlying cascade process which is observed on the available range of scales) and inputting them into the model. The impact is significant on both the simulated sewer flow and surface runoff. Then rainfall fields are generated with the help of discrete multifractal cascades and inputted in the numerical hydrological model. It appears that the outputs (maps of water depth and velocity) of the hydrological model exhibit a scaling behaviour both in space and time. Various sets of UM parameters are tested. The three UM parameters of the various processes at stake are then compared which enables to analyse how the extremes are either dampened or enhanced. This hints at innovative techniques to quantify the extremes at very high resolution (typically 1 m) without having to run the model at these resolutions which would require too much time especially for real time applications.

Gires, Auguste; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Richard, Julien; Abbes, Jean-Baptiste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Willinger, Bernard; Cardinal, Hervé; Thouvenot, Thomas

2014-05-01

163

Spatio-Temporal Evolution and Scaling Properties of Human Settlements (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth and evolution of cities and smaller settlements is usually studied in the context of population and other socioeconomic variables. While this is logical in the sense that settlements are groups of humans engaged in socioeconomic processes, our means of collecting information about spatio-temporal distributions of population and socioeconomic variables often lack the spatial and temporal resolution to represent the processes at scales which they are known to occur. Furthermore, metrics and definitions often vary with country and through time. However, remote sensing provides globally consistent, synoptic observations of several proxies for human settlement at spatial and temporal resolutions sufficient to represent the evolution of settlements over the past 40 years. We use several independent but complementary proxies for anthropogenic land cover to quantify spatio-temporal (ST) evolution and scaling properties of human settlements globally. In this study we begin by comparing land cover and night lights in 8 diverse settings - each spanning gradients of population density and degree of land surface modification. Stable anthropogenic night light is derived from multi-temporal composites of emitted luminance measured by the VIIRS and DMSP-OLS sensors. Land cover is represented as mixtures of sub-pixel fractions of rock, soil and impervious Substrates, Vegetation and Dark surfaces (shadow, water and absorptive materials) estimated from Landsat imagery with > 94% accuracy. Multi-season stability and variability of land cover fractions effectively distinguishes between spectrally similar land covers that corrupt thematic classifications based on single images. We find that temporal stability of impervious substrates combined with persistent shadow cast between buildings results in temporally stable aggregate reflectance across seasons at the 30 m scale of a Landsat pixel. Comparison of night light brightness with land cover composition, stability and variability yields several consistent relationships that persist across a variety of settlement types and physical environments. We use the multiple threshold method of Small et al (2011) to represent a continuum of settlement density by segmenting both night light brightness and multi-season land cover characteristics. Rank-size distributions of spatially contiguous segments quantify scaling and connectivity of land cover. Spatial and temporal evolution of rank-size distributions is consistent with power laws as suggested by Zipf's Law for city size based on population. However, unlike Zipf's Law, the observed distributions persist to global scales in which the larger agglomerations are much larger than individual cities. The scaling relations observed extend from the scale of cities and smaller settlements up to vast spatial networks of interconnected settlements.

Small, C.; Milesi, C.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Henebry, G. M.; Nghiem, S. V.

2013-12-01

164

Spatio-temporal distribution of phenolamides and the genetics of natural variation of hydroxycinnamoyl spermidine in rice.  

PubMed

Phenolamides constitute a diverse class of secondary metabolites that are found ubiquitously in plants and have been implicated to play important role in a wide range of biological processes such as plant development and defense. However, spatio-temporal accumulation patterns of phenolamides in rice, one of the most important crops, are not available so far, and no gene responsible for the phenolamides biosynthesis has been identified in this species. In this report, we report here the comprehensive metabolic profiling and natural variation analysis of phenolamides in a collection of rice germplasm using an LC-MS-based targeted metabolomics method. Spatio-temporal controlled accumulations were observed for most phenolamides, together with their differential accumulations between the two major subspecies of rice. Further metabolic genome-wide association study (mGWAS) in rice leaf and the in vivo metabolic analysis of the transgenic plants identified Os12g27200 and Os12g27254 as two spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases that might be underlying the natural variation of levels of spermidine conjugates in rice. Our work demonstrates 'gene-to-metabolite' analysis by mGWAS provides a useful tool for functional gene identification and omics-based crop genetic improvement. PMID:25267730

Dong, Xuekui; Gao, Yanqiang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wensheng; Gong, Liang; Liu, Xianqing; Luo, Jie

2014-09-29

165

Modeling self-organized spatio-temporal patterns of PIP3 and PTEN during spontaneous cell polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During spontaneous cell polarization of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphoshpate (PIP3) and PTEN (phosphatase tensin homolog) have been identified as key signaling molecules which govern the process of polarization in a self-organized manner. Recent experiments have quantified the spatio-temporal dynamics of these signaling components. Surprisingly, it was found that membrane-bound PTEN can be either in a high or low state, that PIP3 waves were initiated in areas lacking PTEN through an excitable mechanism, and that PIP3 was degraded even though the PTEN concentration remained low. Here we develop a reaction-diffusion model that aims to explain these experimental findings. Our model contains bistable dynamics for PTEN, excitable dynamics for PIP3, and postulates the existence of two species of PTEN with different dephosphorylation rates. We show that our model is able to produce results that are in good qualitative agreement with the experiments, suggesting that our reaction-diffusion model underlies the self-organized spatio-temporal patterns observed in experiments.

Knoch, Fabian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

2014-08-01

166

Agent-based modeling of autophagy reveals emergent regulatory behavior of spatio-temporal autophagy dynamics.  

PubMed

BackgroundAutophagy is a vesicle-mediated pathway for lysosomal degradation, essential under basal and stressed conditions. Various cellular components, including specific proteins, protein aggregates, organelles and intracellular pathogens, are targets for autophagic degradation. Thereby, autophagy controls numerous vital physiological and pathophysiological functions, including cell signaling, differentiation, turnover of cellular components and pathogen defense. Moreover, autophagy enables the cell to recycle cellular components to metabolic substrates, thereby permitting prolonged survival under low nutrient conditions. Due to the multi-faceted roles for autophagy in maintaining cellular and organismal homeostasis and responding to diverse stresses, malfunction of autophagy contributes to both chronic and acute pathologies.ResultsWe applied a systems biology approach to improve the understanding of this complex cellular process of autophagy. All autophagy pathway vesicle activities, i.e. creation, movement, fusion and degradation, are highly dynamic, temporally and spatially, and under various forms of regulation. We therefore developed an agent-based model (ABM) to represent individual components of the autophagy pathway, subcellular vesicle dynamics and metabolic feedback with the cellular environment, thereby providing a framework to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of autophagy regulation and dynamic behavior. The rules defining our ABM were derived from literature and from high-resolution images of autophagy markers under basal and activated conditions. Key model parameters were fit with an iterative method using a genetic algorithm and a predefined fitness function. From this approach, we found that accurate prediction of spatio-temporal behavior required increasing model complexity by implementing functional integration of autophagy with the cellular nutrient state. The resulting model is able to reproduce short-term autophagic flux measurements (up to 3 hours) under basal and activated autophagy conditions, and to measure the degree of cell-to-cell variability. Moreover, we experimentally confirmed two model predictions, namely (i) peri-nuclear concentration of autophagosomes and (ii) inhibitory lysosomal feedback on mTOR signaling.ConclusionAgent-based modeling represents a novel approach to investigate autophagy dynamics, function and dysfunction with high biological realism. Our model accurately recapitulates short-term behavior and cell-to-cell variability under basal and activated conditions of autophagy. Further, this approach also allows investigation of long-term behaviors emerging from biologically-relevant alterations to vesicle trafficking and metabolic state. PMID:25214434

Börlin, Christoph S; Lang, Verena; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Brady, Nathan R

2014-09-10

167

Analysis of single-molecule mechanical measurements with high spatio-temporal resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers allow recording mechanical data from single biological molecules such as molecular motors, DNA processing enzymes, nucleic acids. Such data consist of time series that are dominated by thermal noise and such noisy recordings require proper analysis to correctly extract kinetic and mechanical information. Several different analysis approaches have been established in the past years. Here, we propose an analysis method for optical trapping recordings of non-processive motor proteins. The method does not assume any particular interaction kinetics, allows detection of sub-millisecond interactions and quantification of the number of false and lost events. Precise alignment of interaction events and ensemble averaging allow the investigation of the stepping dynamics of non-processive motors with a temporal resolution of few tens of microseconds and a spatial resolution of few angstroms. Our analysis is applied to the study of the motor protein myosin from fast skeletal muscle. Thanks to the high spatio-temporal resolution, we can distinguish three mechanical pathways in the acto-myosin interaction, with several orders of magnitude different kinetics, which contribute in a load-dependent manner to the myosin working stroke.

Capitanio, Marco; Gardini, Lucia; Pavone, Francesco S.

2013-09-01

168

A spatio-temporal understanding of growth regulation during the salt stress response in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plant environmental responses involve dynamic changes in growth and signaling, yet little is understood as to how progress through these events is regulated. Here, we explored the phenotypic and transcriptional events involved in the acclimation of the Arabidopsis thaliana seedling root to a rapid change in salinity. Using live-imaging analysis, we show that growth is dynamically regulated with a period of quiescence followed by recovery then homeostasis. Through the use of a new high-resolution spatio-temporal transcriptional map, we identify the key hormone signaling pathways that regulate specific transcriptional programs, predict their spatial domain of action, and link the activity of these pathways to the regulation of specific phases of growth. We use tissue-specific approaches to suppress the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and demonstrate that ABA likely acts in select tissue layers to regulate spatially localized transcriptional programs and promote growth recovery. Finally, we show that salt also regulates many tissue-specific and time point-specific transcriptional responses that are expected to modify water transport, Casparian strip formation, and protein translation. Together, our data reveal a sophisticated assortment of regulatory programs acting together to coordinate spatially patterned biological changes involved in the immediate and long-term response to a stressful shift in environment. PMID:23898029

Geng, Yu; Wu, Rui; Wee, Choon Wei; Xie, Fei; Wei, Xueliang; Chan, Penny Mei Yeen; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Dinneny, José R

2013-06-01

169

Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline changes along the coast between sousse- Monastir (Eastearn of Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline Changes along the coast between Sousse-Monastir (Eastern of Tunisia). Safa Fathallah*, Rim Ben Amor and Moncef Gueddari Unit of Research of Geochemistry and Environmental Geology. Faculty of Science of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 2092. (*) Corresponding author: safa_fathallah@yahoo.fr The coast of Sousse-Monastir in eastern of Tunisia, has undergone great changes, due to natural and anthropic factors. Increasing human use, the construction of two ports and coastal urbanization (hotels and industries) has accelerated the erosion process. The coastal defense structures (breakwaters and enrockment), built to protect the most eroded zone are efficient, but eroded zones appeared in the southern part of breakwaters. Recent and historic aerial photography was used to estimate, observe, and analyze past shoreline and bathymetric positions and trends involving shore evolution for Sousse-Monastir coast. All of the photographs were calibrated and mosaicked by Arc Map Gis 9.1, the years used are 1925, 1962, 1988, 1996, and 2001 for shoreline change analysis and 1884 and 2001 for bathymetric changes. The analyze of this photographs show that the zone located at the south of breakwater are mostly eroded with high speed process (2m/year). Another zone appears as eroded at the south part of Hamdoun River, with 1,5m/year erosion speed . Keywords: Shoreline evolution, defense structures, Sousse-Monastir coast, Tunisia.

Fathallah, S.; Ben Amor, R.; Gueddari, M.

2009-04-01

170

Spatio-temporal animation of Army logistics, simulations, facilitating analysis of military deployments.  

SciTech Connect

Visualization techniques for simulations are often limited to statistical reports, graphs, and charts, but simulations can be enhanced through the use of animation. A spatio-temporal animation allows a viewer to observe a simulation operate, rather than deduce it from numerical output. The Route Viewer, developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is a two-dimensional animation model that animates the objects and events produced by a discrete event simulation. It operates in a playback mode, whereby a simulated scenario is animated after the simulation has completed. The Route Viewer is used to verify the simulation's processes and data, but it also benefits the simulation as an analytical tool by facilitating spatial and temporal analysis. By visualizing the events of a simulated scenario in two-dimensional space, it is possible to determine whether the scenario, or simulation model, is reasonable. Further, the Route Viewer provides an awareness of what happens in a scenario, when it happens, and the completeness and efficiency of the scenario and its processes. For Army deployments, it highlights utilization of resources and where bottlenecks are occurring. This paper discusses how the Route Viewer facilitates the analysis of military deployment simulation model results.

Love, R. J.; Horsthemke, W.; Macal, C. M.; Van Groningen, C.; Decision and Information Sciences

2004-01-01

171

Impacts of cattle grazing on spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and above-ground live plant biomass in mixed grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas with relatively high spatial heterogeneity generally have more biodiversity than spatially homogeneous areas due to increased potential habitat. Management practices such as controlled grazing also affect the biodiversity in grasslands, but the nature of this impact is not well understood. Therefore this thesis studies the impacts of variation in grazing on soil moisture and biomass heterogeneity. These are not only important in terms of management of protected grasslands, but also for designing an effective grazing system from a livestock management point of view. This research is a part of the cattle grazing experiment underway in Grasslands National Park (GNP) of Canada since 2006, as part of the adaptive management process for restoring ecological integrity of the northern mixed-grass prairie region. An experimental approach using field measurements and remote sensing (Landsat) was combined with modelling (CENTURY) to examine and predict the impacts of grazing intensity on the spatial heterogeneity and patterns of above-ground live plant biomass (ALB) in experimental pastures in a mixed grassland ecosystem. The field-based research quantified the temporal patterns and spatial variability in both soil moisture (SM) and ALB, and the influence of local intra-seasonal weather variability and slope location on the spatio-temporal variability of SM and ALB at field plot scales. Significant impacts of intra-seasonal weather variability, slope position and grazing pressure on SM and ALB across a range of scales (plot and local (within pasture)) were found. Grazing intensity significantly affected the ALB even after controlling for the effect of slope position. Satellite-based analysis extended the scale of interest to full pastures and the surrounding region to assess the effects of grazing intensity on the spatio-temporal pattern of ALB in mixed grasslands. Overall, low to moderate grazing intensity showed increase in ALB heterogeneity whereas no change in ALB heterogeneity over time was observed for heavy grazing intensity. All grazing intensities showed decrease in spatial range (patch size) over time indicating that grazing is a patchy process. The study demonstrates that cattle grazing with variable intensity can maintain and change the spatial patterns of vegetation in the studied region. Using a modelling approach, the relative degrees to which grazing intensity and soil properties affect grassland productivity and carbon dynamics at longer time-periods were investigated. Both grass productivity and carbon dynamics are sensitive to variability in soil texture and grazing intensity. Moderate grazing is predicted to be the best option in terms of maintaining sufficient heterogeneity to support species diversity, as well as for carbon management in the mixed grassland ecosystem.

Virk, Ravinder

172

A 3-D spatio-temporal deconvolution approach for MR perfusion in the brain.  

PubMed

We propose an original spatio-temporal deconvolution approach for perfusion-weighted MRI applied to cerebral ischemia. The regularization of the underlying inverse problem is achieved with spatio-temporal priors and the resulting optimization problem is solved by half-quadratic minimization. Our approach offers strong convergence guarantees, including when the spatial priors are non-convex. Moreover, experiments on synthetic data and on real data collected from subjects with ischemic stroke show significant performance improvements over the standard approaches-namely, temporal deconvolution based on either truncated singular-value decomposition or ?2-regularization-in terms of various performance measures. PMID:24184525

Frindel, Carole; Robini, Marc C; Rousseau, David

2014-01-01

173

A Kinect based sign language recognition system using spatio-temporal features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a sign language recognition system that uses spatio-temporal features on RGB video images and depth maps for dynamic gestures of Turkish Sign Language. Proposed system uses motion differences and accumulation approach for temporal gesture analysis. Motion accumulation method, which is an effective method for temporal domain analysis of gestures, produces an accumulated motion image by combining differences of successive video frames. Then, 2D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to accumulated motion images and temporal domain features transformed into spatial domain. These processes are performed on both RGB images and depth maps separately. DCT coefficients that represent sign gestures are picked up via zigzag scanning and feature vectors are generated. In order to recognize sign gestures, K-Nearest Neighbor classifier with Manhattan distance is performed. Performance of the proposed sign language recognition system is evaluated on a sign database that contains 1002 isolated dynamic signs belongs to 111 words of Turkish Sign Language (TSL) in three different categories. Proposed sign language recognition system has promising success rates.

Memi?, Abbas; Albayrak, Songül

2013-12-01

174

Spatio-temporal activity in real time (STAR): Optimization of regional fMRI feedback  

PubMed Central

The use of real-time feedback has expanded fMRI from a brain probe to include potential brain interventions with significant therapeutic promise. However, whereas time-averaged blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal measurement is usually sufficient for probing a brain state, the real-time (frame-to-frame) BOLD signal is noisy, compromising feedback accuracy. We have developed a new real-time processing technique (STAR) that combines noise-reduction properties of multi-voxel (e.g., whole-brain) techniques with the regional specificity critical for therapeutics. Nineteen subjects were given real-time feedback in a cognitive control task (imagining repetitive motor activity vs. spatial navigation), and were all able to control a visual feedback cursor based on whole-brain neural activity. The STAR technique was evaluated, retrospectively, for five a priori regions of interest in these data, and was shown to provide significantly better (frame-by-frame) classification accuracy than a regional BOLD technique. In addition to regional feedback signals, the output of the STAR technique includes spatio-temporal activity maps (movies) providing insight into brain dynamics. The STAR approach offers an appealing optimization for real-time fMRI applications requiring an anatomically-localized feedback signal. PMID:21232612

Magland, Jeremy F.; Tjoa, Christopher W.; Childress, Anna Rose

2011-01-01

175

Spatio-temporal dynamics of species richness in coastal fish communities.  

PubMed Central

Determining patterns of change in species richness and the processes underlying the dynamics of biodiversity are of key interest within the field of ecology, but few studies have investigated the dynamics of vertebrate communities at a decadal temporal scale. Here, we report findings on the spatio-temporal variability in the richness and composition of fish communities along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast having been surveyed for more than half a century. Using statistical models incorporating non-detection and associated sampling variance, we estimate local species richness and changes in species composition allowing us to compute temporal variability in species richness. We tested whether temporal variation could be related to distance to the open sea and to local levels of pollution. Clear differences in mean species richness and temporal variability are observed between fjords that were and were not exposed to the effects of pollution. Altogether this indicates that the fjord is an appropriate scale for studying changes in coastal fish communities in space and time. The year-to-year rates of local extinction and turnover were found to be smaller than spatial differences in community composition. At the regional level, exposure to the open sea plays a homogenizing role, possibly due to coastal currents and advection. PMID:12350265

Lekve, Kyrre; Boulinier, Thierry; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Hines, James E; Nichols, James D

2002-01-01

176

Interactive visual exploration of a large spatio-temporal dataset: reflections on a geovisualization mashup.  

PubMed

Exploratory visual analysis is useful for the preliminary investigation of large structured, multifaceted spatio-temporaldatasets. This process requires the selection and aggregation of records by time, space and attribute, the ability to transform data and the flexibility to apply appropriate visual encodings and interactions. We propose an approach inspired by geographical 'mashups' in which freely-available functionality and data are loosely but flexibly combined using de facto exchange standards. Our case study combines MySQL, PHP and the LandSerf GIS to allow Google Earth to be used for visual synthesis and interaction with encodings described in KML. This approach is applied to the exploration of a log of 1.42 million requests made of a mobile directory service. Novel combinations of interaction and visual encoding are developed including spatial 'tag clouds', 'tag maps', 'data dials' and multi-scale density surfaces. Four aspects of the approach are informally evaluated: the visual encodings employed, their success in the visual exploration of the dataset, the specific tools used and the 'mashup' approach. Preliminary findings will be beneficial to others considering using mashups for visualization. The specific techniques developed may be more widely applied to offer insights into the structure of multifarious spatio-temporal data of the type explored here. PMID:17968062

Wood, Jo; Dykes, Jason; Slingsby, Aidan; Clarke, Keith

2007-01-01

177

Total activation: fMRI deconvolution through spatio-temporal regularization.  

PubMed

Confirmatory approaches to fMRI data analysis look for evidence for the presence of pre-defined regressors modeling contributions to the voxel time series, including the BOLD response following neuronal activation. As more complicated questions arise about brain function, such as spontaneous and resting-state activity, new methodologies are required. We propose total activation (TA) as a novel fMRI data analysis method to explore the underlying activity-inducing signal of the BOLD signal without any timing information that is based on sparse spatio-temporal priors and characterization of the hemodynamic system. Within a variational framework, we formulate a convex cost function-including spatial and temporal regularization terms-that is solved by fast iterative shrinkage algorithms. The temporal regularization expresses that the activity-inducing signal is block-type without restrictions on the timing nor duration. The spatial regularization favors coherent activation patterns in anatomically-defined brain regions. TA is evaluated using a software phantom and an event-related fMRI experiment with prolonged resting state periods disturbed by visual stimuli. The results illustrate that both block-type and spike-type activities can be recovered successfully without prior knowledge of the experimental paradigm. Further processing using hierarchical clustering shows that the activity-inducing signals revealed by TA contain information about meaningful task-related and resting-state networks, demonstrating good abilities for the study of non-stationary dynamics of brain activity. PMID:23384519

Karahano?lu, Fikret I??k; Caballero-Gaudes, César; Lazeyras, François; Van de Ville, Dimitri

2013-06-01

178

Polynomial chaos representation of spatio-temporal random fields from experimental measurements  

SciTech Connect

Two numerical techniques are proposed to construct a polynomial chaos (PC) representation of an arbitrary second-order random vector. In the first approach, a PC representation is constructed by matching a target joint probability density function (pdf) based on sequential conditioning (a sequence of conditional probability relations) in conjunction with the Rosenblatt transformation. In the second approach, the PC representation is obtained by having recourse to the Rosenblatt transformation and simultaneously matching a set of target marginal pdfs and target Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (SRCC) matrix. Both techniques are applied to model an experimental spatio-temporal data set, exhibiting strong non-stationary and non-Gaussian features. The data consists of a set of oceanographic temperature records obtained from a shallow-water acoustics transmission experiment. The measurement data, observed over a finite denumerable subset of the indexing set of the random process, is treated as a collection of observed samples of a second-order random vector that can be treated as a finite-dimensional approximation of the original random field. A set of properly ordered conditional pdfs, that uniquely characterizes the target joint pdf, in the first approach and a set of target marginal pdfs and a target SRCC matrix, in the second approach, are estimated from available experimental data. Digital realizations sampled from the constructed PC representations based on both schemes capture the observed statistical characteristics of the experimental data with sufficient accuracy. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the two proposed techniques are also highlighted.

Das, Sonjoy [University of Southern California, Kaprielian Hall 210, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)], E-mail: sdas@usc.edu; Ghanem, Roger [University of Southern California, Kaprielian Hall 210, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)], E-mail: ghanem@usc.edu; Finette, Steven [Acoustics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: steve.finette@nrl.navy.mil

2009-12-10

179

Spatio-temporal clustering and density estimation of lightning data for the tracking of convective events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective cells are cloud formations whose growth, maturation and dissipation are of great interest among meteorologists since they are associated with severe storms with large precipitation structures. Some works suggest a strong correlation between lightning occurrence and convective cells. The current work proposes a new approach to analyze the correlation between precipitation and lightning, and to identify electrically active cells. Such cells may be employed for tracking convective events in the absence of weather radar coverage. This approach employs a new spatio-temporal clustering technique based on a temporal sliding-window and a standard kernel density estimation to process lightning data. Clustering allows the identification of the cells from lightning data and density estimation bounds the contours of the cells. The proposed approach was evaluated for two convective events in Southeast Brazil. Image segmentation of radar data was performed to identify convective precipitation structures using the Steiner criteria. These structures were then compared and correlated to the electrically active cells in particular instants of time for both events. It was observed that most precipitation structures have associated cells, by comparing the ground tracks of their centroids. In addition, for one particular cell of each event, its temporal evolution was compared to that of the associated precipitation structure. Results show that the proposed approach may improve the use of lightning data for tracking convective events in countries that lack weather radar coverage.

Strauss, Cesar; Rosa, Marcelo Barbio; Stephany, Stephan

2013-12-01

180

Analysis and Modeling of spatio-temporal Patterns of Carbon and Water Fluxes in Production Fields of Winter Wheat and Sugar Beet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas exchange of CO2 and water vapour are important processes that determine crop growth and yield. Understanding their spatio-temporal variability at field level is necessary for accurate simulation of crop growth in fields with heterogeneous growing conditions and for parameterizing soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models. Accordingly, relationships between the spatio-temporal patterns of assimilation and transpiration rates and environmental (e.g. soil) heterogeneity are of specific interest. A particular challenge refers then to the appropriate method of up-scaling of these relationships from the leaf to the canopy and field level. Therefore, gas-exchange (CO2 and water vapour) was measured at different points in winter wheat and sugar beet fieldsboth at leaf and at canopy level in a nearly biweekly cycle during the growing seasons 2010 and 2011. The measurements comprised also C/N-content of leaf, leaf area index, soil water content and soil nitrogen content. The results revealed a strong spatial heterogeneity of carbon and water canopy fluxes across the fields. While canopy measurements had a temporal variability with distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, the temporal (and spatial) variability of leaf level photosynthesisand transpirationwas comparably small.Further analysis suggests that the observed spatial and seasonal variability of canopy measurements was mainly caused by field heterogeneity in LAI and less by gas exchange rates per unit leaf area. However, both crops differed in their response to drought stress: while wheat responded mainly through irreversible reduction in green leaf area, the canopy assimilation rate of sugar beets decreases only temporarily with no observed effects in LAI. The obtained datasets from both years are the basis for parameterizing a crop growth model with canopy assimilation and transpiration components and for developing appropriate up-scaling methods from leaf to field. Our results indicate that it is important to consider field heterogeneityfor parameterizing large-scale SVAT models. We will show to which extend the simulation results at field scale are affected by the up-scaling method.

Kupisch, M.; Langensiepen, M.; van Wijk, M.; Stadler, A.; Ewert, F.

2011-12-01

181

Coupling observable data to the spatio-temporal properties of natural hazards, An application to the volcanic field of Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volcanic field of Harrat Rahat in Saudi Arabia is a highly complex volcanic system with 950+ volcanic cones or craters distributed over 20,000 km2 and with evidence of volcanic activity spanning from 10 Ma to present with two historical eruptions in 641 AD and 1256 AD. This record, the proximity of Harrat Rahat to the city of Al-Madinah, and a possible stalled eruption in 1999 AD, drives a need to quantify the likelihood and magnitude of future eruptions. For volcanic fields, as is common for the majority of natural hazards, we cannot yet directly observe the underlying geophysical processes, nor do we understand them sufficiently to create reliable, predictive models. However, technological advancements and novel monitoring techniques facilitate the collection of a vast range of data types from satellite based to subsurface measurements for a region of interest. Observable data for Harrat Rahat include: vent locations, volumes and spatial distributions of past eruptive products, aeromagnetic and seismic interpretations of sub-surface structure, and regional tectonic models. We present here a bootstrap method whereby observed data values at the locations and times of an eruption are compared to values sampled at random points in space-time. This allows direct determination of the relationship (if any) between each observable data set and the spatio-temporal recurrence rates of volcanism in Harrat Rahat.

Runge, M.; Bebbington, M. S.; Cronin, S. J.; Lindsay, J. M.; Moufti, R.

2013-12-01

182

The electromagnetic fields and the radiation of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop  

E-print Network

The electric and magnetic fields of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop are calculated using the Jefimenko equations. The radiation and the nonradiation parts of the electromagnetic fields are derived in the framework of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic fields. In this way, a new, exact, analytical solution of the Maxwell equation is found.

Markus Lazar

2013-04-12

183

Aspects of Spatio-Temporal Variability during Consonant Production by Greek Speakers with Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates spatio-temporal variability during the production of the lingual consonants /t, k, s, x, n, l, "r"/ by four Greek speakers with profound hearing impairment and with differences in the intelligibility of their speech. It examines important factors that have been documented to influence intelligibility, i.e. durational…

Nicolaidis, Katerina

2007-01-01

184

Spatio-temporal patterns in pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal patterns in pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L Questions: The pelvic girdle with associated spines is an integrated anti-predator defence apparatus to produce the pelvic apparatus in ion-poor and mineral- challenging freshwater. Hypothesis: Stickleback

Bernatchez, Louis

185

Spatio-Temporal Object Detection Proposals Dan Oneata, Jerome Revaud, Jakob Verbeek, and Cordelia Schmid  

E-print Network

is the size of the search space defined by spatio-temporal tubes formed by sequences of bounding boxes along factors behind this progress. The first is the use of well engineered optical-flow based features computed the problem of classification of complete videos (as for TrecVid MED), or classification of clips

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Morphable Models for Representation of complex movements for Imitation Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imitation learning is a promising technique for teach- ing robots complex movement sequences. One key problem in this area is the transfer of perceived movement charac- teristics from perception to action. For the solution of this problem, representations are required that are suitable for the analysis and the synthesis of complex action sequences. We describe the method of Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal

W. Ilg; G. H. Bakir; M. O. Franz; M. A. Giese

187

Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Morphable Models for Representation of complex movements for Imitation Learning  

E-print Network

in an imitation learning task for human writing movements. The models are learned from recorded trajectories learn to imitate and caricature writing styles, and to synthesize new styles of writing movements. 1Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Morphable Models for Representation of complex movements for Imitation

188

Gaze-Contingent Spatio-Temporal Filtering in a Head-Mounted Display  

E-print Network

Gaze-Contingent Spatio-Temporal Filtering in a Head-Mounted Display Michael Dorr, Martin B, integrated into a head-mounted display (HMD), could use computer vision techniques to enhance human visual by the observer [6]. 3 Head-Mounted Display Fig. 2. Picture of our head-mounted display. Note the two scene

189

VISUALISING THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT IN ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Motor Vehicle Theft (MVT) in Australia is as a serious problem with high social and economic costs. MVT is neither unique nor random, but rather tends to be unevenly distributed and has a spatial-temporalpattern. This study assesses and explains the spatio-temporal distribution of MVT within metropolitan Adelaide based on MVT incidences that occurred in 1999. In this exploratory spatial

Leakha M. Henry; Brett A. Bryan

2000-01-01

190

Spatio-temporal structure of diatom assemblages in a temperate estuary. A STATICO analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the spatio-temporal structure of diatom assemblages in a temperate estuary (Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal). Eighteen monthly surveys were conducted, from January 2002 to June 2003, at three sampling sites (at both high and low tide) along the estuarine salinity gradient. The relationship of diatom assemblages and environmental variables was analysed using the STATICO method, which has

Susana Mendes; Ma José Fernández-Gómez; Paula Resende; Mário Jorge Pereira; Ma Purificación Galindo-Villardón; Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro

2009-01-01

191

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery  

PubMed Central

Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

Sa?lam, Bülent; Bilgili, Ertu?rul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinç; Kad?o?ullar?, Ali ?hsan; Küçük, Ömer

2008-01-01

192

A Case Study: Privacy Preserving Release of Spatio-temporal Density in Paris  

E-print Network

to release the spatio-temporal density of Paris, in France, i.e., the number of individuals in 989 different million users over one week. Our scheme is differential private, and hence, provides provable privacy service providers (telecom, electricity, water man- agement, postal service, etc.). 1. INTRODUCTION Mobile

Boyer, Edmond

193

The Evolution of Meaning: Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Visual Object Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the spatio-temporal dynamics of visual object recognition suggests a recurrent, interactive model whereby an initial feedforward sweep through the ventral stream to prefrontal cortex is followed by recurrent interactions. However, critical questions remain regarding the factors that mediate the degree of recurrent interactions necessary for meaningful object recognition. The novel prediction we test here is that recurrent interactivity

Alex Clarke; Kirsten I. Taylor; Lorraine K. Tyler

2011-01-01

194

SPATIO-TEMPORAL REGRESSION MODELS FOR DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON Giovana M. de Espindolaa  

E-print Network

SPATIO-TEMPORAL REGRESSION MODELS FOR DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON Giovana M. de change, spatial simultaneous autoregression ABSTRACT: Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has sharply of deforestation in a selected area by relating data from 2002-2008 to a number of explanatory variables, part

Camara, Gilberto

195

A Fully Automated Content Based Video Search Engine Supporting Spatio-Temporal Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidity with which digital information, particularlyvideo, is being gener- ated, has necessitated the development of tools for efficien t search of these media. Content based visual queries have been primarily focused on still image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive system on the W eb, based on the visual paradigm, with spatio-temporal attributes playinga key role

Shih-Fu Chang; William Chen; Horace J. Meng; Hari Sundaram

1997-01-01

196

Spatio-temporal patterns in obsidian consumption in the Southern Nasca Region, Peru  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal patterns in obsidian consumption in the Southern Nasca Region, Peru Jelmer W Accepted 10 November 2009 Keywords: Obsidian Exchange Mobility Provenance analysis Nasca Peru a b s t r a c t Geochemical data from 426 obsidian artifacts collected from a range of sites in the Southern Nasca Region (SNR

197

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp.) and their hosts  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp in the British Isles. 2. A model of nest parasitism predicted host threshold densities and stable deterministic, parasite-free zones were evident in areas of low host abundance, but the host thresh- old for parasite

Antonovics, Janis

198

Ocean Wave Reconstruction Algorithms Based on Spatio-temporal Data Acquired by a Flash LIDAR Camera  

E-print Network

Ocean Wave Reconstruction Algorithms Based on Spatio-temporal Data Acquired by a Flash LIDAR Camera on the development of free surface reconstruction algorithms to predict ocean waves, based on spatial observationsD surface generation and reconstruction of irregular sea states using Choppy. KEY WORDS: Ocean waves

Grilli, Stéphan T.

