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1

Inhibitory effect of beta-thujaplicin on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in mouse keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Sunburn cells are thought to represent ultraviolet B-induced apoptotic keratinocytes. It has been demonstrated that enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants effectively suppress sunburn cell formation, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the progression of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis. Metallothionein, a cytosol protein, has antioxidant activity, and overexpression of metallothionein has been reported to reduce the number of sunburn cells in mouse skin. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of metallothionein inhibits ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in mouse keratinocytes. These findings support the hypothesis that cellular metallothionein may play an important role in the inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of beta-thujaplicin, an extract from the woods of Thuja plicata D. Don. and Chamaecyparis obtuse, Sieb. et Zucc., on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and on metallothionein induction. Topical application of beta-thujaplicin decreased the number of ultraviolet B-mediated sunburn cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells in mouse ear skin. Incubation with beta-thujaplicin suppressed ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in cultured mouse keratinocytes. Histochemical analysis showed that topical application of beta-thujaplicin induced metallothionein protein in mouse skin. Northern analysis and western blotting revealed significant induction of metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein, respectively, in beta-thujaplicin-treated cultured mouse keratinocytes. These findings indicate that beta-thujaplicin inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and strongly suggest that the inhibitory mechanism is due to the antioxidant activity of metallothionein induced by the agent. PMID:9424082

Baba, T; Nakano, H; Tamai, K; Sawamura, D; Hanada, K; Hashimoto, I; Arima, Y

1998-01-01

2

Granzyme B-induced mitochondrial ROS are required for apoptosis.  

PubMed

Caspases and the cytotoxic lymphocyte protease granzyme B (GB) induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, loss of transmembrane potential and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Whether ROS are required for GB-mediated apoptosis and how GB induces ROS is unclear. Here, we found that GB induces cell death in an ROS-dependent manner, independently of caspases and MOMP. GB triggers ROS increase in target cell by directly attacking the mitochondria to cleave NDUFV1, NDUFS1 and NDUFS2 subunits of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex I inside mitochondria. This leads to mitocentric ROS production, loss of complex I and III activity, disorganization of the respiratory chain, impaired mitochondrial respiration and loss of the mitochondrial cristae junctions. Furthermore, we have also found that GB-induced mitocentric ROS are necessary for optimal apoptogenic factor release, rapid DNA fragmentation and lysosomal rupture. Interestingly, scavenging the ROS delays and reduces many of the features of GB-induced death. Consequently, GB-induced ROS significantly promote apoptosis.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 31 October 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.180. PMID:25361078

Jacquemin, G; Margiotta, D; Kasahara, A; Bassoy, E Y; Walch, M; Thiery, J; Lieberman, J; Martinvalet, D

2014-10-31

3

The hepatitis C virus NS2 protein is an inhibitor of CIDE-B-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently leads to liver cancer. To determine the viral factor(s) potentially involved in viral persistence, we focused our work on NS2, a viral protein of unknown function. To assign a role for NS2, we searched for cellular proteins that interact with NS2. Performing a two-hybrid screen on a human liver cDNA library, we found that NS2 interacted with the liver-specific pro-apoptotic CIDE-B protein. Binding specificity of NS2 for CIDE-B was confirmed by cell-free assays associated with colocalization studies and coprecipitation experiments on human endogenous CIDE-B. CIDE-B, a member of the novel CIDE family of apoptosis-inducing factors, has been reported to show strong cell death-inducing activity in its C-terminal domain. We show that this CIDE-B killing domain is involved in the NS2 interaction. NS2 binding was sufficient to inhibit CIDE-B-induced apoptosis because an NS2 deletion mutant unable to interact with CIDE-B in vitro lost its capacity to interfere with CIDE-B cell death activity. Although it has been reported that CIDE-B-induced apoptosis is characterized by mitochondrial localization, the precise apoptotic mechanism remained unknown. Here, we show that CIDE-B induced cell death in a caspase-dependent manner through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Furthermore, we found that NS2 counteracted the cytochrome c release induced by CIDE-B. In vivo, the CIDE-B protein level was extremely low in adenovirus-infected transgenic mice expressing the HCV polyprotein compared with that in wild-type mice. We suggest that NS2 interferes with the CIDE-B-induced death pathway and participates in HCV strategies to subvert host cell defense. PMID:12595532

Erdtmann, Lars; Franck, Nathalie; Lerat, Hervé; Le Seyec, Jacques; Gilot, David; Cannie, Isabelle; Gripon, Philippe; Hibner, Urszula; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane

2003-05-16

4

The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS-Related Caspase Pathway  

PubMed Central

Dicitrinone B, a rare carbon-bridged citrinin dimer, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium citrinum. It was reported to have antitumor effects on tumor cells previously; however, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we found that dicitrinone B inhibited the proliferation of multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell, A375, was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. Subsequent observation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction revealed that the apoptosis induced by dicitrinone B may be triggered by over-producing ROS. Further studies indicated that the apoptosis was associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways under the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, compared with the first-line chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), dicitrinone B showed much more potent anticancer efficacy, suggesting that it might serve as a potential antitumor agent. PMID:24699111

Chen, Li; Gong, Mei-Wei; Peng, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Tong; Ying, Min-Gang; Zheng, Qiu-Hong; Liu, Qin-Ying; Zhang, Qi-Qing

2014-01-01

5

The Salmonella Invasin SipB Induces Macrophage Apoptosis by Binding to Caspase1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Salmonella spp. were shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages. The mechanism responsible for this process is unknown. In this report, we establish that the Inv-Spa type III secretion apparatus target invasin SipB is necessary and sufficient for the induction of apoptosis. Purified SipB microinjected into macrophages led to cell death. Binding studies show that SipB associates with the

David Hersh; Denise M. Monack; Mark R. Smith; Nafisa Ghori; Stanley Falkow; Arturo Zychlinsky

1999-01-01

6

Combination of Salermide and Cholera Toxin B Induce Apoptosis in MCF-7 but Not in MRC-5 Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background: Sirtuin1 is an enzyme that deacetylates histones and several non-histone proteins including P53 during the stress. P300 is a member of the histone acetyl transferase family and enzyme that acetylates histones. Hereby, this study describes the potency combination of Salermide as a Sirtuin1 inhibitor and cholera toxin B (CTB) as a P300 activator to induce apoptosis Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) and MRC-5. Methods: Cells were cultured and treated with a combination of Salermide and CTB respectively at concentrations of 80.56 and 85.43 ?mol/L based on inhibitory concentration 50 indexes at different times. The percentage of apoptotic cells were measured by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to estimate the messenger ribonucleic acid expression of Sirtuin1 and P300 in cells. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Bradford protein techniques were used to detect the endogenous levels of total and acetylated P53 protein generated in both cell lines. Results: Our findings indicated that the combination of two drugs could effectively induced apoptosis in MCF-7 significantly higher than MRC-5. We showed that expression of Sirtuin1 and P300 was dramatically down-regulated with increasing time by the combination of Salermide and CTB treatment in MCF-7, but not MRC-5. The acetylated and total P53 protein levels were increased more in MCF-7 than MRC-5 with incubated combination of drugs at different times. Combination of CTB and Salermide in 72 h through decreasing expression of Sirtuin1 and P300 genes induced acetylation of P53 protein and consequently showed the most apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, but it could be well-tolerated in MRC-5. Conclusion: Therefore, combination of drugs could be used as an anticancer agent. PMID:24498496

Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Dastjerdi, Mehdi Nikbakht; Jalili, Cyrus; Mardani, Mohammad; Khazaei, Mozafar; Darehdor, Ahmad Shabanizadeh; Valiani, Ali; Roshankhah, Shiva

2013-01-01

7

Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways  

SciTech Connect

Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. -- Highlights: ? We study Eriocalyxin B (EriB)'s cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines. ? EriB inhibits cell proliferation via mediation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ? The effects are involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and p53 pathway. ? In vivo study also shows EriB inhibits the growth of human pancreatic tumor. ? EriB can be a good candidate for chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

Li, Lin [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yue, Grace G.L. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lau, Clara B.S. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Sun, Handong [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, Yunnan (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, Yunnan (China); Fung, Kwok Pui [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Ping Chung [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Han, Quanbin, E-mail: simonhan@hkbu.edu.hk [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); School of Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Po Sing, E-mail: psleung@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

2012-07-01

8

Mouse granzyme A induces a novel death with writhing morphology that is mechanistically distinct from granzyme B-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Human and mouse granzyme (Gzm)B both induce target cell apoptosis in concert with pore-forming perforin (Pfp); however the mechanisms by which other Gzms induce non-apoptotic death remain controversial and poorly characterised. We used timelapse microscopy to document, quantitatively and in real time, the death of target cells exposed to primary natural killer (NK) cells from mice deficient in key Gzms. We found that in the vast majority of cases, NK cells from wild-type mice induced classic apoptosis. However, NK cells from syngeneic Gzm B-deficient mice induced a novel form of cell death characterised by slower kinetics and a pronounced, writhing, ‘worm-like' morphology. Dying cells initially contracted but did not undergo membrane blebbing, and annexin-V staining was delayed until the onset of secondary necrosis. As it is different from any cell death process previously reported, we tentatively termed this cell death ‘athetosis'. Two independent lines of evidence showed this alternate form of death was due to Gzm A: first, cell death was revealed in the absence of Gzm B, but was completely lost when the NK cells were deficient in both Gzm A and B; second, the athetotic morphology was precisely reproduced when recombinant mouse Gzm A was delivered by an otherwise innocuous dose of recombinant Pfp. Gzm A-mediated athetosis did not require caspase activation, early mitochondrial disruption or generation of reactive oxygen species, but did require an intact actin cytoskeleton and was abolished by latrunculin B and mycalolide B. This work defines an authentic role for mouse Gzm A in granule-induced cell death by cytotoxic lymphocytes. PMID:23744295

Susanto, O; Stewart, S E; Voskoboinik, I; Brasacchio, D; Hagn, M; Ellis, S; Asquith, S; Sedelies, K A; Bird, P I; Waterhouse, N J; Trapani, J A

2013-01-01

9

RNAi-Mediated Simultaneous Downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B Induces Caspase 8-Mediated Apoptosis in SNB19 Human Glioma Cells  

PubMed Central

The invasive character of gliomas depends on proteolytic cleavage of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Cathepsin B and uPAR together are known to be overexpressed in gliomas, and as such, are attractive targets for gene therapy. In the present study, we used plasmid constructs to induce the RNAi-mediated downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B in SNB19 human glioma cells. We observed that the simultaneous downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B induces the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and initiates a collapse in mitochondrial ??. Cathepsin B and uPAR down regulated cells showed increases in the expression of activated Caspase 8 and DFF40/CAD. Nuclear translocation of AIF and FasL translocation to the cell membrane were also observed. Ki67 and XIAP levels decreased, thereby indicating apoptosis. These results suggest the involvement of uPAR-Cathepsin B complex on the cell surface and its role in maintaining the viability of SNB19 glioma cells. In conclusion, RNAi-mediated downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B initiates a partial extrinsic apoptotic cascade accompanied by the nuclear translocation of AIF. Our study demonstrates the potential of RNAi-mediated downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B in developing new therapeutics for gliomas. PMID:17172424

Gondi, Christopher S; Kandhukuri, Neelima; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Gujrati, Meena; Olivero, William C.; Dinh, Dzung H.; Rao, Jasti S

2006-01-01

10

SPE 91413SPE 91413 Anangela Garcia  

E-print Network

Modeling System (NEMS) Energy Information Administration #12;SPE Eastern Regional Meeting Gas price (1 Regional Meeting #12;SPE Eastern Regional Meeting #12;SPE Eastern Regional Meeting Annual Energy Outlook (2025) EIA's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Annual Energy Outlook (2025) EIA's National Energy

Mohaghegh, Shahab

11

Overexpression of Bcl-2 Protects from Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis but Promotes Hair Follicle Regression and Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle (HF) growth and regression is an exquisitely regulated process of cell proliferation followed by massive cell death and is accompanied by cyclical expression of the apoptosis regulatory gene pair, Bcl-2 and Bax. To further investigate the role of Bcl-2 expression in the control of hair growth and keratinocyte apoptosis, we have used transgenic mice that overexpress human Bcl-2 in basal epidermis and in the outer root sheath under the control of the human keratin-14 promoter (K14/Bcl-2). When irradiated with ultraviolet B (UVB) light, K14/Bcl-2 mice developed about 5–10-fold fewer sunburn cells (ie, apoptotic keratinocytes) in the basal layer of the epidermis, compared to wild-type mice, whereas cultures of primary keratinocytes from transgenic mice were completely resistant to UVB-induced histone formation, at doses that readily induced histone release from wild-type cells. K14/Bcl-2 mice show no alteration of neonatal hair follicle morphogenesis or of the onset of the first wave of HF regression (catagen). However, compared to wild-type controls, K14/Bcl-2 mice subsequently displayed a significant acceleration of spontaneous catagen progression. During chemotherapy-induced alopecia, follicular dystrophy was promoted in K14/Bcl-2 mice. Thus, although K14-driven overexpression of Bcl-2 protected murine epidermal keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis, it surprisingly promoted catagen- and chemotherapy-associated keratinocyte apoptosis. PMID:10751363

Müller-Röver, Sven; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Paus, Ralf; Handjiski, Bori; Peters, Eva M. J.; Murphy, Jo-Ellen; Mecklenburg, Lars; Kupper, Thomas S.

2000-01-01

12

Overexpression of Bcl-2 protects from ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis but promotes hair follicle regression and chemotherapy-induced alopecia.  