199

Spatio-temporal dynamics and fluctuations in quantum dot lasers: mesoscopic theory and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a mesoscopic theory for the spatio-temporal carrier- and light field dynamics in quantum dot lasers based on spatially resolved semiconductor Bloch equations describing the dynamics of electrons and holes in each quantum dot. The Bloch equations are dynamically coupled to spatially resolved wave equations for the counterpropagating light fields and to a diffusion equation describing the carrier dynamics

Edeltraud Gehrig; Ortwin G. Hess

2002-01-01

200

Video-Based Vehicle Detection and Tracking Using Spatio-Temporal Maps Yegor Malinovskiy  

E-print Network

1 Video-Based Vehicle Detection and Tracking Using Spatio-Temporal Maps Yegor Malinovskiy Graduate video cameras have been increasingly deployed along roadways over the past decade. Automatic traffic data collection through surveillance video cameras is highly desirable. However, sight

Washington at Seattle, University of

201

Seasonal forcing drives spatio-temporal pattern formation in rabies epidemics  

E-print Network

Seasonal forcing drives spatio-temporal pattern formation in rabies epidemics Niels v. Festenberg1 of rabies dispersal. We reduce an established individual-based high- detail model down to a deterministic of epidemic wave fronts. Keywords: pattern formation, epidemics, rabies, seasonal forcing AMS classification

202

Spatio-temporal parameters of gait measured by an ambulatory system using miniature gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we describe an ambulatory system for estimation of spatio-temporal parameters during long periods of walking. This original method based on wavelet analysis is proposed to compute the values of temporal gait parameters from the angular velocity of lower limbs. Based on a mechanical model, the medio-lateral rotation of the lower limbs during stance and swing, the stride

K. Aminian; B. Najafi; C. Büla; P.-F. Leyvraz; Ph. Robert

2002-01-01

203

Spatio-Temporal Shape from Silhouette using Four-Dimensional Delaunay Meshing  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Shape from Silhouette using Four-Dimensional Delaunay Meshing Ehsan Aganj, Jean, high-quality, time-coherent visual hull repre- sentations from real silhouette image data. 1 a considerable in- terest in computer vision. Shape from silhouette is one pop- ular class of methods to solve

204

A geomatic methodology for spatio-temporal analysis of climatologic variables and water related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to propose, by the way of geomatic developments, an integrated tool to analyze and model the spatio-temporal pattern of human diseases related to environmental conditions, in particular the ones that are linked to water resources. The geomatic developments follows four generic steps : requirement analysis, conceptual modeling, geomatic modeling and implementation (in Idrisi

E. Quentin; M. A. Gómez Albores; C. Díaz Delgado

2009-01-01

205

Discovering an Event Taxonomy from Video using Qualitative Spatio-temporal Graphs  

E-print Network

a video stream and high level rep- resentation of events using a relational qualitative spatioDiscovering an Event Taxonomy from Video using Qualitative Spatio-temporal Graphs Muralikrishna to mine a taxonomy of events from activities for complex videos which are represented in terms

Leeds, University of

206

Spatio-temporal mapping of ablated species in ultrafast laser-produced graphite plasmas  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal mapping of ablated species in ultrafast laser-produced graphite plasmas K. F. Al pressures. Plasmas were generated by irradiating planar graphite targets using 40 fs pulses of 800 nm species popu- lations, emission, and kinetics. In recent years, graphite based nanomaterials (graphene

Harilal, S. S.

207

Lattice Dynamical Wavelet Neural Networks Implemented Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Spatio-Temporal System Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief, by combining an efficient wavelet representation with a coupled map lattice model, a new family of adaptive wavelet neural networks, called lattice dynamical wavelet neural networks (LDWNNs), is introduced for spatio-temporal system identification. A new orthogonal projection pursuit (OPP) method, coupled with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, is proposed for augmenting the proposed network. A novel

Hua-liang Wei; Stephen A. Billings; Yifan Zhao; Lingzhong Guo

2009-01-01

208

Mixed-state spatio-temporal auto-models C. Hardouin  

E-print Network

Mixed-state spatio-temporal auto-models C. Hardouin , T. Crivelli· Abstract We consider in this paper a general modelling for mixed-state data. Such data consist of two components of different types modelling, the Markovian fields being defined as mixed-state auto- models, whose local conditional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Towards Reducing Taxicab Cruising Time Using Spatio-Temporal Profitability Maps  

E-print Network

Towards Reducing Taxicab Cruising Time Using Spatio-Temporal Profitability Maps Jason W. Powell1 of live miles, thus increasing profitability, without systematic routing. This paper presents a simple yet practical method for reducing cruising miles by suggesting profitable locations to taxicab drivers

Huang, Yan

210

a Framework for Online Spatio-Temporal Data Visualization Based on HTML5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web is entering a new phase - HTML5. New features of HTML5 should be studied for online spatio-temporal data visualization. In the proposed framework, spatio-temporal data is stored in the data server and is sent to user browsers with WebSocket. Public geo-data such as Internet digital map is integrated into the browsers. Then animation is implemented through the canvas object defined by the HTML5 specification. To simulate the spatio-temporal data source, we collected the daily location of 15 users with GPS tracker. The current positions of the users are collected every minute and are recorded in a file. Based on this file, we generate a real time spatio-temporal data source which sends out current user location every second.By enlarging the real time scales by 60 times, we can observe the movement clearly. The data transmitted with WebSocket is the coordinates of users' current positions, which will can be demonstrated in client browsers.

Mao, B.; Wu, Z.; Cao, J.

2012-07-01

211

A General Motion Model and Spatio-Temporal Filters for Computing Optical Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional optical flow algorithms assume local image translational motion and apply simple image filtering. Recent studies have taken two separate approaches toward improving the accuracy of computed flow: the application of spatio-temporal filtering schemes and the use of generalized motion models such as the affine model. Each has achieved some improvement over traditional algorithms in specialized situations. In this paper,

Hongche Liu; Tsai-hong Hong; Martin Herman; Rama Chellappa

1997-01-01

212

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Spatio-temporal trends of heavy metals and source  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Spatio-temporal trends of heavy metals and source apportionment in Tolo Harbour, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in bottom sediments of Tolo Harbour. The concentrations of the eight heavy metals. As, however, is not well correlated with the other seven heavy metals. The average concentrations

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

213

Virtualized Traffic: Reconstructing Traffic Flows from Discrete Spatio-Temporal Data  

E-print Network

increasingly more traffic monitoring mechanisms, ranging from various forms of traffic sensors (cameras, road traffic events (e.g. accidents) based on sensor data. Main Results: Given two locations along a highwayVirtualized Traffic: Reconstructing Traffic Flows from Discrete Spatio-Temporal Data Jur van den

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

214

Optimizing the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Cyber-Physical Systems for Environment Abstraction  

E-print Network

Optimizing the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Cyber-Physical Systems for Environment Abstraction}@sjtu.edu.cn Abstract Cyber-physical systems (CPS) bridge the virtual cyber world with the real physical world evaluates the per- formance of the proposed approaches. 1. Introduction Cyber-physical systems [11, 12

215

Spatio-temporal variability of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) over the Indian subcontinent derived from geodetic GPS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present, for the first time, Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) computed from dual frequency GPS data observed by Indian geodetic GPS network and neighboring IGS stations for more than a decade (2001-2012) (figure 1). Indian geodetic GPS network has more than 30 stations well spread across the Indian subcontinent, primarily, to study the tectonics of the Indian plate. Each station has geodetic grade dual frequency GPS receiver which are operated in continuous mode by making observations at every 30s since 2001. The ionospheric TEC presented here is computed from the code and phase GPS measurements using the software IONODETECT developed at CSIR 4PI. This decadal scale ionospheric data set covers from maxima of 23rd to maxima of 24th solar cycle with a broad spatial coverage from 35S to 56N and 38E to 134E (figure1). The GPS TEC computed at every 30 seconds over each sub-ionospheric point correlates well with International Reference Ionosphere(IRI) 2012 model in longer time scale, however, a strong spatio-temporal dependence in correlation is clearly observed. In addition a site specific, nearly systematic night time bias between GPS TEC and IRI-12 is noted. The advantage of using the systematic bias for correcting Differential Code Bias (DCB) in computing GPS TEC is discussed. We also discuss in detail the equatorial ionospheric processes and regional characteristics of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) through latitudinal, diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability of decadal scale GPS TEC computed over Indian subcontinent. EIA anomaly crust maxima during local noon on 30th November 2004 is clearly visible in the figure 1. The TEC variations associated with solar flares and solar maxima and minima during the solar cycles are also discussed to understand the impact of space weather on equatorial and mid latitude ionosphere as well as on navigation. Vertical TEC (VTEC) at each sub ionospheric pierce points (SIP) on 30th November 2004 from 0UTC to 2359UTC. The red triangles are GPS stations.

Vijayan, M.; Kannoth, S.; Varghese, G.; Earnest, A.; Jade, S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Gupta, S. S.

2013-12-01

216

Assessing spatio-temporal variability and trends in modelled and measured Greenland Ice Sheet albedo (2000-2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater production. In this study, we assess the spatio-temporal variability of GrIS albedo during June, July, and August (JJA) for the period 2000-2013. We use two remote sensing products derived from data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as outputs from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) regional climate model (RCM) and data from in situ automatic weather stations. Our results point to an overall consistency in spatio-temporal variability between remote sensing and RCM albedo, but reveal a difference in mean albedo of up to ~0.08 between the two remote sensing products north of 70° N. At low elevations, albedo values simulated by the RCM are positively biased with respect to remote sensing products by up to ~0.1 and exhibit low variability compared with observations. We infer that these differences are the result of a positive bias in simulated bare ice albedo. MODIS albedo, RCM outputs, and in situ observations consistently indicate a decrease in albedo of -0.03 to -0.06 per decade over the period 2003-2013 for the GrIS ablation area. Nevertheless, satellite products show a decline in JJA albedo of -0.03 to -0.04 per decade for regions within the accumulation area that is not confirmed by either the model or in situ observations. These findings appear to contradict a previous study that found an agreement between in situ and MODIS trends for individual months. The results indicate a need for further evaluation of high elevation albedo trends, a reconciliation of MODIS mean albedo at high latitudes, and the importance of accurately simulating bare ice albedo in RCMs.

Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, X.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; van den Broeke, M. R.

2014-12-01

217

Spatio-temporal variation in serum chemistry of the lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards.  

PubMed

Monthly variations in serum chemistry of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, were investigated at one location in Long Island Sound (LIS). Comparisons between three locations within and outside LIS were also made for a single time point. Most serum analytes displayed significant fluctuation over the study period and between locations. Temporal patterns could be classified as: low in cool months/high in warm months, i.e. Na, Cl, Na:K ratio, Ca, albumin:globulin ratio, percentage Fe saturation; high in cool months/low in warm months, i.e. pH, K, urea, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipaemia; June spike, i.e. glucose, cholesterol, creatine kinase, iron, transferrin iron-binding capacity; other less obvious fluctuations, i.e. Mg, PO4; and no apparent fluctuation, i.e. HCO3, alkaline phosphatase. The proportion of samples correctly classified into month of collection by a subset of 13 analytes using discriminant analysis improved as the months progressed from May (0.75) to October (>0.95). Discriminant analysis also resolved 96.5% of samples by location. The significant depression of serum calcium at the eastern LIS site correlates with excretory calcinosis, a calcium storage disease described from lobsters at this site, but contrasts with a seasonal elevation in serum calcium recorded in the temporal component of the study. Serum proteins, the electrolytes Ca and K and the enzymes ALT and AST proved to have the strongest spatio-temporal patterns of variation. Serum chemistry is a useful research tool for lobster populations, but the dearth of information on the homology of analyte functions in this species with those in vertebrate species makes interpretation of the results challenging. Late summer/autumn water conditions appear to cause stress for lobsters in LIS. PMID:16303028

Dove, A D M; Sokolowski, M S; Bartlett, S L; Bowser, P R

2005-11-01

218

Spatio-Temporal Changes to the SVZ Stem Cell Pool Through Aging  

PubMed Central

Through adulthood the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche generates new olfactory bulb interneurons. We had previously reported that the number of new neurons produced in the SVZ declines through aging; however, age-related changes due specifically to the SVZ neural stem cell (NSC) population have not been fully characterized. Here, we conducted a spatio-temporal evaluation of adult SVZ NSCs. We assessed ventricle-contacting NSCs, which together with ependymal cells form regenerative units (pinwheels) along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle. Based on their apical GFAP+ process, individual NSCs were identified across the ventricle surface using serial reconstruction of the SVZ. We observed an 86% decline in total NSCs per mm2 of intact ependyma in 2-year old versus 3-month old mice, with fewer NSC processes within each aged pinwheel. This resulted in an associated 78% decline in total pinwheel units per mm2. Regional analysis along the lateral ventricle surface revealed that the age-dependent decline of NSCs and pinwheels is spatially uniform, and ultimately maintains the conserved ratio of olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes generated in young mice. However, the overall neurogenic output of the aged SVZ is reduced. Surprisingly, we found no significant change in the number of actively proliferating NSCs per mm2 of ventricle surface. Instead, our data reveal that although the total NSC number, pinwheel units and NSCs per pinwheel decline with age, the percentage of actively, mitotic NSCs increases, indicating that age-related declines in SVZ-mediated olfactory bulb neurogenesis occur downstream of NSC proliferation. PMID:22593063

Shook, Brett A.; Manz, David H.; Peters, John J.; Kang, Sangwook; Conover, Joanne C.

2012-01-01

219

Spatio-temporal patterns of historical shallow landslides in a volcanic area, Mt. Aso, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of spatially and temporally distributed records of translational shallow landslides in heterogeneous watersheds provides insights needed to understand disastrous processes. Recurrent slope instability events occurred between 1953 and 1998 in two watersheds of Mt. Aso, western Japan. This paper investigates (1) the spatio-temporal characteristics of translational shallow landslides (dimensions, numbers, densities, and area subjected to failure) observed at a particular location, (2) DEM based landform characteristics (elevation, slope angles, curvatures and their control on landslide distribution), and (3) rainfall characteristics. The evaluation of the landslide history, consequences and characteristics of spatially and temporally distributed landslides are based on the series of inventory maps for years 1954, 1977, 1990 and 1998. Geologically, the watersheds consist of pyroxene olivine andesite basalt lava, pyroclastics deposits, gravel, sand and clay deposits originated from Takadake, Nekodake, and Washigamine volcanoes. During 45 years (1953-1998), a total of 619 and 976 numbers of shallow landslides have been recognized in the Sakurakigawa and Furuegawa watersheds, respectively. Repeated sliding denuded a total surface area of 0.372 km 2 in the Sakurakigawa watershed representing 35% of the watershed area. Similarly slides denuded a total of 0.534 km 2 in the Furuegawa watershed representing 12% of the watershed area. For example, storm events of June 1953 and July 1990 with rainfall intensities of 49 and 61 mm h - 1 , respectively triggered numerous landslides. About 25% and 47% of Sakurakigawa and Furuegawa watersheds, respectively still bears the potential to produce landslides. Landslides were commonly observed where thick unconsolidated tephra layers and pyroclastics rocks overlain by thin tephra bed existed, and for a slope inclination range of 30-35°.

Paudel, Prem P.; Omura, H.; Kubota, T.; Inoue, T.

2007-07-01

220

Phlegra Montes - Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Ice and Debris at Martian Mid-Latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars hosts an abundance of landforms indicative of near-subsurface ice. Lobate debris aprons belong to a group of well-studied but still enigmatic ice-related landforms which have been identified at mid-latitudes between 30o and 50o in both hemispheres. While nature and origin of ice in these aprons are still controversially debated there is a general consensus that these features are sensitive to climate variability and, consequently, a potential indicator of past climate conditions, and potential water reservoirs today. The northern hemisphere hosts three populations of debris aprons: the Tempe Terra/Mareotis Fossae(TT) region [2, 5], the Deuteronilus/Protonilus Mensae (DPM) [1, 4, 9], and the Phlegra Montes region (PM) [3]. In southern latitudes the impact-basins rims of Argyre (AP) and Hellas Planitiae/Promethei Terra (HP) host a similar, albeit less well-pronounced set of features [1, 2, 6]. While most research is being concentrated on the HP, TT and DPM areas, studies discussing the population of the PM (located at 165o E, 30-50o N, see figure 1) are rather sparse [3, 14, 15, 16] although features are generally well-developed, representative due to their spatial distribution and wellimaged by high-resolution instruments. We performed an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of the PM population and focus on the age distribution of debris aprons in order to constrain their formation age. Our research is motivated by the assumption that if young-Amazonian climate variations have controlled formation and appearance of geomorphic landforms on Mars, we should observe traces of this process in PM as latitudinal trends and variations should provide measurable characteristics. If so, and if surface ages based on crater-frequency analysis are consistent with these assumptions, the exact timing of climate shifts may be assessable.

Schulz, J.; van Gasselt, S.; Orgel, C.

2014-04-01

221

Analysis of spatio-temporal brain imaging patterns by Hidden Markov Models and serial MRI images.  

PubMed

Brain changes due to development and maturation, normal aging, or degenerative disease are continuous, gradual, and variable across individuals. To quantify the individual progression of brain changes, we propose a spatio-temporal methodology based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and apply it on four-dimensional structural brain magnetic resonance imaging series of older individuals. First, regional brain features are extracted in order to reduce image dimensionality. This process is guided by the objective of the study or the specific imaging patterns whose progression is of interest, for example, the evaluation of Alzheimer-like patterns of brain change in normal individuals. These regional features are used in conjunction with HMMs, which aim to measure the dynamic association between brain structure changes and progressive stages of disease over time. A bagging framework is used to obtain models with good generalization capability, since in practice the number of serial scans is limited. An application of the proposed methodology was to detect individuals with the risk of developing MCI, and therefore it was tested on modeling the progression of brain atrophy patterns in older adults. With HMM models, the state-transition paths corresponding to longitudinal brain changes were constructed from two completely independent datasets, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. The statistical analysis of HMM-state paths among the normal, progressive MCI, and MCI groups indicates that, HMM-state index 1 is likely to be a predictor of the conversion from cognitively normal to MCI, potentially many years before clinical symptoms become measurable. PMID:24706564

Wang, Ying; Resnick, Susan M; Davatzikos, Christos

2014-09-01

222

Spatio-temporal modelling of informal settlement development in Sancaktepe district, Istanbul, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In less developed countries, the recent high rates of urban expansion are often associated with the emergence of informal settlements that may exaggerate social and environmental problems and impede sustainable development. An enhanced understanding of informal development may, therefore, be a key for future success in its effective management. This paper explores the possibilities offered by progress in Geo-Information Science and spatial modelling to improve understanding of informal settlement development through comprehensive spatio-temporal analyses. First, it investigates spatial and temporal patterns of the growth of the informal settlements in Sancaktepe district of Istanbul between 1990 and 2005. Second, using a logistic regression model, an analysis of the driving forces of informal development and prediction of probable locations of new informal settlements are performed. A list of spatial factors that are correlated to informal development is compiled and used to build six logistic regression models for different time steps between 1990 and 2005. Population density, slope, and proportion of informal settlements in the neighbourhood were found to be the main predictors influencing the spatial development of informal settlements during the study period. The performance of the models is evaluated and validated to identify those which best explain the informal development in the study area. As a result, three models built for 1990-1995 and 1995-2000 were selected to generate probability maps of informal settlement development, showing the likelihood for each location to be informally developed in the future. These results can be used as a basis for the evaluation of the process of informal development in other parts of Istanbul, as well as in other cities and countries. At the same time, the technique may serve as a decision-making tool for urban planners and policy makers.

Dubovyk, Olena; Sliuzas, Richard; Flacke, Johannes

223

Spatio-Temporal Detection and Isolation: Results on PETS 2005 Datasets Richard Souvenir John Wright Robert Pless  

E-print Network

Spatio-Temporal Detection and Isolation: Results on PETS 2005 Datasets Richard Souvenir John Wright [13], but it is not clear that relevant surveillance scenes with natural background motions are well

Pless, Robert

224

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris.  

E-print Network

??Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence… (more)

Burlet, Pierre Edouard

2011-01-01

225

Geographic information system-based analysis of the spatial and spatio-temporal distribution of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in golestan province, north-East of iran.  

PubMed

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a vector-borne disease, poses serious psychological as well as social and economic burden to many rural areas of Iran. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of the disease to better understand spatio-temporal epidemiological aspects of ZCL in rural areas of an endemic province, located in north-east of Iran. Cross-sectional survey was performed on 2983 recorded cases during the period of 2010-2012 at village level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest-neighbour distance, Moran's I, general G indices and Ripley's K-function were applied to investigate the annual spatial distribution of the existing point patterns. Presence of spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using the spatial and space-time scan statistics. For each year, semivariogram analysis and all global clustering methods indicated meaningful persistent spatial autocorrelation and highly clustered distribution of ZCL, respectively. Eight significant spatial clusters, mainly located in north and northeast of the province, and one space-time cluster, observed in northern part of the province and during the period of September 2010-November 2010, were detected. Comparison of the location of ZCL clusters with environmental conditions of the study area showed that 97.8% of cases in clusters were located at low altitudes below 725 m above sea level with predominantly arid and semi-arid climates and poor socio-economic conditions. The identified clusters highlight high-risk areas requiring special plans and resources for more close monitoring and control of the disease. PMID:24628913

Mollalo, A; Alimohammadi, A; Shirzadi, M R; Malek, M R

2015-02-01

226

The Spatio-Temporal Structure of the Magnetosphere during Magnetic Storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Input-output analysis of geomagnetic indices and ground magnetometer measurements as the output and the solar wind as variables as the input is used to generate a spatio-temporal dynamical model of the magnetospheric dynamics. The data of magnetic field perturbation with 1-minute resolution ground stations during 2002 are used to study this spatio-temporal structure, mainly on high latitude magnetic perturbations. All of the 57 ground magnetometers are from 3 station group--CANOPUS(13), IMAGE(26) and WDC(18). A technique that utilize the daily rotation of the Earth as a longitudinal sampling mechanism is used to construct a two dimensional representation of the high latitude magnetic perturbations both in magnetic latitude and local time. The data of magnetic field perturbation at the magnetometer stations are used as the output of the nonlinear system driven by the solar wind. The model is used to predict the spatial structure of geomagnetic disturbances during intense geospace storms.

Chen, J.; Sharma, A.

2005-05-01

227

The use of spatio-temporal correlation to forecast critical transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex dynamical systems may have critical thresholds at which the system shifts abruptly from one state to another. Such critical transitions have been observed in systems ranging from the human body system to financial markets and the Earth system. Forecasting the timing of critical transitions before they are reached is of paramount importance because critical transitions are associated with a large shift in dynamical regime of the system under consideration. However, it is hard to forecast critical transitions, because the state of the system shows relatively little change before the threshold is reached. Recently, it was shown that increased spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance can serve as alternative early warning signal for critical transitions. However, thus far these second order statistics have not been used for forecasting in a data assimilation framework. Here we show that the use of spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance in the state of the system reduces the uncertainty in the predicted timing of critical transitions compared to classical approaches that use the value of the system state only. This is shown by assimilating observed spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance into a dynamical system model using a Particle Filter. We adapt a well-studied distributed model of a logistically growing resource with a fixed grazing rate. The model describes the transition from an underexploited system with high resource biomass to overexploitation as grazing pressure crosses the critical threshold, which is a fold bifurcation. To represent limited prior information, we use a large variance in the prior probability distributions of model parameters and the system driver (grazing rate). First, we show that the rate of increase in spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance prior to reaching the critical threshold is relatively consistent across the uncertainty range of the driver and parameter values used. This indicates that an increase in spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance are consistent predictors of a critical transition, even under the condition of a poorly defined system. Second, we perform data assimilation experiments using an artificial exhaustive data set generated by one realization of the model. To mimic real-world sampling, an observational data set is created from this exhaustive data set. This is done by sampling on a regular spatio-temporal grid, supplemented by sampling locations at a short distance. Spatial and temporal autocorrelation in this observational data set is calculated for different spatial and temporal separation (lag) distances. To assign appropriate weights to observations (here, autocorrelation values and variance) in the Particle Filter, the covariance matrix of the error in these observations is required. This covariance matrix is estimated using Monte Carlo sampling, selecting a different random position of the sampling network relative to the exhaustive data set for each realization. At each update moment in the Particle Filter, observed autocorrelation values are assimilated into the model and the state of the model is updated. Using this approach, it is shown that the use of autocorrelation reduces the uncertainty in the forecasted timing of a critical transition compared to runs without data assimilation. The performance of the use of spatial autocorrelation versus temporal autocorrelation depends on the timing and number of observational data. This study is restricted to a single model only. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance can be used as early warning signals for a large number of systems. Thus, it is expected that spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance are valuable in data assimilation frameworks in a large number of dynamical systems.

Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2010-05-01

228

Management of spatio-temporal data for dynamic segmentation in transportation application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many research studies focusing on linear data modeling for transportation application. However, research on spatio-temporal modeling is still in its infancy, which limits transportation agencies to implement improved solutions. Transportation applications offer challenges to GIS technology. Not only are the attributes of transportation features dynamic, but also many features are dynamic. The authors firstly review the definition and characteristics of dynamic segmentation, an important technology in transportation application. The paper then presents a data model for dynamic segmentation with timing dimension and its implementation. This paper shows the design of spatio-temporal data structure. Both linear elements and events are tagged with start and end temporal expressions, thus it makes temporal querying easier. Segment geocoding, segment overlay and data maintenance is discussed in detailed.

Gui, Lan; Gong, Jianya

2005-10-01

229

Multi-antenna spectrum sensing by exploiting spatio-temporal correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for spectrum sensing that leads us to exploit the spatio-temporal correlation present in the received signal at a multi-antenna receiver. For the proposed mechanism, we formulate the spectrum sensing scheme by adopting the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT). However, the GLRT degenerates in the case of limited sample support. To circumvent this problem, several extensions are proposed that bring robustness to the GLRT in the case of high dimensionality and small sample size. In order to achieve these sample-efficient detection schemes, we modify the GLRT-based detector by exploiting the covariance structure and factoring the large spatio-temporal covariance matrix into spatial and temporal covariance matrices. The performance of the proposed detectors is evaluated by means of numerical simulations, showing important advantages over existing detectors.

Ali, Sadiq; Ramírez, David; Jansson, Magnus; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; López-Salcedo, José A.

2014-12-01

230

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Collective Frog Choruses Examined by Mathematical Modeling and Field Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports theoretical and experimental studies on spatio-temporal dynamics in the choruses of male Japanese tree frogs. First, we theoretically model their calling times and positions as a system of coupled mobile oscillators. Numerical simulation of the model as well as calculation of the order parameters show that the spatio-temporal dynamics exhibits bistability between two-cluster antisynchronization and wavy antisynchronization, by assuming that the frogs are attracted to the edge of a simple circular breeding site. Second, we change the shape of the breeding site from the circle to rectangles including a straight line, and evaluate the stability of two-cluster and wavy antisynchronization. Numerical simulation shows that two-cluster antisynchronization is more frequently observed than wavy antisynchronization. Finally, we recorded frog choruses at an actual paddy field using our sound-imaging method. Analysis of the video demonstrated a consistent result with the aforementioned simulation: namely, two-cluster antisynchronization was more frequently realized.

Aihara, Ikkyu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Awano, Hiromitsu; Nagira, Kohei; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2014-01-01

231

Sensing Solutions for Collecting Spatio-Temporal Data for Wildlife Monitoring Applications: A Review  

PubMed Central

Movement ecology is a field which places movement as a basis for understanding animal behavior. To realize this concept, ecologists rely on data collection technologies providing spatio-temporal data in order to analyze movement. Recently, wireless sensor networks have offered new opportunities for data collection from remote places through multi-hop communication and collaborative capability of the nodes. Several technologies can be used in such networks for sensing purposes and for collecting spatio-temporal data from animals. In this paper, we investigate and review technological solutions which can be used for collecting data for wildlife monitoring. Our aim is to provide an overview of different sensing technologies used for wildlife monitoring and to review their capabilities in terms of data they provide for modeling movement behavior of animals. PMID:23666132

Baratchi, Mitra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J. M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Toxopeus, Bert A. G.

2013-01-01

232

Eigenvalue Imaging of A0-Mode Lamb Wave Field Based on Spatio-Temporal Gradient Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eigenvalue imaging based on the spatio-temporal gradient analysis is proposed in this paper. The third largest eigenvalue of a covariance matrix defined over the 4-dimensional vector space which is spanned by following components: (1) a vertical (z-directional) displacement, (2) its vertical particle velocity, (3) x-directional and (4) y-directional out-of-plane strains has an ability to classify the Lamb-wave field. Focusing the rank of the covariance matrix, we can find following facts: (1) rank=2: when no-reflected wave exists over the Lamb-wave field, or even when reflected waves exist only on the collinearly with an incident waves, (2) rank=3: in other cases. In this study, the eigenvalue imaging based on the spatio-temporal gradient analysis is discussed and the physical meanings of the eigenvalue imaging are investigated by numerical and acoustical experiments.

Teramoto, K.; Uekihara, A.

233

A spatio-temporal screening tool for outlier detection in long term / large scale air quality observation time series and monitoring networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a consolidated screening tool for the detection of outliers in air quality monitoring data, which considers both attribute values and spatio-temporal relationships. Furthermore, an application example of warnings on abnormal values in time series of PM10 datasets in AirBase is presented. Spatial or temporal outliers in air quality datasets represent stations or individual measurements which differ significantly from other recordings within their spatio-temporal neighbourhood. Such abnormal values can be identified as being extreme compared to their neighbours, even though they do not necessarily require to differ significantly from the statistical distribution of the entire population. The identification of such outliers can be of interest as the basis of data quality control systems when several contributors report their measurements to the collection of larger datasets. Beyond this, it can also provide a simple solution to investigate the accuracy of station classifications. Seen from another viewpoint, it can be used as a tool to detect irregular air pollution emission events (e.g. the influence of fires, wind erosion events, or other accidental situations). The presented procedure for outlier detection was designed based on already existing literature. Specifically, we adapted the "Smooth Spatial Attribute Method" that was first developed for the identification of outlier values in networks of traffic sensors [1]. Since a free and extensible simulation platform was considered important, all codes were prototyped in the R environment which is available under the GNU General Public License [2]. Our algorithms are based on the definition of a neighbourhood for each air quality measurement, corresponding to a spatio-temporal domain limited by time (e.g., +/- 2 days) and distance (e.g., +/- 1 spherical degrees) around the location of ambient air monitoring stations. The objective of the method is that within such a given spatio-temporal domain, in which the attribute values of neighbours have a relationship due to the emission, transport and reaction of air pollutants, abnormal values can be detected by extreme values of their attributes compared to the attribute values of their neighbours. This comparison basically requires a spatio-temporal smoothing, i.e. a specific rule by which data points are averaged within a neighbourhood. The calculation of such reference basis has the effect of a low pass filter, meaning that high frequencies of the signal are removed from the data while preserving low frequencies. In this context, the choice of an appropriate kernel smoother function (e.g., nearest neighbour smoother, weighted kernel average smoother, etc.) is of particular importance. Our presentation will emphasize the effects bound to the selection of the corresponding weighting functions, like inverse squared normalized Euclidean distance or inverse squared Mahalanobis distance etc., and discuss the appropriateness and shortcomings of the different approaches. Corresponding parameter selections related to the extent of the spatio-temporal domain and the final test statistics for outlier thresholding are evaluated by sensitivity analysis. [1] R Development Core Team (2012): R: A language and environment for statistical computing. http://www.R-project.org/ [2] Shekhar S., Lu C. T. and Zhang P. (2003): A Unified Approach to Spatial Outliers Detection. GeoInformatica, 7(2).

Kracht, Oliver; Reuter, Hannes I.; Gerboles, Michel

2013-04-01

234

Spatio-temporal properties of motion detectors matched to low image velocities in hovering insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our recent study [O'Carroll et al. (1996). Nature 382, 63–66) described a correlation between the spatio-temporal properties of motion detecting neurons in the optic lobes of flying insects and behaviour. We consider here theoretical properties of insect motion detectors at very low image velocities and measure spatial and temporal sensitivity of neurons in the lobula complex of two specialised hovering

D. C. O'Carroll; S. B. Laughlin; N. J. Bidwell; R. A. Harris

1997-01-01

235

Thirring optical solitons in birefringent ?bers with spatio-temporal dispersion and Kerr law nonlinearity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses Thirring optical solitons in birefringent ?bers. The dynamics of the vector coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the propagation of Thirring solitons through birefringent optical ?bers with spatio-temporal dispersion and Kerr law nonlinearity, is investigated analytically. The tools of integration applied in this dynamical model are the Jacobian elliptic equation expansion approach, Riccati equation expansion scheme and soliton ansatz method. These algorithms lead to exact Thirring bright, dark and singular solitons along with the corresponding parameter constraints.

Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Qiuping; Liu, Yaxian; Yu, Hua; Yao, Ping; Biswas, Anjan

2015-01-01

236

Spatio-temporally resolved spectroscopic diagnostics of the barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of spatially resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy (CCS) is used to carry out diagnostic measurements of the barrier discharge (BD) in air at atmospheric pressure. Quantitative estimates for electric field strength E(x,t) and for relative electron density ne(x,t)\\/nemax are derived from the experimentally determined spatio-temporal distributions of the luminosity for the spectral bands of the 0-0 transitions of the second

K. V. Kozlov; H.-E. Wagner; R. Brandenburg; P. Michel

2001-01-01

237

Spatio-temporal Transmission and Environmental Determinants of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD), and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps showed that schistosomiasis prevalence remained at a low level and schistosomiasis risk mainly evolved along the Yangtze River. Schistosomiasis risk also followed a focal spatial pattern, fluctuating temporally with a peak (the largest spatial extent) in 2005 and then contracting gradually but with a scattered distribution until 2010. Conclusion The fitted spatio-temporal kriging model can capture variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time. Combined with techniques of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS), this approach facilitates and enriches risk modeling of schistosomiasis, which in turn helps to identify prior areas for effective and sustainable control of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province and perhaps elsewhere in China. PMID:25659112

Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Sun, Liqian; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

2015-01-01

238

Multisensory integration of spatio-temporal segmentation cues: one plus one does not always equal two  

Microsoft Academic Search

How are multiple, multi-sensory stimuli combined for use in segmenting spatio-temporal events? For an answer, we measured\\u000a the effect of various auditory or visual stimuli, in isolation or in combination, on a bistable percept of visual motion (“bouncing”\\u000a vs. “streaming”). To minimize individual differences, the physical properties of stimuli were adjusted to reflect individual\\u000a subjects’ sensitivity to each cue in

Feng Zhou; Victoria Wong; Robert Sekuler

2007-01-01

239

The Cluster Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment is one of five experiments which together comprise the Wave Experiment Consortium (WEC). STAFF consists of a three-axis search coil magnetometer to measure magnetic fluctuations at frequencies up to 4 kHz, and a spectrum analyser to calculate in near-real time aboard the spacecraft, the complete auto- and cross-spectral matrices using the three

N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin; P. Chauveau; S. Louis; A. Meyer; J. M. Nappa; S. Perraut; L. Rezeau; P. Robert; A. Roux; C. De Villedary; Y. De Conchy; L. Friel; C. C. Harvey; D. Hubert; C. Lacombe; R. Manning; F. Wouters; F. Lefeuvre; M. Parrot; J. L. Pinçon; B. Poirier; W. Kofman; Ph. Louarn

1997-01-01

240

Characteristics and spatio-temporal variability of the Amazon River Basin Water Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal variations of the water budget components in the Amazon region are investigated by using a combination of hydrometeorological observations and moisture fluxes derived from the NCEP\\/NCAR reanalyses, for the period 1970–1999. The key new finding of this study identifies the major differences in the water balance characteristics and variability between the northern and southern parts of the basin.

Jose A. Marengo

2005-01-01

241

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Cell-Cell Signaling in a Living Cell Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-cell signaling plays a central role in biology, enabling individual cells to coordinate their activities. For example, bacteria show evidence of intercellular signaling through quorum sensing, a regulatory mechanism that launches a coordinated response, depending on the population density. To explore the spatio-temporal development of cell-to-cell signaling, we have created regular, heterotypic microarrays of living cells in hydrogel using time-multiplexed

Utkur Mirsaidov; Winston Timp; Kaethe Timp; Paul Matsudaira; Greg Timp

2007-01-01

242

Spatio-temporal variability of lightning activity over the Indian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatio-temporal variability of lightning activity over the Indian land mass region (8°N–33°N, 73°E–86°E) has been studied using monthly satellite based lightning flash grid (5° × 5°) data for 5-year (1998–2002) period. These data have been examined for depicting the annual, seasonal, and spatial distribution of the lightning activity. The study revealed the nonlinear relationship between lightning flash density and latitude

S. S. Kandalgaonkar; M. I. R. Tinmaker; J. R. Kulkarni; A. Nath; M. K. Kulkarni; H. K. Trimbake

2005-01-01

243

Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Pond Use and Recruitment in Florida Gopher Frogs (Rana Capito aesopus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined spatio-temporal dynamics of the Florida Gopher frog breeding and juvenile recruitment. Ponds were situated in a hardwood or pine-savanna matrix of upland forest. Movement was monitored from 1994-1999. Adult pond use was low but relatively constant. Juvenile recruitment was higher in the upland savanna matrix. Body size was negatively correlated with the number of juveniles exiting the pond

CATHRYN H. GREENBERG

2000-01-01

244

Emergence of Complex Spatio-Temporal Behavior in Nonlinear Field Theories  

E-print Network

We investigate the emergence of time-dependent nonperturbative configurations during the evolution of nonlinear scalar field models with symmetric and asymmetric double-well potentials. Complex spatio-temporal behavior emerges as the system seeks to establish equipartition after a fast quench. We show that fast quenches may dramatically modify the decay rate of metastable states in first order phase transitions. We briefly suggest possible applications incondensed matter systems and early universe cosmology.

Marcelo Gleiser; Rafael C. Howell

2006-04-06

245

An adaptive spatio-temporal coding scheme for indoor wireless communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems that employ multiple antennas in both the transmitter and the receiver of a wireless system have been shown to promise extraordinary spectral efficiency. With full channel knowledge at the transmitter and receiver, Raleigh and Cioffi (1998) proposed a spatio-temporal coding scheme, discrete matrix multitone (DMMT), to achieve asymptotically optimum multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channel capacity. The DMMT can be regarded as

Chao-Kai Wen; Yeong-Cheng Wang; Jiunn-Tsair Chen

2003-01-01

246

Spatio-temporal pattern formation on spherical surfaces: numerical simulation and application to solid tumour growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we examine spatio-temporal pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems on the surface of the unit sphere\\u000a in 3D. We first generalise the usual linear stability analysis for a two-chemical system to this geometrical context. Noting\\u000a the limitations of this approach (in terms of rigorous prediction of spatially heterogeneous steady-states) leads us to develop,\\u000a as an alternative, a

M. A. J. Chaplain; M. Ganesh; I. G. Graham

2001-01-01

247

Spatio-temporal ecology and density of badgers Meles meles in the Swiss Jura Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports for the first time data on the spatio-temporal ecology of badgers living in a cold and wet mountain region\\u000a (Swiss Jura Mountains). The home range, movements, activity patterns and habitat use of three badgers (two males, one female)\\u000a were examined using radiotelemetry. Average home range size was 320 ha (MCP 100%), but the ranging behaviour of badgers varied

Emmanuel Do Linh San; Nicola Ferrari; Jean-Marc Weber

2007-01-01

248

PERFORMING TREND ANALYSIS ON SPATIO-TEMPORAL PROTEOMICS DATA USING DIFFERENTIAL RATIO DATA MINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key Results: Differential Ratio data mining was used to perform knowledge discovery within the 2-DE proteomics data, incorporating the spatial and temporal components. How does the work advance the state-of-the-art?: Development of data mining technique that performs automatic discovery of interesting trends within large spatio-temporal data incorporating both spatial and temporal elements, and non- spatial\\/temporal elements that describe the data.

James Malone; Ken McGarry; Chris Bowerman

2004-01-01

249

Spatio-temporal changes of ? 10°C accumulated temperature in northeastern China since 1961  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide reliable basis for decision making for national food security and layout and structure\\u000a adjustment of grain production in the northeastern China. The data of mean daily air temperature of 1961–2009 from 106 meteorological\\u000a stations in the northeastern China were chosen in this study. Using statistical methods and isoline method, the spatio-temporal\\u000a changes

Minhua Yan; Xingtu Liu; Wei Zhang; Xiujun Li; Shi Liu

2011-01-01

250

Spatio-temporal dynamics of glycolysis in cell layers. A mathematical model.  

PubMed

Glycolytic oscillations occur in many cell types and have been intensively studied in yeast. Recent experimental and theoretical research has been focussed on the oscillatory dynamics and the synchronisation mechanism in stirred yeast cell suspensions. Here we are interested in the spatio-temporal organisation of glycolysis in cell layers. To this end we study a grid of a few thousand compartments each containing a cell. The intracellular dynamics is described by a core model of glycolysis. The compartments can exchange metabolites via diffusion. The conditions for oscillatory dynamics in a single compartment are investigated by bifurcation analysis. The spatio-temporal behaviour of the cell layer is studied by simulations. The model predicts the propagation of repetitive wave fronts induced by a substrate gradient. The formation of these waves crucially depends on the diffusive exchange of the reaction product between cells. Depending on the kinetic parameters complex spatio-temporal behaviour such as periodic termination of waves can arise. In these cases the cellular oscillation characteristics depend on the location of the cell in the array. PMID:19837130

Schütze, Jana; Wolf, Jana

2010-02-01

251

Controlling for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation in long-term air pollution and health studies.  

PubMed

Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution using an ecological spatio-temporal study design is a challenging task, due to the presence of residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation in the health counts after adjusting for the covariate effects. This autocorrelation is commonly modelled by a set of random effects represented by a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) prior distribution, as part of a hierarchical Bayesian model. However, GMRF models typically assume the random effects are globally smooth in space and time, and thus are likely to be collinear to any spatially and temporally smooth covariates such as air pollution. Such collinearity leads to poor estimation performance of the estimated fixed effects, and motivated by this epidemiological problem, this paper proposes new GMRF methodology to allow for localised spatio-temporal smoothing. This means random effects that are either geographically or temporally adjacent are allowed to be autocorrelated or conditionally independent, which allows more flexible autocorrelation structures to be represented. This increased flexibility results in improved fixed effects estimation compared with global smoothing models, which is evidenced by our simulation study. The methodology is then applied to the motivating study investigating the long-term effects of air pollution on respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland between 2007 and 2011. PMID:24648100

Lee, Duncan; Mitchell, Richard

2014-12-01

252

Modeling the spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the PM10-PM2.5 relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the spatio-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) in Taiwan based on a series of methods. Using fuzzy c-means clustering first, the spatial heterogeneity (six clusters) in the PM data collected between 2005 and 2009 in Taiwan are identified and the industrial and urban areas of Taiwan (southwestern, west central, northwestern, and northern Taiwan) are found to have high PM concentrations. The PM10-PM2.5 relationship is then modeled with global ordinary least squares regression, geographically weighted regression (GWR), and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR). The GTWR and GWR produce consistent results; however, GTWR provides more detailed information of spatio-temporal variations of the PM10-PM2.5 relationship. The results also show that GTWR provides a relatively high goodness of fit and sufficient space-time explanatory power. In particular, the PM2.5 or PM10 varies with time and space, depending on weather conditions and the spatial distribution of land use and emission patterns in local areas. Such information can be used to determine patterns of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in PM that will allow the control of pollutants and the reduction of public exposure.

Chu, Hone-Jay; Huang, Bo; Lin, Chuan-Yao

2015-02-01

253

Controlling for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation in long-term air pollution and health studies  

PubMed Central

Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution using an ecological spatio-temporal study design is a challenging task, due to the presence of residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation in the health counts after adjusting for the covariate effects. This autocorrelation is commonly modelled by a set of random effects represented by a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) prior distribution, as part of a hierarchical Bayesian model. However, GMRF models typically assume the random effects are globally smooth in space and time, and thus are likely to be collinear to any spatially and temporally smooth covariates such as air pollution. Such collinearity leads to poor estimation performance of the estimated fixed effects, and motivated by this epidemiological problem, this paper proposes new GMRF methodology to allow for localised spatio-temporal smoothing. This means random effects that are either geographically or temporally adjacent are allowed to be autocorrelated or conditionally independent, which allows more flexible autocorrelation structures to be represented. This increased flexibility results in improved fixed effects estimation compared with global smoothing models, which is evidenced by our simulation study. The methodology is then applied to the motivating study investigating the long-term effects of air pollution on respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland between 2007 and 2011. PMID:24648100

Mitchell, Richard

2014-01-01

254

Spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns - A meta-analysis using plot to catchment scale data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. It is influenced by many factors, such as topography, soil properties, vegetation type, management, and meteorological conditions. The role of these factors in controlling the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics is often not well known. The aim of the current study is to analyze spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns acquired across a variety of land use types, on different spatial scales (plot to meso-scale catchment) and with different methods (point measurements, remote sensing, and modeling). We apply a uniform set of tools to determine method specific effects, as well as site and scale specific controlling factors. Spatial patterns of soil moisture and their temporal development were analyzed using nine different datasets from the Rur catchment in Western Germany. For all datasets we found negative linear relationships between the coefficient of variation and the mean soil moisture, indicating lower spatial variability at higher mean soil moisture. For a forest sub-catchment compared to cropped areas, the offset of this relationship was larger, with generally larger variability at similar mean soil moisture values. Using a geostatistical analysis of the soil moisture patterns we identified three groups of datasets with similar values for sill and range of the theoretical variogram: (i) modeled and measured datasets from the forest sub-catchment (patterns mainly influenced by soil properties and topography), (ii) remotely sensed datasets from the cropped part of the Rur catchment (patterns mainly influenced by the land-use structure of the cropped area), and (iii) modeled datasets from the cropped part of the Rur catchment (patterns mainly influenced by large scale variability of soil properties). A fractal analysis revealed that all analyzed soil moisture patterns showed a multifractal behavior, with at least one scale break and generally high fractal dimensions. Corresponding scale breaks were found between different datasets. The factors causing these scale breaks are consistent with the findings of the geostatistical analysis. Furthermore, the joined analysis of the different datasets showed that small differences in soil moisture dynamics, especially at the upper and lower bounds of soil moisture (at maximum porosity and wilting point of the soils) can have a large influence on the soil moisture patterns and their autocorrelation structure. Depending on the prevalent type of land use and the time of year, vegetation causes a decrease or an increase of spatial variability in the soil moisture pattern.

Korres, W.; Reichenau, T. G.; Fiener, P.; Koyama, C. N.; Bogena, H. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Baatz, R.; Herbst, M.; Diekkrüger, B.; Vereecken, H.; Schneider, K.

2015-01-01

255

Transient dynamics and rhythm coordination of inferior olive spatio-temporal patterns  

PubMed Central

The inferior olive (IO) is a neural network belonging to the olivo-cerebellar system whose neurons are coupled with electrical synapses and display subthreshold oscillations and spiking activity. The IO is frequently proposed as the generator of timing signals to the cerebellum. Electrophysiological and imaging recordings show that the IO network generates complex spatio-temporal patterns. The generation and modulation of coherent spiking activity in the IO is one key issue in cerebellar research. In this work, we build a large scale IO network model of electrically coupled conductance-based neurons to study the emerging spatio-temporal patterns of its transient neuronal activity. Our modeling reproduces and helps to understand important phenomena observed in IO in vitro and in vivo experiments, and draws new predictions regarding the computational properties of this network and the associated cerebellar circuits. The main factors studied governing the collective dynamics of the IO network were: the degree of electrical coupling, the extent of the electrotonic connections, the presence of stimuli or regions with different excitability levels and the modulatory effect of an inhibitory loop (IL). The spatio-temporal patterns were analyzed using a discrete wavelet transform to provide a quantitative characterization. Our results show that the electrotonic coupling produces quasi-synchronized subthreshold oscillations over a wide dynamical range. The synchronized oscillatory activity plays the role of a timer for a coordinated representation of spiking rhythms with different frequencies. The encoding and coexistence of several coordinated rhythms is related to the different clusterization and coherence of transient spatio-temporal patterns in the network, where the spiking activity is commensurate with the quasi-synchronized subthreshold oscillations. In the presence of stimuli, different rhythms are encoded in the spiking activity of the IO neurons that nevertheless remains constrained to a commensurate value of the subthreshold frequency. The stimuli induced spatio-temporal patterns can reverberate for long periods, which contributes to the computational properties of the IO. We also show that the presence of regions with different excitability levels creates sinks and sources of coordinated activity which shape the propagation of spike wave fronts. These results can be generalized beyond IO studies, as the control of wave pattern propagation is a highly relevant problem in the context of normal and pathological states in neural systems (e.g., related to tremor, migraine, epilepsy) where the study of the modulation of activity sinks and sources can have a potential large impact. PMID:24046731

Latorre, Roberto; Aguirre, Carlos; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo

2013-01-01

256

An interactive spatio-temporal knowledge-discovery environment for solid Earth Science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information systems form a core part of Earth Science education and teaching, allowing the ever-growing repositories of digital geo-data to be integrated and visualised in a unified fashion. These systems cope with the wide variety of spatial data types, each with their own properties and metadata, allowing for a better understanding of how Earth processes operate. A unique requirement for the Earth Sciences is to take into account plate motion and crustal deformation processes acting through time, thus altering the various spatial relationships. The open-source GPlates software (www.gplates.org) infrastructure has become a standard tool for this type of analysis, providing the ability to reconstruct various datasets through time interactively by attaching arbitrary data to tectonic plates. Combining vast datasets in this manner is increasing the analysis complexity, with traditional visualisation-based approaches becoming ineffective in extracting necessary information and discovering new insights. In addressing this, GPlates has been extended with two key technologies, manifesting itself as a powerful interactive knowledge-discovery platform. The first technology is a "data coregistration" tool, in which desired relationships between various datasets are recursively defined, thus providing the key link between a qualitative visualisation environment and a quantitative multivariate statistical analysis framework. The second technology is a data-mining environment (Orange, http://orange.biolab.si), better suited to coping with complexities due to large datasets, high dimensionality, spatial and temporal dynamics, different data types etc. The data-mining tool has a diverse library of components allowing for interactive filtering, combining, transforming and pattern analysis of incoming data. Attached to the data-mining tool is a visual-programming environment in which underlying software complexities are abstracted from the user, allowing for the rapid prototyping of analysis work-flows without requiring programming expertise. A plug-in framework allows for the construction of new spatio-temporal data processing components, which is seeing the functionality and flexibility of this environment increasing rapidly, aided by an open-source model. The resultant ensemble of technologies lends itself to becoming a frontier teaching and research tool, providing the necessary abstraction of complexity required to better understand how the various complex Earth processes acted through time resulting in the familiar spatial configuration we observe today.

Landgrebe, T. C.; Müller, R. D.; EathByte Group

2011-12-01

257

Integration of Remote Sensing with Ground-Based Measurements to Identify Year-Independent Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Snow Cover and their Potential Applications (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover products have been used successfully and are still appealing for a variety of hydrological applications due to their high spatial and temporal resolution coupled with the products' high accuracy based on comparisons with point ground-based measurements. Several researchers have observed that snow accumulation and ablation occur in reasonably regular patterns from one year to the next. Thus, snow cover information from satellite imagery across different years could be integrated with ground-based measurements with the aim of discovering general information about the temporal and spatial character of snowmelt and runoff processes over watersheds that can be used to answer both short-term questions, such as what are the stream flows likely to be over the next two weeks or month and what is the seasonal runoff likely to be, as well as long-term questions such as what are the likely impacts of various climate change scenarios on biome succession or streamflow and water supply from a basin given the discovered behavior of spatio-temporal snowmelt processes. In this study we utilized a collection of snow cover maps produced from MODIS data across multiple years (2001 to 2011) coupled with the melt-out date of a collection of Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations within a region of study to synthesize the interannually repeatable pattern of snow depletion from the beginning to the end of melt seasons. The accuracy of this method has been evaluated over the headwaters of the Upper Snake River in Western Wyoming with very good results. This method has many applications including cloud removal, reconstruction of historical snow depletion curves, generation of snow cover maps for times predating the launch of the MODIS sensor, within-season snow cover ablation forecasting, climate change impacts on snow and runoff, and modeling climatology of snow. These applications can be extended for use in water management and water supply forecasting.

Qualls, R. J.; Arogundade, A. B.

2013-12-01

258

Spatio-temporal patterns of soil water storage under dryland agriculture at the watershed scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySpatio-temporal patterns of soil water are major determinants of crop yield potential in dryland agriculture and can serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones. Soil water patterns can vary significantly due to differences in seasonal precipitation, soil properties and topographic features. In this study we used empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to characterize the spatial variability of soil water at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) near Pullman, WA. During the period 1999-2006, the CAF was divided into three roughly equal blocks (A, B, and C), and soil water at 0.3 m intervals to a depth of 1.5 m measured gravimetrically at approximately one third of the 369 geo-referenced points on the 37-ha watershed. These data were combined with terrain attributes, soil bulk density and apparent soil conductivity (EC a). The first EOF generated from the three blocks explained 73-76% of the soil water variability. Field patterns of soil water based on EOF interpolation varied between wet and dry conditions during spring and fall seasons. Under wet conditions, elevation and wetness index were the dominant factors regulating the spatial patterns of soil water. As soil dries out during summer and fall, soil properties (EC a and bulk density) become more important in explaining the spatial patterns of soil water. The EOFs generated from block B, which represents average topographic and soil properties, provided better estimates of soil water over the entire watershed with larger Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE) values, especially when the first two EOFs were retained. Including more than the first two EOFs did not significantly increase the NSCE of soil water estimate. The EOF interpolation method to estimate soil water variability worked slightly better during spring than during fall, with average NSCE values of 0.23 and 0.20, respectively. The predictable patterns of stored soil water in the spring could serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones as yield potential is largely driven by water availability. The EOF-based method has the advantage of estimating the soil water variability based on soil water data from several measurement times, whereas in regression methods only soil water measurement at a single time are used. The EOF-based method can also be used to estimate soil water at any time other than measurement times, assuming the average soil water of the watershed is known at that time.

Ibrahim, Hesham M.; Huggins, David R.

2011-07-01

259

A SPATIO-TEMPORAL DOWNSCALER FOR OUTPUT FROM NUMERICAL MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Often, in environmental data collection, data arise from two sources: numerical models and monitoring networks. The first source provides predictions at the level of grid cells, while the second source gives measurements at points. The first is characterized by full spatial cove...

260

Spatio-temporal distribution of inflammatory reaction and expression of TLR2/4 signaling pathway in rat brain following permanent focal cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are considered to mediate the inflammatory reaction, which are involved in the pathophysiological processes of cerebral ischemia injury. To elucidate the possible role of inflammatory reaction and TLR2/4 signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia, in the present study, we explored the spatio-temporal distribution of inflammatory reaction, and further investigated the time-course expression of TLR2/4 and the downstream effector molecules after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Neurological deficit, cerebral infarction and neutrophil infiltration were measured at different time points following pMCAO. Expression of TLR2/4 were examined by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by western blot. Serum content of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Experimental results showed that pMCAO caused an increase of neutrophil infiltration in infarcted brain tissue, with a peaked activity at 24 h of ischemia. The inflammatory molecules including TLR2, TLR4, NF-kappaB, COX-2 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased after pMCAO, especially during 12-24 h of ischemia, which were correlated with pMCAO-induced brain injury and cerebral inflammation. Our studies suggested that TLR2/4 signaling pathway likely aggravated ischemic brain injury through mediating the inflammatory reaction. TLR2/4 signaling pathway may be a promising therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:20386979

Tu, Xian-kun; Yang, Wei-zhong; Shi, Song-sheng; Wang, Chun-hua; Zhang, Guo-liang; Ni, Tian-rui; Chen, Chun-mei; Wang, Rui; Jia, Jian-wen; Song, Qi-min

2010-08-01

261

Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones  

PubMed Central

Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a local scale. In general, this project could be used as a template for dust-transport modelling which couples spatial data focused on the construction of digital terrain models and thematic mapping with data generated by numerical simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

Matejicek, Lubos; Janour, Zbynek; Benes, Ludek; Bodnar, Tomas; Gulikova, Eva

2008-01-01

262

Plasmonic Antennas for Optical Nanocrystallography and Femtosecond Spatio-Temporal Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling optical fields on nanometer length scales has been a long standing problem in optics, driven by the desire to image spatial inhomogeneities of condensed matter on the natural length scales of molecular, electronic, or lattice correlations. The concept of optical antennas based on plasmon resonant nanostructures has emerged as an attractive solution for concentrating and confining light to the nanoscale with a high degree of spatial confinement achieved in the evanescent field. This dissertation focuses on the fundamental characteristics of the antenna properties of plasmonic metal tips and their application for nanometer-resolved optical scanning probe spectroscopy and imaging. First this work demonstrates the extension of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) to optical nanocrystallography in order to study ferroelectric domain order by using the symmetry selective Raman selection rules for polar phonon modes in combination with the polarization-dependent TERS enhancement. After the derivation of the polar phonon TERS selection rules, ferroelectric domains arising from finite size effects within individual BaTiO3 nanorods are imaged. The second part of this work explores the fundamental characteristics and applications of adiabatic surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nanofocusing as an optical antenna for far- to near-field mode transformation. This process, resulting from the radius-dependent index of refraction experienced by SPP's propagating on tapered waveguides, is shown to result in a nanoconfined optical excitation at the apex of Au tips 10's of nm in size. To demonstrate the general application for background-free spectroscopy, adiabatic nanofocusing TERS is shown to improve contrast and sensitivity, and enables the extension to the near-IR spectral range. Lastly, due to the phase, wavelength, and amplitude independent nanofocusing mechanism, the independent and simultaneous nanometer-femtosecond spatio-temporal control of ultrafast pulses is possible. Combining the frequency domain shaping of optical transients with nanofocusing, we demonstrate the deterministic control of pulses as short as 16 fs and the generation of arbitrary waveforms at the tip apex. These results demonstrate the capability of these plasmonic optical antennas to not only generate enhanced optical fields for the study of matter on the nanoscale, but also to control ultrafast nano-optical excitations with applications for imaging and spectroscopy.

Berweger, Samuel

263

Spatio-temporal dynamics in the flood exposure due to land use changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk is expected to intensify in the future in many regions of the world. Consequently, the resulting flood damage is very likely to increase further on. Comprehensive flood risk analyses which are not only reliable for the contemporary state require therefore the consideration of the main drivers that influence flood risk. Human-induced changes in land use as well as climate change impacts on hydrological processes turned out to play a key role in future-orientated flood risk assessments. Even if there is strong evidence that global climate change will amplify flood risk especially in mountainous areas like the European Alps the accumulation of people and their assets in flood plains are seen as main causes of increasing flood risk. Therefore the analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics in the flood exposure due to land use changes is a crucial part for long-term and more robust flood risk analyses. Within the frame of a study in the region of Reutte in Tyrol (Austria) flood risk time series for the next decades are developed by estimating the hazard potential as well as the flood impact, i.e. the flood losses. For the latter, future flood exposed residential and industrial areas are assessed by applying a spatially explicit land use change model and various inundation scenarios. The land use simulations for the alpine study area were calculated by means of the CLUE-S model, respectively the newer Version Dyna-CLUE. This model simulates the spatial pattern of land-use in reaction to pre-defined changes of the future land use demand, suitable locations which are identified by means of logistic regression and user-specified decision rules as well as spatial policies (e.g. area zoning plans and danger zoning plans). For now, inundation areas were derived from the past flood event in August 2005 and the HORA project where flood extents for different recurrence intervals were simulated. The intersection of these flood plains with various land use scenarios allows finally an estimation of changes in the future flood exposure. This information is not only essential for a further application in deriving potential flood losses but also an important basis for an appropriate, foresightful and sustainable spatial planning.

Cammerer, H.; Thieken, A.

2012-04-01

264

SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF EARLY BRAIN DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

the image into voxel groups with similar properties. The processing generates spatial maps that highlight a temporo-spatial brain maturation, which has been investigated qualitatively by radiologists [1]. However

Prastawa, Marcel

265

Photogrammetric determination of spatio-temporal velocity fields at Glaciar San Rafael in the Northern Patagonian Icefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciar San Rafael in the Northern Patagonian Icefield, with a length of 46 km and an ice area of 722 km2, is the lowest latitude tidewater outlet glacier in the world and one of the fastest and most productive glaciers in southern South America in terms of iceberg flux. In a joint project of the TU Dresden and CECS, spatio-temporal velocity fields in the region of the glacier front were determined in a campaign in austral spring of 2009. Monoscopic terrestrial image sequences were recorded with an intervallometer mode high resolution digital camera over several days. In these image sequences, a large number of glacier surface points were tracked by subpixel accuracy feature tracking techniques. Scaling and georeferencing of the trajectories obtained from image space tracking was performed via a multi-station GPS-supported photogrammetric network. The technique allows for tracking hundreds of glacier surface points at a measurement accuracy in the order of one decimeter and an almost arbitrarily high temporary resolution. The results show velocities of up to 16 m per day. No significant tidal signals could be observed. Our velocities are in agreement with earlier measurements from theodolite and satellite interferometry performed in 1986-1994, suggesting that the current thinning of 3.5 m/y at the front is not due to dynamic thinning but rather by enhanced melting.

Maas, H.-G.; Casassa, G.; Schneider, D.; Schwalbe, E.; Wendt, A.