PubMed

Hair follicle (HF) growth and regression is an exquisitely regulated process of cell proliferation followed by massive cell death and is accompanied by cyclical expression of the apoptosis regulatory gene pair, Bcl-2 and Bax. To further investigate the role of Bcl-2 expression in the control of hair growth and keratinocyte apoptosis, we have used transgenic mice that overexpress human Bcl-2 in basal epidermis and in the outer root sheath under the control of the human keratin-14 promoter (K14/Bcl-2). When irradiated with ultraviolet B (UVB) light, K14/Bcl-2 mice developed about 5-10-fold fewer sunburn cells (ie, apoptotic keratinocytes) in the basal layer of the epidermis, compared to wild-type mice, whereas cultures of primary keratinocytes from transgenic mice were completely resistant to UVB-induced histone formation, at doses that readily induced histone release from wild-type cells. K14/Bcl-2 mice show no alteration of neonatal hair follicle morphogenesis or of the onset of the first wave of HF regression (catagen). However, compared to wild-type controls, K14/Bcl-2 mice subsequently displayed a significant acceleration of spontaneous catagen progression. During chemotherapy-induced alopecia, follicular dystrophy was promoted in K14/Bcl-2 mice. Thus, although K14-driven overexpression of Bcl-2 protected murine epidermal keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis, it surprisingly promoted catagen- and chemotherapy-associated keratinocyte apoptosis. PMID:10751363

Müller-Röver, S; Rossiter, H; Paus, R; Handjiski, B; Peters, E M; Murphy, J E; Mecklenburg, L; Kupper, T S

2000-04-01

13

Wentilactone B induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis via the Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is generally acknowledged as the most common primary malignant tumor, and it is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Wentilactone B (WB), a tetranorditerpenoid derivative extracted from the marine algae-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus wentii EN-48, has been shown to trigger apoptosis and inhibit metastasis in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity remain to be elucidated. We report here that WB could significantly induce cell cycle arrest at G2 phase and mitochondrial-related apoptosis, accompanying the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, treatment with WB induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p38 MAP kinase. Among the pathway inhibitors examined, only SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) markedly reversedWB-induced apoptosis, and only U0126 (ERK inhibitor) significantly blocked WB-triggered G2 phase arrest. We also found that WB treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation, and transfection of cells with dominant-negative Ras (RasN17) abolishedWB-induced apoptosis and G2 phase arrest in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, the results of inverse docking (INVDOCK) analysis suggested that WB could bind to Ras–GTP, and the direct binding affinity was also confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Finally, in vivo, WB suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenograft models. Taken together, these results indicate that WB induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells via the Ras/Raf/ERK and Ras/Raf/JNK signaling pathways, and this agent may be a potentially useful compound for developing anticancer agents for HCC. PMID:23744357

Zhang, Z; Miao, L; Lv, C; Sun, H; Wei, S; Wang, B; Huang, C; Jiao, B

2013-01-01

14

Caveolin-1-dependent and -independent uPAR signaling pathways contribute to ganglioside GT1b induced early apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Urokinase receptor interacts with ?5?1-integrin and enhances cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Activation of ?5?1-integrin requires caveolin-1 and is regulated by uPAR, which upregulates persistently the activated ERK necessary for tumor growth. In this study, we show that the ganglioside GT1b induces proapoptotic signaling through two uPAR-ERK signaling pathways in A549 lung cancer cells. GT1b downregulated the expression of ?5?1 integrin, caveolin-1, fibronectin, FAK, and ERK, whereas GT1b upregulated the expression of p53 and uPAR, suggesting GT1b mediated depletion of caveolin-1 in uPAR-expressing A549 cells also disrupts uPAR/integrin complexes, resulting in downregulation of fibronectin-?5?1-integrin-ERK signaling. Following p53 siRNA treatment, FAK and ERK expression was recovered, meaning the presence of reentry uPAR-FAK-ERK signaling pathway. These findings reveal that GT1b is involved in both caveolin-1-dependent uPAR-?5?1-integrin-ERK signaling and caveolin-1-independent uPAR-FAK-ERK signaling. These results suggest a novel function of GT1b as a dual regulator of ERK by modulating caveolin-1 and p53. PMID:25520869

Hwang, Jung-Hoo; Sung, Jung-Suk; Kim, Jung Min; Chung, Young-Ho; Park, Jun Soo; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Jang, Ik-Soon

2014-01-01

15

Xerophilusin B induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and does not cause toxicity in nude mice.  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world and ranks as the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis partially due to its low sensitivity to chemotherapy agents, and the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Here, the antitumor activity of a natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid, xerophilusin B (1), which was isolated from Isodon xerophilus, a perennial herb frequently used in Chinese folk medicine for tumor treatment, was investigated. Compound 1 exhibited antiproliferative effects against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner with lower toxicity against normal human and murine cell lines. In vivo studies demonstrated that 1 inhibited tumor growth of a human esophageal tumor xenograft in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects, indicating its safety in treating ESCC. Furthermore, 1 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis through mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent activation of the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascade pathway in ESCC cell lines. In conclusion, the observations herein reported showed that 1 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ESCC and merits further preclinical and clinical investigation for cancer drug development. PMID:25555195

Yao, Ran; Chen, Zhaoli; Zhou, Chengcheng; Luo, Mei; Shi, Xuejiao; Li, Jiagen; Gao, Yibo; Zhou, Fang; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong; He, Jie

2015-01-23

16

Apoptosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering apoptosis and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture contains a discussion of the apoptosis genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, the properties of the caspases, the major components of the extrinsic apoptotic signal transduction pathway, and the major components of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway.

Sherwin Wilk (Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine;)

2005-05-24

17

Nuclear factor-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) contains an amino-terminal inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)-binding motif (IBM) that potentiates NIK degradation by cellular IAP1 (c-IAP1).  

PubMed

Activation of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway hinges on the stability of the NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK), which is kept at low levels basally by a protein complex consisting of the E3 ubiquitin ligases cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 and 2 (c-IAP1/2) proteins and the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors 2 and 3 (TRAF2/3). NIK is brought into close proximity to the c-IAPs through a TRAF2-TRAF3 bridge where TRAF2 recruits c-IAP1/2 and TRAF3 binds to NIK. However, it is not clear how the c-IAPs specifically recognize and ubiquitylate NIK in the complex. We have identified an IAP-binding motif (IBM) at the amino terminus of NIK. IBMs are utilized by a number of proapoptotic proteins to antagonize IAP function. Here, we utilize mutational studies to demonstrate that wild-type NIK is destabilized in the presence of c-IAP1, whereas the NIK IBM mutant is stable. NIK interacts with the second baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR2) domain of c-IAP1 via the IBM, and this interaction, in turn, provides substrate recognition for c-IAP1 mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of NIK. Furthermore, in the presence of the NIK IBM mutant, we observed an elevated processing of p100 to p52 followed by increased expression of NF-?B target genes. Together, these findings reveal the novel identification and function of the NIK IBM, which promotes c-IAP1-dependent ubiquitylation of NIK, resulting in optimal NIK turnover to ensure that noncanonical NF-?B signaling is off in the absence of an activating signal. PMID:25246529

Lee, Sunhee; Challa-Malladi, Madhavi; Bratton, Shawn B; Wright, Casey W

2014-10-31

18

SPE (tm) electrolyzers for space propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on SPE electrolyzers for space propulsion are presented. Topics covered include: SPE electrochemical cell reactions; SPE fuel cell/electrolyzer features; SPE cell life capability; SPE cell voltage stability; state-of-the-art SPE cell structure; electrolysis cell stack; electrolysis system; integrated propulsion test article-electrolyzer module components; and oxygen generator module.

Shane, E. M.

1990-01-01

19

Essential oils: SPE fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Essential oil analysis is often characterised by mixtures that are difficult to separate. The components belong to different\\u000a classes of compounds that range widely in concentration. Hence, a pre-separation technique is often required, at least to\\u000a evaluate the minor components. This paper reports an SPE method to overcome this problem. The method was developed with a\\u000a standard solution that yielded

A. Antonelli; C. Fabbri

1999-01-01

20

A combination of STI571 and BCR-ABL1 siRNA with overexpressed p15INK4B induced enhanced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

p15INK4B, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, has been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Loss of or methylation of the p15INK4B gene in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells enhances myeloid progenitor formation from common myeloid progenitors. Therefore, we examined the effects of overexpressed p15INK4B on proliferation and apoptosis of CML cells. Overexpression of p15INK4B inhibited the growth of K562 cells by downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin D1 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B also induced apoptosis of K562 cells by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B together with STI571 (imatinib) or BCR-ABL1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) also enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of K562 cells. The enhanced effect was also mediated by reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. In conclusion, our study may provide new insights into the role of p15INK4B in CML and a potential therapeutic target for overcoming tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in CML. PMID:25387678

Xia, D.Y.; Liu, L.; Hao, M.W.; Liu, Q.; Chen, R.A.; Liang, Y.M.

2014-01-01

21

BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO SPE EXPOSURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recognized that a single solar particle event (SPE) can produce, over a short period of time, exposures on the order of LD50 for humans under normal physiological conditions. It is further recognized that recovery from injury over the period of exposure would greatly increase the chances of survival (dose rate effects) although such effects were left

J. W. Wilson; F. A. Cucinotta; M. Kim; J. L. Shinn; T. D. Jones; C. K. Chang

1998-01-01

22

Current SPE Hydrodynamic Modeling and Path Forward  

SciTech Connect

Extensive work has been conducted on SPE analysis efforts: Fault effects Non-uniform weathered layer analysis MUNROU: material library incorporation, parallelization, and development of non-locking tets Development of a unique continuum-based-visco-plastic strain-rate-dependent material model With corrected SPE data path is now set for a multipronged approach to fully understand experimental series shot effects.

Knight, Earl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rougier, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

23

Biological Response to SPE Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that a single solar particle event (SPE) can produce, over a short period of time, exposures on the order of LD50 for humans under normal physiological conditions. It is further recognized that recovery from injury over the period of exposure would greatly increase the chances of survival (dose rate effects) although such effects were left unquantified. In the present report we use the bioresponse model derived from a broad range of animal and human exposure data for evaluation of troop readiness in tactical nuclear warfare to evaluate the biological risk posed by the solar event of 4 August 1972. The astronaut blood forming organ (BFO) exposure in deep space would have been 2.2 Sv (1.6 Gy) in a space suit, 1.8 Sv (1.3 Gy) in an aluminum pressure vessel, and 0.7 Sv (0.5 Gy) in an equipment room compared to an X-ray mortality threshold of 1.5 Gy (assuming high dose rate). We find BFO dose rate effectiveness factors for this SPE on the order of 3 to 4, greatly reducing the mortality risks for this event. There is an approximate 3 percent chance that an even larger event may occur for which exposures could be 2-4 times higher. Assured survival of the astronaut requires added shelter shielding and a warning system for this event. The required mass of the shelter shield can be greatly reduced by using hydrogenous materials such as polymers, water, food, and other biological materials in its construction. Limitations of the current bioresponse model arise from the exposures taking place in the microgravity environment wherein the immune system is already challenged and the effective mortality threshold may be reduced by a factor of two. Such microgravity effects could greatly affect astronaut risks.

Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Kim, M.; Shinn, J. L.; Jones, T. D.; Chang, C. K.

2004-01-01

24

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale  

E-print Network

in The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 5­7 March 2013. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee. Mohaghegh, SPE, S. Esmaili, SPE, West Virginia University Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2013 SPE Digital Energy Conference and Exhibition held

Mohaghegh, Shahab

25

SPE-44 Implements Sperm Cell Fate  

PubMed Central

The sperm/oocyte decision in the hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for the characterization of stem cell fate specification and differentiation. The germline sex determination program that governs gamete fate has been well studied, but direct mediators of cell-type-specific transcription are largely unknown. We report the identification of spe-44 as a critical regulator of sperm gene expression. Deletion of spe-44 causes sperm-specific defects in cytokinesis, cell cycle progression, and organelle assembly resulting in sterility. Expression of spe-44 correlates precisely with spermatogenesis and is regulated by the germline sex determination pathway. spe-44 is required for the appropriate expression of several hundred sperm-enriched genes. The SPE-44 protein is restricted to the sperm-producing germline, where it localizes to the autosomes (which contain sperm genes) but is excluded from the transcriptionally silent X chromosome (which does not). The orthologous gene in other Caenorhabditis species is similarly expressed in a sex-biased manner, and the protein likewise exhibits autosome-specific localization in developing sperm, strongly suggestive of an evolutionarily conserved role in sperm gene expression. Our analysis represents the first identification of a transcriptional regulator whose primary function is the control of gamete-type-specific transcription in this system. PMID:22570621

Guevel, Katie; Smith, Harold E.

2012-01-01

26

Recent advances in SPE (tm) water electrolyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new cell structure has been introduced into the SPE Water Electrolyzer which has improved overall characteristics significantly. Weight, reliability, and efficiency are the characteristics that are improved the most, with volume having a second order improvement. This paper discusses the capabilities of the new cell structure and the impact it would have in various space applications.

Mcelroy, James F.

1993-01-01

27

spe433-01 page 1 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

spe433-01 page 1 INTRODUCTION The reality of plate tectonics, as a description of relative motions that plate tectonics has operated in something like its present style for, at most, the past billion years, Driving mechanism and 3-D circulation of plate tectonics, in Sears, J.W., Harms, T.A., and Evenchick, C

Hamilton, Warren B.

28

SPE water electrolyzers in support of the lunar outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1970s, the SPE water electrolyzer, which uses ion exchange membranes as its sole electrolyte, was developed for nuclear submarine metabolic oxygen production. These developments included SPE water electrolyzer operation at up to 3,000 psia and at current densities in excess of 1,000 amps per square foot. The SPE water electrolyzer system is now fully qualified for both the U.S. and U.K. Navies with tens of thousands of system hours accumulated at sea. During the 1980s, the basic SPE water electrolyzer cell structure developed for the Navies was incorporated into several demonstrations for NASA's Space Station Program. Among these were: the SPE regenerative fuel cell for electrical energy storage; the SPE water electrolyzer for metabolic oxygen production; and the high pressure SPE water electrolyzer for reboost propulsion reactant production. In the 1990s, one emphasis will be the development of SPE water electrolyzers for the Lunar Outposts Currently defined potential Lunar Outpost applications for the SPE water electrolyzer include: SPE water electrolyzers for metabolic oxygen and potable water production from reclaimed water; and SPE water electrolyzers operating at high pressure as part of stationary and mobile surface energy storage systems.

Mcelroy, J. F.

1992-01-01

29

Closed-Loop Reservoir Management J.D.Jansen, SPE, Shell Intl. E&P (SIEP) and Delft University of Technology (DUT); S.D. Douma, SPE,  

E-print Network

SPE 119098 Closed-Loop Reservoir Management J.D.Jansen, SPE, Shell Intl. E&P (SIEP) and Delft for presentation at the 2009 SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium held in The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 2­4 February of SPE copyright. Abstract Closed-loop reservoir management is a combination of model-based optimization

Van den Hof, Paul

30

WestVirginiaUniversity SPE 65675 Reservoir Characterization  

E-print Network

WestVirginiaUniversity SPE 65675 SPE 65675 Reservoir Characterization Through Synthetic Logs Shahab cost effective way for reservoir characterization. · The methodology uses the available well log data to accurately characterize effective porosity, fluid saturation and permeability. WestVirginiaUniversity #12

Mohaghegh, Shahab

31

SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

1991-08-01

32

SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

1991-01-01

33

Sociology of Disability CFE/SOC 600/SPE 621  

E-print Network

The Sociology of Disability CFE/SOC 600/SPE 621 May Semester, 1999 Instructor: Chris Kliewer, Ph is of community value. In this course, we assume a sociological eye and imagination to critically deconstruct

Mather, Patrick T.

34

Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages  

SciTech Connect

The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1? and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ? The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ? The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ? EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ? Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1?. ? There was a synergistic action between EnnB and bacterial LPS.

Gammelsrud, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway) [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Solhaug, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway)] [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Dendelé, B. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France)] [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Sandberg, W.J. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ivanova, L. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway)] [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Kocbach Bølling, A. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lagadic-Gossmann, D. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France)] [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Refsnes, M.; Becher, R. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Eriksen, G. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway)] [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Holme, J.A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

2012-05-15

35

Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.