2010-11-01

266

Mining Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Scientific Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining is the process of discovering hidden and meaningful knowledge in a data set. It has been suc- cessfully applied to many real-life problems, for instance, web personalization, network intrusion detection, and cus- tomized marketing. Recent advances in computational sci- ences have led to the application of data mining to vari- ous scientific domains, such as astronomy and bioinformat-

Hui Yang; Srinivasan Parthasarathy

2006-01-01

267

Linking spatio-temporal patterns in land cover dynamics with regional climate factors and recent weather: Application to the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

A key obstacle to developing regional models of ecosystem dynamics is representation of spatio-temporal variation in constituent patterns and processes. Simple resealing of site-specific ecological data or simulations to broader spatial scales is unlikely to capture regional spatio-temporal dynamics. Yet logistical constraints usually require synoptic weather data to be synthesized from sparse data networks. We seek a simple top-down model that links remotely-sensed vegetation cover with antecedent meteorological forcings to generate boundary conditions for site-specific fine-resolution data and simulations of tallgrass prairie. We developed several candidate models using AVHRR NDVI maximum biweekly composites of the Flint Hills from 1990-1993 and data from a network of more than 60 weather stations across the 40,000 km2 region. Models combined parameters derived from exemplary land cover trajectories, spatial structure (lacunarity and correlation length), and running weighted sums of weather data. Spectral-temporal models were easier to fit; lacunarity was more sensitive than correlation length; compositing effects were strong.

Henebry, G.M.; Goodin, D.G. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Su, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

268

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatio-temporal analysis of cases reported in the period 2001-2010.  

PubMed

Despite increased funding for research on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), neither vaccine nor cure is yet in sight. Surveillance and prevention are essential for disease intervention, and it is recognised that spatio-temporal analysis of AIDS cases can assist the decision-making process for control of the disease. This study investigated the dynamic, spatial distribution of notified AIDS cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2001 and 2010, based on the annual incidence in each municipality. Sequential choropleth maps were developed and used to analyse the incidence distribution and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation statistics was applied for characterisation of the spatio-temporal distribution pattern. A significant, positive spatial autocorrelation of AIDS incidence was observed indicating that municipalities with high incidence are likely to be close to other municipalities with similarly high incidence and, conversely, municipalities with low incidence are likely to be surrounded by municipalities with low incidence. Two clusters were identified; one hotspot related to the State Capital and the other with low to intermediate AIDS incidence comprising municipalities in the north-eastern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:24893020

Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flávio F

2014-05-01

269

A reevaluation of achromatic spatio-temporal vision: Nonoriented filters are monocular, they adapt, and can be used for decision making at high flicker speeds  

PubMed Central

Masking, adaptation, and summation paradigms have been used to investigate the characteristics of early spatio-temporal vision. Each has been taken to provide evidence for (i) oriented and (ii) nonoriented spatial-filtering mechanisms. However, subsequent findings suggest that the evidence for nonoriented mechanisms has been misinterpreted: those experiments might have revealed the characteristics of suppression (eg, gain control), not excitation, or merely the isotropic subunits of the oriented detecting mechanisms. To shed light on this, we used all three paradigms to focus on the ‘high-speed’ corner of spatio-temporal vision (low spatial frequency, high temporal frequency), where cross-oriented achromatic effects are greatest. We used flickering Gabor patches as targets and a 2IFC procedure for monocular, binocular, and dichoptic stimulus presentations. To account for our results, we devised a simple model involving an isotropic monocular filter-stage feeding orientation-tuned binocular filters. Both filter stages are adaptable, and their outputs are available to the decision stage following nonlinear contrast transduction. However, the monocular isotropic filters (i) adapt only to high-speed stimuli—consistent with a magnocellular subcortical substrate—and (ii) benefit decision making only for high-speed stimuli (ie, isotropic monocular outputs are available only for high-speed stimuli). According to this model, the visual processes revealed by masking, adaptation, and summation are related but not identical. PMID:23145234

Meese, Tim S; Baker, Daniel H

2011-01-01

270

Spatio-temporal dynamics of a pulsed microwave argon plasma: ignition and afterglow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a detailed investigation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a pulsed microwave plasma is presented. The plasma is ignited inside a dielectric tube in a repetitively pulsed regime at pressures ranging from 1 up to 100 mbar with pulse repetition frequencies from 200 Hz up to 500 kHz. Various diagnostic techniques are employed to obtain the main plasma parameters both spatially and with high temporal resolution. Thomson scattering is used to obtain the electron density and mean electron energy at fixed positions in the dielectric tube. The temporal evolution of the two resonant and two metastable argon 4s states are measured by laser diode absorption spectroscopy. Nanosecond time-resolved imaging of the discharge allows us to follow the spatio-temporal evolution of the discharge with high temporal and spatial resolution. Finally, the temporal evolution of argon 4p and higher states is measured by optical emission spectroscopy. The combination of these various diagnostics techniques gives deeper insight on the plasma dynamics during pulsed microwave plasma operation from low to high pressure regimes. The effects of the pulse repetition frequency on the plasma ignition dynamics are discussed and the plasma-off time is found to be the relevant parameter for the observed ignition modes. Depending on the delay between two plasma pulses, the dynamics of the ionization front are found to be changing dramatically. This is also reflected in the dynamics of the electron density and temperature and argon line emission from the plasma. On the other hand, the (quasi) steady state properties of the plasma are found to depend only weakly on the pulse repetition frequency and the afterglow kinetics present an uniform spatio-temporal behavior. However, compared to continuous operation, the time-averaged metastable and resonant state 4s densities are found to be significantly larger around a few kHz pulsing frequency.

Carbone, Emile; Sadeghi, Nader; Vos, Erik; Hübner, Simon; van Veldhuizen, Eddie; van Dijk, Jan; Nijdam, Sander; Kroesen, Gerrit

2015-02-01

271

Predicting Intra-Urban Variation in Air Pollution Concentrations with Complex Spatio-Temporal Dependencies  

PubMed Central

We describe a methodology for assigning individual estimates of long-term average air pollution concentrations that accounts for a complex spatio-temporal correlation structure and can accommodate spatio-temporally misaligned observations. This methodology has been developed as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), a prospective cohort study funded by the U.S. EPA to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Our hierarchical model decomposes the space-time field into a “mean” that includes dependence on covariates and spatially varying seasonal and long-term trends and a “residual” that accounts for spatially correlated deviations from the mean model. The model accommodates complex spatio-temporal patterns by characterizing the temporal trend at each location as a linear combination of empirically derived temporal basis functions, and embedding the spatial fields of coefficients for the basis functions in separate linear regression models with spatially correlated residuals (universal kriging). This approach allows us to implement a scalable single-stage estimation procedure that easily accommodates a significant number of missing observations at some monitoring locations. We apply the model to predict long-term average concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from 2005–2007 in the Los Angeles area, based on data from 18 EPA Air Quality System regulatory monitors. The cross-validated R2 is 0.67. The MESA Air study is also collecting additional concentration data as part of a supplementary monitoring campaign. We describe the sampling plan and demonstrate in a simulation study that the additional data will contribute to improved predictions of long-term average concentrations. PMID:24860253

Szpiro, Adam A.; Sampson, Paul D.; Sheppard, Lianne; Lumley, Thomas; Adar, Sara D.; Kaufman, Joel

2014-01-01

272

Spatio-temporal foraging patterns of a giant zooplanktivore, the leatherback turtle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding food web functioning through the study of natural bio-indicators may constitute a valuable and original approach. In the context of jellyfish proliferation in many overexploited marine ecosystems studying the spatio-temporal foraging patterns of the giant "jellyvore" leatherback turtle turns out to be particularly relevant. Here we analyzed long-term tracking data to assess spatio-temporal foraging patterns in 21 leatherback turtles during their pluri-annual migration in the Northern Atlantic. Through an analytical approach based on the animal's own motion (independent of currents) and diving behavior distinct zones of high and low foraging success were identified. High foraging success occurred in a sub-equatorial zone spanning the width of the Atlantic and at high (>30°N) latitudes. Between these zones in the centre of North Atlantic gyre there was low foraging success. This "ocean desert" area was traversed at high speed by leatherbacks on their way to more productive areas at higher latitudes. Animals traveled slowly in high foraging success areas and dived shallower (17.2 ± 8.0 km day - 1 and 53.6 ± 33.1 m mean ± SD respectively) than in low foraging success areas (51.0 ± 13.1 km day - 1 and 81.8 ± 56.2 m mean ± SD respectively). These spatio-temporal foraging patterns seem to relatively closely match the main features of the integrated meso-zooplankton distribution in the North Atlantic. Our method of defining high foraging success areas is intuitive and relatively easy to implement but also takes into account the impact of oceanic currents on animal's behavior.

Fossette, Sabrina; Hobson, Victoria J.; Girard, Charlotte; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Hays, Graeme C.

2010-05-01

273

Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (?2?=?7587, df?=?7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

2011-01-01

274

Spatio-Temporal Variation and Prediction of Ischemic Heart Disease Hospitalizations in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Urban public health and medical management in Shenzhen, an international city in the developing country of China, is challenged by an increasing burden of IHD. This study analyzed the spatio-temporal variation of IHD hospital admissions from 2003 to 2012 utilizing spatial statistics, spatial analysis, and space-time scan statistics. The spatial statistics and spatial analysis measured the incidence rate (hospital admissions per 1,000 residents) and the standardized rate (the observed cases standardized by the expected cases) of IHD at the district level to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and identify patterns of change. The space-time scan statistics was used to identify spatio-temporal clusters of IHD hospital admissions at the district level. The other objective of this study was to forecast the IHD hospital admissions over the next three years (2013–2015) to predict the IHD incidence rates and the varying burdens of IHD-related medical services among the districts in Shenzhen. The results show that the highest hospital admissions, incidence rates, and standardized rates of IHD are in Futian. From 2003 to 2012, the IHD hospital admissions exhibited similar mean centers and directional distributions, with a slight increase in admissions toward the north in accordance with the movement of the total population. The incidence rates of IHD exhibited a gradual increase from 2003 to 2012 for all districts in Shenzhen, which may be the result of the rapid development of the economy and the increasing traffic pollution. In addition, some neighboring areas exhibited similar temporal change patterns, which were also detected by the spatio-temporal cluster analysis. Futian and Dapeng would have the highest and the lowest hospital admissions, respectively, although these districts have the highest incidence rates among all of the districts from 2013 to 2015 based on the prediction using the GM (1,1). In addition, the combined analysis of the prediction of IHD hospital admissions and the general hospital distributions shows that Pingshan and Longgang might experience the most serious burden of IHD hospital services in the near future, although Futian would still have the greatest number and the highest incidence rate of hospital admissions for IHD. PMID:24806191

Wang, Yanxia; Du, Qingyun; Ren, Fu; Liang, Shi; Lin, De-nan; Tian, Qin; Chen, Yan; Li, Jia-jia

2014-01-01

275

Spatio-temporal organization of replication in bacteria and eukaryotes (nucleoids and nuclei).  

PubMed

Here we discuss the spatio-temporal organization of replication in eubacteria and eukaryotes. Although there are significant differences in how replication is organized in cells that contain nuclei from those that do not, you will see that organization of replication in all organisms is principally dictated by the structured arrangement of the chromosome. We will begin with how replication is organized in eubacteria with particular emphasis on three well studied model organisms. We will then discuss spatial and temporal organization of replication in eukaryotes highlighting the similarities and differences between these two domains of life. PMID:22855726

Jackson, Dean; Wang, Xindan; Rudner, David Z

2012-08-01

276

Health impact assessment of industrial development projects: a spatio-temporal visualization.  

PubMed

Development and implementation of large-scale industrial projects in complex eco-epidemiological settings typically require combined environmental, social and health impact assessments. We present a generic, spatio-temporal health impact assessment (HIA) visualization, which can be readily adapted to specific projects and key stakeholders, including poorly literate communities that might be affected by consequences of a project. We illustrate how the occurrence of a variety of complex events can be utilized for stakeholder communication, awareness creation, interactive learning as well as formulating HIA research and implementation questions. Methodological features are highlighted in the context of an iron ore development in a rural part of Africa. PMID:22639132

Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Singer, Burton H; Utzinger, Jürg

2012-05-01

277

Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Pond Use and Recruitment in Florida Gopher Frogs (Rana Capito aesopus)  

SciTech Connect

We examined spatio-temporal dynamics of the Florida Gopher frog breeding and juvenile recruitment. Ponds were situated in a hardwood or pine-savanna matrix of upland forest. Movement was monitored from 1994-1999. Adult pond use was low but relatively constant. Juvenile recruitment was higher in the upland savanna matrix. Body size was negatively correlated with the number of juveniles exiting the pond in only one year suggesting intraspecific competition is one of many factors. Most immigration occurred in May through August and was unrelated to rainfall.

Greenberg, C.H.

2000-05-16

278

High-throughput analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics in Dictyostelium  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a time-lapse video approach that allows rapid examination of the spatio-temporal dynamics of Dictyostelium cell populations. Quantitative information was gathered by sampling life histories of more than 2,000 mutant clones from a large mutagenesis collection. Approximately 4% of the clonal lines showed a mutant phenotype at one stage. Many of these could be ordered by clustering into functional groups. The dataset allows one to search and retrieve movies on a gene-by-gene and phenotype-by-phenotype basis. PMID:17659086

Sawai, Satoshi; Guan, Xiao-Juan; Kuspa, Adam; Cox, Edward C

2007-01-01

279

Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these apparent fade-out events may be the key to managing this disease. Our data and modelling indicate that pneumonia can have greater impacts on bighorn sheep populations than previously reported, and we present hypotheses about processes involved for testing in future investigations and management.

Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

2013-01-01

280

Spatio-Temporal Transcript Profiling of Rice Roots and Shoots in Response to Phosphate Starvation and Recovery[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Using rice (Oryza sativa) as a model crop species, we performed an in-depth temporal transcriptome analysis, covering the early and late stages of Pi deprivation as well as Pi recovery in roots and shoots, using next-generation sequencing. Analyses of 126 paired-end RNA sequencing libraries, spanning nine time points, provided a comprehensive overview of the dynamic responses of rice to Pi stress. Differentially expressed genes were grouped into eight sets based on their responses to Pi starvation and recovery, enabling the complex signaling pathways involved in Pi homeostasis to be untangled. A reference annotation-based transcript assembly was also generated, identifying 438 unannotated loci that were differentially expressed under Pi starvation. Several genes also showed induction of unannotated splice isoforms under Pi starvation. Among these, PHOSPHATE2 (PHO2), a key regulator of Pi homeostasis, displayed a Pi starvation–induced isoform, which was associated with increased translation activity. In addition, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles after long-term Pi starvation in roots and shoots were assessed, identifying 20 miRNA families that were not previously associated with Pi starvation, such as miR6250. In this article, we present a comprehensive spatio-temporal transcriptome analysis of plant responses to Pi stress, revealing a large number of potential key regulators of Pi homeostasis in plants. PMID:24249833

Secco, David; Jabnoune, Mehdi; Walker, Hayden; Shou, Huixia; Wu, Ping; Poirier, Yves; Whelan, James

2013-01-01

281

Spatio-temporal transcript profiling of rice roots and shoots in response to phosphate starvation and recovery.  

PubMed

Using rice (Oryza sativa) as a model crop species, we performed an in-depth temporal transcriptome analysis, covering the early and late stages of Pi deprivation as well as Pi recovery in roots and shoots, using next-generation sequencing. Analyses of 126 paired-end RNA sequencing libraries, spanning nine time points, provided a comprehensive overview of the dynamic responses of rice to Pi stress. Differentially expressed genes were grouped into eight sets based on their responses to Pi starvation and recovery, enabling the complex signaling pathways involved in Pi homeostasis to be untangled. A reference annotation-based transcript assembly was also generated, identifying 438 unannotated loci that were differentially expressed under Pi starvation. Several genes also showed induction of unannotated splice isoforms under Pi starvation. Among these, PHOSPHATE2 (PHO2), a key regulator of Pi homeostasis, displayed a Pi starvation-induced isoform, which was associated with increased translation activity. In addition, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles after long-term Pi starvation in roots and shoots were assessed, identifying 20 miRNA families that were not previously associated with Pi starvation, such as miR6250. In this article, we present a comprehensive spatio-temporal transcriptome analysis of plant responses to Pi stress, revealing a large number of potential key regulators of Pi homeostasis in plants. PMID:24249833

Secco, David; Jabnoune, Mehdi; Walker, Hayden; Shou, Huixia; Wu, Ping; Poirier, Yves; Whelan, James

2013-11-01

282

Spatio-temporal patterns of schistosomiasis japonica in lake and marshland areas in China: the effect of snail habitats.  

PubMed

The progress of the integrated control policy for schistosomiasis implemented since 2005 in China, which is aiming at reducing the roles of bovines and humans as infection sources, may be challenged by persistent presence of infected snails in lake and marshland areas. Based on annual parasitologic data for schistosomiasis during 2004-2011 in Xingzi County, a spatio-temporal kriging model was used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that environmental factors related to snail habitats can explain the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps of schistosomiasis risk illustrated that clusters of the disease fluctuated during 2004-2008; there was an extensive outbreak in 2008 and attenuated disease occurrences afterwards. An area with an annually constant cluster of schistosomiasis was identified. Our study suggests that targeting snail habitats located within high-risk areas for schistosomiasis would be an economic and sustainable way of schistosomiasis control in the future. PMID:24980498

Hu, Yi; Gao, Jie; Chi, Meina; Luo, Can; Lynn, Henry; Sun, Liqian; Tao, Bo; Wang, Decheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

2014-09-01

283

User requirements for geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data in a web-based virtual globe environment.  

PubMed

Web-based tools developed in the last couple of years offer unique opportunities to effectively support scientists in their effort to collaborate. Communication among environmental researchers often involves not only work with geographical (spatial), but also with temporal data and information. Literature still provides limited documentation when it comes to user requirements for effective geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data. To start filling this gap, our study adopted a User-Centered Design approach and first explored the user requirements of environmental researchers working on distributed research projects for collaborative dissemination, exchange and work with spatio-temporal data. Our results show that system design will be mainly influenced by the nature and type of data users work with. From the end-users' perspective, optimal conversion of huge files of spatio-temporal data for further dissemination, accuracy of conversion, organization of content and security have a key role for effective geo-collaboration. PMID:23164199

Yovcheva, Zornitza; van Elzakker, Corné P J M; Köbben, Barend

2013-11-01

284

Spatio-temporal changes in the structure of archaeal communities in two deep freshwater lakes.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the driving forces exerted by a large set of environmental and biological parameters on the spatial and temporal dynamics of archaeal community structure in two neighbouring peri-alpine lakes that differ in terms of trophic status. We analysed monthly data from a 2-year sampling period at two depths corresponding to the epi- and hypolimnetic layers. The archaeal communities seemed to be mainly composed of ammonia-oxidizing archaea belonging to the thaumarchaeotal phylum. The spatio-temporal dynamics of these communities were very similar in the two lakes and were characterized by (1) disparities in archaeal community structure in both time and space and (2) no seasonal reproducibility between years. The archaeal communities were regulated by a complex combination of abiotic factors, including temperature, nutrients, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen, and biotic factors such as heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates. However, in most cases, these factors explained < 52% of the variance in archaeal community structure, while we showed in a previous study that these factors explained 70-90% of the temporal variance for bacteria. This suggests that Bacteria and Archaea may be influenced by different factors and could occupy different ecological niches despite similar spatio-temporal dynamics. PMID:23730709

Berdjeb, Lyria; Pollet, Thomas; Chardon, Cécile; Jacquet, Stéphan

2013-11-01

285

Spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue 2009 outbreak in Córdoba City, Argentina.  

PubMed

During 2009 the biggest dengue epidemic to date occurred in Argentina, affecting almost half the country. We studied the spatio-temporal dynamics of the outbreak in the second most populated city of the country, Córdoba city. Confirmed cases and the results of an Aedes aegypti monitoring during the outbreak were geolocated. The imported cases began in January, and the autochthonous in March. Thirty-three percent of the 130 confirmed cases were imported, and occurred mainly at the center of the city. The autochthonous cases were more frequent in the outskirts, specially in the NE and SE. Aedes aegypti infestation showed no difference between neighborhoods with or without autochthonous cases, neither between neighborhoods with autochthonous vs. imported cases. The neighborhoods with imported cases presented higher population densities. The majority of autochthonous cases occurred at ages between 25 and 44 years old. Cases formed a spatio-temporal cluster of up to 20 days and 12km. According to a mathematical model that estimates the required number of days needed for transmission according to daily temperature, the number of cases begun to fall when more than 15.5 days were needed. This may be a coarse estimation of mean mosquito survival in the area, provided that the study area is close to the global distribution limit of the vector, and that cases prevalence was very low. PMID:24795212

Estallo, E L; Carbajo, A E; Grech, M G; Frías-Céspedes, M; López, L; Lanfri, M A; Ludueña-Almeida, F F; Almirón, W R

2014-08-01

286

Spatio-temporal Variability of Nitrate Across Scales in Texas Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) is considered the most prevalent contaminant in groundwater (GW). NO3- in GW shows significant spatio-temporal variability which comes from interaction among multiple geophysical factors such as source availability (land use), thickness and composition of the vadose zone, types of aquifers (confined or unconfined), aquifer heterogeneity (geological and alluvial), and precipitation characteristics etc. The present work seeks to describe the spatio-temporal variability of NO3- at multiple scales in two different hydrogeologic settings— the Trinity and Ogallala Aquifers in Texas at three spatial scales, fine (25 km.×25 km.), intermediate (50 km.×50 km.), and coarse (100 km.×100 km.) grids. An entropy-based approach was used to analyze spatial-temporal variability of NO3- within the aquifers. The Hurst exponent was used to evaluate the long-term persistence and trend in the variability of NO3-. The results demonstrate that the spatial variability of NO3- is controlled by the effect of soil type, irrigation-pumping, and local flow at the small scale and by the complex interactions between rivers and aquifers along with land use at the intermediate scale, and by lithology and geology at the coarse scale. The trends of variability of NO3- show long term persistence at the intermediate and coarse scales.

Dwivedi, D.; Mohanty, B. P.

2010-12-01

287

A dense array stimulator to generate arbitrary spatio-temporal tactile stimuli  

PubMed Central

The generation and presentation of tactile stimuli presents a unique challenge. Unlike vision and audition, in which standard equipment such as monitors and audio systems can be used for most experiments, tactile stimuli and/or stimulators often have to be tailor-made for a given study. Here, we present a novel tactile stimulator designed to present arbitrary spatio-temporal stimuli to the skin. The stimulator consists of 400 pins, arrayed over a 1 cm2 area, each under independent computer control. The dense array allows for an unprecedented number of stimuli to be presented within an experimental session (e.g., up to 1200 stimuli per minute) and for stimuli to be generated adaptively. The stimulator can be used in a variety of modes and can deliver indented and scanned patterns as well as stimuli defined by mathematical spatio-temporal functions (e.g., drifting sinusoids). We describe the hardware and software of the system, and discuss previous and prospective applications. PMID:17134760

Killebrew, Justin H.; Bensmaïa, Sliman J.; Dammann, John F.; Denchev, Peter; Hsiao, Steven S.; Craig, James C.

2007-01-01

288

Hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling and entropy-based network design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical spatio-temporal data include temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, ozone concentration, personal income, infection prevalence, mosquito populations, among others. To model such data in a given region by hierarchical Bayesian kriging is undertaken in this paper. In addition, an environmental network design problem is also explored. For demonstration, we consider the ozone concentrations in the Toronto region of Ontario, Canada. There are many missing observations in the data. To proceed, we first formulate the hierarchical spatio-temporal model in terms of observed data. We then fill in some missing observations such that the data has the staircase structure. Thus, in light of Le and Zidek (2006), we model the ozone concentrations in Toronto region by hierarchical Bayesian kriging and derive a conditional predictive distribution of the ozone concentrations over unknown locations. To decide if a new monitoring station needs to be added or an existing station can be closed down, we solve this environmental network design problem by using the principle of maximum entropy.

Wu, Y.; Jin, B.; Chan, E.

2012-12-01

289

Resonant nucleation of spatio-temporal order via parametric modal amplification  

E-print Network

We investigate, analytically and numerically, the emergence of spatio-temporal order in nonequilibrium scalar field theories. The onset of order is triggered by destabilizing interactions (DIs), which instantaneously change the interacting potential from a single to a double-well, tunable to be either degenerate (SDW) or nondegenerate (ADW). For the SDW case, we observe the emergence of spatio-temporal coherent structures known as oscillons. We show that this emergence is initially synchronized, the result of parametric amplification of the relevant oscillon modes. We also discuss how these ordered structures act as bottlenecks for equipartition. For ADW potentials, we show how the same parametric amplification mechanism may trigger the rapid decay of a metastable state. For a range of temperatures, the decay rates associated with this resonant nucleation can be orders of magnitude larger than those computed by homogeneous nucleation, with time-scales given by a simple power law, $\\tau_{\\rm RN}\\sim[E_b/k_BT]^B$, where $B$ depends weakly on the temperature and $E_b/k_BT$ is the free-energy barrier of a critical fluctuation.

Marcelo Gleiser; Rafael C. Howell

2003-10-20

290

A geomatic methodology for spatio-temporal analysis of climatologic variables and water related diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this research is to propose, by the way of geomatic developments, an integrated tool to analyze and model the spatio-temporal pattern of human diseases related to environmental conditions, in particular the ones that are linked to water resources. The geomatic developments follows four generic steps : requirement analysis, conceptual modeling, geomatic modeling and implementation (in Idrisi GIS software). A first development consists of the preprocessing of water, population and health data in order to facilitate the conversion and validation of tabular data into the required structure for spatio-temporal analysis. Three parallel developments follow : water balance, demographic state and evolution, epidemiological measures (morbidity and mortality rates, diseases burden). The new geomatic modules in their actual state have been tested on various regions of Mexico Republic (Lerma watershed, Chiapas state) focusing on diarrhea and vector borne diseases (dengue and malaria) and considering records over the last decade : a yearly as well as seasonal spreading trend can be observed in correlation with precipitation and temperature data. In an ecohealth perspective, the geomatic approach results particularly appropriate since one of its purposes is the integration of the various spatial themes implied in the study problem, environmental as anthropogenic. By the use of powerful spatial analysis functions, it permits the detection of spatial trends which, combined to the temporal evolution, can be of particularly use for example in climate change context, if sufficiently valid historical data can be obtain.

Quentin, E.; Gómez Albores, M. A.; Díaz Delgado, C.

2009-04-01

291

Correlated Spatio-Temporal Fluctuations in Chromatin Compaction States Characterize Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells integrate signals from the microenvironment to generate lineage-specific gene expression programs upon differentiation. Undifferentiated cell nuclei are easily deformable, with an active transcriptome, whereas differentiated cells have stiffer nuclei and condensed chromatin. Chromatin organization in the stem cell state is known to be highly dynamic but quantitative characterizations of its plasticity are lacking. Using fluorescence imaging, we study the spatio-temporal dynamics of nuclear architecture and chromatin compaction in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and differentiated states. Individual ES cells exhibit a relatively narrow variation in chromatin compaction, whereas primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (PMEF) show broad distributions. However, spatial correlations in chromatin compaction exhibit an emergent length scale in PMEFs, although they are unstructured and longer ranged in ES cells. We provide evidence for correlated fluctuations with large amplitude and long intrinsic timescales, including an oscillatory component, in both chromatin compaction and nuclear area in ES cells. Such fluctuations are largely frozen in PMEF. The role of actin and Lamin A/C in modulating these fluctuations is described. A simple theoretical formulation reproduces the observed dynamics. Our results suggest that, in addition to nuclear plasticity, correlated spatio-temporal structural fluctuations of chromatin in undifferentiated cells characterize the stem cell state. PMID:23442906

Talwar, Shefali; Kumar, Abhishek; Rao, Madan; Menon, Gautam I.; Shivashankar, G.V.

2013-01-01

292

Spatio-temporal dynamics in collective frog choruses examined by mathematical modeling and field observations.  

PubMed

This paper reports theoretical and experimental studies on spatio-temporal dynamics in the choruses of male Japanese tree frogs. First, we theoretically model their calling times and positions as a system of coupled mobile oscillators. Numerical simulation of the model as well as calculation of the order parameters show that the spatio-temporal dynamics exhibits bistability between two-cluster antisynchronization and wavy antisynchronization, by assuming that the frogs are attracted to the edge of a simple circular breeding site. Second, we change the shape of the breeding site from the circle to rectangles including a straight line, and evaluate the stability of two-cluster and wavy antisynchronization. Numerical simulation shows that two-cluster antisynchronization is more frequently observed than wavy antisynchronization. Finally, we recorded frog choruses at an actual paddy field using our sound-imaging method. Analysis of the video demonstrated a consistent result with the aforementioned simulation: namely, two-cluster antisynchronization was more frequently realized. PMID:24463569

Aihara, Ikkyu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Awano, Hiromitsu; Nagira, Kohei; Okuno, Hiroshi G; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2014-01-01

293

Spatio-temporal changes of photosynthesis in carnivorous plants in response to prey capture, retention and digestion  

PubMed Central

Carnivorous plants have evolved modified leaves into the traps that assist in nutrient uptake from captured prey. It is known that the traps of carnivorous plants usually have lower photosynthetic rates than assimilation leaves as a result of adaptation to carnivory. However, a few recent studies have indicated that photosynthesis and respiration undergo spatio-temporal changes during prey capture and retention, especially in the genera with active trapping mechanisms. This study describes the spatio-temporal changes of effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (?PSII) in response to ant-derived formic acid during its capture and digestion. PMID:20523127

2010-01-01

294

Spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem: implications for plant dynamics and spatial pattern.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water presents high temporal and spatial variability in drylands. The temporal variability is determined by the heterogeneous and unpredictable rainfall pattern in these ecosystems. The spatial variability is associated to the well-known "source-sink" eco-hydrological dynamics occurring in drylands, related to the patchy vegetation and bare soil structure with water run-off generated on the bare soil patches and water infiltration preferentially into vegetated areas. These run-off - run-on systems has been extensively studied and the processes involved are well known, including the role of different plant types capturing the water run-on, increasing infiltration and reducing evaporation under plant canopies. However, integrative studies of hydrological and ecological processes in a whole ecosystem during a prolonged time period are scarce, despite the relevance of this approach to understand the role of hydrological processes (and what hydrological process are most important) determining plant dynamics and spatial pattern. We present an eco-hydrological study conducted in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem in the Middle Ebro Valley (NE Spain), where soil water content and patterns of plant establishment were followed during 30 months in 4 microsites: open bare areas, under two shrub species (Salsola vermiculata and Artemisia herba-alba) and one perennial grass species (Lygeum spartum). These 4 microsites represent the vast majority of the land in the ecosystem under study. Water infiltration, photosynthetic photon flux and soil temperature were also recorded in the 4 microsites. Simultaneously, seedling establishment and survival were recorded twice per year in the same microsites. Lygeum spartum was the microsite with the largest increment in water infiltration, and with the largest reduction in both solar radiation and soil temperature when compared with the measurement in the open bare areas. However, soil water content after rainfall under the canopy of Salsola vermiculata was the largest, indicating that canopy interception could be a less relevant process under the canopy of S. vermiculata than under the canopy of L. spartum. Moreover, there was an interactive effect of the soil water content before rainfall and the magnitude of the rainfall with the microsite (i.e. wet bare soils infiltrated more water than dry bare soils, being this difference less relevant in the vegetated microsites). Patterns of seedling establishment and survival correlated to patterns in soil water content, pointing out the relevance of the eco-hydrological spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the dynamics and spatial pattern of plant communities. Seedling establishment occurs in the first centimetres of soil, where competition for water (under Lygeum spartum) and evaporation (in the open bare soil areas) seems to reduce the water availability for plant establishment.

Pueyo, Yolanda; Moret-Fernández, David; Arroyo, Antonio I.; de Frutos, Ángel; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

2014-05-01

295

Poisson branching point processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule-Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers.

Matsuo, Kuniaki; Teich, Malvin Carl; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

1984-07-01

296

Poisson branching point processes  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers.

Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

1984-07-01

297

Spatio-temporal dynamics and laterality effects of face inversion, feature presence and configuration, and face outline  

PubMed Central

Although a crucial role of the fusiform gyrus (FG) in face processing has been demonstrated with a variety of methods, converging evidence suggests that face processing involves an interactive and overlapping processing cascade in distributed brain areas. Here we examine the spatio-temporal stages and their functional tuning to face inversion, presence and configuration of inner features, and face contour in healthy subjects during passive viewing. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) combines high-density whole-head MEG recordings and distributed source modeling with high-resolution structural MRI. Each person's reconstructed cortical surface served to constrain noise-normalized minimum norm inverse source estimates. The earliest activity was estimated to the occipital cortex at ~100 ms after stimulus onset and was sensitive to an initial coarse level visual analysis. Activity in the right-lateralized ventral temporal area (inclusive of the FG) peaked at ~160 ms and was largest to inverted faces. Images containing facial features in the veridical and rearranged configuration irrespective of the facial outline elicited intermediate level activity. The M160 stage may provide structural representations necessary for downstream distributed areas to process identity and emotional expression. However, inverted faces additionally engaged the left ventral temporal area at ~180 ms and were uniquely subserved by bilateral processing. This observation is consistent with the dual route model and spared processing of inverted faces in prosopagnosia. The subsequent deflection, peaking at ~240 ms in the anterior temporal areas bilaterally, was largest to normal, upright faces. It may reflect initial engagement of the distributed network subserving individuation and familiarity. These results support dynamic models suggesting that processing of unfamiliar faces in the absence of a cognitive task is subserved by a distributed and interactive neural circuit. PMID:25426044

Marinkovic, Ksenija; Courtney, Maureen G.; Witzel, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric

2014-01-01

298

Challenges for modelling spatio-temporal variations of malaria risk in Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Malawi with more than 6 million episodes reported each year. Malaria poses a huge economic burden to Malawi in terms of the direct cost of treating malaria patients and also indirect costs resulting from workdays lost in agriculture and industry and absenteeism from school. Malawi implements malaria control activities within the Roll Back Malaria framework, with the objective to provide those most at risk (i.e. children under five years, pregnant woman and individuals with suppressed immune systems) access to personal and community protective measures. However, at present there is no mechanism by which to target the most 'at risk' populations ahead of an impending epidemic. Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the mosquito and the availability of breeding sites, but also socio-economic conditions such as levels of urbanisation, poverty and education, which influence human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for modelling of malaria risk in space and time. Using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases at the district level from July 2004 - June 2011, we use a spatio-temporal modelling framework to model variations in malaria risk in Malawi. Climatic and topographic variations are accounted for using an interpolation method to relate gridded products to administrative districts. District level data is tested in the model to account for confounding factors, including the proportion of the population living in urban areas; residing in traditional housing; with no toilet facilities; who do not attend school, etc, the number of health facilities per population and yearly estimates of insecticide-treated mosquito net distribution. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a negative binomial generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) is adopted, which includes structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. The parameters in this spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This allows posterior predictive distributions for disease risk to be derived for each spatial location and time period. A novel visualisation technique is then used to display seasonal probabilistic forecasts of malaria risk, derived from the developed model using pre-defined risk category thresholds, on a map. This technique allows decision makers to identify areas where the model predicts with certainty a particular malaria risk category (high, medium or low); in order to effectively target limited resources to those districts most at risk for a given season.

Lowe, R.; Chirombo, J.; Tompkins, A. M.

2012-04-01

299

Key words Science of information, spatio-temporal, semantic and structural information, Darwin channel, noisy constrained capacity.  

E-print Network

Key words ­ Science of information, spatio-temporal, semantic and structural information, Darwin argue that a new science of information is to rekindle for extraction, comprehension, and manipulation channel, noisy constrained capacity. Wojciech SZPANKOWSKI Department of Computer Science Purdue University

Szpankowski, Wojciech

300

The Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Hot-Spots A Case Study into the GeoSpatial  

E-print Network

The Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Hot-Spots ­ A Case Study into the GeoSpatial Aspects of Alcohol-Related Crime Mehul Bhatt Department of Computer Science La Trobe University Melbourne, AUSTRALIA 3086. +61-3-94791280 mbhatt@cs.latrobe.edu.au Peter Whigham Spatial Information Research Center

Bremen, Universität

301

WANG, ULLAH, KLSER, LAPTEV, SCHMID: FEATURES FOR ACTION RECOGNITION 1 Evaluation of local spatio-temporal features  

E-print Network

WANG, ULLAH, KL�SER, LAPTEV, SCHMID: FEATURES FOR ACTION RECOGNITION 1 Evaluation of local spatio.Muneeb.Ullah@inria.fr Alexander Kläser1 Alexander.Klaser@inria.fr Ivan Laptev2 Ivan.Laptev@inria.fr Cordelia Schmid1 Cordelia, ULLAH, KL�SER, LAPTEV, SCHMID: FEATURES FOR ACTION RECOGNITION spatio-temporal locations and scales

302

Spatio-Temporal Video Warping (sketches 0999) Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski Shmuel Peleg  

E-print Network

sequence, a 3D space-time volume is constructed. Certain warping effects require this volume to be alignedSpatio-Temporal Video Warping (sketches 0999) Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski Shmuel Peleg The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1 Introduction While spatial image warping is extensively used

Peleg, Shmuel

303

Decision Forests with Spatio-temporal Features for Graph-based Tumour Segmentation in 4D Lung CT  

E-print Network

normal and abnormal breast tissues in ultrasound images based on differences in their elasticity valuesDecision Forests with Spatio-temporal Features for Graph-based Tumour Segmentation in 4D Lung CT segmentation algorithm for dynamic CT images that incorporates the novel use of tumour tissue deformations

Hamarneh, Ghassan

304

Abstract Odors elicit spatio-temporal patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates and the  

E-print Network

in olfactory learning remains to be investigated. Keywords Learning and memory Ã? Olfactory coding Ã? CalciumAbstract Odors elicit spatio-temporal patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates olfactory learning. These studies pose a conundrum: how can an animal learn to efficiently respond

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

305

Comprehensive performance analysis of Spatio-Temporal Data Mining approach on multi-temporal coastal remote sensing datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study discusses about the new textural feature extraction, its improvement and a comprehensive analysis of our previous Machine Learning based Spatio-Temporal (STML-HAB) Data Mining approach for HAB detection mentioned in Ref. [2]. This study is an elaborative analysis extending our first results presented in Ref. [2]. The additional Wavelet and GLCM textural features helped in improving the performance

Balakrishna Gokaraju; Surya S. Durbha; Roger L. King; Nicolas H. Younan

2011-01-01

306

Spatio-temporal analysis of remotely-sensed forest mortality associated with road de-icing salts  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal analysis of remotely-sensed forest mortality associated with road de-icing salts H T S · We investigated subtle forest mortality patterns caused by road de-icing salts. · Multi-source imagery helped integrate spatial and temporal patterns of mortality. · Road salt effects were significant

Weisberg, Peter J.

307

A Data Analytics Framework for Smart Grids: Spatio-temporal Wind Power Analysis and Synchrophasor Data Mining  

E-print Network

A Data Analytics Framework for Smart Grids: Spatio-temporal Wind Power Analysis and Synchrophasor-temporal wind power analysis for wind generation forecast and integration, and II) data mining and information fusion of synchrophasor measurements toward secure power grids. Part I is centered around wind power

Reisslein, Martin

308

Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Aurora kinases A, B and C in bovine oocytes during meiotic maturation.2  

E-print Network

1 Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Aurora kinases A, B and C in bovine oocytes during meiotic-mail: uzbekova@tours.inra.fr24 Short title: Aurora kinases in bovine oocyte meiosis26 Summary sentence: Aurora in meiosis that are different from those in28 mitosis. Key words: Aurora kinases, bovine, oocyte, meiosis30

Boyer, Edmond

309

827Spatio-Temporal Quantification of FRET in Living Cells by Fast Time-Domain FLIM: A Comparative Study of  

E-print Network

827Spatio-Temporal Quantification of FRET in Living Cells by Fast Time-Domain FLIM: A Comparative´decine, Rennes, France Abstract Fo¨rster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) measured with Fluorescence Lifetime estimation of the FRET parameters requires a high number of photons and therefore long acquisition times

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

Novelty and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the bacterial diversity of hypersaline Lake Tebenquiche (Salar de Atacama).  

PubMed

Lake Tebenquiche is one of the largest saline water bodies in the Salar de Atacama at 2,500 m above sea level in northeastern Chile. Bacteria inhabiting there have to deal with extreme changes in salinity, temperature and UV dose (i.e., high environmental dissimilarity in the physical landscape). We analyzed the bacterioplankton structure of this lake by 16S rRNA gene analyses along a spatio-temporal survey. The bacterial assemblage within the lake was quite heterogeneous both in space and time. Salinity changed both in space and time ranging between 1 and 30% (w/v), and total abundances of planktonic prokaryotes in the different sampling points within the lake ranged between two and nine times 10(6) cells mL(-1). Community composition changed accordingly to the particular salinity of each point as depicted by genetic fingerprinting analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), showing a high level of variation in species composition from place to place (beta-diversity). Three selected sites were analyzed in more detail by clone libraries. We observed a predominance of Bacteroidetes (about one third of the clones) and Gammaproteobacteria (another third) with respect to all the other bacterial groups. The diversity of Bacteroidetes sequences was large and showed a remarkable degree of novelty. Bacteroidetes formed at least four clusters with no cultured relatives in databases and rather distantly related to any known 16S rRNA sequence. Within this phylum, a rich and diverse presence of Salinibacter relatives was found in the saltiest part of the lake. Lake Tebenquiche included several novel microorganisms of environmental importance and appeared as a large unexplored reservoir of unknown bacteria. PMID:18347752

Demergasso, Cecilia; Escudero, Lorena; Casamayor, Emilio O; Chong, Guillermo; Balagué, Vanessa; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2008-07-01

311

Effects of Spatio-Temporal Aliasing on Out-the-Window Visual Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designers of out-the-window visual systems face a challenge when attempting to simulate the outside world as viewed from a cockpit. Many methodologies have been developed and adopted to aid in the depiction of particular scene features, or levels of static image detail. However, because aircraft move, it is necessary to also consider the quality of the motion in the simulated visual scene. When motion is introduced in the simulated visual scene, perceptual artifacts can become apparent. A particular artifact related to image motion, spatiotemporal aliasing, will be addressed. The causes of spatio-temporal aliasing will be discussed, and current knowledge regarding the impact of these artifacts on both motion perception and simulator task performance will be reviewed. Methods of reducing the impact of this artifact are also addressed

Sweet, Barbara T.; Stone, Leland S.; Liston, Dorion B.; Hebert, Tim M.

2014-01-01

312

Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident. PMID:23995073

Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

2013-01-01

313

Spatio-temporal memories for machine learning: a long-term memory organization.  

PubMed

Design of artificial neural structures capable of reliable and flexible long-term spatio-temporal memory is of paramount importance in machine intelligence. To this end, we propose a novel, biologically inspired, long-term memory (LTM) architecture. We intend to use it as a building block of a neuron-level architecture that is able to mimic natural intelligence through learning, anticipation, and goal-driven behavior. A mutual input enhancement and blocking structure is proposed, and its operation is discussed in detail. The paper focuses on a hierarchical memory organization, storage, recognition, and recall mechanisms. Simulation results of the proposed memory show its effectiveness, adaptability, and robustness. Accuracy of the proposed method is compared to other methods including Levenshtein distance method and a Markov chain. PMID:19336289

Starzyk, Janusz A; He, Haibo

2009-05-01

314

Assessing the spatio-temporal variations of the completeness magnitude for seismic events in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spatio temporal variation of the completeness magnitude Mc, for a set of 18774 well localized earthquakes registered by the Venezuelan Seismological Network over the period 2000-2010. In the entire seismicity region we defined two-dimensional grids of different sizes in order to map the Mc: 11 km, 22 km, 55 km and 111 km. We calculated the completeness magnitude using the Maximum Curvature method (MAXC) for every particular cell taking at least 15 earthquakes to perform computations. The results show an overall variation from 2.0 to 3.6. We found different thresholds and ranges of Mc depending on the dimension of the seismicity zone: western region from 2.2 to 2.8, north central from 2.0 to 3.2 and eastern region from 2.2 to 3.2. We also include remarks in border seismicity, close to Colombia and Trinidad, where the largest Mc values are estimated.

Vasquez, R.; Bravo, L.

2013-05-01

315

Spatio-temporal Contrast Sensitivity in the Cardinal Directions of the Colour Space. A Review  

PubMed Central

We review the psychophysics of the spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity in the cardinal directions of the colour space and their correlation with those neural characteristics of the visual system that limit the ability to perform contrast detection or pattern-resolution tasks. We focus our attention particularly on the influence of luminance level, spatial extent and spatial location of the stimuli - factors that determine the characteristics of the physiological mechanisms underlying detection. Optical factors do obviously play a role, but we will refer to them only briefly. Contrast sensitivity measurements are often used in clinical practice as a method to detect, at their early stages, a variety of pathologies affecting the visual system, but their usefulness is very limited due to several reasons. We suggest some considerations about stimuli characteristics that should be taken into account in order to improve the performance of this kind of measurement.

Díez-Ajenjo, Maria Amparo; Capilla, Pascual

2010-01-01

316

Spatio-temporal variability of faunal and floral assemblages in Mediterranean temporary wetlands.  

PubMed

Six temporary wetlands in the region of Sejenane (Mogods, NW Tunisia) were studied in order to characterize the aquatic flora and fauna and to quantify their spatio-temporal variability. Samplings of aquatic fauna, phytosociological relevés, and measurements of the physicochemical parameters of water were taken during four different field visits carried out during the four seasons of the year (November 2009-July 2010). Despite the strong anthropic pressures on them, these temporary wetlands are home to rich and diversified biodiversity, including rare and endangered species. Spatial and temporal variations affect fauna and flora differently, as temporal variability influences the fauna rather more than the plants, which are relatively more dependent on spatial factors. These results demonstrate the interest of small water bodies for maintaining biodiversity at the regional level, and thus underscore the conservation issues of Mediterranean temporary wetlands that are declining on an ongoing basis currently. PMID:25433562

Rouissi, Maya; Boix, Dani; Muller, Serge D; Gascón, Stéphanie; Ruhí, Albert; Sala, Jordi; Bouattour, Ali; Ben Haj Jilani, Imtinen; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Ben Saad-Limam, Samia; Daoud-Bouattour, Amina

2014-12-01

317

Spatio-temporal video segmentation with shape growth or shrinkage constraint.  

PubMed

We propose a new method for joint segmentation of monotonously growing or shrinking shapes in a time sequence of noisy images. The task of segmenting the image time series is expressed as an optimization problem using the spatio-temporal graph of pixels, in which we are able to impose the constraint of shape growth or of shrinkage by introducing monodirectional infinite links connecting pixels at the same spatial locations in successive image frames. The globally optimal solution is computed with a graph cut. The performance of the proposed method is validated on three applications: segmentation of melting sea ice floes and of growing burned areas from time series of 2D satellite images, and segmentation of a growing brain tumor from sequences of 3D medical scans. In the latter application, we impose an additional intersequences inclusion constraint by adding directed infinite links between pixels of dependent image structures. PMID:25020092

Tarabalka, Yuliya; Charpiat, Guillaume; Brucker, Ludovic; Menze, Bjoern H

2014-09-01

318

Three dimensional spatio-temporal instabilities in two-layer flows at high Reynolds numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacial instabilities in Newtonian two-layer flows are investigated via three-dimensional direct numerical simulations using the diffuse-interface method to capture the interface. The simulations study the effect of waves, generated by a random 3D noise, at the inlet on the spatio-temporal behaviour of the instabilities. Of specific interest are the conditions of growth/decay of the spanwise interfacial perturbation. Preliminary results show a sustained growth of the spanwise mode, irrespective of the primary streamwise mode, at various streamwise locations in the domain. At positions close to the inlet the spanwise wave grows linearly until a non-linear distortion which eventually saturates the amplitude. This work extends our recently reported two-dimensional studies on spatiotemporal interfacial instabilities (J. Fluid Mech. (2010), vol. 656, pp. 458--480) to i) three dimensions and ii) higher Reynolds numbers.

Valluri, Prashant; O'Na'Raigh, Lennon; Spelt, Peter

2010-11-01

319

The spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of Ebola virus proteins and RNA in infected cells.  

PubMed

Here, we used a biologically contained Ebola virus system to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of Ebola virus proteins and RNA during virus replication. We found that viral nucleoprotein (NP), the polymerase cofactor VP35, the major matrix protein VP40, the transcription activator VP30, and the minor matrix protein VP24 were distributed in cytoplasmic inclusions. These inclusions enlarged near the nucleus, became smaller pieces, and subsequently localized near the plasma membrane. GP was distributed in the cytoplasm and transported to the plasma membrane independent of the other viral proteins. We also found that viral RNA synthesis occurred within the inclusions. Newly synthesized negative-sense RNA was distributed inside the inclusions, whereas positive-sense RNA was distributed both inside and outside. These findings provide useful insights into Ebola virus replication. PMID:23383374

Nanbo, Asuka; Watanabe, Shinji; Halfmann, Peter; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

320

Radio interferometric determination of the spatio-temporal parameters of pulsar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One urgent problem in fundamental astrometry is the establishment of a link between the celestial coordinate systems obtained in different wavelength ranges and fixed by different astrophysical objects. We suggest that all spatio-temporal pulsar characteristics should be determined within the framework of a single radio interferometric session, including observations of a pulsar and a quasar: the angular position of the pulsar relative to the quasar (s), the period and phase of the pulsar radiation, and the times of pulse arrival at interferometer receiving stations. The set of such measurement data on many pulsars makes it possible to determine the correlation between the barycentric dynamical coordinate frame and the inertial “quasar” frame, which is also essential for the ephemeral support of space navigation.

Alekseev, V. A.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Knyazev, N. A.; Lipatov, B. N.

1997-07-01

321

Geographic boundary analysis in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology: Perspective and prospects  

PubMed Central

Geographic boundary analysis is a relatively new approach that is just beginning to be applied in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology to quantify spatial variation in health outcomes, predictors and correlates; generate and test epidemiologic hypotheses; to evaluate health-environment relationships; and to guide sampling design. Geographic boundaries are zones of rapid change in the value of a spatially distributed variable, and mathematically may be defined as those locations with a large second derivative of the spatial response surface. Here we introduce a pattern analysis framework based on Value, Change and Association questions, and boundary analysis is shown to fit logically into Change and Association paradigms. This article addresses fundamental questions regarding what boundary analysis can tell us in public health and epidemiology. It explains why boundaries are of interest, illustrates analysis approaches and limitations, and concludes with prospects and future research directions. PMID:21218153

Jacquez, Geoffrey M.

2010-01-01

322

A collaborative large spatio-temporal data visual analytics architecture for emergence response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unconventional emergency, usually outbreaks more suddenly, and is diffused more quickly, but causes more secondary damage and derives more disaster than what it is usually expected. The data volume and urgency of emergency exceeds the capacity of current emergency management systems. In this paper, we propose a three-tier collaborative spatio-temporal visual analysis architecture to support emergency management. The prototype system, based on cloud computation environment, supports aggregation of massive unstructured and semi-structured data, integration of various computing model sand algorithms; collaborative visualization and visual analytics among users with a diversity of backgrounds. The distributed data in 100TB scale is integrated in a unified platform and shared with thousands of experts and government agencies by nearly 100 models. The users explore, visualize and analyse the big data and make a collaborative countermeasures to emergencies.

Guo, D.; Li, J.; Cao, H.; Zhou, Y.

2014-02-01

323

Heterogeneity in hotspots: spatio-temporal patterns in neglected parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recognized by the WHO as 'Neglected Diseases'. Minimal attention has been paid to the spatial and temporal distribution of disease incidence patterns. Using disease notification data, we detected spatio-temporal clusters of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis across three time periods: (i) 1997-2000, (ii) 2001-2004, (iii) 2005-2008. There was substantial variation in the geographical location and timing of recurrent cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis clusters. Statistically significant (P < 0·05) giardiasis clusters tended to occur in predominantly urban areas with little apparent seasonal influence, while statistically significant cryptosporidiosis clusters were detected in spring, in areas with high livestock land use. The location and timing of cryptosporidiosis clusters suggest an influence of livestock production practices, while urban exposures and host behaviour are likely to influence giardiasis clusters. This approach provides a resource-efficient method for public health authorities to prioritize future research needs and areas for intervention. PMID:24819745

Lal, A; Hales, S

2015-02-01

324

An ecosystem modeling study of spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton distribution in the Okhotsk Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional ecosystem-physical-coupled model is applied to the Okhotsk Sea. Factors that determine the spatial distribution of phytoplankton in the Okhotsk Sea in autumn and spring are analyzed, and the effects of sea ice on the spring bloom are also discussed. One of the most important factors determining the spatial distribution of phytoplankton in autumn is regional variation in mixed layer depth. The model can explain the spatio-temporal variation of chlorophyll- a concentration in the Okhotsk Sea during the spring blooms in 1997 and 2001. The start of the spring bloom in the Okhotsk Sea depends on the light environment. By controlling the light intensity in sea surface water, sea ice controls the timing of the spring bloom.

Okunishi, Takeshi; Kishi, Michio J.; Shiomoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2005-08-01

325

Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident. PMID:23995073

Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

2013-01-01

326

Spatio-TemporalMetasurface for Real-time 2-D Spectrum Analysis  

E-print Network

A spatio-temporal metasurface is proposed to decompose in real time the temporal frequencies of electromagnetic waves into spatial frequencies onto a two-dimensional plane. The metasurface is analyzed and demonstrated using Fourier analysis. The required transmittance function is derived from an equivalent free-space optical system consisting of the cascade combination of a wedge, a diffraction grating and a focusing lens. The metasurface must exhibit both multi-resonance over a broad bandwidth and 1-D grating-type scanning to achieve the specified 2-D frequency scanning in space. Compared to state-of-the art related systems, the proposed metasurface system is more compact as it requires only one dispersive structure, while maintaining the high frequency resolution that characterizes 2-D spatial-temporal mapping systems.

Gupta, Shulabh

2014-01-01

327

Holographic frequency resolved optical gating for spatio-temporal characterization of ultrashort optical pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a novel method for characterizing the spatio-temporal evolution of ultrashort optical field by recording the spectral hologram of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) trace. We show that FROG holography enables the measurement of phase (up to an overall constant) and group delay of the pulse which cannot be measured by conventional FROG method. To illustrate our method, we perform numerical simulation to generate holographic collinear FROG (cFROG) trace of a chirped optical pulse and retrieve its complex profile at multiple locations as it propagates through a hypothetical dispersive medium. Further, we experimentally demonstrate our method by retrieving a 67 fs pulse at three axial locations in the vicinity of focus of an objective lens and compute its group delay.

Mehta, Nikhil; Yang, Chuan; Xu, Yong; Liu, Zhiwen

2014-09-01

328

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Spatio-temporal problems of locomotion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the spatio-temporal construction of legged movements involves structural freedoms due to the multi-link structure of the extremities, kinematic freedoms of the stepping cycle, and interextremity coordination freedoms, whose purposive organization is established by means of appropriate synergies, i.e. additional functional links the brain's control system forms. The main focus of attention in this work is on the kinematic and coordination synergies of the legged movements of humans and animals. The comparative historical analysis of experimental data and modelling metaphors concentrates on obtaining a unified description, whereas the ultimate mathematical metaphor reduces to space-time geometry, with base step synergies as its invariants. Thus, the concept of a synergetic organization for biomechanical movement freedoms is transformed to the geochronometry concept, actually a modification of Minkowskian geometry. To determine the spectrum of possible geochronometries, the consequences of a generalized 'postulate of a constant speed of light' are studied and different models of wave chronometers compared.

Smolyaninov, Vladimir V.

2000-10-01

329

Measurement of the spatio-temporal gas density profile of a supersonic jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersonic jets are important for many experiments in physics, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Characterization of the density profile of the gas released from the nozzle is crucial for many applications and generally requires complicated measurements. A method that uses a common microphone to characterize the spatio-temporal gas profile of the supersonic jet is demonstrated here. Calibrating the microphone signals with the pressure change in the stagnation chamber, it is shown that it is possible to measure the complete density profile of the conical gas emission from the supersonic jet. It is shown that any conical section has a gaussian radial profile and that the peak densities decrease as 1/z'2, where z ' is the distance from the nozzle.

Rajeev, R.; Raja, S. V.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

2013-08-01

330

Automated analysis of spatio-temporal features for non-masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-mass enhancing lesions represent one of the most challenging types of lesions when it comes to both manual and computer-assisted diagnosis. Compared to the well-characterized mass-enhancing lesions, non-masses have not well-defined and blurred tumor borders and a kinetic behavior that is not easily generalizable and thus non-discriminative for malignant and benign non-masses. A valuable feature descriptor should capture the heterogeneity of enhancement as well as the speed of enhancement in the tissue. We apply and evaluate both textural and spatio-temporal descriptors to the pertinent feature extraction of these lesions. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally considers the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

Hoffmann, Sebastian; Lobbes, Marc; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

2013-05-01

331

Spatio-temporal malaria transmission patterns in Navrongo demographic surveillance site, northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between entomological measures of malaria transmission intensity and mortality remains uncertain. This is partly because transmission is heterogeneous even within small geographical areas. Studying this relationship requires high resolution, spatially structured, longitudinal entomological data. Geostatistical models that have been used to analyse the spatio-temporal heterogeneity have not considered the uncertainty in both sporozoite rate (SR) and mosquito density data. This study analysed data from Kassena-Nankana districts in northern Ghana to obtain small area estimates of malaria transmission rates allowing for this uncertainty. Methods Independent Bayesian geostatistical models for sporozoite rate and mosquito density were fitted to produce explicit entomological inoculation rate (EIR) estimates for small areas and short time periods, controlling for environmental factors. Results Mosquitoes were trapped from 2,803 unique locations for three years using mainly CDC light traps. Anopheles gambiae constituted 52%, the rest were Anopheles funestus. Mean biting rates for An. funestus and An. gambiae were 32 and 33 respectively. Most bites occurred in September, the wettest month. The sporozoite rates were higher in the dry periods of the last two years compared with the wet period. The annual EIR varied from 1,132 to 157 infective bites. Monthly EIR varied between zero and 388 infective bites. Spatial correlation for SR was lower than that of mosquito densities. Conclusion This study confirms the presence of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in malaria transmission within a small geographical area. Spatial variance was stronger than temporal especially in the SR. The estimated EIR will be used in mortality analysis for the area. PMID:23405912

2013-01-01

332

Disease mapping and spatio-temporal analysis: importance of expected-case computation criteria.  

PubMed

The municipal, spatial pattern of male stomach cancer mortality in Spain, spanning the period 1989-2008, was studied, comparing the results of depicting mortality using different expected-case computation methods in a spatial and spatio- temporal modelling context. Expected cases for each municipality were first calculated by two methods: (i) using reference rates for each 5-year period; and (ii) using average reference rates for the overall period. This was visualised by two types of models: (i) independent maps for each period based on the model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié; and (ii) a series of maps over time based on a model with spatio-temporal interaction terms. An additional model, based on mortality rate ratios as an alternative to the traditional use of standardised mortality ratios, was also fitted. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as the Bayesian inference tool. The results show that, in general, the geographical pattern was maintained across the study period, and that the maps differed appreciably according to the method used to obtain the expected number of cases. While the use of average reference rates appears to be the most suitable choice where the aim is to study time trends by area, it may nevertheless mask the spatial pattern in situations where the time trend is very marked and the study period is long. When it comes to studying changes in the spatial pattern of stomach cancer mortality, we feel that it is most useful to plot independent maps by period and use the "local" rates for each period as reference in the computation of expected cases. PMID:25545923

López-Abente, Gonzalo; Aragonés, Nuria; García-Pérez, Javier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

2014-11-01

333

Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years  

PubMed Central

It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

2013-01-01

334

Spatio-temporal simulation of first pass drug perfusion in the liver.  

PubMed

The liver is the central organ for detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. In pharmacokinetic modeling, hepatic metabolization capacity is typically quantified as hepatic clearance computed as degradation in well-stirred compartments. This is an accurate mechanistic description once a quasi-equilibrium between blood and surrounding tissue is established. However, this model structure cannot be used to simulate spatio-temporal distribution during the first instants after drug injection. In this paper, we introduce a new spatially resolved model to simulate first pass perfusion of compounds within the naive liver. The model is based on vascular structures obtained from computed tomography as well as physiologically based mass transfer descriptions obtained from pharmacokinetic modeling. The physiological architecture of hepatic tissue in our model is governed by both vascular geometry and the composition of the connecting hepatic tissue. In particular, we here consider locally distributed mass flow in liver tissue instead of considering well-stirred compartments. Experimentally, the model structure corresponds to an isolated perfused liver and provides an ideal platform to address first pass effects and questions of hepatic heterogeneity. The model was evaluated for three exemplary compounds covering key aspects of perfusion, distribution and metabolization within the liver. As pathophysiological states we considered the influence of steatosis and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver necrosis on total hepatic distribution and metabolic capacity. Notably, we found that our computational predictions are in qualitative agreement with previously published experimental data. The simulation results provide an unprecedented level of detail in compound concentration profiles during first pass perfusion, both spatio-temporally in liver tissue itself and temporally in the outflowing blood. We expect our model to be the foundation of further spatially resolved models of the liver in the future. PMID:24625393

Schwen, Lars Ole; Krauss, Markus; Niederalt, Christoph; Gremse, Felix; Kiessling, Fabian; Schenk, Andrea; Preusser, Tobias; Kuepfer, Lars

2014-03-01

335

Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of riparian soil morphology in a restored floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplains have been intensively altered in industrialized countries, but are now increasingly being restored. It is therefore important to assess the effect of these restoration projects on the aquatic and terrestrial components of ecosystems. However, despite being functionally crucial components of terrestrial ecosystems, soils are generally overlooked in floodplain restoration assessments. We studied the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of soil morphology in a restored (riverbed widening) river reach along the River Thur (Switzerland) using three criteria (soil diversity, dynamism and typicality) and their associated indicators. We hypothesized that these criteria would correctly discriminate the post-restoration changes in soil morphology, and that these changes correspond to patterns of vascular plant diversity. Soil diversity and dynamism increased 5 yr after the restoration, but some typical soils of braided rivers were still missing. Soil typicality and dynamism were correlated to vegetation changes. These results suggest a limited success of the project, in agreement with evaluations carried out at the same site using other, more resource-demanding, methods (e.g., soil fauna, fish diversity, ecosystem functioning). Soil morphology provides structural and functional information on floodplain ecosystems. The spatio-temporal heterogeneity of soil morphology represents a cost-efficient ecological indicator that could easily be integrated into rapid assessment protocols of floodplain and river restoration projects. The follow-up assessment after several major floods (? HQ20) should take place to allow for testing the longer-term validity of our conclusion for the River Thur site. More generally, it would be useful to apply the soil morphology indicator approach in different settings to test its broader applicability.

Fournier, B.; Guenat, C.; Bullinger-Weber, G.; Mitchell, E. A. D.