1987-01-01

36

A simple model for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis is analyzed by a simple model based on Butler–Volmer kinetics for electrodes and transport resistance in the polymer electrolyte. An equivalent electrical circuit analogy is provided for the sequential kinetic and transport resistances. The model provides a relation between applied terminal voltage of the electrolysis cell and current density in terms of Nernst potential,

Pyoungho Choi; Dmitri G. Bessarabov; Ravindra Datta

2004-01-01

37

Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius, 1810) is an important spe-  

E-print Network

153 Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius, 1810) is an important spe- cies in eastern Bering to track large year classes of cod through time. Historically, scales and otoliths have been the two most these structures have experienced limited success in the case of Pacific cod (Kimura and Lyons, 1990). The Pacific

38

SPE-169507-MS Artificial Intelligence (AI) Assisted History Matching  

E-print Network

SPE-169507-MS Artificial Intelligence (AI) Assisted History Matching Alireza Shahkarami, Shahab D a successful history matching project. The pattern recognition capabilities of Artificial Intelligence and Data the history matching process. SRM is an intelligent prototype of the full-field reservoir simulation model

Mohaghegh, Shahab

39

SPE (tm) water electrolyzers in support of mission from planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1970's, the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer, which uses ion exchange membranes as its sole electrolyte, was developed for nuclear submarine metabolic oxygen production. SPE water electrolyzer developments included operation at up to 3,000 psia and at current densities in excess of 1,000 amps per square foot. The SPE water electrolyzer system has accumulated tens of thousands of system hours with the Navies of both the United States and the United Kingdom. During the 1980's, the basic SPE water electrolyzer cell structure developed for the Navies was incorporated into several demonstrators for NASA's Space Station Program. Among these were: (1) the SPE regenerative fuel cell for electrical energy storage; (2) the SPE water electrolyzer for metabolic oxygen production; and (3) the high pressure SPE water electrolyzer for reboost propellant production. In the 1990's, emphasis will be the development of SPE water electrolyzers for Mission from Planet Earth. Currently defined potential applications for the SPE water electrolyzer include: (1) SPE water electrolyzers operating at high pressure as part of a regenerative fuel cell extraterrestrial surface energy storage system; (2) SPE water electrolyzers for propellant production from extraterrestrial indigenous materials; and (3) SPE water electrolyzers for metabolic oxygen and potable water production from reclaimed water.

Mcelroy, J. F.

1991-01-01

40

Analysis and Simulations of Near-Field Ground Motion from Source Physics Experiments (spe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 50-70 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments SPE1, SPE2 and SPE3 in a granitic formation (the Climax Stock) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The explosive source used in these experiments is a sensitized heavy ANFO (SHANFO) with a well characterized equation of state. The first event, SPE1, had a yield of 0.1 ton, and was detonated at a 55 m depth of burial in a spherical cavity of about 0.3 m radius. SPE2 and SPE3 had an explosive yield of 1 ton, and they were both detonated in the same cavity at a depth of burial of 45 meters. One of the main goals of these experiments was to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. Another objective, relating specifically to the SPE2-SPE3 sequence, was to investigate the effect of damage from one explosion on the response of the medium to a second explosion of the same yield and at the same location as the first explosion. Comparison of the results from SPE2 and SPE3 show some interesting trends. . At the shot level, and at deeper locations, the data from SPE3 seem to agree quite well with SPE2 data, indicating that damage from SPE2 had little to no effect on the response of the medium at these locations. On the other hand, SPE3 data consistently show delay in arrival times as well as reduced wave amplitudes both at 50 ft (16 m) depth and at the ground surface, indicating that above the shot horizon damage from SPE2 had a perceptible effect on the SPE3 near field motions. The quality of the near field data at some gages from the SPE1 and SPE2 events is somewhat questionable, with orientation uncertainties making it difficult to ascertain with confidence the extent to which shear wave generation in the source region affected near field motions. New gages were strategically added to the SPE3 test bed to provide the data needed to address this issue and verify previous measurements. The new measurements for SPE 3 show significant tangential motion (up to 30 % of the radial) at many locations as well as azimuthal variations in radial velocities which cannot be predicted by continuum simulations using isotropic plasticity models. Both continuum and discrete 2D/3D simulations are currently being performed to better understand the experimental results, correlate observed motions with heterogeneities in the rock, and aid in assessing the origin of shear waves observed in the seismic frequency band.

Vorobiev, O.; Xu, H.; Lomov, I.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

2012-12-01

41

Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic

R J Mellors; A Rodgers; W Walter; S Ford; H Xu; E Matzel; S Myers; N A Petersson; B Sjogreen; T Hauk; J Wagoner

2011-01-01

42

SPE-8, a protein-tyrosine kinase, localizes to the spermatid cell membrane through interaction with other members of the SPE-8 group spermatid activation signaling pathway in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Background The SPE-8 group gene products transduce the signal for spermatid activation initiated by extracellular zinc in C. elegans. Mutations in the spe-8 group genes result in hermaphrodite-derived spermatids that cannot activate to crawling spermatozoa, although spermatids from mutant males activate through a pathway induced by extracellular TRY-5 protease present in male seminal fluid. Results Here, we identify SPE-8 as a member of a large family of sperm-expressed non-receptor-like protein-tyrosine kinases. A rescuing SPE-8::GFP translational fusion reporter localizes to the plasma membrane in all spermatogenic cells from the primary spermatocyte stage through spermatids. Once spermatids become activated to spermatozoa, the reporter moves from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm. Mutations in the spe-8 group genes spe-12, spe-19, and spe-27 disrupt localization of the reporter to the plasma membrane, while localization appears near normal in a spe-29 mutant background. Conclusions These results suggest that the SPE-8 group proteins form a functional complex localized at the plasma membrane, and that SPE-8 is correctly positioned only when all members of the SPE-8 group are present, with the possible exception of SPE-29. Further, SPE-8 is released from the membrane when the activation signal is transduced into the spermatid. PMID:25022984

2014-01-01

43

NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE SECOND SOURCE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (SPE2)  

SciTech Connect

Motion along joints and fractures in the rock has been proposed as one of the sources of near-source shear wave generation, and demonstrating the validity of this hypothesis is a focal scientific objective of the source physics experimental campaign in the Climax Stock granitic outcrop. A modeling effort has been undertaken by LLNL to complement the experimental campaign, and over the long term provide a validated computation capability for the nuclear explosion monitoring community. The approach involves performing the near-field nonlinear modeling with hydrodynamic codes (e.g., GEODYN, GEODYN-L), and the far-field seismic propagation with an elastic wave propagation code (e.g., WPP). the codes will be coupled together to provide a comprehensive source-to-sensor modeling capability. The technical approach involves pre-test predictions of each of the SPE experiments using their state of the art modeling capabilities, followed by code improvements to alleviate deficiencies identified in the pre-test predictions. This spiral development cycle wherein simulations are used to guide experimental design and the data from the experiment used to improve the models is the most effective approach to enable a transition from the descriptive phenomenological models in current use to the predictive, hybrid physics models needed for a science-based modeling capability for nuclear explosion monitoring. The objective of this report is to describe initial results of non-linear motion predictions of the first two SPE shots in the Climax Stock: a 220-lb shot at a depth of 180 ft (SPE No.1), and a 2570-lb shot at a depth of 150 ft (SPE No.2). The simulations were performed using the LLNL ensemble granite model, a model developed to match velocity and displacement attenuation from HARDHAT, PILE DRIVER, and SHOAL, as well as Russian and French nuclear test data in granitic rocks. This model represents the state of the art modeling capabilities as they existed when the SPE campaign was launched in 2010, and the simulation results presented here will establish a baseline that will be used for gauging progress as planned modeling improvements are implemented during the remainder of the SPE program. The initial simulations were performed under 2D axisymmetric conditions assuming the geologic medium to be a homogeneous half space. However, logging data obtained from the emplacement hole reveal two major faults that intersect the borehole at two different depth intervals (NSTec report, 2011) and four major joint sets. To evaluate the effect of these discrete structures on the wave forms generated they have performed 2D and 3D analysis with a Lagrangian hydrocode, GEODYN-L that shares the same material models with GEODYN but can explicitly take joints and fault into consideration. They discuss results obtained using these two different approaches in this report.

Antoun, T; Xu, H; Vorobiev, O; Lomov, I

2011-10-20

44

SOCIAL WORK SPE/AG Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group  

E-print Network

SOCIAL WORK SPE/AG Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students with no Academic Sub Plan] RQ 2285 Courses Not Used toward specific degree course (Make no exceptions here) #12;SOCIAL WORK SPE/AG Plan Requirements Campus

Shyy, Wei

45

SOCIAL WORK SPE/MHLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group  

E-print Network

SOCIAL WORK SPE/MHLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students with no Academic Sub Plan] RQ below has not been used toward specific degree course (Make no exceptions here) #12;SOCIAL WORK SPE

Shyy, Wei

46

SOCIAL WORK SPE/HLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group  

E-print Network

SOCIAL WORK SPE/HLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ toward specific degree course (Make no exceptions here) #12;SOCIAL WORK SPE/HLTH Plan Requirements Campus Minimum three units from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Academic Sub Plan

Shyy, Wei

47

spe-12 encodes a sperm cell surface protein that promotes spermiogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed Central

During spermiogenesis, Caenorhabditis elegans spermatids activate and mature into crawling spermatozoa without synthesizing new proteins. Mutations in the spe-12 gene block spermatid activation, rendering normally self-fertile hermaphrodites sterile. Mutant males, however, are fertile. Surprisingly, when mutant hermaphrodites mate with a male, their self-spermatids activate and form functional spermatozoa, presumably due to contact with male seminal fluid. Here we show that, in addition to its essential role in normal activation of hermaphrodite-derived spermatids, SPE-12 also plays a supplementary but nonessential role in mating-induced activation. We have identified the spe-12 gene, which encodes a novel protein containing a single transmembrane domain. spe-12 mRNA is expressed in the sperm-producing germ line and the protein localizes to the spermatid cell surface. We propose that SPE-12 functions downstream of both hermaphrodite- and male-derived activation signals in a spermatid signaling pathway that initiates spermiogenesis. PMID:10224255

Nance, J; Minniti, A N; Sadler, C; Ward, S

1999-01-01

48

NF?B induces overexpression of bovine FcRn  

PubMed Central

Among the many functions of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) for IgG, it binds to IgG-opsonized antigen complexes and propagates their traffic into lysosomes where antigen processing occurs. We previously reported that transgenic (Tg) mice and rabbits that carry multiple copies and overexpress FcRn have augmented humoral immune responses. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) is a critical molecule in the signaling cascade in the immune response. NF?B induces human FcRn expression and our previous in silico analysis suggested NF?B binding sites in the promoter region of the bovine (b) FcRn ?-chain gene (FCGRT). Here, we report the identification of three NF?B transcription binding sites in the promoter region of this gene using luciferase reporter gene technology, electromobility shift assay and supershift analysis. Stimulation of primary bovine endothelial cells with the Toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mediates its effect via NF?B, resulted in rapid upregulation of the bFcRn expression and a control gene, bovine E-selectin. This rapid bFcRn gene induction was also observed in the spleen of bFcRn Tg mice treated with intraperitoneally injected LPS, analyzed by northern blot analysis. Finally, NF?B-mediated bFcRn upregulation was confirmed at the protein level in macrophages isolated from the bFcRn Tg mice using flow cytometry with a newly developed FcRn specific monoclonal antibody that does not cross-react with the mouse FcRn. We conclude that NF?B regulates bFcRn expression and thus optimizes its functions, e.g., in the professional antigen presenting cells, and contributes to the much augmented humoral immune response in the bFcRn Tg mice. PMID:24492342

Cervenak, Judit; Doleschall, Márton; Bender, Balázs; Mayer, Balázs; Schneider, Zita; Doleschall, Zoltán; Zhao, Yaofeng; B?sze, Zsuzsanna; Hammarström, Lennart; Oster, Wolfgang; Kacskovics, Imre

2013-01-01

49

Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2  

SciTech Connect

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic sensors arrayed in 5 radial lines extending out 2 km to the north and east and approximately 10-15 to the south and west. Prior to SPE1, simulations using a finite difference code and a 3D numerical model based on the geologic setting were conducted, which predicted higher amplitudes to the south and east in the alluvium of Yucca Flat along with significant energy on the transverse components caused by scattering within the 3D volume along with some contribution by topographic scattering. Observations from the SPE1 shot largely confirmed these predictions although the ratio of transverse energy relative to the vertical and radial components was in general larger than predicted. A new set of simulations has been conducted for the upcoming SPE2 shot. These include improvements to the velocity model based on SPE1 observations as well as new capabilities added to the simulation code. The most significant is the addition of a new source model within the finite difference code by using the predicted ground velocities from a hydrodynamic code (GEODYN) as driving condition on the boundaries of a cube embedded within WPP which provides a more sophisticated source modeling capability linked directly to source site materials (e.g. granite) and type and size of source. Two sets of SPE2 simulations are conducted, one with a GEODYN source and 3D complex media (no topography node spacing of 5 m) and one with a standard isotropic pre-defined time function (3D complex media with topography, node spacing of 5 m). Results were provided as time series at specific points corresponding to sensor locations for both translational (x,y,z) and rotational components. Estimates of spectral scaling for SPE2 are provided using a modified version of the Mueller-Murphy model. An estimate of expected aftershock probabilities were also provided, based on the methodology of Ford and Walter, [2010].

Mellors, R J; Rodgers, A; Walter, W; Ford, S; Xu, H; Matzel, E; Myers, S; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B; Hauk, T; Wagoner, J

2011-10-18

50

SPE-HPTLC of procyanidins from the barks of different species and clones of Salix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SPE-HPTLC method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of procyanidin B1 in willow barks. The chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel layer with the mobile phase chloroform–ethanol–formic acid (50:40:6v\\/v\\/v), in the Automatic Developing Chamber—ADC 2. The methanol extracts from willow barks were purified by SPE method on RP-18 silica gel columns with methanol–water (7:93v\\/v) as the

Loretta Pob?ocka-Olech; Miros?awa Krauze-Baranowska

2008-01-01

51

Rapid narrow band elution for on-line SPE using a novel solvent plug injection technique.  

PubMed

Determination of trace constituents in biological and environmental samples usually requires a pre-concentration step. While solid-phase extraction (SPE) has been widely used, it is slow, labor intensive and adversely affected by analytical errors from handling. On-line SPE eliminates some of the flaws but often suffers from solvent compatibility problems with the subsequent chromatography separation. In this study, we are presenting a technical solution for overcoming some of these compatibility issues, by utilizing a fully automated, focused SPE sample transfer technique utilizing narrow-band solvent plugs, for seamless hyphenation with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or flow injection mass spectrometry (MS). A wide range of pharmaceutical compounds was studied in different sample matrices. Short plugs of high elution strength solvent were generated by means of an electrically actuated sample loop and enrichment and transfer steps monitored using on-line SPE-MS. The impact of the solvent plugs on chromatographic separation was studied using hyphenated SPE-LC-MS. By carefully examining elution profiles of solvent plugs of different compositions, optimum conditions for quantitative elution within well-defined volumes were found for all substances. In addition, the highly focused elution bands resulted in excellent retention time and peak area reproducibilities when injected on-line onto HPLC columns. Finally, to demonstrate proof-of-principle, the fully integrated on-line SPE-LC-MS system was applied to the analysis of spiked urine and river water samples. PMID:22669308

Gode, David; Martin, Markus M; Steiner, Frank; Huber, Christian G; Volmer, Dietrich A

2012-08-01

52

Using Spectral Losses to Map a Damage Zone for the Source Physics Experiments (SPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a series of cross-borehole seismic experiments in support of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE). These surveys, which were conducted in a granitic body using a sparker source and hydrophone string, were designed to image the damage zone from two underground explosions (SPE2 and SPE3). We present results here from a total of six boreholes (the explosive shot emplacement hole and 5 satellite holes, 20-35 meters away) where we found a marked loss of high frequency energy in ray paths traversing the region near the SPE explosions. Specifically, the frequencies above ~400 Hz were lost in a region centered around 45 meters depth, coincident with SPE2 and SPE3 shots. We further quantified these spectral losses, developed a map of where they occur, and evaluated the attenuation effects of raypath length (i.e. source-receiver offset). We attribute this severe attenuation to the inelastic damage (i.e. cracking and pulverizing) caused by the large chemical explosions and propose that frequency attenuation of this magnitude provides yet another tool for detecting the damage due to large underground explosions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Knox, H. A.; Abbott, R. E.; Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.