2013-10-01

336

Spatio-Temporal Variability of the North Sea Cod Recruitment in Relation to Temperature and Zooplankton  

PubMed Central

The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability. PMID:24551103

Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla

2014-01-01

337

Spatio-Temporal Simulation of First Pass Drug Perfusion in the Liver  

PubMed Central

The liver is the central organ for detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. In pharmacokinetic modeling, hepatic metabolization capacity is typically quantified as hepatic clearance computed as degradation in well-stirred compartments. This is an accurate mechanistic description once a quasi-equilibrium between blood and surrounding tissue is established. However, this model structure cannot be used to simulate spatio-temporal distribution during the first instants after drug injection. In this paper, we introduce a new spatially resolved model to simulate first pass perfusion of compounds within the naive liver. The model is based on vascular structures obtained from computed tomography as well as physiologically based mass transfer descriptions obtained from pharmacokinetic modeling. The physiological architecture of hepatic tissue in our model is governed by both vascular geometry and the composition of the connecting hepatic tissue. In particular, we here consider locally distributed mass flow in liver tissue instead of considering well-stirred compartments. Experimentally, the model structure corresponds to an isolated perfused liver and provides an ideal platform to address first pass effects and questions of hepatic heterogeneity. The model was evaluated for three exemplary compounds covering key aspects of perfusion, distribution and metabolization within the liver. As pathophysiological states we considered the influence of steatosis and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver necrosis on total hepatic distribution and metabolic capacity. Notably, we found that our computational predictions are in qualitative agreement with previously published experimental data. The simulation results provide an unprecedented level of detail in compound concentration profiles during first pass perfusion, both spatio-temporally in liver tissue itself and temporally in the outflowing blood. We expect our model to be the foundation of further spatially resolved models of the liver in the future. PMID:24625393

Schwen, Lars Ole; Krauss, Markus; Niederalt, Christoph; Gremse, Felix; Kiessling, Fabian; Schenk, Andrea; Preusser, Tobias; Kuepfer, Lars

2014-01-01

338

Spatio-temporal analysis of SAR based time series for slope instability characterization: the Corvara in Badia landslide (Dolomites, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of different forcing factors acting on instability phases of a slow alpine earthslide-earthflow, by means of the characteristics of decomposed deformations signals derived by displacement rates measured in its different sectors. In this work we analyze a slow landslide located ESE from Corvara in Badia, a famous tourist area in the Dolomites (NE Italy). Road, infrastructure, ski and other recreational facilities, isolated buildings close to the town of Corvara and finally an artificial reservoir for snow production are threatened and occasionally damaged by this mass movement. It flows from 2000m s.l. to 1500m s.l. where a paleo-landslide deposit is partially covered and re-activated. In the last 10 years the Province of Bolzano carried out discontinuous GPS surveys between 5 and 1 times per year to define the landslide's level of hazard. The landslide volume is resulted to be 30Mm3, extending downslope for approx. 3km, with displacement rates between few centimeters and slightly less than 10m per year. To analyze this area we used data from active radar sensors (SAR - Synthetic Aperture Radar). The SAR-based dataset consists in high resolution X-band SAR data from the Cosmo SkyMed (CSK) mission acquired every 8 days from August 2010 to September 2011. Part of the 38 CSK scenes contain the back-scattering signal from 17 artificial reflectors (AR) installed along the AOI and partially on existing GPS benchmarks for data validation and integration. The ARs back scattering signal has been elaborated in order to track their displacement from August 2010 to September 2011, in the lower zone of the landslide, as well as from March 2011 to September 2011 in the higher part, excluding the period when the snow was covering the surface. The signals have been analyzed with Fourier and wavelet methods to identify the different frequencies and nature of the components. T and Mann-Kendall tests have been used to assess the presence of trends. Fits with exponential functions of the de-trended and de-seasonalized signal have been performed to identify the presence of dissipating deformations. We observed that the signal of velocity and acceleration is characterized by the coexistence of different factors: first, periodic signals associated to seasonal and gravitational kinematic behavior; second, decay effects due to instability events. Moreover, using different points is possible to observe the signal propagation both in time and space. This analysis allow us to determine the spatio-temporal scale of different forcing events and their effect on the total landslide area. Finally, this study represent a new approach for identify the spatio-temporal nature of different factors in the evolution of the landslide for setting-up a system of conscious prediction of maintenance tasks of the exposed structures. The use of the SAR data demonstrated to be an innovative tool for high temporal resolution surveys with a big amount of points that in comparison with GPS surveys results to be economically convenient in wide AOI.

Mulas, M.; Petitta, M.; Brazanti, M.; Benedetti, E.; Corsini, A.; Iasio, C.

2012-04-01

339

DynaPop-X: A population dynamics model applied to spatio-temporal exposure assessment - Implementation aspects from the CRISMA project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of proactive disaster risk as well as immediate situational crisis management knowledge of locational social aspects in terms of spatio-temporal population distribution dynamics is considered among the most important factors for disaster impact minimization (Aubrecht et al., 2013a). This applies to both the pre-event stage for designing appropriate preparedness measures and to acute crisis situations when an event chain actually unfolds for efficient situation-aware response. The presented DynaPop population dynamics model is developed at the interface of those interlinked crisis stages and aims at providing basic input for social impact evaluation and decision support in crisis management. The model provides the starting point for assessing population exposure dynamics - thus here labeled as DynaPop-X - which can either be applied in a sense of illustrating the changing locations and numbers of affected people at different stages during an event or as ex-ante estimations of probable and maximum expected clusters of affected population (Aubrecht et al., 2013b; Freire & Aubrecht, 2012). DynaPop is implemented via a gridded spatial disaggregation approach and integrates previous efforts on spatio-temporal modeling that account for various aspects of population dynamics such as human mobility and activity patterns that are particularly relevant in picturing the highly dynamic daytime situation (Ahola et al., 2007; Bhaduri, 2008; Cockings et al., 2010). We will present ongoing developments particularly focusing on the implementation logic of the model using the emikat software tool, a data management system initially designed for inventorying and analysis of spatially resolved regional air pollutant emission scenarios. This study was performed in the framework of the EU CRISMA project. CRISMA is funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 284552. REFERENCES Ahola, T., Virrantaus, K., Krisp, J.K., Hunter, G.J. (2007) A spatio-temporal population model to support risk assessment and damage analysis for decision-making. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(8), 935-953. Aubrecht, C., Fuchs, S., Neuhold, C. (2013a) Spatio-temporal aspects and dimensions in integrated disaster risk management. Natural Hazards, 68(3), 1205-1216. Aubrecht, C., Özceylan, D., Steinnocher, K., Freire, S. (2013b) Multi-level geospatial modeling of human exposure patterns and vulnerability indicators. Natural Hazards, 68(1), 147-163. Bhaduri, B. (2008) Population distribution during the day. In S. Shekhar & X. Hui, eds., Encyclopedia of GIS. Springer US, 880-885. Cockings, S., Martin, D. & Leung, S. (2010) Population 24/7: building space-time specific population surface models. In M. Haklay, J. Morley, & H. Rahemtulla, eds., Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 18th Annual conference. GISRUK 2010. London, UK, 41-47. Freire, S., Aubrecht, C. (2012) Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12(11), 3533-3543.

Aubrecht, Christoph; Steinnocher, Klaus; Humer, Heinrich; Huber, Hermann

2014-05-01

340

NeuCube: a spiking neural network architecture for mapping, learning and understanding of spatio-temporal brain data.  

PubMed

The brain functions as a spatio-temporal information processing machine. Spatio- and spectro-temporal brain data (STBD) are the most commonly collected data for measuring brain response to external stimuli. An enormous amount of such data has been already collected, including brain structural and functional data under different conditions, molecular and genetic data, in an attempt to make a progress in medicine, health, cognitive science, engineering, education, neuro-economics, Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), and games. Yet, there is no unifying computational framework to deal with all these types of data in order to better understand this data and the processes that generated it. Standard machine learning techniques only partially succeeded and they were not designed in the first instance to deal with such complex data. Therefore, there is a need for a new paradigm to deal with STBD. This paper reviews some methods of spiking neural networks (SNN) and argues that SNN are suitable for the creation of a unifying computational framework for learning and understanding of various STBD, such as EEG, fMRI, genetic, DTI, MEG, and NIRS, in their integration and interaction. One of the reasons is that SNN use the same computational principle that generates STBD, namely spiking information processing. This paper introduces a new SNN architecture, called NeuCube, for the creation of concrete models to map, learn and understand STBD. A NeuCube model is based on a 3D evolving SNN that is an approximate map of structural and functional areas of interest of the brain related to the modeling STBD. Gene information is included optionally in the form of gene regulatory networks (GRN) if this is relevant to the problem and the data. A NeuCube model learns from STBD and creates connections between clusters of neurons that manifest chains (trajectories) of neuronal activity. Once learning is applied, a NeuCube model can reproduce these trajectories, even if only part of the input STBD or the stimuli data is presented, thus acting as an associative memory. The NeuCube framework can be used not only to discover functional pathways from data, but also as a predictive system of brain activities, to predict and possibly, prevent certain events. Analysis of the internal structure of a model after training can reveal important spatio-temporal relationships 'hidden' in the data. NeuCube will allow the integration in one model of various brain data, information and knowledge, related to a single subject (personalized modeling) or to a population of subjects. The use of NeuCube for classification of STBD is illustrated in a case study problem of EEG data. NeuCube models result in a better accuracy of STBD classification than standard machine learning techniques. They are robust to noise (so typical in brain data) and facilitate a better interpretation of the results and understanding of the STBD and the brain conditions under which data was collected. Future directions for the use of SNN for STBD are discussed. PMID:24508754

Kasabov, Nikola K

2014-04-01

341

Domain-specific perceptual causality in children depends on the spatio-temporal configuration, not motion onset.  

PubMed

Humans, even babies, perceive causality when one shape moves briefly and linearly after another. Motion timing is crucial in this and causal impressions disappear with short delays between motions. However, the role of temporal information is more complex: it is both a cue to causality and a factor that constrains processing. It affects ability to distinguish causality from non-causality, and social from mechanical causality. Here we study both issues with 3- to 7-year-olds and adults who saw two computer-animated squares and chose if a picture of mechanical, social or non-causality fit each event best. Prior work fit with the standard view that early in development, the distinction between the social and physical domains depends mainly on whether or not the agents make contact, and that this reflects concern with domain-specific motion onset, in particular, whether the motion is self-initiated or not. The present experiments challenge both parts of this position. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed that not just spatial, but also animacy and temporal information affect how children distinguish between physical and social causality. In Experiments 3 and 4 we showed that children do not seem to use spatio-temporal information in perceptual causality to make inferences about self- or other-initiated motion onset. Overall, spatial contact may be developmentally primary in domain-specific perceptual causality in that it is processed easily and is dominant over competing cues, but it is not the only cue used early on and it is not used to infer motion onset. Instead, domain-specific causal impressions may be automatic reactions to specific perceptual configurations, with a complex role for temporal information. PMID:23874308

Schlottmann, Anne; Cole, Katy; Watts, Rhianna; White, Marina

2013-01-01

342

Lipidomic and Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Fat by Mass Spectrometry in Mice Duodenum during Lipid Digestion  

PubMed Central

Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:23560035

Seyer, Alexandre; Cantiello, Michela; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Nauze, Michel; Bézirard, Valérie; Touboul, David; Coméra, Christine

2013-01-01

343

Spatio-Temporal Expression and Functional Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Diabetic Mechanical Allodynia in Rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by prominent mechanical allodynia (DMA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying it has not fully been elucidated. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of a major nociceptive channel protein transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and analyzed its functional involvement by intrathecal (i.t.) application of TRPV1 antagonists in streptozocin (STZ)-induced DMA rat models. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results showed that TRPV1 protein level was significantly increased in the soma of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on 14 days after STZ treatment (DMA 14 d), whereas those in spinal cord and skin (mainly from the central and peripheral processes of DRG neurons) had already been enhanced on DMA 7 d to peak on DMA 14 d. qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that TRPV1 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in the DRG on DMA 7 d, indicating a preceding translation of TRPV1 protein in the soma but preferential distribution of this protein to the processes under the DMA conditions. Cell counting assay based on double immunostaining suggested that increased TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons were likely to be small-sized and CGRP-ergic. Finally, single or multiple intrathecal applications of non-specific or specific TRPV1 antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine, at varying doses, effectively alleviated DMA, although the effect of the former was more prominent and long-lasting. These results collectively indicate that TRPV1 expression dynamically changes during the development of DMA and this protein may play important roles in mechanical nociception in DRG neurons, presumably through facilitating the release of CGRP. PMID:25020137

Wu, Huang-Hui; Qi, Jian; Shi, Juan; Li, Yun-Qing

2014-01-01

344

Individual and spatio-temporal variations in the home range behaviour of a long-lived, territorial species.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that investigations of home range behaviour have exponentially evolved on theoretical, analytical and technological grounds, the factors that shape animal home range behaviour still represent an unsolved question and a challenging field of research. However, home range studies have recently begun to be approached under a new integrated conceptual framework, considering home range behaviour as the result of the simultaneous influences of temporal, spatial and individual-level processes, with potential consequences at the population level. Following an integrated approach, we studied the influence of both external and internal factors on variations in the home range behaviour of 34 radiotagged eagle owl (Bubo bubo) breeders. Home range behaviour was characterised through complementary analysis of space use, movement patterns and rhythms of activity at multiple spatio-temporal scales. The effects of the different phases of the biological cycle became considerably evident at the level of movement patterns, with males travelling longer distances than females during incubation and nestling periods. Both external (i.e. habitat structure and composition) and internal (i.e. sex and health state) factors explained a substantial amount of the variation in home range behaviour. At the broader temporal scale, home range and core area size were negatively correlated with landscape heterogeneity. Males showed (1) smaller home range and core area sizes, (2) more complex home range internal structure and (3) higher rates of movement. The better the physiological condition of the individuals, the simpler the internal home range structure. Finally, inter- and intra-individual effects contributed to shaping space use and movement patterns during the biological cycle. Because of the plurality of behavioural and ecological processes simultaneously involved in home range behaviour, we claim that an integrative approach is required for adequate investigation of its temporal and spatial variation. PMID:23086505

Campioni, Letizia; Delgado, María del Mar; Lourenço, Rui; Bastianelli, Giulia; Fernández, Nestor; Penteriani, Vincenzo

2013-06-01

345

Spatio-temporal variability of water vapor investigated by lidar and FTIR vertical soundings above Mt. Zugspitze  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas and its spatio-temporal variability strongly exceeds that of all other greenhouse gases. However, this variability has hardly been studied quantitatively so far. We present an analysis of a five-year period of water vapor measurements in the free troposphere above Mt. Zugspitze (2962 m a.s.l., Germany). Our results are obtained from a combination of measurements of vertically integrated water vapor (IWV), recorded with a solar Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer on the summit of Mt. Zugspitze and of water vapor profiles recorded with the nearby differential absorption lidar (DIAL) at the Schneefernerhaus research station. The special geometrical arrangement of one zenith-viewing and one sun-pointing instrument and the temporal resolution of both instruments allow for an investigation of the spatio-temporal variability of IWV on a spatial scale of less than one kilometer and on a time scale of less than one hour. The SD of differences between both instruments ?IWV calculated for varied subsets of data serves as a measure of variability. The different subsets are based on various spatial and temporal matching criteria. Within a time interval of 20 min, the spatial variability becomes significant for horizontal distances above 2 km, but only in the warm season (?IWV = 0.35 mm). However, it is not sensitive to the horizontal distance during the winter season. The variability of IWV within a time interval of 30 min peaks in July and August (?IWV > 0.55 mm, mean horizontal distance = 2.5 km and has its minimum around midwinter (?IWV < 0.2 mm, mean distance > 5 km). The temporal variability of IWV is derived by selecting subsets of data from both instruments with optimal volume matching. For a short time interval of 5 min, the variability is 0.05 mm and increases to more than 0.5 mm for a time interval of 15 h. The profile variability of water vapor is determined by analyzing subsets of water vapor profiles recorded by the DIAL within time intervals from 1 to 5 h. For all altitudes, the variability increases with widened time intervals. The lowest relative variability is observed in the lower free troposphere around an altitude of 4.5 km. Above 5 km, the relative variability increases continuously up to the tropopause by about a factor of 3. Analysis of the covariance of the vertical variability reveals an enhanced variability of water vapor in the upper troposphere above 6 km. It is attributed to a more coherent flow of heterogeneous air masses, while the variability at lower altitudes is also driven by local atmospheric dynamics. By studying the short-term variability of vertical water vapor profiles recorded within a day, we come to the conclusion that the contribution of long-range transport and the advection of heterogeneous layer structures may exceed the impact of local convection by one order of magnitude even in the altitude range between 3 and 5 km.

Vogelmann, H.; Sussmann, R.; Trickl, T.; Reichert, A.

2014-11-01

346

Using Optimality Principles to Predict Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Vegetation-Atmosphere Fluxes at Leaf to Global Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A predictive understanding of biological variation in space and time -- from spatial gradients of light within plant canopies, seasonal fluctuations in temperature and water availability during a growing season, to geographic variation in climate and soil nutrient availability across the land surface -- is a central but challenging goal in biospheric sciences. Functional attributes of vegetation, such as the capacities to exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere, can be assessed based on thermodynamic and aerodynamic properties of the canopy-atmosphere system, however many of these properties cannot be directly measured at the global scale. In lieu of direct measurement, optimization methods based on simplifying theories of the underlying processes, including Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) and economic theories of plant carbon and water relations, are needed to provide sufficient constraint to estimate the required parameters. Using theories of functional coordination in which it is assumed that plants maintain a balance between the supply and demand of a variable (e.g. absorbed radiation, CO2, water) consistent with MEP in complex source-sink physiological systems, it is possible to predict spatial patterns of leaf photosynthetic capacity within plant canopies as well as their temporal variation throughout the growing season. When combined with satellite remote sensing observations of canopy light absorptance (fAPAR), these same theories can be used to predict seasonal variations in leaf and canopy photosynthesis and transpiration, and global spatio-temporal patterns of productivity and evapotranspiration. Predictions using this approach are consistent with observations at leaf to landscape scales based on leaf gas exchange and eddy covariance measurements in arctic to tropical ecosystems.

Tu, K. P.

2008-12-01

347

Dynamic disordering of liposomal cocktails and the spatio-temporal favorable release of cargoes to circumvent drug resistance.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) has been a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of drug delivery systems using nanotechnology to reverse MDR in cancer. However, the spontaneous release of drug payloads was always a slow process, which leads to the low intracellular drug concentration resulting in consequent drug insensitivity. To circumvent this limitation, we described a liposomal cocktail (LMDHV) constructed by a pH-responsive molecule (i.e., malachite green carbinol base (MG)) and liposome conjugated with Her-2 antibody for codelivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) to suppress drug resistance in Her-2 positive breast cancer. MG inserted in the bilayer as pH responders greatly contributed to the destabilization of the vesicle membrane in low pH, followed by the rapid release of the payloads. LMDHV showed 6-fold reversal efficiency in DOX resistant breast cancer owing to the efficient tumor targeting delivery and rapid burst release of drug intracellularly. Compared to tumor inhibition ratio of treated groups by free DOX (32.4 ± 7.4%), our designed kinetically favorable drug release system exhibited significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced tumor inhibition ratio up to 83.9 ± 12.5%, which is attributed to the remarkably increased drug concentration in cells. The spatio-temporal favorable release of drugs resulted in synergistic inhibition of tumor growth in xenografts. We envision that this new type of liposomal cocktail might be potentially utilized to circumvent drug resistance in the future. PMID:24456605

Liu, Ya; Li, Li-Li; Qi, Guo-Bin; Chen, Xi-Guang; Wang, Hao

2014-03-01

348

Precise spatio-temporal modulation of ACC synthase by MPK6 cascade mediates the response of rose flowers to rehydration.  

PubMed

Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects the development and growth of most plants, and limits crop yield worldwide. Although the response of plants to drought has been well documented, much less is known about how plants respond to the water recovery process, namely rehydration. Here, we describe the spatio-temporal response of plant reproductive organs to rehydration using rose flowers as an experimental system. We found that rehydration triggered rapid and transient ethylene production in the gynoecia. This ethylene burst serves as a signal to ensure water recovery in flowers, and promotes flower opening by influencing the expression of a set of rehydration-responsive genes. An in-gel kinase assay suggested that the rehydration-induced ethylene burst resulted from transient accumulation of RhACS1/2 proteins in gynoecia. Meanwhile, RhMPK6, a rose homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana MPK6, is rapidly activated by rehydration within 0.5 h. Furthermore, RhMPK6 was able to phosphorylate RhACS1 but not RhACS2 in vitro. Application of the kinase inhibitor K252a suppressed RhACS1 accumulation and rehydration-induced ethylene production in gynoecia, and the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid had the opposite effect, confirming that accumulation of RhACS1 was phosphorylation-dependent. Finally, silencing of RhMPK6 significantly reduced ethylene production in gynoecia when flowers were subjected to rehydration. Taken together, our results suggest that temporal- and spatial-specific activation of an RhMPK6-RhACS1 cascade is responsible for rehydration-induced ethylene production in gynoecia, and that the resulting ethylene-mediated signaling pathway is a key factor in flower rehydration. PMID:24942184

Meng, Yonglu; Ma, Nan; Zhang, Qian; You, Qi; Li, Na; Ali Khan, Muhammad; Liu, Xiaojing; Wu, Lin; Su, Zhen; Gao, Junping

2014-09-01

349

-Spatio-temporal variation of salt marsh seedling establishment in relation to the environment -61 Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 61-74, 2001  

E-print Network

- Spatio-temporal variation of salt marsh seedling establishment in relation to the environment variation in plant establishment in the upper intertidal marsh of three southern California wet- lands intertidal marsh. Abbreviations: CCA = Canonical Correspondence Analysis; DCA = Detrended Correspondence

350

Detection of Spatio-temporal variations of rainfall and temperature extremes over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic disturbances are commonly associated with the phenomenal occurrence of extreme events. The human kind has always been facing problem with hydrologic extremes in terms of deaths and economic loss. Hence, a complete analysis of observed extreme events will have a substantial role in planning, designing and management of the water resource systems. In India, the occurrence of extreme events, such as heavy rainfall, which is directly associated with the flash flood have been observed. For example; in 2005, Mumbai city of India suffered a huge economic damage, due to the record rainfall of 94 cm in a day. In the same year, two other major cities Chennai and Bangalore had also experienced the flash floods due to the heavy rainfall. Hence, occurrence of these recent events instigates researchers to investigate long term variation and trend of extreme rainfall over India. Very few previous studies have been conducted in India either considering a particular region or by considering a single extreme rainfall variable (either frequency or intensity of rainfall). In the present study, rainfall variables such as intensity, duration, frequency and volume are considered to investigate spatio-temporal variations for the entire India. The peak over threshold method with 95 percentile is considered to delineate the extreme variables from the observed rainfall data available (at 1×1 deg) for a period of 1901-2004. The temporal variability is determined by implementing a moving window of 30 years. As well as, the correlation analysis is conducted with the implementation of non-parametric coefficients. The spatio-temporal variability of 50 year return level (RL) for the rainfall intensity is determined considering Generalized Pareto and non-parametric kernel distributions as best fit. To identify the significant changes in the derived RL from first to last time window, a bootstrap-based approach proposed by Kharin and Zwiers (2005, Jl. of Climate, 18, 1156-1173) is implemented. The results from this study exhibit the observable changes in the rainfall extreme events that occurred over India in past century. The country experienced large spatial heterogeneity of all the four rainfall variables, even in the meteorologically homogeneous regions. The correlation analyses show that the maximum grids are having positive correlation, however for the duration-frequency, a significant correlation is observed in few grids, with most of the grids showing no correlation. The spatial variation of RL shows spatial heterogeneity and trend analyses exhibit lack of uniformity throughout India. The change in RL shows significant positive change in mainly during past 50 years. The possible reason could be urbanization and change in climate variables. Hence for further investigation, this analysis will be associated with the temperature extremes data throughout India.

Hari, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

2012-12-01

351

Spatio-temporal pattern analysis of land use/cover change trajectories in Xihe watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-induced land use/cover change has been considered to be one of the most important parts of global environmental changes. In loess hilly and gully regions, to prevent soil loss and achieve better ecological environments, soil conservation measures have been taken during the past decades. The main objective of this study is to quantify the spatio-temporal variability of land use/cover change spatial patterns and make preliminary estimation of the role of human activity in the environmental change in Xihe watershed, Gansu Province, China. To achieve this objective, the methodology was developed in two different aspects, that is, (1) analysis of change patterns by binary image of change trajectories overlaid with different natural geographic factors, in which Relative Change Intensity (RCI) metric was established and used to make comparisons, and (2) analysis based on pattern metrics of main trajectories in the study area. Multi-source and multi-temporal Remote Sensing (RS) images (including Landsat ETM+ (30 June 2001), SPOT imagery (21 November 2003 and 5 May 2008) and CBERS02 CCD (5 June 2006)) were used due to the constraints of the availability of remotely sensed data. First, they were used to extract land use/cover types of each time node by object-oriented classification method. Classification results were then utilized in the trajectory analysis of land use/cover changes through the given four time nodes. Trajectories at every pixel were acquired to trace the history of land use/cover change for every location in the study area. Landscape metrics of trajectories were then analyzed to detect the change characteristics in time and space through the given time series. Analysis showed that most land use/cover changes were caused by human activities, most of which, under the direction of local government, had mainly led to virtuous change on the ecological environments. While, on the contrary, about one quarter of human-induced changes were vicious ones. Analysis through overlaying binary image of change trajectories with natural factors can efficiently show the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of land use/cover change patterns. It is found that in the study area RCI of land use/cover changes is related to the distance to the river line. And there is a certain correlation between RCI and slope grades. However, no obvious correlation exists between RCI and aspect grades.

Wang, Dongchuan; Gong, Jianhua; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Song, Yiquan; Yue, Yujuan

2012-02-01

352

On the stochastic homogenization of fully nonlinear uniformly parabolic equations in stationary ergodic spatio-temporal media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study homogenization for fully nonlinear uniformly parabolic equations in stationary ergodic spatio-temporal media from the qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Under suitable hypotheses, solutions to fully nonlinear uniformly parabolic equations in spatio-temporal media homogenize almost surely. In addition, we obtain a logarithmic rate of convergence for this homogenization in measure, assuming that the environment is strongly mixing with a prescribed logarithmic rate. A general methodology to study the stochastic homogenization and rates of convergence for stochastic homogenization of uniformly elliptic equations was introduced by Caffarelli, Souganidis, and Wang [1], and Caffarelli and Souganidis [2]. We extend their approach to fully nonlinear uniformly parabolic equations, developing a number of new arguments to handle the parabolic structure of the problem.

Lin, Jessica

2015-02-01

353

Spatio-temporal variation in coral recruitment at different scales on Heron Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment of scleractinian corals on settlement plates at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, was examined over four years\\u000a (September 1991–September 1995) to quantify spatio-temporal patterns at different scales and to assess post settlement mortality.\\u000a Recruitment was dominated by pocilloporid corals which accounted for 80.1% of the 8627 spat counted, whereas non-isoporan\\u000a acroporids represented only 16.4%. Poritids, faviids and isoporan acroporids

P. K. Dunstan; C. R. Johnson

1998-01-01

354

Robust line-of-sight stability and jitter compensation using spatio- temporal-filtering based control approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatio-temporal filter (STF) based active vibration suppression technique is presented. The STF approach is intended for use for stability and jitter compensation for the UltraLITE Precision Deployable Experiment - a ground demonstration of a sparse array, deployable, large aperture, optical space telescope concept. This technique is well suited for control of complex, real-world structures because it requires little model

Stuart J. Shelley; Thomas D. Sharp; Keith K. Denoyer

355

The spatio-temporal dynamics of a post-vaccination resurgence of rabies in foxes and emergency vaccination planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a simulation model to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of a potential rabies outbreak in an immunized fox population after the termination of a long-term, large-scale vaccination program with two campaigns per year one in spring and one in autumn. The ‘worst-case’ scenario of rabies resurgence occurs if rabies has persisted at a low prevalence despite control and has

Hans-Hermann Thulke; Lutz Tischendorf; Christoph Staubach; Thomas Selhorst; Florian Jeltsch; Thomas Müller; Hartmut Schlüter; Christian Wissel

2000-01-01

356

The dynamics of the observed solar granulation: spatio-temporal variations of line of sight velocity and thermodynamic parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the dynamics of solar granulation, using the neutral iron line ??639.3 nm profiles from high-spatial resolution observations around the centre of the solar disc, in the non-perturbed region. We reproduced spatio-temporal variations of kinematic and thermodynamic parameters of solar convection at different heights of the solar photosphere (h=-25..550 km). The acoustic waves were removed by k-? filtration. We analysed the temporal changes of these variations within convective cells.

Baran, O. A.

2014-12-01

357

Adaptive spatio-temporal filtering for movement related potentials in EEG-based brain-computer interfaces.  

PubMed

Movement related potentials (MRPs) are used as features in many brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalogram (EEG). MRP feature extraction is challenging since EEG is noisy and varies between subjects. Previous studies used spatial and spatio-temporal filtering methods to deal with these problems. However, they did not optimize temporal information or may have been susceptible to overfitting when training data are limited and the feature space is of high dimension. Furthermore, most of these studies manually select data windows and low-pass frequencies. We propose an adaptive spatio-temporal (AST) filtering method to model MRPs more accurately in lower dimensional space. AST automatically optimizes all parameters by employing a Gaussian kernel to construct a low-pass time-frequency filter and a linear ridge regression (LRR) algorithm to compute a spatial filter. Optimal parameters are simultaneously sought by minimizing leave-one-out cross-validation error through gradient descent. Using four BCI datasets from 12 individuals, we compare the performances of AST filter to two popular methods: the discriminant spatial pattern filter and regularized spatio-temporal filter. The results demonstrate that our AST filter can make more accurate predictions and is computationally feasible. PMID:24723632

Lu, Jun; Xie, Kan; McFarland, Dennis J

2014-07-01

358

Unification of Bell, Leggett-Garg and Kochen-Specker inequalities: Hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bell-type (spatial), Kochen-Specker (contextuality) or Leggett-Garg (temporal) inequalities are based on classically plausible but otherwise quite distinct assumptions. For any of these inequalities, satisfaction is equivalent to a joint probability distribution for all observables in the experiment. This implies a joint distribution for all pairs of observables, and is indifferent to whether or not they commute in the theory. This indifference underpins a unification of the above inequalities into a general framework of correlation inequalities. When the physical scenario is such that the correlated pairs are all compatible, the resulting correlation is nonsignaling, which may be local or multi-particle, corresponding to contextuality or Bell-type inequalities. If the pairs are incompatible, the resulting correlation corresponds to Leggett-Garg (LG) inequalities. That quantum mechanics (QM) violates all these inequalities suggests a close connection between the local, spatial and temporal properties of the theory. As a concrete manifestation of the unification, we extend the method due to Roy and Singh (J. Phys. A, 11 (1978) L167) to derive and study a new class of hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities, where the correlated pairs in the experiment are both compatible or incompatible. The implications for cryptography and monogamy inequalities of the unification are briefly touched upon.

Das, Siddhartha; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.; Home, Dipankar

2013-12-01

359

Spatio-Temporal Complexity analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature in the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatio-temporal complexity (STC) measure which has been previously used to analyze data from terrestrial ecosystems is employed to analyse 21 years of remotely sensed sea-surface temperature (SST) data from the Philippines. STC on the Philippine wide SST showed the monsoonal variability of the Philippine waters. STC is correlated with the SST mean (R2 ? 0.7), and inversely correlated with the SST standard deviation (R2 ? 0.9). Both STC and SST are highest during the middle of the year, which coincides with the Southwest Monsoon, but with the STC values being higher towards the end of the monsoon until the start of the inter-monsoon. In order to determine if STC has the potential to define limits of bio-regions, the spatial domain was subsequently divided into six thermal regions computed via clustering of temperature means. STC and EOF of the STC values were computed for each thermal region. Our STC analysis of the SST data, and comparisons with SST values suggest that the STC measure may be useful for characterising environmental heterogeneity over space and time for many long-term remotely sensed data.

Botin, Z. T.; David, L. T.; Del Rosario, R. C. H.; Parrott, L.