2013-12-01

53

Vps33b pathogenic mutations preferentially affect VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes  

PubMed Central

Mutations in Vps33 isoforms cause pigment dilution in mice (Vps33a, buff) and Drosophila (car) and the neurogenic arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome in humans (ARC1, VPS33B). The later disease is also caused by mutations in VIPAS39, (Vps33b interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator, SPE-39 homolog; ARC2), a protein that interacts with the HOmotypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a tether necessary for endosome–lysosome traffic. These syndromes offer insight into fundamental endosome traffic processes unique to metazoans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these mutant phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here we investigate interactions of wild-type and disease-causing mutations in VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b by yeast two hybrid, immunoprecipitation and quantitative fluorescent microscopy. We find that although few mutations prevent interaction between VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b, some mutants fragment VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes, but all mutants alter the subcellular localization of Vps33b to VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes. Our data suggest that the ARC syndrome may result through impaired VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b-dependent endosomal maturation or fusion. PMID:23918659

Tornieri, Karine; Zlatic, Stephanie A.; Mullin, Ariana P.; Werner, Erica; Harrison, Robert; L'Hernault, Steven W.; Faundez, Victor

2013-01-01

54

Pax3 expression enhances PDGF-B-induced brainstem gliomagenesis and characterizes a subset of brainstem glioma.  

PubMed

High-grade Brainstem Glioma (BSG), also known as Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG), is an incurable pediatric brain cancer. Increasing evidence supports the existence of regional differences in gliomagenesis such that BSG is considered a distinct disease from glioma of the cerebral cortex (CG). In an effort to elucidate unique characteristics of BSG, we conducted expression analysis of mouse PDGF-B-driven BSG and CG initiated in Nestin progenitor cells and identified a short list of expression changes specific to the brainstem gliomagenesis process, including abnormal upregulation of paired box 3 (Pax3). In the neonatal mouse brain, Pax3 expression marks a subset of brainstem progenitor cells, while it is absent from the cerebral cortex, mirroring its regional expression in glioma. Ectopic expression of Pax3 in normal brainstem progenitors in vitro shows that Pax3 inhibits apoptosis. Pax3-induced inhibition of apoptosis is p53-dependent, however, and in the absence of p53, Pax3 promotes proliferation of brainstem progenitors. In vivo, Pax3 enhances PDGF-B-driven gliomagenesis by shortening tumor latency and increasing tumor penetrance and grade, in a region-specific manner, while loss of Pax3 function extends survival of PDGF-B-driven;p53-deficient BSG-bearing mice by 33%. Importantly, Pax3 is regionally expressed in human glioma as well, with high PAX3 mRNA characterizing 40% of human BSG, revealing a subset of tumors that significantly associates with PDGFRA alterations, amplifications of cell cycle regulatory genes, and is exclusive of ACVR1 mutations. Collectively, these data suggest that regional Pax3 expression not only marks a novel subset of BSG but also contributes to PDGF-B-induced brainstem gliomagenesis. PMID:25330836

Misuraca, Katherine L; Barton, Kelly L; Chung, Alexander; Diaz, Alexander K; Conway, Simon J; Corcoran, David L; Baker, Suzanne J; Becher, Oren J

2014-10-21

55

Potassium Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis of Cerebellar Granule Neurons: A Sequential Requirement for New mRNA and Protein Synthesis, ICE-Like Protease Activity, and Reactive Oxygen Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium (K1) deprivation-induced apoptosis of cerebellar granule neurons requires new mRNA and protein synthesis. Using a fluorogenic substrate for interleukin-1b converting en- zyme (ICE), we show that K1 deprivation of cerebellar granule neurons induces cycloheximide-sensitive ICE-like protease ac- tivity. A peptide inhibitor of ICE-like protease activity, Ac- YVAD-chloromethylketone (Ac-YVAD-CMK), prevents K1 deprivation-induced apoptosis. Further, reactive oxygen spe- cies (ROS) are

Jorg B. Schulz; Michael Weller; Thomas Klockgether

56

Robust Determination of the Pore Space Morphology in Sedimentary Rocks Dmitry B. Silin, SPE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Guodong Jin, SPE, UC Berkeley; and  

E-print Network

SPE 84296 Robust Determination of the Pore Space Morphology in Sedimentary Rocks Dmitry B. Silin the mor- phology (shapes and connectivity) of the pore space of a sedimentary rock. Our approach is based, the proposed algorithm produces a stick-and- ball diagram of the rock pore space. One of distinctive features

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

57

Intelligent Upscaling of Static and Dynamic Reservoir Properties V.Gholami, SPE and S.D.Mohaghegh, SPE, West Virginia University  

E-print Network

for presentation at the 2009 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 4 are concerned. The objective of this study is to develop a new upscaling methodology based on fuzzy set theory simulation studies and the new approach that is the subject of this study. By using the numerical reservoir

Mohaghegh, Shahab

58

A bacterial invasin induces macrophage apoptosis by binding directly to ICE.  

PubMed Central

Shigella, the etiological agent of dysentery, kills macrophages by inducing apoptosis. Deletion mutants in the invasion invasion plasmid antigen B (ipaB) of Shigella flexneri are not cytotoxic. Here, we localized IpaB to the cytoplasm of macrophages infected with S. flexneri. Purified IpaB induced apoptosis when microinjected into macrophages, indicating that IpaB is sufficient to induce apoptosis. Using a GST-IpaB fusion protein as a ligand in affinity purification, we isolated four IpaB binding proteins from macrophages which were identified as the precursor and the mature polypeptides of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE) or a highly homologous protease. We found that IpaB binds directly to ICE and this enzyme is activated during S. flexneri infection. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of ICE prevented Shigella-induced apoptosis. Images PMID:8670890

Chen, Y; Smith, M R; Thirumalai, K; Zychlinsky, A

1996-01-01

59

Calpains, mitochondria, and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial activity is critical for efficient function of the cardiovascular system. In response to cardiovascular injury, mitochondrial dysfunction occurs and can lead to apoptosis and necrosis. Calpains are a 15-member family of Ca2+-activated cysteine proteases localized to the cytosol and mitochondria, and several have been shown to regulate apoptosis and necrosis. For example, in endothelial cells, Ca2+ overload causes mitochondrial calpain 1 cleavage of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger leading to mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Also, activated calpain 1 cleaves Bid, inducing cytochrome c release and apoptosis. In renal cells, calpains 1 and 2 promote apoptosis and necrosis by cleaving cytoskeletal proteins, which increases plasma membrane permeability and cleavage of caspases. Calpain 10 cleaves electron transport chain proteins, causing decreased mitochondrial respiration and excessive activation, or inhibition of calpain 10 activity induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. In cardiomyocytes, calpain 1 activates caspase 3 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase during tumour necrosis factor-?-induced apoptosis, and calpain 1 cleaves apoptosis-inducing factor after Ca2+ overload. Many of these observations have been elucidated with calpain inhibitors, but most calpain inhibitors are not specific for calpains or a specific calpain family member, creating more questions. The following review will discuss how calpains affect mitochondrial function and apoptosis within the cardiovascular system. PMID:22581845

Smith, Matthew A.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

2012-01-01

60

The pharmacology of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is an area of intense scientific interest, which encompasses the study of and triggers mechanisms involved in mediating the cell biology of programmed cell death. A number of low molecular weight compounds have been used to inhibit or enhance this fundamental cellular process and so apoptosis has now become amenable to pharmacological manipulation. In this review Ross Kinloch, Mark

Ross A. Kinloch; J. Mark Treherne; L. Mike Furness; Iradj Hajimohamadreza

1999-01-01

61

The Transurethral Suprapubic endo-Cystostomy (T-SPeC): A Novel Suprapubic Catheter Insertion Device  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Purpose Current methods of suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) catheter insertion may be difficult for patients in poor health and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. These include a highly invasive open procedure, as well as the use of the percutaneous trocar punch methods, commonly associated with short-term SPC. We present the first human experience with the Transurethral Suprapubic endo-Cystostomy (T-SPeC®) device, a novel disposable device used for introducing a suprapubic catheter via a retrourethral (inside-to-out) approach similar to the Lowsley technique. Patients and Methods Four men at St. Mary's General Hospital in Kitchener Ontario, Canada, received the T-SPeC device (model T7) under general anesthesia. Results Patients had no complications from catheterization using the T-SPeC T7 Surgical System. The mean surgical time of the four procedures was 9.7 minutes, with a range of 7.9 to 13.5 minutes, including instrument preparation and cystoscopy. All four procedures were highly accurate and rapid. There were no complications and minimal blood loss from the procedure. Conclusions We found that the T-SPeC device allows for efficient and safe insertion of a suprapubic catheter in an outpatient setting and may be a useful addition to the urologic armamentarium. The T-SPeC Surgical System facilitates rapid and precise suprapubic catheter placement. PMID:23488708

Egerdie, R. Blair; Albala, David M.; Flynn, Brian J.

2013-01-01

62

Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

1988-01-01

63

Intergeneric homology of the speC gene encoding biosynthetic ornithine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A 32P-labeled fragment of DNA containing the speC gene, which encodes the biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase of Escherichia coli, was used as a hybridization probe for homologous sequences in the genomes of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The speC probe detected homologous sequences in the DNA of only four members of the Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes); no homology was detected with the DNA of other representative members of the Enterobacteriaceae and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Images PMID:6384181

Wright, J M; Boyle, S M

1984-01-01

64

Spacecraft Solar Particle Event (SPE) Shielding: Shielding Effectiveness as a Function of SPE model as Determined with the FLUKA Radiation Transport Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of both satellite and surface neutron monitor data demonstrate that the widely utilized Exponential model of solar particle event (SPE) proton kinetic energy spectra can seriously underestimate SPE proton flux, especially at the highest kinetic energies. The more recently developed Band model produces better agreement with neutron monitor data ground level events (GLEs) and is believed to be considerably more accurate at high kinetic energies. Here, we report the results of modeling and simulation studies in which the radiation transport code FLUKA (FLUktuierende KAskade) is used to determine the changes in total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event environments (SEE) behind aluminum, polyethylene, carbon, and titanium shielding masses when the assumed form (i. e., Band or Exponential) of the solar particle event (SPE) kinetic energy spectra is changed. FLUKA simulations have fully three dimensions with an isotropic particle flux incident on a concentric spherical shell shielding mass and detector structure. The effects are reported for both energetic primary protons penetrating the shield mass and secondary particle showers caused by energetic primary protons colliding with shielding mass nuclei. Our results, in agreement with previous studies, show that use of the Exponential form of the event

Koontz, Steve; Atwell, William; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina

2010-01-01

65

Eosinophil intracellular signalling: apoptosis.  

PubMed

Eosinophil apoptosis is considered critical for the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation in the airways of asthmatics. Apoptosis can be mediated by an extrinsic receptor-activated pathway or alternatively by an intrinsic pathway via distortion of mitochondrial function. Both of these pathways lead to activation of the caspase cascade resulting in degradation of cellular components. We describe here two methods to explore intracellular mechanisms mediating eosinophil apoptosis. Eosinophil staining by fluorescent probe JC-1 followed by flow cytometric analysis is a reliable method for determination of the state of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Lost ??m indicates distorted mitochondrial function and apoptosis. We also describe a method to explore the activation of effector caspase-6 by assessing degradation of its substrate lamin A/C by immunoblotting. PMID:24986608

Ilmarinen, Pinja; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu

2014-01-01

66

Spacecraft Solar Particle Event (SPE) Shielding: Shielding Effectiveness as a Function of SPE Model as Determined with the FLUKA Radiation Transport Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the this paper, we report the results of modeling and simulation studies in which the radiation transport code FLUKA (FLUktuierende KAskade) is used to determine the changes in total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event effect (SEE) environments behind aluminum, polyethylene, carbon, and titanium shielding masses when the assumed form (i.e., Band or Exponential) of the solar particle event (SPE) kinetic energy spectra is changed. FLUKA simulations are fully three dimensional with an isotropic particle flux incident on a concentric spherical shell shielding mass and detector structure. FLUKA is a fully integrated and extensively verified Monte Carlo simulation package for the interaction and transport of high-energy particles and nuclei in matter. The effects are reported of both energetic primary protons penetrating the shield mass and secondary particle showers caused by energetic primary protons colliding with shielding mass nuclei. SPE heavy ion spectra are not addressed. Our results, in agreement with previous studies, show that use of the Exponential form of the event spectra can seriously underestimate spacecraft SPE TID and SEE environments in some, but not all, shielding mass cases. The SPE spectra investigated are taken from four specific SPEs that produced ground-level events (GLEs) during solar cycle 23 (1997-2008). GLEs are produced by highly energetic solar particle events (ESP), i.e., those that contain significant fluences of 700 MeV to 10 GeV protons. Highly energetic SPEs are implicated in increased rates of spacecraft anomalies and spacecraft failures. High-energy protons interact with Earth’s atmosphere via nuclear reaction to produce secondary particles, some of which are neutrons that can be detected at the Earth’s surface by the global neutron monitor network. GLEs are one part of the overall SPE resulting from a particular solar flare or coronal mass ejection event on the sun. The ESP part of the particle event, detected by spacecraft, is often associated with the arrival of a “shock front” at Earth some hours after the arrival of the GLE. The specific SPEs used in this analysis are those of: 1) November 6, 1997 - GLE only; 2) July 14-15, 2000 - GLE from the 14th plus ESP from the 15th; 3) November 4-6, 2001 - GLE and ESP from the 4th; and 4) October 28-29, 2003 - GLE and ESP from the 28th plus GLE from the 29th. The corresponding Band and Exponential spectra used in this paper are like those previously reported.

Koontz, S. L.; Atwell, W. A.; Reddell, B.; Rojdev, K.

2010-12-01

67

SOCIAL WORK SPE/CY Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group  

E-print Network

SOCIAL WORK SPE/CY Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ Minimum nine units from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students02/1410 (09/03/2002) LN 0030 Minimum three units from the School of Social Work or other graduate

Shyy, Wei

68

SOCIAL WORK SPE/CSS Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group  

E-print Network

SOCIAL WORK SPE/CSS Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ Minimum nine units from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students Effective FA02/1410 (09/03/2002) LN 0030 Minimum three units from the School of Social Work or other

Shyy, Wei

69

Antioxidant action and potential antidiabetic properties of an isoflavonoid-containing soyabean phytochemical extract (SPE).  