2010-11-01

360

Understanding the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass distribution in a microtidal Mediterranean estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton in aquaculture zones is necessary for the prevention and/or prediction of harmful algal bloom events. Synoptic cruises, time series analyses of physical and biological parameters, and 3D modeling were combined to investigate the variability of phytoplankton biomass in Alfacs Bay at basin scale. This microtidal estuary located in the NW Mediterranean is an important area of shellfish and finfish exploitation, which is regularly affected by toxic outbreaks. Observations showed the existence of a preferential phytoplankton accumulation area on the NE interior of the bay. This pattern can be observed throughout the year, and we show that it is directly linked to the physical forcing in the bay, in particular, the interplay between freshwater input and wind-induced turbulence. Both drivers affect the strength of the estuarine circulation, explaining nearly 75% of the variability in phytoplankton biomass. More cells are retained when stratification is weakened and the estuarine circulation reduced, while flushing rates are higher during times of increased stratification and stronger estuarine flow. This has been confirmed by using a 3D hydrodynamic model with Eulerian tracers. Nutrients, while important to support phytoplankton populations, have been found to play only a secondary role in explaining this variability at basin scale.

Artigas, M. L.; Llebot, C.; Ross, O. N.; Neszi, N. Z.; Rodellas, V.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Masqué, P.; Piera, J.; Estrada, M.; Berdalet, E.

2014-03-01

361

Soil temperature and soil moisture induced spatio-temporal variability of soil respiration in winter wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration is the major transfer of CO2 from the soil to the atmosphere and is characterized by a high spatio-temporal variability depending, among others, on variations in soil temperature and soil moisture. We simultaneously measured soil respiration, soil temperature (3 cm depth) and soil moisture (0-5 cm depth) in winter wheat from April to September 2008 at a 50x50 m plot at a site near Jülich, Germany. The average soil respiration rate over the whole sampling period was 3.8 ±1.5 mol m-2 s-1. Spatial variations of soil respiration, represented by the coefficient of variation (CV), were in average more than 5 times higher than the spatial variations of soil temperature and soil moisture, respectively. Concerning soil respiration, considerably higher spatial variations were observed during the growth period of winter wheat. Semivariogram analysis revealed a strong spatial autocorrelation of soil temperature, whereas a moderate spatial autocorrelation of soil respiration and soil moisture was detected. However, the range of spatial autocorrelation was nearly similar for all three variables, on average 20 m. For the given temporal and spatial scale, a large proportion in temporal changing of the spatial structure of soil respiration could be explained by the spatial distribution of soil moisture.

Prolingheuer, N.; Herbst, M.; Graf, A.; Vanderborght, J.; Vereecken, H.

2009-04-01

362

Presentation of spatio-temporal data in the context of information capacity and visual suggestiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to present the concept of information capacity and visual suggestiveness as a map characteristic on the example of two maps of human migration. From this viewpoint the literature study has been performed. Proposed by the author the features of cartographic visualization are an attempt to establish cartographic pragmatics and find the way to increase effectiveness of dynamic maps with large information capacity. Among the works on cartographic pragmatics, muliaspectuality of spatio-temporal data the proposed solution has not been taken so far, and refers to the map design problematic. Celem rozwa?a? by?o podsumowanie wiedzy dotycz?cej projektowania dynamicznych opracowa? przestrzennych oraz ich klasyfi kacja ze wzgl?du na ilo?? zmiennych grafi cznych oraz dynamicznych, które mog? zosta? u?yte w procesie geowizualizacji. Zró?nicowanie ilo?ci zmiennych grafi cznych i dynamicznych w przestrzennych wizualizacjach autor proponuje nazywa? pojemno?ci? wizualn? prezentacji. Autor stawia równie? hipotez?, ?e im wi?ksz? pojemno?? wizualn? stosujemy tym bardziej sugestywne musi by? to przestawienie, aby efektywno?? przekazywania informacji by?a zachowana

Cybulski, Pawe?

2014-12-01

363

An inducible, modular system for spatio-temporal control of gene expression in stomatal guard cells  

PubMed Central

Stomata, flanked by pairs of guard cells, are small pores on the leaf surfaces of plants and they function to control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Stomata will open when water is available to allow for the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. During periods of drought, stomata will close to reduce desiccation stress. As such, optimal functioning of stomata will impact on water use efficiency by plants. The development of an inducible, modular system for robust and targeted gene expression in stomatal guard cells is reported here. It is shown that application of ethanol vapour to activate the gene expression system did not affect the ability of stomata to respond to ABA in bioassays to determine the promotion of stomatal closure and the inhibition of stomatal opening. The system that has been developed allows for robust spatio-temporal control of gene expression in all cells of the stomatal lineage, thereby enabling molecular engineering of stomatal function as well as studies on stomatal development. PMID:19700494

Xiong, Tou Cheu; Hann, Cliona M.; Chambers, John P.; Surget, Marie; Ng, Carl K.-Y.

2009-01-01

364

Fish in a ring: spatio-temporal pattern formation in one-dimensional animal groups  

PubMed Central

In this work, we study the collective behaviour of fish shoals in annular domains. Shoal mates are modelled as self-propelled particles moving on a discrete lattice. Collective decision-making is determined by information exchange among neighbours. Neighbourhoods are specified using the perceptual limit and numerosity of fish. Fish self-propulsion and obedience to group decisions are described through random variables. Spatio-temporal schooling patterns are measured using coarse observables adapted from the literature on coupled oscillator networks and features of the time-varying network describing the fish-to-fish information exchange. Experiments on zebrafish schooling in an annular tank are used to validate the model. Effects of group size and obedience parameter on coarse observables and network features are explored to understand the implications of perceptual numerosity and spatial density on fish schooling. The proposed model is also compared with a more traditional metric model, in which the numerosity constraint is released and fish interactions depend only on physical configurations. Comparison shows that the topological regime on which the proposed model is constructed allows for interpreting characteristic behaviours observed in the experimental study that are not captured by the metric model. PMID:20413559

Abaid, Nicole; Porfiri, Maurizio

2010-01-01

365

Spatio-temporal coherence mapping of few-cycle vortex pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM) displays an optical phase front rotating in space and time and a vanishing intensity, a so-called vortex, in the center. Beyond continuous-wave vortex beams, optical pulses with a finite OAM are important for many areas of science and technology, ranging from the selective manipulation and excitation of matter to telecommunications. Generation of vortex pulses with a duration of few optical cycles requires new methods for characterising their coherence properties in space and time. Here we report a novel approach for flexibly shaping and characterising few-cycle vortex pulses of tunable topological charge with two sequentially arranged spatial light modulators. The reconfigurable optical arrangement combines interferometry, wavefront sensing, time-of-flight and nonlinear correlation techniques in a very compact setup, providing complete spatio-temporal coherence maps at minimum pulse distortions. Sub-7 fs pulses carrying different optical angular momenta are generated in single and multichannel geometries and characterised in comparison to zero-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the shortest pulse durations reported for direct vortex shaping and detection with spatial light modulators. This access to space-time coupling effects with sub-femtosecond time resolution opens new prospects for tailored twisted light transients of extremely short duration.

Grunwald, R.; Elsaesser, T.; Bock, M.

2014-11-01

366

Coexistence of productive and non-productive populations by fluctuation-driven spatio-temporal patterns.  

PubMed

Cooperative interactions, their stability and evolution, provide an interesting context in which to study the interface between cellular and population levels of organization. Here we study a public goods model relevant to microorganism populations actively extracting a growth resource from their environment. Cells can display one of two phenotypes - a productive phenotype that extracts the resources at a cost, and a non-productive phenotype that only consumes the same resource. Both proliferate and are free to move by diffusion; growth rate and diffusion coefficient depend only weakly phenotype. We analyze the continuous differential equation model as well as simulate stochastically the full dynamics. We find that the two sub-populations, which cannot coexist in a well-mixed environment, develop spatio-temporal patterns that enable long-term coexistence in the shared environment. These patterns are purely fluctuation-driven, as the corresponding continuous spatial system does not display Turing instability. The average stability of coexistence patterns derives from a dynamic mechanism in which the producing sub-population equilibrates with the environmental resource and holds it close to an extinction transition of the other sub-population, causing it to constantly hover around this transition. Thus the ecological interactions support a mechanism reminiscent of self-organized criticality; power-law distributions and long-range correlations are found. The results are discussed in the context of general pattern formation and critical behavior in ecology as well as in an experimental context. PMID:25058368

Behar, Hilla; Brenner, Naama; Louzoun, Yoram

2014-09-01

367

Aspects of spatio-temporal variability during consonant production by Greek speakers with hearing impairment.  

PubMed

This paper investigates spatio-temporal variability during the production of the lingual consonants /t, k, s, x, n, l, 50% shaded block/ by four Greek speakers with profound hearing impairment and with differences in the intelligibility of their speech. It examines important factors that have been documented to influence intelligibility, i.e. durational variability, articulatory (token-to-token) variability, and coarticulatory patterns. The technique of electropalatography was used to record tongue-palate contact patterns during consonant production in order to examine differences in articulatory variability among speakers and in V-to-C coarticulatory effects. The study reports durational differences in consonant production between speakers with hearing impairment and normal hearing and investigates the relationship between token-to-token variability in tongue-palate contact patterns and duration. The results indicate a negative relationship between duration and variability, i.e. as segmental duration decreases there is an increase in variability in tongue-palate contact patterns. Significant speaker-dependent differences in duration, articulatory variability and coarticulatory patterns are reported and are discussed in relation to differences in intelligibility among the speakers with hearing impairment. PMID:17516228

Nicolaidis, Katerina

2007-06-01

368

Spatio-temporal reference model of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis with cell contact maps.  

PubMed

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model for developmental biology for decades. Still, the few publicly available spatio-temporal (4D) data sets have conflicting information regarding variability of cell positions and are not well-suited for a standard 4D embryonic model, due to compression. We have recorded six uncompressed embryos, and determined their lineage and 4D coordinates, including nuclear radii, until the end of gastrulation. We find a remarkable degree of stability in the cell positions, as well as little rotational movement, which allowed us to combine the data into a single reference model of C. elegans embryogenesis. Using Voronoi decomposition we generated the list of all predicted cell contacts during early embryogenesis and calculated these contacts up to the approximately 150 cell stage, and find that about 1500 contacts last 2.5 min or longer. The cell contact map allows for comparison of multiple 4D data sets, e.g., mutants or related species, at the cellular level. A comparison of our uncompressed 4D model with a compressed embryo shows that up to 40% of the cell contacts can be different. To visualize the 4D model interactively we developed a software utility. Our model provides an anatomical resource and can serve as foundation to display 4D expression data, a basis for developmental systems biology. PMID:19527702

Hench, Jürgen; Henriksson, Johan; Lüppert, Martin; Bürglin, Thomas R

2009-09-01

369

Large-scale and spatio-temporal extreme rain events over India: a hydrometeorological study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency, intensity, areal extent (AE) and duration of rain spells during summer monsoon exhibit large intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations. Important features of the monsoon period large-scale wet spells over India have been documented. A main monsoon wet spell (MMWS) occurs over the country from 18 June to 16 September, during which, 26.5 % of the area receives rainfall 26.3 mm/day. Detailed characteristics of the MMWS period large-scale extreme rain events (EREs) and spatio-temporal EREs (ST-EREs), each concerning rainfall intensity (RI), AE and rainwater (RW), for 1 to 25 days have been studied using 1° gridded daily rainfall (1951-2007). In EREs, `same area' (grids) is continuously wet, whereas in ST-EREs, `any area' on the mean under wet condition for specified durations is considered. For the different extremes, second-degree polynomial gave excellent fit to increase in values from distribution of annual maximum RI and RW series with increase in duration. Fluctuations of RI, AE, RW and date of occurrence (or start) of the EREs and the ST-EREs did not show any significant trend. However, fluctuations of 1° latitude-longitude grid annual and spatial maximum rainfall showed highly significant increasing trend for 1 to 5 days, and unprecedented rains on 26-27 July 2005 over Mumbai could be a realization of this trend. The Asia-India monsoon intensity significantly influences the MMWS RW.

Ranade, Ashwini; Singh, Nityanand

2014-02-01

370

[Spatio-temporal variation of subtidal meiofauna in a sandy beach from Northeastern Venezuela].  

PubMed

Meiofauna organisms that play an important role in the trophic ecology of soft bottom benthos, have short life cycles and they respond quickly to disturbance and pollution. The present study shows the spatio-temporal variation ofsubtidal meiofauna (metazoans passing a 500im sieve but retained on meshes of 40-63micro m) in four shallow subtidal stations. Samples were taken in the sandy beach of San Luis, in the Northeastern coast of Venezuela, from October 2005 until September 2006. For this, three replicate sediment core samples (4.91cm2), were collected monthly to a depth of 10cm into the sediment, and preserved in 6% formalin stained with rose Bengal. Specimens of 14 meiofaunal groups (Foraminifera excluded) were collected, being the nematodes, ostracods and harpacticoid copepods the most abundant. Monthly density was comprised between 64 and 503ind./10cm2, and mean density of stations between 173 and 449ind./10cm2. There is a trend of low densities from October to February (end of the rainy season until the middle of the dry season). The San Luis beach control of the meiofaunal community is shared by climatic conditions and by the biology of the species found. The meiofauna mean density in San Luis beach (263ind./10cm2) was low when compared to other studies in tropical areas. PMID:23894963

Arana, Ildefonso Liñero; Ojeda, Sol; Amaro, María Elena

2013-03-01

371

Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. This study explored spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of locally-acquired dengue cases in Queensland State, Australia and identified target areas for effective interventions. A computerised locally-acquired dengue case dataset was collected from Queensland Health for Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Dengue hot spots were detected using SatScan method. Descriptive spatial analysis showed that a total of 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in central and northern regions of tropical Queensland. A seasonal pattern was observed with most of the cases occurring in autumn. Spatial and temporal variation of dengue cases was observed in the geographic areas affected by dengue over time. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in tropical Queensland, Australia. There is a clear evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of dengue and these clusters varied over time. These findings enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters suggesting that the use of geospatial information can assist the health authority in planning dengue control activities and it would allow for better design and implementation of dengue management programs.

Naish, S.; Tong, S.

2014-11-01

372

Sedimentological constraints to the spatio-temporal evolution of the first Cenozoic Antarctic glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial Isostatic Adjustement (GIA) modeling of solid Earth and gravitational perturbations induced by the Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT; ~34 Ma) predicts a relative sea level (rsl) rise over-ice proximal marine marginal settings. Accordingly, available sedimentary records from the Ross Sea (CIROS1, CRP-3), Prydz Bay (ODP 739, 1166) and Wilkes Land (IOPD U1356, U1360) provide evidence for progressively deeper depositional environments across the late Eocene towards the Oligocene isotope event-1 (Oi-1; 33.7 Ma, which marks a major glacial advancement episode. Since bathymetric changes at these near-field sites are controlled by GIA, the analysis and inter-site comparison of their sedimentary records provide insights into the spatio-temporal evolution of the nascent Antarctic Ice Sheet. In this work we simulate the inception of the Antarctic glaciation by means of a thermomechanical ice sheet-shelf model dynamically coupled to a sea level model based on the gravitationally self-consistent Sea Level Equation (SLE). We generate a set of ice-sheet and rsl scenarios according to (i) different values for the Earth rheological parameters, (ii) initial topographic/bathymetric conditions and (iii) precipitation/temperature patterns. By comparing the observations with the modeling solutions we find that the initial undeformed topography/bathymetry, and consequently its deformations driven by the GIA described by the SLE, are important conditions for a realistic development of the Antarctic ice-sheet.

Stocchi, P.; Galeotti, S.; De Boer, B.; Escutia, C.; DeConto, R.; Houben, A. J.; Passchier, S.; Vermeersen, B. L.; Van de Wal, R.; Brinkhuis, H.

2012-12-01

373

Spatio-temporal hierarchy in the dynamics of a minimalist protein model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for time series analysis of molecular dynamics simulation of a protein is presented. In this approach, wavelet analysis and principal component analysis are combined to decompose the spatio-temporal protein dynamics into contributions from a hierarchy of different time and space scales. Unlike the conventional Fourier-based approaches, the time-localized wavelet basis captures the vibrational energy transfers among the collective motions of proteins. As an illustrative vehicle, we have applied our method to a coarse-grained minimalist protein model. During the folding and unfolding transitions of the protein, vibrational energy transfers between the fast and slow time scales were observed among the large-amplitude collective coordinates while the other small-amplitude motions are regarded as thermal noise. Analysis employing a Gaussian-based measure revealed that the time scales of the energy redistribution in the subspace spanned by such large-amplitude collective coordinates are slow compared to the other small-amplitude coordinates. Future prospects of the method are discussed in detail.

Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Baba, Akinori; Li, Chun-Biu; Straub, John E.; Toda, Mikito; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Berry, R. Stephen

2013-12-01

374

Spatio-temporal analysis of soil erosion risk and runoff using AnnAGNPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion is one form of land degradation in Ethiopia deteriorating the fertility and productivity of the land. This fact indicates the need to delineate high erosion risk areas for appropriate soil and conservation measures. Land use/cover change is one of the important factors in soil erosion. This study attempts test and implement AnnAGNPS model to estimate the spatio-temporal patterns of soil erosion and runoff associated with land use changes in the past 50 years in the 9900 ha upstream part of the Koga catchment. High erosion risk areas will then be delineated for simulation of the appropriate soil and water conservation measures that would reduce the soil loss. The study is based on two years high temporal resolution data on discharge, sediment, and rain fall accompanied by historical land use/cover data generated from satellite imagery. In addition, it uses several documented physical parameters of the study area. The Koga catchment is one of the agriculture dominated typical catchments in the North Western Ethiopian highlands with high population density that lead to increased pressure on natural resources.

Yeshaneh, Eleni; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

2014-05-01

375

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

376

Spatio-temporal distribution of dengue fever under scenarios of climate change in the southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue fever has been recognized as the most important widespread vector-borne infectious disease in recent decades. Over 40% of the world's population is risk from dengue and about 50-100 million people are infected world wide annually. Previous studies have found that dengue fever is highly correlated with climate covariates. Thus, the potential effects of global climate change on dengue fever are crucial to epidemic concern, in particular, the transmission of the disease. This present study investigated the nonlinearity of time-delayed impact of climate on spatio-temporal variations of dengue fever in the southern Taiwan during 1998 to 2011. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) is used to assess the nonlinear lagged effects of meteorology. The statistically significant meteorological factors are considered, including weekly minimum temperature and maximum 24-hour rainfall. The relative risk and the distribution of dengue fever then predict under various climate change scenarios. The result shows that the relative risk is similar for different scenarios. In addition, the impact of rainfall on the incidence risk is higher than temperature. Moreover, the incidence risk is associated to spatially population distribution. The results can be served as practical reference for environmental regulators for the epidemic prevention under climate change scenarios.

Lee, Chieh-Han; Yu, Hwa-Lung

2014-05-01

377

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Cell-Cell Signaling in a Living Cell Microarray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell-cell signaling plays a central role in biology, enabling individual cells to coordinate their activities. For example, bacteria show evidence of intercellular signaling through quorum sensing, a regulatory mechanism that launches a coordinated response, depending on the population density. To explore the spatio-temporal development of cell-to-cell signaling, we have created regular, heterotypic microarrays of living cells in hydrogel using time-multiplexed optical traps for submicron positional control of the cell orientation and location without loss of viability. We studied the Lux system for quorum sensing; splitting it into sender and receiver plasmids, which were subsequently introduced into E. Coli. Induced by IPTG, the sender cells express a fluorescent reporter (mRFP1) and the LuxI enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a molecular signal AHL that diffuses through the cell membrane and the extra-cellular scaffold. The receiver cells collect the AHL signal that binds to the LuxR regulator and reports it through GFP production. We have measured the time-delay between the onset of mRFP1 and GFP dependence on intercellular spacing in the array.

Mirsaidov, Utkur; Timp, Winston; Timp, Kaethe; Matsudaira, Paul; Timp, Greg

2007-03-01

378

Computational Studies of Multiple-Particle Nonlinear Dynamics in a Spatio-Temporally periodic potential  

E-print Network

The spatio-temporally periodic (STP) potential is interesting in Physics due to the intimate coupling between its time and spatial components. In this paper we begin with a brief discussion of the dynamical behaviors of a single particle in a STP potential and then examine the dynamics of multiple particles interacting in a STP potential via the electric Coulomb potential. For the multiple particle case, we focus on the occurrence of bifurcations when the amplitude of the STP potential varies. It is found that the particle concentration of the system plays an important role; the type of bifurcations that occur and the number of attractors present in the Poincar\\'e sections depend on whether the number of particles in the simulation is even or odd. In addition to the nonlinear dynamical approach we also discuss dependence of the squared fractional deviation of particles kinetic energy of the multiple particle system on the amplitude of the STP potential which can be used to elucidate certain transitions of states; this approach is simple and useful particularly for experimental studies of complicated interacting systems.

Owen D. Myers; Junru Wu; Jeffrey S. Marshall; Christopher M. Danforth

2014-09-03

379

Spatio-temporal variability of meteorological and hydrologic droughts in typical closed glacial basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of meteorological droughts from March 1961 to Feburary 2001 in Tarim Basin by using Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) incorporating potential evapotranspiration is presented, while hydrological droughts within the source region of Tarim River were also recognized based on Streamflow Drought Index (SDI). To assess spatio-temporal variability of meteorological droughts, a principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the RDI series, four well-defined parts with different temporal evolution of droughts were identified (north, south, west and east parts of Tarim Basin). With a focus on the north and south part, where three most important headstreams including Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River were distributed, the relationship between meteorological and hydrolgical droughts was investigated in multiple timescales (1,3,6,12 months) comparison between SDI series and the corresponding RDI principal components through the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm (FFT). This study aims to reveal complexities of hydrologic cycle over this closed basin where glacier melting plays a very active role and how the meteorological and hydrological droughts affect each other under regional climate change.

Li, Z.; Li, J.; Hao, Z.; Chen, S.

2012-04-01

380

Drivers and Spatio-Temporal Extent of Hyporheic Patch Variation: Implications for Sampling  

PubMed Central

The hyporheic zone in stream ecosystems is a heterogeneous key habitat for species across many taxa. Consequently, it attracts high attention among freshwater scientists, but generally applicable guidelines on sampling strategies are lacking. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop and validate such sampling guidelines. Applying geostatistical analysis, we quantified the spatio-temporal variability of parameters, which characterize the physico-chemical substratum conditions in the hyporheic zone. We investigated eight stream reaches in six small streams that are typical for the majority of temperate areas. Data was collected on two occasions in six stream reaches (development data), and once in two additional reaches, after one year (validation data). In this study, the term spatial variability refers to patch contrast (patch to patch variance) and patch size (spatial extent of a patch). Patch contrast of hyporheic parameters (specific conductance, pH and dissolved oxygen) increased with macrophyte cover (r2?=?0.95, p<0.001), while patch size of hyporheic parameters decreased from 6 to 2 m with increasing sinuosity of the stream course (r2?=?0.91, p<0.001), irrespective of the time of year. Since the spatial variability of hyporheic parameters varied between stream reaches, our results suggest that sampling design should be adapted to suit specific stream reaches. The distance between sampling sites should be inversely related to the sinuosity, while the number of samples should be related to macrophyte cover. PMID:22860053

Braun, Alexander; Auerswald, Karl; Geist, Juergen

2012-01-01

381

The influence of spatio-temporal resource fluctuations on insular rat population dynamics  

PubMed Central

Local spatio-temporal resource variations can strongly influence the population dynamics of small mammals. This is particularly true on islands which are bottom-up driven systems, lacking higher order predators and with high variability in resource subsidies. The influence of resource fluctuations on animal survival may be mediated by individual movement among habitat patches, but simultaneously analysing survival, resource availability and habitat selection requires sophisticated analytical methods. We use a Bayesian multi-state capture–recapture model to estimate survival and movement probabilities of non-native black rats (Rattus rattus) across three habitats seasonally varying in resource availability. We find that survival varies most strongly with temporal rainfall patterns, overwhelming minor spatial variation among habitats. Surprisingly for a generalist forager, movement between habitats was rare, suggesting individuals do not opportunistically respond to spatial resource subsidy variations. Climate is probably the main driver of rodent population dynamics on islands, and even substantial habitat and seasonal spatial subsidies are overwhelmed in magnitude by predictable annual patterns in resource pulses. Marked variation in survival and capture has important implications for the timing of rat control. PMID:21775327

Russell, James C.; Ruffino, Lise

2012-01-01

382

Turing instabilities and spatio-temporal chaos in ratio-dependent Holling-Tanner model.  

PubMed

In this paper we consider a modified spatiotemporal ecological system originating from the temporal Holling-Tanner model, by incorporating diffusion terms. The original ODE system is studied for the stability of coexisting homogeneous steady-states. The modified PDE system is investigated in detail with both numerical and analytical approaches. Both the Turing and non-Turing patterns are examined for some fixed parametric values and some interesting results have been obtained for the prey and predator populations. Numerical simulation shows that either prey or predator population do not converge to any stationary state at any future time when parameter values are taken in the Turing-Hopf domain. Prey and predator populations exhibit spatiotemporal chaos resulting from temporal oscillation of both the population and spatial instability. With help of numerical simulations we have shown that Turing-Hopf bifurcation leads to onset of spatio-temporal chaos when predator's diffusivity is much higher compared to prey population. Our investigation reveals the fact that Hopf-bifurcation is essential for the onset of spatiotemporal chaos. PMID:22207074

Banerjee, Malay; Banerjee, Santo

2012-03-01

383

Spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation start of season across the island of Ireland using the MERIS Global Vegetation Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring phenophases such as the beginning of leaf unfolding, measured in the Irish gardens of the International Phenological Garden (IPG) network, indicate an earlier spring occurrence hence a longer growing season. However, these measurements are limited to selected species of trees at a few point locations in the southern half of the country. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology, based on satellite remote sensing, to measure the vegetation start of season (SOS) across the whole island of Ireland on an annual basis, complementary to existing ground-based methods. The SOS metric was extracted for each year in a 7-year time series of 10-day composited, 1.2 km reduced resolution MERIS Global Vegetation Index (MGVI) data from 2003 to 2009, based on curve fitting, using the time series analysis software, TIMESAT. Spatio-temporal variability in the SOS was detected across the island on an annual basis and highlighted in a series of anomaly images showing variation from the 7-year mean SOS. The 2006 SOS was late across the island while there were strong geographical gradients to the SOS anomalies in 2009 when it occurred later in the south and earlier in the north. There was a mix of early and late anomaly values throughout the country in the other years. Qualitatively, the spatial patterns in the timing of the SOS were related to the distribution of landcover types as indicated by the CORINE Land Cover map (CLC). Three statistically separable groups of CLC classes were derived from differences in the SOS, namely agricultural and forest land cover types, peat bogs, and natural and semi-natural vegetation types. These groups demonstrated that vegetation in cultivated areas like pastures has a significantly earlier SOS than in areas of unmanaged vegetation such as peat bogs. An initial climate analysis indicated that an anomalously cold winter and spring in 2005/2006 delayed the 2006 SOS countrywide; while a cold winter followed by a mild spring in 2009 caused considerable spatial variability in the 2009 SOS across the country, ranging from later SOS in the south to early SOS in the north. This study has demonstrated the utility of 10-day MGVI composites for derivation of an SOS metric which can be used as an indicator of spatial variability in vegetation seasonality and has highlighted how SOS varies according to landcover type. The availability of longer time series in the future will allow more focused studies on the sensitivity of the SOS metric to changes in climate as well as short term weather events.

O'Connor, Brian; Dwyer, Edward; Cawkwell, Fiona; Eklundh, Lars

2012-03-01

384

Spatio-temporal variability of aerosols in the tropics relationship with atmospheric and oceanic environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's radiation budget is directly influenced by aerosols through the absorption of solar radiation and subsequent heating of the atmosphere. Aerosols modulate the hydrological cycle indirectly by modifying cloud properties, precipitation and ocean heat storage. In addition, polluting aerosols impose health risks in local, regional and global scales. In spite of recent advances in the study of aerosols variability, uncertainty in their spatio-temporal distributions still presents a challenge in the understanding of climate variability. For example, aerosol loading varies not only from year to year but also on higher frequency intraseasonal time scales producing strong variability on local and regional scales. An assessment of the impact of aerosol variability requires long period measurements of aerosols at both regional and global scales. The present dissertation compiles a large database of remotely sensed aerosol loading in order to analyze its spatio-temporal variability, and how this load interacts with different variables that characterize the dynamic and thermodynamic states of the environment. Aerosol Index (AI) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were used as measures of the atmospheric aerosol load. In addition, atmospheric and oceanic satellite observations, and reanalysis datasets is used in the analysis to investigate aerosol-environment interactions. A diagnostic study is conducted to produce global and regional aerosol satellite climatologies, and to analyze and compare the validity of aerosol retrievals. We find similarities and differences between the aerosol distributions over various regions of the globe when comparing the different satellite retrievals. A nonparametric approach is also used to examine the spatial distribution of the recent trends in aerosol concentration. A significant positive trend was found over the Middle East, Arabian Sea and South Asian regions strongly influenced by increases in dust events. Spectral and composite analyses of surface temperature, atmospheric wind, geopotential height, outgoing longwave radiation, water vapor and precipitation together with the climatology of aerosols provide insight on how the variables interact. Different modes of variability, especially in intraseasonal time scales appear as strong modulators of the aerosol distribution. In particular, we investigate how two modes of variability related to the westward propagating synoptic African Easterly Waves of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean affect the horizontal and vertical structure of the environment. The statistical significance of these two modes is tested with the use of two different spectral techniques. The pattern of propagation of aerosol load shows good correspondence with the progression of the atmospheric and oceanic conditions suitable for dust mobilization over the Atlantic Ocean. We present extensions to previous studies related with dust variability over the Atlantic region by evaluating the performance of the long period satellite aerosol retrievals in determining modes of aerosol variability. Results of the covariability between aerosols-environment motivate the use of statistical regression models to test the significance of the forecasting skill of daily AOD time series. The regression models are calibrated using atmospheric variables as predictors from the reanalysis variables. The results show poor forecasting skill with significant error growing after the 3 rd day of the prediction. It is hypothesized that the simplicity of linear models results in an inability to provide a useful forecast.

Zuluaga-Arias, Manuel D.

2011-12-01

385

Spatio-temporal features of vegetation restoration and variation after the Wenchuan earthquake with satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wenchuan earthquake was a deadly earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008, in Sichuan province of China. With the help of classic statistic methods, including arithmetic mean, standard deviation and linear trend estimation, vegetation restoration was recognized by analyzing spatio-temporal features of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) before and after this earthquake. Results indicate: (1) spatial distribution of NDVI mean values remains similar from 1998 to 2011. Higher values are mainly found in north, whereas lower values are mainly distributed over southeast, which is in good correlation with elevation and landform. Vegetation damage is at different levels in different seismic intensity (SI) regions: the higher SI is, the worse vegetation damage is. (2) Over the whole region, standard deviation is bigger after earthquake than before. Both absolute and relative changes in ecosystem stability increase with increasing SI. In different counties, variation of ecosystem stability is more obvious after earthquake, increase of standard deviation is approximately 6.5 times. Relatively, vegetation regionalization is the smallest analysis unit. Consequently, changes resulting from earthquake are unobvious. (3) Linear trend estimation coefficient increases from 0.0079 before the earthquake to 0.0359 after the earthquake in this whole region. This indicates that the plant ecosystem is rapidly restored between 2009 and 2011. The biggest linear trend is for the hill region, indicating good plant restoration and increase after earthquake. Fluctuation of linear trend estimation coefficient in different counties is more obvious after earthquake. Vegetation restoration after earthquake is most obvious in the regions that suffered the greatest SI (SI10 and SI11). In contrast, fluctuation in linear trend estimation coefficient of annual NDVI mean value for different classes of vegetation is more obvious before earthquake.