PubMed

The potential role of oestrogenic agents, antioxidants and intestinal glucose-uptake inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes is briefly reviewed. Reports in the literature suggest that oestrogen replacement therapy may favourably modulate glucose homeostasis. A soya phytochemical extract (SPE) containing the isoflavone phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein (mostly in their glycone forms as genistin and daidzin) was investigated as an antioxidant and modulator of intestinal glucose-transport. In the present study, SPE was found to protect against glucose-induced oxidation of human low density lipoproteins (LDL) in vitro. Equol (a gut bacterial metabolite of daidzein) was a more effective antioxidant than daidzein or genistein in this system and was of similar antioxidant potency to the dietary flavonols quercetin and kaempferol and to the endogenous antioxidant 17beta-oestradiol. SPE was found to be an inhibitor of glucose uptake into rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles in vitro, though of weaker potency than the classical sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor, phlorizin. Thus SPE displays a range of properties which may be of benefit in diabetes, namely as an oestrogenic agent, an inhibitor of intestinal glucose-uptake and a preventive agent for glucose-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:10548755

Vedavanam, K; Srijayanta, S; O'Reilly, J; Raman, A; Wiseman, H

1999-11-01

70

Determination of trace organic pollutants in aqueous samples using GC/MS and SPE techniques  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the advantage of using GC/MS (ion trap) and solid phase extraction (SPE) for the determination of semi-volatile organics which cover priority pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, phthalates, and synthetic organic analytes. SPE of trace organic compounds using reverse phase sorbent is attractive compared to the more traditional methods that utilize liquid-liquid extraction or microextraction for the removal of these pollutants from aqueous samples. GC/MS method involving SPE for sample preparation reduces manual labor, speed sample processing,and substantially reduces the volume of solvent required. Also, the application of axial modulation ion trap mass spectrometry improved sensitivity in GC/MS analysis and the method accuracy and precision of semi-volatile organics from GC/MS (ion trap) are very competitive with electron capture detector and photo ionization detector. Systematic studies were done to determine the factors that effect the optimum disk sampling/elution conditions to achieve the quality control requirements for the compliance monitoring. The recoveries of phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) and most of the organic pesticides, which have very hydrophobic nature and high boiling points, are very acceptable. Consequently GC/MS analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques can be applied as the primary analytical method and final conformation tool for the routine monitoring samples such as ground water, surface water and reclaimed water for the determination of trace organic pollutants with improved sensitivity, reduced extraction time and monitoring expense.

Yoo, L.J.; Yamamoto, M.; Fitzsimmons, S.; Shen, Y. [Orange County Water District, Fountain Valley, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

71

spe436-11 page 1 The Geological Society of America  

E-print Network

reserved. #12;2 Allen et al. spe436-11 page INTRODUCTION The Andaman-Nicobar Islands are part that runs from the Myanmar Arakan-Yoma down to Sumatra and Java in the south. The Indian plate is subducting and environments can change abruptly over relatively short distances, and uplift leads to recycling of sediment

Najman, Yani

72

STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE-2  

E-print Network

STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE compounds in drinking or waste22 water processes has become very popular in recent years. LC-MS/MS is a powerful23 analytical tool often used to determine pharmaceutical residues at trace level in water.24

Boyer, Edmond

73

EC-SPE-stripline-NMR analysis of reactive products: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Flow-through electrochemical conversion (EC) of drug-like molecules was hyphenated to miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) via on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). After EC of the prominent p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor BIRB796 into its reactive products, the SPE step provided preconcentration of the EC products and solvent exchange for NMR analysis. The acquisition of NMR spectra of the mass-limited samples was achieved in a stripline probe with a detection volume of 150 nL offering superior mass sensitivity. This hyphenated EC-SPE-stripline-NMR setup enabled the detection of the reactive products using only minute amounts of substrate. Furthermore, the integration of conversion and detection into one flow setup counteracts incorrect assessments caused by the degradation of reactive products. However, apparent interferences of the NMR magnetic field with the EC, leading to a low product yield, so far demanded relatively long signal averaging. A critical assessment of what is and what is not (yet) possible with this approach is presented, for example in terms of structure elucidation and the estimation of concentrations. Additionally, promising routes for further improvement of EC-SPE-stripline-NMR are discussed. PMID:23812883

Falck, David; Oosthoek-de Vries, Anna J; Kolkman, Ard; Lingeman, Henk; Honing, Maarten; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Kentgens, Arno P M; Niessen, Wilfried M A

2013-08-01

74

SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing  

E-print Network

SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale Andrew C typing method for application in hydrocarbon-bearing shale (specifically source rock) reservoirs using are typically neglected in core matching. Rock typing in hydrocarbon-bearing shale provides an alternative

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

75

spe440-12 3rd pages The Geological Society of America  

E-print Network

spe440-12 3rd pages 249 The Geological Society of America Special Paper 440 2008 Plate tectonics and appear to be remarkably similar to predictions from a plate-tectonic conceptual model. Care- fully as old as ca. 3500 Ma. Keywords: plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, Precambrian, Archean, Proterozoic

76

sity from the Mississippian until the ex-pansion of the angiosperms, when spe-  

E-print Network

sity from the Mississippian until the ex- pansion of the angiosperms, when spe- cies numbers that it is nonetheless a real phenomenon associ- ated with the biology ofthe angiosperms. The temporal pattern of land, or both. This suggests the likelihood of a pre- angiosperm global diversity peak in the late Paleozoic

Robock, Alan

77

Yersinia enterocolitica YopT and Clostridium difficile toxin B induce expression of GILZ in epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid induced-leucine zipper (GILZ) has been shown to be induced in cells by different stimuli such as glucocorticoids, IL-10 or deprivation of IL-2. GILZ has anti-inflammatory properties and may be involved in signalling modulating apoptosis. Herein we demonstrate that wildtype Yersinia enterocolitica which carry the pYV plasmid upregulated GILZ mRNA levels and protein expression in epithelial cells. Infection of HeLa cells with different Yersinia mutant strains revealed that the protease activity of YopT, which cleaves the membrane-bound form of Rho GTPases was sufficient to induce GILZ expression. Similarly, Clostridium difficile toxin B, another bacterial inhibitor of Rho GTPases induced GILZ expression. YopT and toxin B both increased transcriptional activity of the GILZ promoter in HeLa cells. GILZ expression could not be linked to the inactivation of an individual Rho GTPase by these toxins. However, forced expression of RhoA and RhoB decreased basal GILZ promoter activity. Furthermore, MAPK activation proved necessary for profound GILZ induction by toxin B. Promoter studies and gel shift analyses defined binding of upstream stimulatory factor (USF) 1 and 2 to a canonical c-Myc binding site (E-box) in the GILZ promoter as a crucial step of its trans-activation. In addition we could show that USF-1 and USF-2 are essential for basal as well as toxin B induced GILZ expression. These findings define a novel way of GILZ promoter trans-activation mediated by bacterial toxins and differentiate it from those mediated by dexamethasone or deprivation of IL-2. PMID:22792400

Köberle, Martin; Göppel, David; Grandl, Tanja; Gaentzsch, Peer; Manncke, Birgit; Berchtold, Susanne; Müller, Steffen; Lüscher, Bernhard; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Pallardy, Marc; Sorg, Isabel; Langer, Simon; Barth, Holger; Zumbihl, Robert; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin

2012-01-01

78

WINGS-SPE Spectroscopy in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey  

E-print Network

Aims. We present the results from a comprehensive spectroscopic survey of the WINGS (WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey) clusters, a program called WINGS-SPE. The WINGS-SPE sample consists of 48 clusters, 22 of which are in the southern sky and 26 in the north. The main goals of this spectroscopic survey are: (1) to study the dynamics and kinematics of the WINGS clusters and their constituent galaxies, (2) to explore the link between the spectral properties and the morphological evolution in different density environments and across a wide range in cluster X-ray luminosities and optical properties. Methods. Using multi object fiber fed spectrographs, we observed our sample of WINGS cluster galaxies at an intermediate resolu- tion of 6-9 A and, using a cross-correlation technique, we measured redshifts with a mean accuracy of about 45 km/s. Results. We present redshift measurements for 6137 galaxies and their first analyses. Details of the spectroscopic observations are reported. The WINGS-SPE has about 30% overlap with previously published data sets, allowing us to do both a complete comparison with the literature and to extend the catalogs. Conclusions. Using our redshifts, we calculate the velocity dispersion for all the clusters in the WINGS-SPE sample. We almost trip- licate the number of member galaxies known in each cluster with respect to previous works. We also investigate the X-ray luminosity vs. velocity dispersion relation for our WINGS-SPE clusters, and find it to be consistent with the form Lx proportional to sigma^4.

A. Cava; D. Bettoni; B. M. Poggianti; W. J. Couch; M. Moles; J. Varela; A. Biviano; M. DOnofrio; A. Dressler; G. Fasano; J. Fritz; P. Kjaergaard; M. Ramella; T. Valentinuzzi

2008-12-10

79

PHARMACOLOGIC PROBING OF AMPHOTERICIN B-INDUCED RENAL DYSFUNCTION IN THE NEONATAL RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmacologic Probing of Amphotericin B-Induced Renal Dysfunction in the Neonatal Rat. Gray, J.A., and Kavlock, R.J. (1988). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 93, 360-368. Acetazolamide, furosemide, chlorothiazide, and amiloride pharmacologic agents that act primarily in the proximal tub...

80

Histamine is involved in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation of guinea pig skin.  

PubMed

We previously reported that histamine induced melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes and that the stimulatory effect was mediated by protein kinase A activation via H2 receptors. It is well-known that ultraviolet B irradiation causes acute inflammation, known as erythema, and subsequent pigmentation, and there are several reports demonstrating an elevation of the histamine levels in ultraviolet B-irradiated skin. Thus, to evaluate the involvement of histamine in ultraviolet B-induced skin pigmentation, we examined the effect of an H2 antagonist in brownish guinea pig skin. Daily exposure to 200 mJ per cm2 ultraviolet B for 3 d evoked erythema and subsequent pigmentation in the skin samples tested. Moreover, a remarkable increase in dopa-positive melanocytes was observed in the pigmented area, which showed an increase in melanin synthesis. Topical application of famotidine, an H2 antagonist, significantly reduced pigmentation and moderated the increase of dopa-positive melanocytes in the ultraviolet B-irradiated skin. Even when the initiation of famotidine application was delayed to day 2 after irradiation, an inhibitory activity on ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation was observed; however, the ultraviolet B-induced erythema was not suppressed by topically applied famotidine. Thus, we concluded that histamine is involved in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation and that famotidine suppressed the pigmentation by the prevention of histamine binding to H2 receptors in melanocytes but not by prevention of ultraviolet B permeability and inflammation. PMID:11841541

Yoshida, Masaki; Hirotsu, Sachiyo; Nakahara, Michio; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Tomita, Yasushi

2002-02-01

81

Release of SpeA from Streptococcus pyogenes after exposure to penicillin: dependency on dose and inhibition by clindamycin.  

PubMed

The amount and time course of SpeA release from group A streptococci (GAS) was studied at different starting inoculate after exposure to different doses of penicillin, clindamycin or a combination of the 2. The release was related to the bacterial concentration and killing rate. A clinical GAS strain was exposed to benzylpenicillin, 2 and 1000 x MIC, clindamycin, 2 and 32 x MIC, or combinations of the 2. Samples for viable counts and SpeA analyses were drawn before and after the addition of antibiotics and at 3, 6 and 24 h. The SpeA release was higher at low than at high concentrations of penicillin and the combination (both, p<0.05). The addition of clindamycin to penicillin reduced SpeA production at both concentrations (p<0.01). Most SpeA was released before 3 h, and for penicillin and the combination, the amount correlated to the number of killed bacteria during this period (r=0.50; p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between the inoculum size and the SpeA concentration at time zero (r=0.54; p<0.05). The SpeA concentration was dependent on the initial number of bacteria, the class of antibiotic, the dose of penicillin and the killing rate. PMID:17148065

Goscinski, Gunilla; Tano, Eva; Thulin, Pontus; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Sjölin, Jan

2006-01-01

82

Myocardial apoptosis and SIDS.  

PubMed

Apoptosis mediates cardiac damage in severe forms of myocarditis. In fatal myocarditis, large amounts of cardiomyocytes show apoptotic DNA fragmentation, while in human controls, few apoptotic cardiomyocytes are found. In the present study the frequency of apoptosis in 88 SIDS cases (category 1b according to the San Diego Classification) and 15 control cases was investigated. In every case myocardial samples from 8 standard locations were collected. Detection of apoptotic cardiomyocytes was performed by TUNEL method. Furthermore the myocardial tissue was stained with HE and immunohistochemical methods (LCA, CD68, CD45-R0). More than 90% of the slides did not contain apoptotic cardiomyocytes at all. The detection rate of apoptotic cardiomyocytes was almost equal in control group (26.7%) and SIDS group (23.86%). A quantification of apoptotic cardiomyocytes per mm(2) revealed no significant difference between both groups either. Altogether there is no evidence for a higher rate of apoptosis in SIDS. PMID:25460101

Grasmeyer, Sarah; Madea, Burkhard

2015-01-01

83

Spaceflight Associated Apoptosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lymphoid tissues have been shown to atrophy in rats flown on Russian spaceflights. Histological examination indicated evidence for cell degradation. Lymphoid tissues from rats flown on Spacelab Life Sciences-2 mission were analyzed for apoptosis by evidence of fragmented lymphocytes, which could be engulfed by macrophages, or DNA strand breaks using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Apoptosis was not detected in the thymus and spleen collected inflight or from the synchronous ground rats but was detected in the thymus, spleen and inguinal lymph node of the flight animals on recovery. These results indicate that the apoptosis observed in the lymphatic tissues of the rats on recovery could have been induced by the gravitational stress of reentry, corroborating the findings from the early space-flight observations.

Ichiki, Albert T.; Gibson, Linda A.; Allebban, Zuhair

1996-01-01

84

Nucleocytoplasmic transport in apoptosis.  

PubMed

The apoptotic demolition of the nucleus is accomplished by diverse proapoptotic factors, most of which are activated in the cytoplasm and gain access to the nucleoplasm during the cell death process. The nucleus is also the main target for genotoxic insult, a potent apoptotic trigger. Signals generated in the nucleus by DNA damage have to propagate to all cellular compartments to ensure the coordinated execution of cell demise. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of signalling and execution factors is thus an integral part of the apoptotic programme. Several proteins implicated in apoptotic cell death have been shown to migrate in and out of the nucleus following apoptosis induction. This review summarises the current knowledge on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of apoptosis-relevant proteins. The effects of apoptosis induction on the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery are also discussed. Finally, a potential role of nuclear transport as a critical control point of the apoptotic signal cascade is proposed. PMID:15861192

Ferrando-May, E

2005-10-01

85

SPE-HPTLC of procyanidins from the barks of different species and clones of Salix.  

PubMed

A SPE-HPTLC method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of procyanidin B(1) in willow barks. The chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel layer with the mobile phase chloroform-ethanol-formic acid (50:40:6 v/v/v), in the Automatic Developing Chamber-ADC 2. The methanol extracts from willow barks were purified by SPE method on RP-18 silica gel columns with methanol-water (7:93 v/v) as the eluent. The presence of procyanidin B(1) was revealed in the majority of investigated willow barks. The content of procyanidin B(1) varied from 0.26 mg/g in the extract of Salix purpurea clone 1067-2.24 mg/g in the extract of Salix alba clone 1100. The method was validated for linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and repeatability. PMID:18639405

Pob?ocka-Olech, Loretta; Krauze-Baranowska, Miros?awa

2008-11-01

86

Hindlimb suspension and SPE-like radiation impairs clearance of bacterial infections.  

PubMed

A major risk of extended space travel is the combined effects of weightlessness and radiation exposure on the immune system. In this study, we used the hindlimb suspension model of microgravity that includes the other space stressors, situational and confinement stress and alterations in food intake, and solar particle event (SPE)-like radiation to measure the combined effects on the ability to control bacterial infections. A massive increase in morbidity and decrease in the ability to control bacterial growth was observed using 2 different types of bacteria delivered by systemic and pulmonary routes in 3 different strains of mice. These data suggest that an astronaut exposed to a strong SPE during extended space travel is at increased risk for the development of infections that could potentially be severe and interfere with mission success and astronaut health. PMID:24454913

Li, Minghong; Holmes, Veronica; Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Sanzari, Jenine K; Kennedy, Ann R; Weissman, Drew

2014-01-01

87

Apoptosis of Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells. MM cells localize to the bone marrow, where cell adhesion–mediated autocrine or paracrine activation of various cytokines, such as interleukin 6, insulin-like growth factor 1, and interferon ?, results in their accumulation mainly because of loss of critical apoptotic controls. Resistance to apoptosis, a genetically regulated cell death process, may play a critical role in both pathogenesis and resistance to treatment of MM. Abnormalities in regulation and execution of apoptosis can contribute to tumor initiation, progression, as well as to tumor resistance to various therapeutic agents. Apoptosis is executed via 2 main pathways that lead to activation of caspases: the death receptor (extrinsic) pathway and the mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway. Ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents act primarily through the intrinsic pathway, in which mitochondria play the central role. Various therapeutic modalities that are effective in MM modulate levels of the proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and of inhibitors of apoptosis, expression of which is primarily regulated by p53, nuclear factor ?B, and STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) factors. This review focuses on the key concepts and some of the most recent studies of signaling pathways regulated in MM and summarizes what is known about the clinical role of these pathways. PMID:15540896

Oancea, Marcela; Mani, Aruna; Hussein, Mohamad A; Almasan, Alexandru

2005-01-01

88

Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Apoptosis is an inborn process that has been preserved during evolution; it allows the cells to systematically inactivate, destroy and dispose of their own components thus leading to their death. This programme can be activated by both intra and extracellular mechanisms. The intracellular components involve a genetically defined development programme while the extracellular aspects regard endogenous proteins, cytokines and hormones as well as xenobiotics, radiations, oxidative stress and hypoxia. The ability of a cell to enter apoptosis as a response to a “death" signal depends on its proliferative status, the position in the cell cycle and also on the controlled expression of those genes that have the capacity of promoting and inhibiting cell death. The fine regulation of these parameters needs to be maintained in order to ensure the physiological environment required for the induction of apoptosis. Any malfunction in any of the steps of controlled cellular death can lead to dysfunctions and, as a consequence, to different pathological conditions. The importance of apoptosis lies in its active nature and in the potential of controlling biological systems. PMID:25408720

Stoian, M; State, N; Stoica, V; Radulian, G

2014-01-01

89

Determination of DDT and Metabolites in Surface Water and Sediment Using LLE, SPE, ACE and SE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water and sediment samples collected from Jukskei River in South Africa, were subjected to different extraction techniques,\\u000a liquid–liquid (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), activated carbon extraction (ACE) and soxhlet extraction (SE) for sediment.\\u000a The samples were extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned in a silica gel column and the extracts quantified using a Varian\\u000a 3800 GC-ECD. The percentage recovery test for 2,4?DDT,

Linda L. Sibali; Jonathan O. Okonkwo; Caliphs Zvinowanda

2009-01-01

90

10B-induced 2n and 2p transfer reactions on light targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study is made of 100 MeV 10B-induced 2n and 2p transfer reactions on light targets of 12C, 14N, and 16O. These reactions are seen to selectively populate only a few states in the residual nuclei, showing them to be useful for studying states of particular structures. Known states with (p12d52)3- and (d52)24+ structures are strongly populated in the

M. Hamm; K. Nagatani

1978-01-01

91

SPE analysis of high efficiency PMTs for the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark matter Experiment using Argon Pulse-shape discrimination is a collaborative effort to develop a next-generation, tonne-scale dark matter detector at SNOLAB. The detector will feature a single-phase liquid argon (LAr) target surrounded by an array of 266 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A new high-efficiency Hamamatsu R877-100 PMT has been delivered to the University of Alberta for evaluation by the DEAP collaboration. The increase in efficiency could lead to a much greater light yield, but other experiments have reported a slower rise time [1],[2]. We have placed the PMT in a small dark box and had a base and preamplifier designed to be used with either an oscilloscope or a multi-channel analyzer. With this setup we have demonstrated the PMT's ability to distinguish single photo-electrons (SPE) and characterized the PMT by measuring the SPE pulse height spectrum, the peak-to-valley ratio, the dark pulse rate, the baseline, time resolution and SPE efficiency for varying the high voltage supplied to the PMT.

Olsen, Kevin; Hallin, Aksel; DEAP/CLEAN Collaboration

2011-09-01

92

Comparison of Radiation Transport Codes, HZETRN, HETC and FLUKA, Using the 1956 Webber SPE Spectrum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protection of astronauts and instrumentation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) in the harsh environment of space is of prime importance in the design of personal shielding, spacec raft, and mission planning. Early entry of radiation constraints into the design process enables optimal shielding strategies, but demands efficient and accurate tools that can be used by design engineers in every phase of an evolving space project. The radiation transport code , HZETRN, is an efficient tool for analyzing the shielding effectiveness of materials exposed to space radiation. In this paper, HZETRN is compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETC-HEDS and FLUKA, for a shield/target configuration comprised of a 20 g/sq cm Aluminum slab in front of a 30 g/cm^2 slab of water exposed to the February 1956 SPE, as mode led by the Webber spectrum. Neutron and proton fluence spectra, as well as dose and dose equivalent values, are compared at various depths in the water target. This study shows that there are many regions where HZETRN agrees with both HETC-HEDS and FLUKA for this shield/target configuration and the SPE environment. However, there are also regions where there are appreciable differences between the three computer c odes.

Heinbockel, John H.; Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Handler, Thomas; Gabriel, Tony A.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Reddell, Brandon; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Singleterry, Robert C.; Norbury, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2009-01-01

93

Possible involvement of a tetrahydrobiopterin in photoreception for UV-B-induced anthocyanin synthesis in carrot.  

PubMed

Our previous studies of action spectra for UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in cultured carrot cells indicated that a reduced form of pterin, possibly tetrahydrobiopterin, contributes to UV-B photoreception. In this report, we provide additional evidence for the involvement of pterin in UV-B light sensing. UV-B-induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was considerably suppressed by N-acetylserotonin (an inhibitor of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis), and this suppression was partially recovered by adding biopterin or tetrahydrobiobiopterin. In addition, protein(s) specifically bound to biopterin were detected by radiolabeling experiments in N-acetylserotonin-treated cells. Furthermore, diphenyleneiodonium, a potent inhibitor of electron transfer, completely suppressed UV-B-induced PAL activity. These results suggest the occurrence of an unidentified UV-B photoreceptor (other than UVR8, the tryptophan-based UV-B sensor originally identified in Arabidopsis) with reduced pterin in carrot cells. After reexamining published action spectra, we suggest that anthocyanin synthesis is coordinately regulated by these two UV-B sensors. PMID:24943195

Takeda, Junko; Nakata, Rieko; Ueno, Hiroshi; Murakami, Akio; Iseki, Mineo; Watanabe, Masakatsu

2014-01-01

94

Mitochondria and Apoptosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of key events in apoptosis focus on mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators (such as cytochrome c), changes in electron transport, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, altered cellular oxidation-reduction, and participation of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. The different signals that converge on mitochondria to trigger or inhibit these events and their downstream effects delineate several major pathways in physiological cell death.

Douglas Green (La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology;); John Reed (Burnham Institute;)

1998-08-28

95

SEPSIS, APOPTOSIS AND COMPLEMENT  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a prominent feature in human and experimental sepsis, especially as it involves the lymphoid system with resulting immunoparalysis. In addition, sepsis is associated with strong activation of the complement system, resulting in generation of the powerful anaphylatoxin, C5a, as well as the upregulation of the C5a receptor (C5aR) in a variety of different organs. The consequences of C5a interactions with C5aR can be directly linked to apoptosis of thymocytes and adrenal medullary cells after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) -induced sepsis in rodents, as well as with other accompanying complications of CLP: cardiac dysfunction, consumptive coagulopathy, organ dysfunction, and lethality. This communication reviews the evidence for the adverse roles of C5a and C5aR in the setting of experimental sepsis and linkages to the various complications of sepsis, especially apoptosis as well as the roles of the two C5a receptors (C5aR AND C5L2) in experimental sepsis. PMID:18848819

Ward, P. A.

2008-01-01

96

Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and protection against apoptosis in vivo by an HIV protease inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Inhibitors of HIV protease have been shown to have antiapoptotic effects in vitro, yet whether these effects are seen in vivo remains controversial. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of the HIV protease inhibitor (PI) nelfinavir, boosted with ritonavir, in models of nonviral disease associated with excessive apoptosis. In mice with Fas-induced fatal hepatitis, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B–induced shock, and middle cerebral artery occlusion–induced stroke, we demonstrate that PIs significantly reduce apoptosis and improve histology, function, and/or behavioral recovery in each of these models. Further, we demonstrate that both in vitro and in vivo, PIs block apoptosis through the preservation of mitochondrial integrity and that in vitro PIs act to prevent pore function of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) subunit of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex. PMID:15937550

Weaver, Joel G.R.; Tarze, Agathe; Moffat, Tia C.; LeBras, Morgane; Deniaud, Aurelien; Brenner, Catherine; Bren, Gary D.; Morin, Mario Y.; Phenix, Barbara N.; Dong, Li; Jiang, Susan X.; Sim, Valerie L.; Zurakowski, Bogdan; Lallier, Jessica; Hardin, Heather; Wettstein, Peter; van Heeswijk, Rolf P.G.; Douen, Andre; Kroemer, Romano T.; Hou, Sheng T.; Bennett, Steffany A.L.; Lynch, David H.; Kroemer, Guido; Badley, Andrew D.

2005-01-01

97

Role of Apoptosis in disease  

PubMed Central

Since the initial description of apoptosis, a number of different forms of cell death have been described. In this review we will focus on classic caspase-dependent apoptosis and its variations that contribute to diseases. Over fifty years of research have clarified molecular mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling as well and shown that alterations of these pathways lead to human diseases. Indeed both reduced and increased apoptosis can result in pathology. More recently these findings have led to the development of therapeutic approaches based on regulation of apoptosis, some of which are in clinical trials or have entered medical practice. PMID:22683550

Favaloro, B.; Allocati, N.; Graziano, V.; Di Ilio, C.; De Laurenzi, V.

2012-01-01

98

Diabetic myonecrosis in a patient with hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Diabetic myonecrosis-a rare complication of long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus-typically presents with acute-onset muscle pain, is self-limiting, and responds well to conservative management. We report a case of diabetic myonecrosis in a 33-year-old man with hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes who presented with abdominal distension and pain in the left thigh. Diabetic myonecrosis was diagnosed based on clinical presentation, radiological findings, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological investigations; he was successfully treated conservatively with insulin and analgesics. Diabetic myonecrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscle pain in patients with diabetes. PMID:25305801

Park, Su Min; Kim, You Jeong; Kim, Seung Man; Han, Na; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyoon; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kwon, Min Jeong; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Soon Hee; Park, Jeong Hyun; Rhee, Byung Doo; Kim, Bo Mi; Lee, Sun Joo

2015-02-01

99

Activation of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme-dependent apoptosis pathway by granzyme B.  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can induce apoptosis through a granzyme B-based killing mechanism. Here we show that in cells undergoing apoptosis by granzyme B, both p45 pro-interleukin 1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) and pro-CPP32 are processed. Using ICE deficient (ICE -/-) mice, embryonic fibroblasts exhibit high levels of resistance to apoptosis by granzyme B or granzyme 3, while B lymphoblasts are granzyme B-resistant, thus identifying an ICE-dependent apoptotic pathway that is activated by CTL granzymes. In contrast, an alternative ICE-independent pathway must also be activated as ICE -/- thymocytes remain susceptible to apoptosis by both granzymes. In ICE -/- B cells or HeLa cells transfected with mutant inactive ICE or Ich-1S that exhibit resistance to granzyme B, CPP32 is processed to p17 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is cleaved indicating that this protease although activated was not associated with an apoptotic nuclear phenotype. Using the peptide inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, apoptosis as well as p45 ICE hydrolysis are suppressed in HeLa cells, suggesting that a CPP32-like protease is upstream of ICE. In contrast, p34cdc2 kinase, which is required for granzyme B-induced apoptosis, remains inactive in ICE -/- B cells indicating it is downstream of ICE. We conclude that granzyme B activates an ICE-dependent cell death pathway in some cell types and requires a CPP32-like Ac-DEVD-CHO inhibitable protease acting upstream to initiate apoptosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8855298

Shi, L; Chen, G; MacDonald, G; Bergeron, L; Li, H; Miura, M; Rotello, R J; Miller, D K; Li, P; Seshadri, T; Yuan, J; Greenberg, A H

1996-01-01

100

Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for measurement of physical and mechanical properties. A video was also run in the source hole after it was cleaned out. A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the angle core hole between 5.7 and 7.5 m from the shot point. However, several of the fractures observed in the core hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. The fractures are characterized by a “fresh,” mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets; they are common starting at about 5.4 m from the shot point. Within about 3.3 m of the shot point to the end of the recovered core at 1.6 m from the shot point, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.

2012-12-01

101

Induction of hemeoxygenase-1 reduces glomerular injury and apoptosis in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Induction of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) lowers blood pressure and reduces organ damage in hypertensive animal models; however, a potential protective role for HO-1 induction against diabetic-induced glomerular injury remains unclear. We hypothesize that HO-1 induction will protect against diabetes-induced glomerular injury by maintaining glomerular integrity and inhibiting renal apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a model where the coexistence of hypertension and diabetes aggravates the progression of diabetic renal injury. Control and diabetic SHR were randomized to receive vehicle or the HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP). Glomerular albumin permeability was significantly greater in diabetic SHR compared with control, consistent with an increase in apoptosis and decreased glomerular nephrin and ?3?1-integrin protein expression in diabetic SHR. CoPP significantly reduced albumin permeability and apoptosis and restored nephrin and ?3?1-integrin protein expression levels in diabetic SHR. Glomerular injury in diabetic SHR was also associated with increases in NF-?B-induced inflammation and oxidative stress relative to vehicle-treated SHR, and CoPP significantly blunted diabetes-induced increases in glomerular inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic SHR. These effects were specific to exogenous stimulation of HO-1, since incubation with the HO inhibitor stannous mesoporphyrin alone did not alter glomerular inflammatory markers or oxidative stress yet was able to prevent CoPP-mediated decreases in these parameters. These data suggest that induction of HO-1 reduces diabetic induced-glomerular injury and apoptosis and these effects are associated with decreased NF-?B-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:22205229

Faulkner, Jessica; Baban, Babak; Saleh, Mohamed A.; Sullivan, Jennifer C.

2012-01-01

102

Epidermal growth factor induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancers, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidence suggests that EGF induced signal transduction pathways which govern cell proliferation and cell cycle progression also mediate antiproliferative effects leading to increased apoptosis in cells that express high levels of epidermal growth factor

K. B. Reddy

1996-01-01

103

Design and test status for life support applications of SPE oxygen generation systems. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced six-man rated oxygen generation system has been fabricated and tested as part of a NASA/JSC technology development program for a long lived, manned spacecraft life support system. Details of the design and tests results are presented. The system is based on the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis technology and its nominal operating conditions are 2760 kN/sq m (400 psia) and 355 K (180 F) with an electrolysis module current density capability up to 350 mA/sq cm (326 ASF). The system is centered on a 13-cell SPE water electrolysis module having a single cell active area of 214 sq cm (33 sq in) and it incorporates instrumentation and controls for single pushbutton automatic startup/shutdown, component fault detection and isolation, and self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. The system has been tested in both the orbital cyclic and continuous mode of operation. Various parametric tests have been completed to define the system capability for potential application in spacecraft environmental systems.