Peng, Hou; Qiao, Wang; Yipeng, Yang; Weiguo, Jiang; Bingfeng, Yang; Qiang, Chen; Lihua, Yuan; Fanming, Kong; Xi, Chen; Guanjie, Wang

2014-01-01

386

Spatio-Temporal Diffusion Pattern and Hotspot Detection of Dengue in Chachoengsao Province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

In recent years, dengue has become a major international public health concern. In Thailand it is also an important concern as several dengue outbreaks were reported in last decade. This paper presents a GIS approach to analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics. The major objective of this study was to examine spatial diffusion patterns and hotspot identification for reported dengue cases. Geospatial diffusion pattern of the 2007 dengue outbreak was investigated. Map of daily cases was generated for the 153 days of the outbreak. Epidemiological data from Chachoengsao province, Thailand (reported dengue cases for the years 1999–2007) was used for this study. To analyze the dynamic space-time pattern of dengue outbreaks, all cases were positioned in space at a village level. After a general statistical analysis (by gender and age group), data was subsequently analyzed for temporal patterns and correlation with climatic data (especially rainfall), spatial patterns and cluster analysis, and spatio-temporal patterns of hotspots during epidemics. The results revealed spatial diffusion patterns during the years 1999–2007 representing spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. Villages on the urban fringe reported higher incidences. The space and time of the cases showed outbreak movement and spread patterns that could be related to entomologic and epidemiologic factors. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of dengue diffusion. This study presents useful information related to the dengue outbreak patterns in space and time and may help public health departments to plan strategies to control the spread of disease. The methodology is general for space-time analysis and can be applied for other infectious diseases as well. PMID:21318014

Jeefoo, Phaisarn; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Souris, Marc

2011-01-01

387

PROPAGATION OF SEISMIC WAVES THROUGH A SPATIO-TEMPORALLY FLUCTUATING MEDIUM: HOMOGENIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of seismic wave travel times at the photosphere of the Sun have enabled inferences of its interior structure and dynamics. In interpreting these measurements, the simplifying assumption that waves propagate through a temporally stationary medium is almost universally invoked. However, the Sun is in a constant state of evolution, on a broad range of spatio-temporal scales. At the zero-wavelength limit, i.e., when the wavelength is much shorter than the scale over which the medium varies, the WKBJ (ray) approximation may be applied. Here, we address the other asymptotic end of the spectrum, the infinite-wavelength limit, using the technique of homogenization. We apply homogenization to scenarios where waves are propagating through rapidly varying media (spatially and temporally), and derive effective models for the media. One consequence is that a scalar sound speed becomes a tensorial wave speed in the effective model and anisotropies can be induced depending on the nature of the perturbation. The second term in this asymptotic two-scale expansion, the so-called corrector, contains contributions due to higher-order scattering, leading to the decoherence of the wave field. This decoherence may be causally linked to the observed wave attenuation in the Sun. Although the examples we consider here consist of periodic arrays of perturbations to the background, homogenization may be extended to ergodic and stationary random media. This method may have broad implications for the manner in which we interpret seismic measurements in the Sun and for modeling the effects of granulation on the scattering of waves and distortion of normal-mode eigenfunctions.

Hanasoge, Shravan M. [Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Gizon, Laurent [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Bal, Guillaume [Department of Applied and Physical Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2013-08-20

388

Spatio-temporal changes in biomass carbon sinks in China's forests from 1977 to 2008.  

PubMed

Forests play a leading role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. Detailed assessment of the temporal and spatial changes in C sinks/sources of China's forests is critical to the estimation of the national C budget and can help to constitute sustainable forest management policies for climate change. In this study, we explored the spatio-temporal changes in forest biomass C stocks in China between 1977 and 2008, using six periods of the national forest inventory data. According to the definition of the forest inventory, China's forest was categorized into three groups: forest stand, economic forest, and bamboo forest. We estimated forest biomass C stocks for each inventory period by using continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method for forest stands, and the mean biomass density method for economic and bamboo forests. As a result, China's forests have accumulated biomass C (i.e., biomass C sink) of 1896 Tg (1 Tg=10(12) g) during the study period, with 1710, 108 and 78 Tg C in forest stands, and economic and bamboo forests, respectively. Annual forest biomass C sink was 70.2 Tg C a(-1), offsetting 7.8% of the contemporary fossil CO2 emissions in the country. The results also showed that planted forests have functioned as a persistent C sink, sequestrating 818 Tg C and accounting for 47.8% of total C sink in forest stands, and that the old-, mid- and young-aged forests have sequestrated 930, 391 and 388 Tg C from 1977 to 2008. Our results suggest that China's forests have a big potential as biomass C sink in the future because of its large area of planted forests with young-aged growth and low C density. PMID:23722235

Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Li, Pin; Li, Nuyun; Fang, Jingyun

2013-07-01

389

Spatio-temporal diffusion pattern and hotspot detection of dengue in Chachoengsao province, Thailand.  

PubMed

In recent years, dengue has become a major international public health concern. In Thailand it is also an important concern as several dengue outbreaks were reported in last decade. This paper presents a GIS approach to analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics. The major objective of this study was to examine spatial diffusion patterns and hotspot identification for reported dengue cases. Geospatial diffusion pattern of the 2007 dengue outbreak was investigated. Map of daily cases was generated for the 153 days of the outbreak. Epidemiological data from Chachoengsao province, Thailand (reported dengue cases for the years 1999-2007) was used for this study. To analyze the dynamic space-time pattern of dengue outbreaks, all cases were positioned in space at a village level. After a general statistical analysis (by gender and age group), data was subsequently analyzed for temporal patterns and correlation with climatic data (especially rainfall), spatial patterns and cluster analysis, and spatio-temporal patterns of hotspots during epidemics. The results revealed spatial diffusion patterns during the years 1999-2007 representing spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. Villages on the urban fringe reported higher incidences. The space and time of the cases showed outbreak movement and spread patterns that could be related to entomologic and epidemiologic factors. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of dengue diffusion. This study presents useful information related to the dengue outbreak patterns in space and time and may help public health departments to plan strategies to control the spread of disease. The methodology is general for space-time analysis and can be applied for other infectious diseases as well. PMID:21318014

Jeefoo, Phaisarn; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Souris, Marc

2011-01-01

390

Assessing parasite community structure in cockles Cerastoderma edule at various spatio-temporal scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cockles (Cerastoderma edule) are among the most exploited bivalves in Europe. They live in lagoons and estuaries where they undergo many stressors including parasites. Trematodes are the most prevalent macroparasites of cockles and can exert a significant impact on their host populations depending on parasite species and infection intensity. Monitoring these parasite-host systems in order to predict potential host mortalities require a correct knowledge of the spatio-temporal variation of infection. A yearly monitoring of cockles from six stations around Ile aux Oiseaux, Arcachon Bay (France) was conducted between 1998 and 2005. Distance between two stations was ca. 1 km. Nine trematode species were identified. Despite a relative homogeneity of the parasite community structure in cockles, between three and six clusters were identified by Hierarchical Ascendant Classification showing that among-sites heterogeneity of trematode communities in cockles was higher than within-site heterogeneity. At the scale of 8 years, and for 2-year old cockles, these patterns remained stable in four out of six stations. Spatial aggregation disappeared with cockle age, since parasite communities in 3-year cockles did not reflect any particular station(s): with age, cockles eventually accumulated most trematode species and lost the site signature. On the other hand, we demonstrated that the commonly accepted theory stating that older/larger cockles accumulate more trematode larvae was not verified and that there could exist a vulnerable age/size that doesn't correspond to largest values. This study provided a new insight in the parasite community heterogeneity in their host, and in the significance of samples in relation with space and time.

de Montaudouin, Xavier; Binias, Cindy; Lassalle, Géraldine

2012-09-01

391

Spatio-temporal variability of groundwater nitrate concentration in Texas: 1960 to 2010.  

PubMed

Nitrate (NO) is a major contaminant and threat to groundwater quality in Texas. High-NO groundwater used for irrigation and domestic purposes has serious environmental and health implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatio-temporal trends in groundwater NO concentrations in Texas on a county basis from 1960 to 2010 with special emphasis on the Texas Rolling Plains (TRP) using the Texas Water Development Board's groundwater quality database. Results indicated that groundwater NO concentrations have significantly increased in several counties since the 1960s. In 25 counties, >30% of the observations exceeded the maximum contamination level (MCL) for NO (44 mg L NO) in the 2000s as compared with eight counties in the 1960s. In Haskell and Knox Counties of the TRP, all observations exceeded the NO MCL in the 2000s. A distinct spatial clustering of high-NO counties has become increasingly apparent with time in the TRP, as indicated by different spatial indices. County median NO concentrations in the TRP region were positively correlated with county-based area estimates of crop lands, fertilized croplands, and irrigated croplands, suggesting a negative impact of agricultural practices on groundwater NO concentrations. The highly transmissive geologic and soil media in the TRP have likely facilitated NO movement and groundwater contamination in this region. A major hindrance in evaluating groundwater NO concentrations was the lack of adequate recent observations. Overall, the results indicated a substantial deterioration of groundwater quality by NO across the state due to agricultural activities, emphasizing the need for a more frequent and spatially intensive groundwater sampling. PMID:23128738

Chaudhuri, Sriroop; Ale, Srinivasulu; Delaune, Paul; Rajan, Nithya

2012-01-01

392

Spatio-temporal footprints of urbanisation in Surat, the Diamond City of India (1990-2009).  

PubMed

Urbanisation is a ubiquitous phenomenon with greater prominence in developing nations. Urban expansion involves land conversions from vegetated moisture-rich to impervious moisture-deficient land surfaces. The urban land transformations alter biophysical parameters in a mode that promotes development of heat islands and degrades environmental health. This study elaborates relationships among various environmental variables using remote sensing dataset to study spatio-temporal footprint of urbanisation in Surat city. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data were used in conjugation with geo-spatial techniques to study urbanisation and correlation among various satellite-derived biophysical parameters, [Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, Normalised Difference Built-up Index, Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Bareness Index, Modified NDWI and land surface temperature (LST)]. Land use land cover was prepared using hierarchical decision tree classification with an accuracy of 90.4 % (kappa?=?0.88) for 1990 and 85 % (kappa?=?0.81) for 2009. It was found that the city has expanded over 42.75 km(2) within a decade, and these changes resulted in elevated surface temperatures. For example, transformation from vegetation to built-up has resulted in 5.5?±?2.6 °C increase in land surface temperature, vegetation to fallow 6.7?±?3 °C, fallow to built-up is 3.5?±?2.9 °C and built-up to dense built-up is 5.3?±?2.8 °C. Directional profiling for LST was done to study spatial patterns of LST in and around Surat city. Emergence of two new LST peaks for 2009 was observed in N-S and NE-SW profiles. PMID:22828979

Sharma, Richa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Joshi, Pawan Kumar

2013-04-01

393

Swim-Training Changes the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Skeletogenesis in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical loading induced by muscle forces plays a role in prioritizing the development of these structures. Mechanical loading by muscle forces has been shown to affect larval and embryonic bone development in vertebrates, but these investigations were limited to the appendicular skeleton. To explore the role of mechanical load during chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton, we subjected zebrafish larvae to swim-training, which increases physical exercise levels and presumably also mechanical loads, from 5 until 14 days post fertilization. Here we show that an increased swimming activity accelerated growth, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during larval development in zebrafish. Interestingly, swim-training accelerated both perichondral and intramembranous ossification. Furthermore, swim-training prioritized the formation of cartilage and bone structures in the head and tail region as well as the formation of elements in the anal and dorsal fins. This suggests that an increased swimming activity prioritized the development of structures which play an important role in swimming and thereby increasing the chance of survival in an environment where water velocity increases. Our study is the first to show that already during early zebrafish larval development, skeletal tissue in the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton is competent to respond to swim-training due to increased water velocities. It demonstrates that changes in water flow conditions can result into significant spatio-temporal changes in skeletogenesis. PMID:22529905

Fiaz, Ansa W.; Léon-Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Gort, Gerrit; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Kranenbarg, Sander

2012-01-01

394

Spatio-temporal patterns of weekend effects in surface air temperatures in China, 1978-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal patterns of weekend effects of surface air temperature variables over the continental area of China during the period 1978-2008 were analyzed by statistics and spatial analysis of the homogenized time series from the selected 615 surface meteorological stations of China Meteorological Administration (CMA). Results indicate that (1) there is an evident warming trend over China from 1978 to 2008, with the linear trend rates of Tmean, Tmax, Tmin and DTR being 0.43, 0.41, 0.48, and -0.07 °C/10 a, respectively; (2) weekend temperature effects are statistically significant (? = 0.05) in the annual and seasonal mean (Tmean) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures, but not in the minimum temperature (Tmin) or diurnal temperature range (DTR); And (3) for seasonal time series, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin show negative weekend effect anomalies in spring, summer and autumn, while they have opposite signals — positive weekend effect anomalies in winter. Spatial statistics show that only a minority (less than 30%) of the 615 stations demonstrate weekend effects in all four temperature variables at the ? = 0.10 confidence level. Tmean, Tmax and Tmin have negative weekend effects only in southern-central and southwestern China, while DTR has a positive weekend effect in northwestern and southwestern China. The weekend effects of temperature variables vary with season and region over China. There are different spatial distribution patterns of weekend effect in different temperature variables for different seasons and no evidently opposite signals of weekend effects for winter and summer in Tmean, Tmax, Tmin and DTR over China, 1978-2008.; Fig.1 Spatial distribution map of weekend effects in DTR over China, 1978-2008. Shown as the average for Saturday through Monday minus the average for Wednesday through Friday for each station. Stations significant at ? = 0.05 and 0.10 are filled with dark and light colors, respectively.

Xiong, Y.

2012-12-01

395

Spatio-Temporal Variation of Stream Metabolism in a Managed River System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolism estimates (gross primary production, GPP and community respiration, CR) obtained through the continuous monitoring of physicochemical properties in managed rivers may be used to evaluate the effects of various disturbances on ecosystem function. This work highlights the development of a GPP/CR observational network on the human-dominated Lower Merced River, currently the southern-most extent of Chinook salmon habitat in the Central Valley of California. Our investigations include spatial (both longitudinal and transverse gradients) and temporal (daily, seasonal and interannual) variation of these metabolism estimates as we are interested in relating responses of this type of lotic system to disturbances such as short- or long-term reservoir operational changes for drought management, flood control, fish habitat enhancement, or alleviation of salinity and nutrient discharges due to land management practices. The observational network will be described in terms of: (1) design and installation of a reproducible infrastructure of GPP/CR monitoring stations, (2) analysis aimed at linking the spatio-temporal metabolic trends to natural factors such as the seasonal radiation availability or nutrient input from leaf decay, and (3) separating natural effects from the ones triggered by human disturbances in order to better inform water resources management decisions. Observations over the 2009-10 water year, demonstrate that the Lower Merced River behaves as a heterotrophic system, with large temporal changes in metabolism clearly observable by the monitoring network. For example, the GPP/CR ratio decreased from 0.6 to 0.2 as a consequence of a large flow disturbance associated with short-term reservoir releases mandated biannually to support salmon migration. This and other examples set at different temporal and spatial scales will be presented and discussed in terms of management implications.

Villamizar, S. R.; Pai, H.; Butler, C. A.; Barnes, P. A.; Harmon, T. C.

2010-12-01

396

Spatio-temporal evolution of induced seismicity at Açu reservoir, NE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the spatio-temporal evolution of seismicity recorded by eight three-component digital seismographs in operation continuously during a 3 yr period (1994 August to 1997 May) at Açu reservoir, NE Brazil. The Açu dam is a 34 m high earth-filled dam constructed in 1983 May on an area of Precambrian shield. Based on seismic monitoring between 1987 and 1989 using single-component analogue seismographs, previous workers concluded that the seismic activity was a case of reservoir-induced seismicity (RIS) associated with diffusion of pore fluid pressure beneath the reservoir. The digital data presented here reveal the seismic activity in remarkable detail with vertical and horizontal location errors ~0.1 km. A total of 286 events were recorded by three or more stations and all occurred at a depth of <5 km. Using these data we demonstrate that the majority of the earthquake activity is clustered within several well-defined zones and that individual zones are active over discrete periods of time. Over the entire period of seismic monitoring between 1987 and 1997 there is no simple correlation between reservoir level and number of seismic events. Lateral migration of the locus of seismic activity in an unpredictable fashion is shown to be partly responsible for the poor correlation, as event detection is not uniform through time. We also show that the time delay between maximum water level and a subsequent increase in seismic activity varies systematically; longer time delays correspond to activation of an earthquake cluster with a greater average hypocentral depth. However, within any one cluster there is no correlation between time delay and depth. The 3-D distribution of seismic activity through time may only be explained in terms of triggering by the diffusion of pore fluid pressure if the rock properties (e.g. permeability, strength) are heterogeneous.

do Nascimento, A. F.; Cowie, P. A.; Lunn, R. J.; Pearce, R. G.

2004-09-01

397

Spatio-temporal pattern of NPP and related analyses with terrain factors in Wuling mountainous area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the MODIS NPP data, terrain data, and land cover map, spatio-temporal pattern of NPP in Wuling mountainous area during 2001-2010 and its relationships with the elevation and slope were analyzed using regression analysis and classification statistics. Results showed that the average annual NPP of the study area from 2001 to 2010 was 590.72 g C m-2 yr-1. The mean NPP of forest, shrub/grassland, and cropland were 596.79 g C m-2 yr-1, 586.98 g C m-2 yr-1, and 563.31 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively. During 2001-2010, the average annual total NPP of Wuling mountainous area was 98.90 T g C yr-1, ranging from 92.79 T g C yr-1 to 106.99 T g C yr-1. Besides, the spatial pattern of interannual variability of NPP in the north of our study area presented a significant increase trend while in the south it displayed an opposite tendency. According to the relationships between mean NPP and elevation as well as slope at steps of 30m and 3°, respectively, NPP increased with the altitude and slope first, then decreased slowly, but when the elevation above 1500m or the slope greater than 50°, the mean NPP presented large fluctuations. However, on the whole, mean NPP increased with the altitude and slope first, then decreased again. Additionally, mean NPP within elevation range of 200m-1000m and slope range of 5°-25° were relatively high, but it decreased one after another in the zones above 500m and had a trend of increase when the slope zones greater than 50°, which reflected the erosion intensity was weakened when the slope greater than a certain threshold.

Sun, L. Qing; Xiao, Xiao; Feng, Feng X.

2014-11-01

398

The Huaihe Basin Water Resource and Water Quality Management Platform Implemented with a Spatio-Temporal Data Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently, planning and assessment in maintenance, renewal and decision-making for watershed hydrology, water resource management and water quality assessment are evolving toward complex, spatially explicit regional environmental assessments. These problems have to be addressed with object-oriented spatio-temporal data models that can restore, manage, query and visualize various historic and updated basic information concerning with watershed hydrology, water resource management and water quality as well as compute and evaluate the watershed environmental conditions so as to provide online forecasting to police-makers and relevant authorities for supporting decision-making. The extensive data requirements and the difficult task of building input parameter files, however, has long been an obstacle to use of such complex models timely and effectively by resource managers. Success depends on an integrated approach that brings together scientific, education and training advances made across many individual disciplines and modified to fit the needs of the individuals and groups who must write, implement, evaluate, and adjust their watershed management plans. The centre for Hydro-science Research, Nanjing University, in cooperation with the relevant watershed management authorities, has developed a WebGIS management platform to facilitate this complex process. Improve the management of watersheds over the Huaihe basin through the development, promotion and use of a web-based, user-friendly, geospatial watershed management data and decision support system (WMDDSS) involved many difficulties for the development of this complicated System. In terms of the spatial and temporal characteristics of historic and currently available information on meteorological, hydrological, geographical, environmental and other relevant disciplines, we designed an object-oriented spatiotemporal data model that combines spatial, attribute and temporal information to implement the management system. Using this system, we can update, query and analyze environmental information as well as manage historical data, and a visualization tool was provided to help the user interpret results so as to provide scientific support for decision-making. The utility of the system has been demonstrated its values by being used in watershed management and environmental assessments.

Liu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Yan, C.

2012-07-01

399

Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the quasi-biennial oscillation in northwest Argentina. The joint preliminary results (climate-environment-public health reports) presented here for the first time are meant: (1) to contribute to a better understanding of climate-environment-epidemics process-based and modeling studies and (2) to facilitate, in the long run, the implementation of local and regional health early warning systems (HEWS) over southernmost South America. The latter is becoming crucial with ever-increasing migration, urban sprawl (re-emergence of dengue fever epidemics since the late 1990s), all embedded in a climate change context.

Tourre, Y. M.; Jarlan, L.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Rotela, C. H.; Lafaye, M.

2008-10-01

400

Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure.  

PubMed

Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C?N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy beaches as functional ecosystems in their own right. PMID:21858213

Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S

2011-01-01

401

Demand-supply dynamics in tourism systems: A spatio-temporal GIS analysis. The Alberta ski industry case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research focuses on the interaction of supply and demand of down-hill ski tourism in the province of Alberta. The main hypothesis is that the demand for skiing depends on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the population living in the province and outside it. A second, consequent hypothesis is that the development of ski resorts (supply) is a response to the demand for skiing. From the latter derives the hypothesis of a dynamic interaction between supply (ski resorts) and demand (skiers). Such interaction occurs in space, within a range determined by physical distance and the means available to overcome it. The above hypotheses implicitly define interactions that take place in space and evolve over time. The hypotheses are tested by temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal regression models, using the best available data and the latest commercially available software. The main purpose of this research is to explore analytical techniques to model spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal dynamics in the context of regional science. The completion of the present research has produced more significant contributions than was originally expected. Many of the unexpected contributions resulted from theoretical and applied needs arising from the application of spatial regression models. Spatial regression models are a new and largely under-applied technique. The models are fairly complex and a considerable amount of preparatory work is needed, prior to their specification and estimation. Most of this work is specific to the field of application. The originality of the solutions devised is increased by the lack of applications in the field of tourism. The scarcity of applications in other fields adds to their value for other applications. The estimation of spatio-temporal models has been only partially attained in the present research. This apparent limitation is due to the novelty and complexity of the analytical methods applied. This opens new directions for further work in the field of spatial analysis, in conjunction with the development of specific software.

Bertazzon, Stefania

402

An image-based approach for automatic detecting tasseling stage of maize using spatio-temporal saliency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explored the application of computer vision technology to automatically detect the tasseling stage of maize. The commonly used HOG/SVM detection framework is chosen to recognize the ears of maize for determining the occurrence time of the stage. However, it cannot guarantee high precision rate. Thus, we proposed a new method called Spatio-temporal Saliency Mapping to highlight the ear while suppress the background, which significantly improve the detection performance. Comparing experiment has been carried out to testify the validity of our method and the results indicate that our method can meet the demand for practical observation.

Ye, Mengni; Cao, Zhiguo; Yu, Zhenghong

2013-10-01

403

Are the spatio-temporal parameters of gait capable of distinguishing a faller from a non-faller elderly?  

PubMed

Fall is a common and a major cause of injuries. It is important to find elderlies who are prone to falls. The majority of serious falls occur during walking among the older adults. Analyzing the spatio-temporal parameters of walking is an easy way of assessment in the clinical setting, but is it capable of distinguishing a faller from a non-faller elderly? Through a systematic review of the literature, the objective of this systematic review was to identify and summarize the differences in the spatio-temporal parameters of walking in elderly fallers and non-fallers and to find out if these parameters are capable of distinguishing a faller from a non-faller. All original research articles which compared any special or temporal walking parameters in faller and non-faller elderlies were systematically searched within the Scopus and Embase databases. Effect size analysis was also done to standardize findings and compare the gait parameters of fallers and non-fallers across the selected studies. The electronic search led to 5381 articles. After title and abstract screening 30 articles were chosen; further assessment of the full texts led to 17 eligible articles for inclusion in the review. It seems that temporal measurements are more sensitive to the detection of risk of fall in elderly people. The results of the 17 selected studies showed that fallers have a tendency toward a slower walking speed and cadence, longer stride time, and double support duration. Also, fallers showed shorter stride and step length, wider step width and more variability in spatio-temporal parameters of gait. According to the effect size analysis, step length, gait speed, stride length and stance time variability were respectively more capable of differentiating faller from non-faller elderlies. However, because of the difference of methodology and number of studies which investigated each parameter, these results are prone to imprecision. Spatio-temporal analysis of level walking is not sufficient and cannot act as a reliable predictor of falls in elderly individuals. PMID:24831570

Mortaza, N; Abu Osman, N A; Mehdikhani, N

2014-12-01

404

Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.  

PubMed

Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms. PMID:23548329

Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

2013-09-01

405

Modelling natural grass production and its spatio-temporal variations in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural grasses are found in semiarid rangelands with disperse tree cover of part of the Iberian Peninsula and constitute a resource with high ecologic and economic value worth, being an important source of food for livestock, playing a significant role in the hydrologic cycle, controlling the soil thermal regime, and are a key factor in reducing soil erosion and degradation. However, increasing pressure on the resources, changes in land use as well as possible climate variations threaten the sustainability of natural grasses. Despite of their importance, the spatio-temporal variations of pasture production over whole watersheds are poorly known. In this sense, previous studies by other authors have indicated its dependence on a balance of positive and negative effects brought about by the main limiting factors: water, light, nutrients and space. Nevertheless, the specific weight of each factor is not clear because they are highly variable due to climate characteristics and the structure of these agroforestry systems. We have used a physical spatially-distributed ecohydrologic model to investigate the specific weight of factors that contribute to pasture production in a semiarid watershed of 99.5 ha in western Spain. This model couples a two layer (canopy and understory) vertical local closure energy balance scheme, a hydrologic model and a carbon uptake and vegetation growth component, and it was run using a synthetic daily climate dataset generated by a stochastic weather generator, which reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under mediterranean current climate. The modelling results reproduced satisfactorily the seasonality effects of climate as precipitation and temperatures, as well as annual and inter-annual variations of pasture production. Spatial variations of pasture production were largely controlled by topographic and tree effects, showing medium-low values depending of considered areas. These low values require introduction of feed to livestock. Valley bottoms, areas with low slopes, and spaces with low tree density are characterized by higher pasture production. Temporal variations of pasture production largely depended on the availability of soil moisture, which in turn depended on the temporal distribution of rainfall. This ecohydrologic model constitutes a valuable tool to investigate water and energy fluxes, as well as vegetation dynamics in semiarid rangelands, as was proved by a quantitative assessment of the quality of the simulations. The range of applications and possibilities contained in the model opens a wide field for future research.

Schnabel, Susanne; Lozano-Parra, Javier; Maneta-López, Marco

2014-05-01

406

Spatio-temporal variations of Planetary Boundary Layer characteristics over Indian subcontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) characteristics play an important role in mixing, cloud formation and pollutant transport, but their diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual variations on a regional scale over the Indian subcontinent is not well-understood. Proper PBL characterization requires measurements with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, whereas methods using traditional radiosonde observations are limited in spatial and temporal coverage and observations are lacking over oceanic regions. Again, the available twice daily observations over the Indian region are in the local morning and evening hours (corresponding to 0000 and 1200 UTC), which completely excludes information on daytime and nocturnal boundary layer. Atmospheric profiling with the satellite based Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) is a relatively new technique that provides air temperature and water vapor profiles with an almost uniform global coverage at sufficiently large vertical resolution (100 - 200 m in the troposphere to 1 km in the stratosphere). The RO technique utilizes the information on bending and time delay of GPS signals for the estimation of atmospheric refractivity and thus the air temperature and water vapor profiles. The GPS RO atmospheric profiles can fill in the temporal and spatial voids in radiosonde data and be used for the estimation of PBL parameters. The Indian subcontinent characterized by two monsoon regimes and several different climate zones with humid and arid regions, is an ideal test bed for evaluating the GPS RO data. However, evaluation and use of these datasets over the Indian subcontinent have been limited. The present study focuses on the estimation of PBL height and other important boundary-layer parameters from GPS RO data and validating them by comparing with those derived from radiosonde measurements over different geographical locations on Indian subcontinent. The COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere & Climate) RO atmospheric profiles over the Indian region during 2007-2009 are used for the analysis. The radiosonde data used are from two sources: (i) routine radiosonde observations conducted by India Meteorological Department over the Indian subcontinent and (ii) additional radiosonde observations conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology as a part of the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) during the southwest monsoon season May-September, 2009. In order to extrapolate the information on a spatio-temporal scale, comparison of PBL parameters from the observational methods and high-resolution WRF model simulations over selected regions is also conducted. The variation in PBL characteristics over the Indian subcontinent are depicted using parameters calculated from observations and WRF model simulations.

Karipot, Anandakumar; Prabha, Thara; Maheshkumar R., S.

2010-05-01

407

Spatio-temporal variability and predictability of summer monsoon onset over the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variability of boreal summer monsoon onset over the Philippines is studied through the analysis of daily rainfall data across a network of 76 gauges for the period 1977 to 2004 and the pentad Merged Analysis of Precipitation from the US Climate Prediction Center from 1979 to 2006. The onset date is defined using a local agronomic definition, namely the first wet day of a 5-day period receiving at least 40 mm without any 15-day dry spell receiving <5 mm in the 30 days following the start of that period. The onset is found to occur rather abruptly across the western Philippines around mid-May on average and is associated with the set-up of a “classical” monsoonal circulation with low-level easterlies subsequently veering to southerly, and then southwesterly. The onset manifests itself merely as a seasonal increase of rainfall over the eastern Philippines, where rainfall occurs throughout most of the year. Interannual variability of the onset date is shown to consist of a spatially coherent large-scale component, rather similar over the western and eastern Philippines, with a moderate to high amount of local-scale (i.e. station scale) noise. In consequence, the large-scale signal can be easily retrieved from any sample of at least 5-6 stations across the network although the local-scale coherence and fingerprint of the large-scale signal of the onset date are found to be stronger over the central Philippines, roughly from Southern Luzon to Northern Mindanao. The seasonal predictability of local onset is analyzed through a cross-validated canonical correlation analysis using tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in March and the 850 hPa May wind field from dynamical forecast models as predictors. The regional-scale onset, defined as the average of standardized local-scale anomalies in onset date, shows good predictive skill ( r ? 0.8). Moreover, most of the stations show weak to moderate skill (median skill = 0.28-0.43 depending on the scheme) with spatial averaging across stations typically increasing skill to >0.6.

Moron, V.; Lucero, A.; Hilario, F.; Lyon, B.; Robertson, A. W.; Dewitt, D.

2009-12-01

408

Fluctuations and spatio-temporal chaos in electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied two fundamental issues in driven nonequilibrium systems using electroconvection in nematic liquid crystal I52 and N4. We first report experimental results for electroconvection of the nematic Liquid Crystal I52 with planar alignment and a conductivity of 1.0 x 10-8 (Om)-1. The cell spacing was 19.4 mum and the driving frequency was 25.0 Hz. Spatio-temporal chaos consisting of a superposition of zig and zag oblique rolls evolved by means of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation from the uniform conduction state[14]. For small ? ? V2/V2cFsF - 1 (V is the applied voltage amplitude and Vc the value of V at the onset of convection), we measured the correlation lengths of the envelopes of both zig and zag patterns. These lengths could be fit to a power law in ? with an exponent smaller than that predicted from amplitude equations. The disagreement with theory is similar to that found previously for domain chaos in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection [82]. In the following part, we developed a way to measure local current fluctuations in electroconvection. Several special cells were made and each cell had a small local detecting electrode. The detecting electrodes were squares of width 8. 16. 32, 48 and 128 mum at the center of one of the two large electrodes. The spacing of these cells was close to 20 mum. We used the NLC Merck phase IV (N4) with planar alignment. When the driving ? was from 0.8 to 6, we found that the distribution of the current fluctuations was strongly skewed towards larger values for detecting electrodes smaller than the cell spacing and slightly skewed towards smaller values for the rest of the cells. This is compared with global current-fluctuation measurements in similar cells which showed a Gaussian distribution. For the small electrodes, large fluctuations that extended below the current expected for the conduction state were found and a possible connection with the Gallavotti-Cohen Fluctuation Theorem is discussed. This dissertation and all the supporting materials are also available on my dissertation webpage [151]. For some large files which are not printed in this dissertation, the reader should refer to this webpage.

Xu, Xiaochao