Titterington, W. A.; Erickson, A. C.

1975-01-01

104

Proteases, proteolysis, and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Proteolytic cleavage of a limited number of cellular proteins is a central biochemical feature of apoptosis. Aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, the so-called 'caspases', are the main enzymes involved in this process. At least ten homologues of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), the first described human caspase, have been identified so far. The purified active proteins are heterodimers with a long and a short subunit derived from a common inactive precursor. Crystallized ICE has an original tetrameric structure. The various caspases tend to show high degrees of homology around the active site Cys. Proteolysis by caspases minimally requires a tetrapeptide substrate in which Asp is an absolute requirement in P1 position, the P4 substrate residue is unique to each homologue, and much more widespread amino acid substitution is observed in P2 and P3. Caspase activation might involve a proteolytic cascade similar to that of the coagulation cascade but the molecular ordering of these proteases in vivo remains to be established clearly. Calpains, serine proteases, granzymes and the proteasome-ubiquitin pathway of protein degradation are other proteolytic pathways that have been suggested to play a role in apoptosis. Substrate proteins can be either activated or degraded during cell death and the consequences of their cleavage remains mostly ill-understood. Nevertheless, the recent demonstration that protease inhibitors can rescue mice undergoing acute liver destruction indicates the accuracy of therapeutic strategies aiming to inhibit cell death-associated proteolysis. PMID:9553723

Solary, E; Eymin, B; Droin, N; Haugg, M

1998-03-01

105

Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium  

PubMed Central

The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

White, Steven R.

2011-01-01

106

Clostridium difficile toxin B-induced necrosis is mediated by the host epithelial cell NADPH oxidase complex  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea and has increased in incidence and severity over the last decade. Pathogenesis is mediated by two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which cause fluid secretion, inflammation, and necrosis of the colonic mucosa. TcdB is a potent cytotoxin capable of inducing enzyme-independent necrosis in both cells and tissue. In this study, we show that TcdB-induced cell death depends on assembly of the host epithelial cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treating cells with siRNAs directed against key components of the NOX complex, chemical inhibitors of NOX function, or molecules that scavenge superoxide or ROS confers protection against toxin challenge. To test the hypothesis that chemical inhibition of TcdB-induced cytotoxicity can protect against TcdB-induced tissue damage, we treated colonic explants with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a flavoenzyme inhibitor, or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant. TcdB-induced ROS production in colonic tissue was inhibited with DPI, and both DPI and NAC conferred protection against TcdB-induced tissue damage. The efficacy of DPI and NAC provides proof of concept that chemical attenuation of ROS could serve as a viable strategy for protecting the colonic mucosa of patients with CDI. PMID:24167244

Farrow, Melissa A.; Chumbler, Nicole M.; Lapierre, Lynne A.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Rutherford, Stacey A.; Goldenring, James R.; Lacy, D. Borden

2013-01-01

107

Activity-dependent regulation of neuronal apoptosis in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

A massive neuronal loss during early postnatal development has been well documented in the murine cerebral cortex, but the factors that drive cells into apoptosis are largely unknown. The role of neuronal activity in developmental apoptosis was studied in organotypic neocortical slice cultures of newborn mice. Multielectrode array and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed spontaneous network activity characterized by synchronized burst discharges, which could be blocked by tetrodotoxin and ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. The identical neuropharmacological manipulations also caused a significant increase in the number of apoptotic neurons as early as 6 h after the start of drug treatment. Moreover, inhibition of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2A or NR2B induced a differential short-term versus delayed increase in the apoptosis rate, respectively. Activation of L-type, voltage-dependent calcium channels was neuroprotective and could prevent activity-dependent apoptosis during NMDA receptor blockade. Furthermore, this effect involved phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein and activation of the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors. Inhibition of electrical synapses and blockade of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors induced specific changes in spontaneous electrical activity patterns, which caused an increase in caspase-3-dependent cell death. Our results demonstrate that synchronized spontaneous network bursts activating ionotropic glutamate receptors promote neuronal survival in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex. PMID:17965127

Heck, Nicolas; Golbs, Antje; Riedemann, Therese; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Lessmann, Volkmar; Luhmann, Heiko J

2008-06-01

108

Exercise-induced leukocyte apoptosis.  

PubMed

Physical exercise is well known to affect leukocyte numbers and function. While regular exercise training has been shown to enhance specific immune functions, acute bouts of intensive exercise often lead to a pro-inflammatory response accompanied by a transient lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia. It can be assumed, that lymphocytopenia can be attributed at least partially to an enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis. In contrast, regulation of neutrophil apoptosis after exercise remains controversial since studies demonstrated both an up-regulation as well as a down-regulation of cell death. However, these discrepancies may be due to differences in exercise protocols, subjects' fitness levels, and to different methodological approaches. Two major signalling pathways of exercise induced apoptosis have been identified. First the external receptor mediated pathway using death receptors, and second the internal, oxidative-mediated pathway which encompasses the mitochondria. Potential apoptosis modulating mediators are reactive oxygen species (ROS), glucocorticoids and cytokines which are part of the systemic inflammatory response evoked after acute intensive exercise. Finally, the physiological impact and clinical relevance of leukocyte apoptosis will be discussed. On the one hand, exercise-induced apoptosis might be a mechanism to remove activated and potentially autoreactive immune cells. On the other hand, apoptosis might be a regulatory mechanism which is necessary for tissue reorganization and adaptational training processes. PMID:24974724

Krüger, Karsten; Mooren, Frank C

2014-01-01

109

Primary Laryngeal Cancer-derived miR-193b Induces Interleukin-10-expression Monocytes.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer (LC) is unclear. Published data indicate that micro RNAs (miRNA) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. This study aims to elucidate the role of miR-193b in the tumor tolerance of LC. High levels of miR-193b were detected in LC cells as well as in the culture supernatant. Interleukin (IL)-10-expressing Mos were detected in the LC tissue-derived single cells. Treating naïve Mos with a miR-193b induced expression of IL-10 in the Mos. Culturing the IL-10(+) Mos with effector CD8(+) T cells resulted in the suppression of CD8(+) T-cell activities. PMID:25517434

Zhang, Sen; Guo, Yuntong; Zhang, Chunming; Gao, Wei; Wen, Shuxin; Huangfu, Hui; Wang, Binquan

2015-03-01

110

A Naturally Occurring Mutation in ropB Suppresses SpeB Expression and Reduces M1T1 Group A Streptococcal Systemic Virulence  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies of group A streptococcus (GAS) have noted an inverse relationship between SpeB expression and invasive disease. However, the role of SpeB in the course of infection is still unclear. In this study we utilize a SpeB-negative M1T1 clinical isolate, 5628, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the regulator RopB, to elucidate the role of RopB and SpeB in systemic virulence. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to replace the mutated ropB allele in 5628 with the intact allele from the well characterized isolate 5448. The inverse allelic exchange was also performed to replace the intact ropB in 5448 with the mutated allele from 5628. An intact ropB was found to be essential for SpeB expression. While the ropB mutation was shown to have no effect on hemolysis of RBC's, extracellular DNase activity or survival in the presence of neutrophils, strains with the mutated ropB allele were less virulent in murine systemic models of infection. An isogenic SpeB knockout strain containing an intact RopB showed similarly reduced virulence. Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS. PMID:19116661

Hollands, Andrew; Aziz, Ramy K.; Kansal, Rita; Kotb, Malak; Nizet, Victor; Walker, Mark J.

2008-01-01

111

Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published

A J Rodgers; J Wagoner; N A Petersson; B Sjogreen

2010-01-01

112

Keratinocyte Apoptosis in Epidermal Development and Disease  

PubMed Central

Keratinocyte (KC) apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating epidermal development and restraining carcinogenesis. Apoptosis balances proliferation to maintain epidermal thickness, contributes to stratum corneum formation and may eliminate pre-malignant cells. Apart from the normal developmental program, KC apoptosis can be triggered by UV light and other stimuli. Dysfunctional apoptosis occurs in some skin diseases, such as psoriasis and skin cancer. Here we review the current state of knowledge of KC apoptosis, with particular focus on apoptotic signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms of apoptosis control, and discuss new insights into the complex role of apoptosis in skin carcinogenesis that are emerging from mouse models. PMID:16418733

Raj, Deepak; Brash, Douglas E.; Grossman, Douglas

2008-01-01

113

Asteroid 21 Lutetia at 3-4m: Observations with IRTF SpeX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of asteroid 21 Lutetia collected 2003-2008 using the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) covering 2-4 ?m. We also reevaluate NSFCam observations obtained in 1996 [1]. Taken together, these show deeper 3-?m band depths (˜3-5%) in the southern hemisphere of Lutetia, and shallower band depths (? 2%) in the north. Such variation is consistent with observations at shorter wavelength by previous workers [2,3], who observed hemisphericlevel variations from C-like spectra to X-like spectra. It is also consistent with Rosetta's reported nondetection of an OH band in Lutetia's northern hemisphere [4]. While the shallowness of absorption bands on Lutetia hinders identification of its surface composition, goethite appears plausible as a constituent in its southern hemisphere [5].

Rivkin, A. S.; Clark, B. E.; Ockert-Bell, M. E.; Shepard, M. K.; Volquardsen, E. L.; Howell, E. S.; Bus, S. J.

2011-10-01

114

The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS): An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface accelerometers, infrasound, and a suite of seismic sensors of various frequency bands from the near field to the far field. This allows for the use of a single test bed in the simple geology case instead of multiple tests beds to obtain the same results. The shots are planned at various depths to obtain a Green's function, scaled-depth of burial data, nominal depth of burial data and damage zone data. SPE1 was conducted in May 2011 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 180 ft (55 m). SPE2 was conducted in October 2011 as a 2200 lb (1000 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 150 ft (46 m). SPE3 was conducted in July 2012 as a 2200 lb (1000 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 150 ft (46 m) in the damaged zone. Over 400 data channels were recorded for each of these shots and data recovery was about 95% with high signal to noise ratio. Once the simple geology site data has been utilized, a new test bed will be developed in a complex geology site to test these physics based models. Ultimately, the results from this project will provide the next advances in the science of monitoring to enable a physics-based predicative capability. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25946--1584

Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.; Barker, D.; Lee, P.

2012-12-01

115

Optimization of an SPE and GC/MS Method for Analyzing Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are compounds that interrupt hormonal functions in the body. The literature reports the presence of EDCs in all environmental matrices (air, water and soil) at concentrations of at least 1 nanogram/liter (ng/l), which may be high enough to induce adverse health effects. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for detecting trace amounts of EDCs in water is very important for investigating and controlling their concentrations in the environment. This study investigated a method for analyzing four known or suspected EDCs (chlorpyrifos, musk HHCB, diethyl phthalate, and butylated hydroxyanisole) in water samples. The analytical method was based on the USGS wastewater method developed by Zaugg et al. (2001), but modified, using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The EDCs were extracted using 60mg Water Oasis hydrophilic-lipophillic balance (HLB) extraction cartridges. The SPE efficiency was investigated by using different initial extraction volumes and different EDC concentrations. The lowest concentration was 1ng/l and the lowest extraction volume was 100mL. Results of the study indicate that the initial oven temperature conditions and rate of temperature increases affects the peak signal to noise ratio and the sample run-time in the GC/MS. An increase in gas flow rate did not show any significant changes and hence was maintained at 1ml/min. Preliminary data suggests that the percent recovery of the compounds obtained using this method either met or exceeded those presented by Zaugg et al. (2001) as the USGS wastewater method.

Thomas, S. M.; Bodour, A.; Murray, K. E.

2006-12-01

116

Application of Nanofiber-packed SPE for Determination of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene Level Using HPLC  

PubMed Central

It is always desirable to achieve maximum sample clean-up, extraction, and pre-concentration with the minimum possible organic solvent. The miniaturization of sample preparation devices was successfully demonstrated by packing 10 mg of 11 electrospun polymer nanofibers into pipette tip micro column and mini disc cartridges for efficient pre-concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine samples. 1-hydroxypyrene is an extensively studied biomarker of the largest class of chemical carcinogens. Excretory 1-hydroxypyrene was monitored with HPLC/fluorescence detector. Important parameters influencing the percentage recovery such as fiber diameter, fiber packing amount, eluent, fiber packing format, eluent volume, surface area, porosity, and breakthrough parameters were thoroughly studied and optimized. Under optimized condition, there was a near perfect linearity of response in the range of 1–1000 ?g/L with a coefficient of determination (r2) between 0.9992 and 0.9999 and precision (% RSD) ?7.64% (n = 6) for all the analysis (10, 25, and 50 ?g/L). The Limit of detection (LOD) was between 0.022 and 0.15 ?g/L. When compared to the batch studies, both disc packed nanofiber sorbents and pipette tip packed sorbents exhibited evident dominance based on their efficiencies. The experimental results showed comparable absolute recoveries for the mini disc packed fibers (84% for Nylon 6) and micro columns (80% for Nylon 6), although the disc displayed slightly higher recoveries possibly due to the exposure of the analyte to a larger reacting surface. The results also showed highly comparative extraction efficiencies between the nanofibers and conventional C-18 SPE sorbent. Nevertheless, miniaturized SPE devices simplified sample preparation, reducing back pressure, time of the analysis with acceptable reliability, selectivity, detection levels, and environmental friendliness, hence promoting green chemistry. PMID:24812483

Ifegwu, Okechukwu Clinton; Anyakora, Chimezie; Chigome, Samuel; Torto, Nelson

2014-01-01

117

Observations of 103P/Hartley 2 During the EPOXI Flyby Using SpeX at the NASA IRTF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports results from a 2-4 ?m spectral study of 103P/Hartley 2 using SpeX at the NASA IRTF. Such moderate-resolution spectra provide fundamental information on gases in cometary comae that complements high-resolution studies.

Vervack, R. J.; Dello Russo, N.; Weaver, H. A.; Lisse, C. M.; Kawakita, H.; Kobayashi, H.; DiSanti, M. A.

2012-05-01

118

HybridSPE: A novel technique to reduce phospholipid-based matrix effect in LC–ESI-MS Bioanalysis  

PubMed Central

When complex biological materials are analyzed without an adequate sample preparation technique, MS signal and response undergo significant alteration and result in poor quantification and assay. This problem generally takes place due to the presence of several endogenous materials component in samples. One of the major causes of ion suppression in bioanalysis is the presence of phospholipids during LC-MS analysis. The phospholipid-based matrix effect was investigated with a commercially available electro spray ionization (ESI) source coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. HybridSPE dramatically reduced the levels of residual phospholipids in biological samples, leading to significant reduction in matrix effects. This new procedure that combines the simplicity of precipitation with the selectivity of SPE allows obtaining much cleaner extracts than with conventional procedures. HybridSPE-precipitation procedure provides significant improvement in bioanalysis and a practical and fast way to ensure the avoidance of phospholipids-based matrix effects. The present review outlines the HybridSPE technique to minimize phospholipids-based matrix effects on LC–ESI-MS bioanalysis. PMID:23248558

Ahmad, Shafeeque; Kalra, Harsh; Gupta, Amit; Raut, Bharat; Hussain, Arshad; Rahman, Md. Akhlaquer

2012-01-01

119

Quantitative analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans sperm motility and how it is affected by mutants spe11 and unc54.  

PubMed

The sperm of Caenorhabditis elegans translocate in a fashion similar to sperm of Ascaris suum even though their pseudopods are longer, more plastic in shape, and form multiple expansions zones around their perimeter. Mutants in spe-11 form primary spermatocytes with a defective perinuclear region, but the resulting spermatozoa can still crawl and fertilize eggs. However, the resultant zygotes die due to the absence of sperm-supplied spe-11. Computer-assisted analysis of translocating spe-11 sperm reveals a novel defect in the dynamic morphology of their pseudopods. A similar analysis of the C. elegans mutant unc-54, which lacks the most abundant isoform of myosin II, reveals no defect in sperm motility, as expected, since C. elegans sperm have substituted the protein MSP for actin in the process of pseudopod expansion. These results reveal an unexpected defect in the dynamic morphology of pseudopods of spe-11 sperm. This defect, however, does not significantly affect crawling velocity, and it demonstrates how computer-assisted motion analysis systems can reveal subtle behavioral phenotypes in C. elegans mutant spermatozoa. PMID:9186007

Royal, D C; Royal, M A; Wessels, D; L'Hernault, S; Soll, D R

1997-01-01

120

SMT and SPE Machine Translation Systems for WMT'09 Holger Schwenk and Sadaf Abdul-Rauf and Loic Barrault  

E-print Network

SMT and SPE Machine Translation Systems for WMT'09 Holger Schwenk and Sadaf Abdul-Rauf and Lo This paper describes the development of several machine translation systems for the 2009 WMT shared task evaluation. We only consider the translation between French and English. We describe a sta- tistical system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

Near-Infrared Spectral Monitoring of Triton with IRTF/SpeX II: Spatial Distribution and Evolution of Ices  

E-print Network

Near-Infrared Spectral Monitoring of Triton with IRTF/SpeX II: Spatial Distribution and Evolution and evolution of Triton's ices Manuscript pages: 51 Figures: 11 Tables: 5 #12;­ 2 ­ ABSTRACT This report arises from an ongoing program to monitor Neptune's largest moon Triton spectroscopically in the 0.8 to 2.4 µm

Young, Leslie A.

122

Tetracyclines induce apoptosis in osteoclasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are thought to inhibit bone resorption through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases. Here we report that some tetracyclines also induce apoptosis in rabbit osteoclasts and inhibit differentiation and activity of osteoclasts in murine osteoblast\\/marrow cocultures. Apoptosis of mature rabbit osteoclasts increased from 5.5 ± 1.4% (mean ± SD) in control cultures to 44.9 ± 6.3% (p <

J. T Bettany; N. M Peet; R. G Wolowacz; T. M Skerry; P. S Grabowski

2000-01-01

123

T lymphocyte apoptosis in asthma  

PubMed Central

The paper describes the possible role of apoptosis of T lymphocytes in asthma pathogenesis. The authors focused on resistance against Fas-mediated programed cell death and the role of Bcl-2 protein in impaired programed cell death process. The reports from the literature regarding the imbalance of Th1 and Th2, caused by impaired apoptosis of T cells, in asthma pathogenesis are reviewed. PMID:20156755

2009-01-01

124

Apoptosis and acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Improved mechanistic understanding of renal cell death in acute kidney injury (AKI) has generated new therapeutic targets. Clearly, the classic lesion of acute tubular necrosis is not adequate to describe the consequences of renal ischemia, nephrotoxin exposure, or sepsis on glomerular filtration rate. Experimental evidence supports a pathogenic role for apoptosis in AKI. Interestingly, proximal tubule epithelial cells are highly susceptible to apoptosis, and injury at this site contributes to organ failure. During apoptosis, well-orchestrated events converge at the mitochondrion, the organelle that integrates life and death signals generated by the BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) protein family. Death requires the 'perfect storm' for outer mitochondrial membrane injury to release its cellular 'executioners'. The complexity of this process affords new targets for effective interventions, both before and after renal insults. Inhibiting apoptosis appears to be critical, because circulating factors released by the injured kidney induce apoptosis and inflammation in distant organs including the heart, lung, liver, and brain, potentially contributing to the high morbidity and mortality associated with AKI. Manipulation of known stress kinases upstream of mitochondrial injury, induction of endogenous, anti-apoptotic proteins, and improved understanding of the timing and consequences of renal cell apoptosis will inevitably improve the outcome of human AKI. PMID:21562469

Havasi, Andrea; Borkan, Steven C

2011-07-01

125

Carmustine induces platelet apoptosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Carmustine is one of the alkylating chemotherapeutic agents, which are used to treat various types of cancers, such as brain tumors, Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and multiple myeloma. However, carmustine has the side effect of thrombocytopenia, and the mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, we show that carmustine dose-dependently induced depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (??m), up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 activation. Carmustine did not induce surface expression of P-selectin or PAC-1 binding, whereas, obviously reduced collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Dicumarol, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-specific inhibitor, reduced carmustine-induced ??m depolarization in platelets. The numbers of circulating platelets were reduced, and the tail bleeding time was significantly increased in mice that were injected with carmustine. Taken together, these data indicate that carmustine induced platelet apoptosis, suggesting the possible pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in patients treated with carmustine. PMID:24955606

Zhang, Jie; Chen, Mengxing; Zhang, Yiwen; Zhao, Lili; Yan, Rong; Dai, Kesheng

2014-06-23

126

Detection of apoptosis-specific autoantibodies directed against granzyme B-induced cleavage fragments of the SSB (La) autoantigen in sera from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of this study was to detect autoantibodies against granzyme B cleavage products in sera from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Cell lysates derived from human salivary gland (HSG) cell lines were incubated with granzyme B. The susceptibility to the generation of cleavage fragments of SS autoantigens was assayed by immunoblotting using sera from 57 primary SS

M. Huang; H. Ida; M. Kamachi; N. Iwanaga; Y. Izumi; F. Tanaka; K. Aratake; K. Arima; M. Tamai; A. Hida; H. Nakamura; T. Origuchi; A. Kawakami; N. Ogawa; S. Sugai; P. J. Utz; K. Eguchi

127

Bovine lactoferricin causes apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells by sequential permeabilization of the cell membrane and targeting of mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that kills Jurkat T-leukemia cells by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, the process by which LfcinB triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is not well understood. Here, we show that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells was preceded by LfcinB binding to, and progressive permeabilization of the cell membrane. Colloidal gold electron microscopy revealed that LfcinB entered the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells prior to the onset of mitochondrial depolarization. LfcinB was not internalized by endocytosis because endocytosis inhibitors did not prevent LfcinB-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, intracellular delivery of LfcinB via fusogenic liposomes caused the death of Jurkat T-leukemia cells, as well as normal human fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings suggest that LfcinB caused damage to the cell membrane that allowed LfcinB to enter the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells and mediate cytotoxicity. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that intracellular LfcinB co-localized with mitochondria in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, while flow cytometry and colloidal gold electron microscopy showed that LfcinB rapidly associated with purified mitochondria. Furthermore, purified mitochondria treated with LfcinB rapidly lost transmembrane potential and released cytochrome c. We conclude that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells resulted from cell membrane damage and the subsequent disruption of mitochondrial membranes by internalized LfcinB.

Mader, Jamie S. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Angela [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Salsman, Jayme [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Top, Deniz [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Antueno, Roberto de [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Duncan, Roy [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Hoskin, David W. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada) and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada)]. E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca

2007-07-15

128

Ram ion scattering caused by Space Shuttle v x B induced differential charging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of secondary, high-inclination ions streams have been reported in the literature. The authors of these previous papers attributed the source of the secondary ions to a disturbed region in the plasma about 10 m from the Space Shuttle Orbiter. A new theory has been developed which shows how v x B induced differential charging on the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) can scatter the ram ion flux. Some of these ions are reflected back to the PDP and may be the sorce of the observed ion distributions. The effect is unique to large spacecraft; it occurs only when the magnitude of the induced v x B potentials are much larger than the electron thermal energy and of the order of the ion ram energy. That the ion streams observed at large angles must have been reflected from the PDP surface is demonstrated with three-dimensional sheath and particle trajectory calculations using the low earth orbit version of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP/LEO).

Katz, I.; Davis, V. A.

1987-01-01

129

[Estrogens determination of livestock dung based on UE-SPE-HPLC/FLD].  

PubMed

A method for detecting the estrogens estriol, 17beta-estradiol, ethinyl estradiol, and bisphenol A in livestock dung was established by the combination of ultrasonic extraction (UE), solid phase extraction (SPE) purification, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector (FLD). The dung samples were extracted with ethyl acetate ultrasonication for 30 min, and purified with C18 solid phase extraction column and related solvents. The test four estrogens in the dung samples were isolated with Inertsil ODS-SP-C18 reversed-phase columns (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), and the isolated estrogens were detected with HPLC/FLD. The mobile phase of HPLC for the detection was methanol/acetonitrile/water (volume ratio of 20:30:50), with a flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1). The excitation and emission wavelengths of FLD were 280 and 310 nm, respectively, the HPLC column temperature was 40 degrees C, and the injection volume was 20 microL. Good linearity (correlation coefficient greater than 0.9995) was observed by the HPLC/FLD detection when the test four estrogens concentrations were in the range of 1.00-1000.00 microg x L(-1). The detection limit of estriol, bisphenol A, 17beta-estradiol, and ethinyl estradiol was 3.35, 5.01, 2.13, and 1.12 microg x kg(-1), respectively. When the added estrogens concentrations of pig, cow, and chicken dung samples were 0.05, 0.40, and, 1.00 microg x kg(-1), the average recovery of the four estrogens was 75.1%-91.1%, 78.4%-117.0%, and 78.6%-97.8%, respectively, with the relatively standard deviations (RSD, n = 6) all less than 6%. By adopting the established SPE-HPLC/FLD method to detect the estrogens in real pig, cow, and chicken dung samples from parts of the large-scale livestock raising farms in Nanjing of East China, the detection reproducibility was high, and the detection limit was low, being available and effective for the detection of the estrogens in livestock dung. PMID:24564161

Fu, Yin-Jie; Ling, Wan-Ting; Dong, Chang-Xun; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yan-Zheng; Pan, Yu-Lan

2013-11-01

130

Molecular mechanisms of hepatic apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is a prominent feature of liver diseases. Causative factors such as alcohol, viruses, toxic bile acids, fatty acids, drugs, and immune response, can induce apoptotic cell death via membrane receptors and intracellular stress. Apoptotic signaling network, including membrane death receptor-mediated cascade, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lysosomal permeabilization, and mitochondrial dysfunction, is intermixed each other, but one mechanism may dominate at a particular stage. Mechanisms of hepatic apoptosis are complicated by multiple signaling pathways. The progression of liver disease is affected by the balance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic capabilities. Therapeutic options of liver injury are impacted by the clear understanding toward mechanisms of hepatic apoptosis. PMID:24434519

Wang, K

2014-01-01

131

Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site  

SciTech Connect

The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

Townsend, Margaret [NSTec] [NSTec; Mercadente, Jennifer [NSTec] [NSTec

2014-04-28

132

Molecularly imprinted microspheres as SPE sorbent for selective extraction of four Sudan dyes in catsup products.  

PubMed

A highly selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ultraviolet-visible detection was developed for the simultaneous isolation and determination of four Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) in catsup products. The novel molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIM) were synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization using phenylamine and naphthol as template, which showed high affinity to Sudan dyes in aqueous solution. In order to develop a selective extraction protocol for simultaneous determination the four Sudan dyes from catsup products, the molecular recognition properties of MIM as a SPE sorbent were evaluated. Under the optimized condition, good linearity was obtained from 0.01 to 2.5 ?g g(-1) (r(2)? 0.9990) with the relative standard deviations of less than 3.4%. This proposed MISPE-HPLC procedure eliminated the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis and could be applied to direct determination of four Sudan dyes in complicated food samples. PMID:21900053

Qiao, Fengxia; Geng, Yuru; He, Changqing; Wu, Yupei; Pan, Pengyu

2011-10-01

133

ACME encoded speG abrogates the unique hypersensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to exogenous polyamines  

PubMed Central

Polyamines, including spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd), are aliphatic cations that are reportedly synthesized by all living organisms. They exert pleiotropic effects on cells and are required for efficient nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Here, we report that the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus lacks identifiable polyamine biosynthetic genes, and consequently produces no Spm/Spd or their precursor compounds putrescine and agmatine. Moreover, while supplementing defined medium with polyamines generally enhances bacterial growth, Spm and Spd exert bactericidal effects on S. aureus at physiologic concentrations. Small colony variants specifically lacking menaquinone biosynthesis arose after prolonged Spm exposure and exhibited reduced polyamine-sensitivity. However, other respiratory-defective mutants were no less susceptible to Spm implying menaquinone itself rather than general respiration is required for full Spm-toxicity. Polyamine hypersensitivity distinguishes S. aureus from other bacteria and is exhibited by all tested strains save those belonging to the USA-300 group of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We identified one gene within the USA-300-specific Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) encoding a Spm/Spd N-acetyltransferase that is necessary and sufficient for polyamine resistance. S. aureus encounters significant polyamine levels during infection, however the acquisition of ACME encoded speG allows USA-300 clones to circumvent polyamine-hypersensitivity, a peculiar trait of S. aureus. PMID:21902734

Joshi, Gauri S.; Spontak, Jeffrey S.; Klapper, David G.; Richardson, Anthony R.

2011-01-01

134

Development of methodology for determination of pesticides residue in water by SPE/HPLC/DAD.  

PubMed

To boost crop yield, sugarcane growers are using increasing amounts of pesticides to combat insects and weeds. But residues of these compounds can pollute water resources, such as lakes, rivers and aquifers. The present paper reports the results of a study of water samples from the Feijão River, which is the source of drinking water for the city of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. The samples were evaluated for the presence of four leading pesticides--ametryn, atrazine, diuron and fipronil--used on sugarcane, the dominant culture in the region. The samples were obtained from three points along the river: the headwaters, along the middle course of the river and just before the municipal water intake station. The pesticides were extracted from the water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then analyzed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD). The analytical method was validated by traditional methods, obtaining recovery values between 90 and 95%, with precision deviations inferior to 2.56%, correlation coefficients above 0.99 and detection and quantification limits varying from 0.02 to 0.05 mg L(-1) and 0.07 to 0.17 mg L(-1), respectively. No presence of residues of the pesticides was detected in the samples, considering the detection limits of the method employed. PMID:23393971

Cappelini, Luciana Teresa Dias; Cordeiro, Daniela; Brondi, Silvia Helena Govoni; Prieto, Kátia Roberta; Vieira, Eny Maria

2012-01-01

135

SPE speciation of inorganic arsenic in rice followed by hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric quantification.  

PubMed

Due to high toxicity, inorganic arsenic (iAs) species are the focus of monitoring effort worldwide. In this work arsenic was first extracted from rice by microwave-assisted digestion in HNO3-H2O2, during which As(III) was oxidized to As(V). Silica-based strong anion exchange cartridges were used to separate As(V) from organic forms. After prereduction by iodide, iAs was quantified by hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). This method achieved 1.3 ng g(-1) limit of detection (LOD), and 94 ± 3% and 93 ± 5% recoveries, respectively, for As(III) and As(V) at 100 ng g(-1). Validation was performed using standard reference material NIST 1568a (102 ng g(-1)) and ERM BC211 (124 ng g(-1)) rice flour. By eliminating chromatography, SPE speciation gained throughput and cost advantages. HG-AFS, at 10% budget and operation cost of a typical inductively-couple plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), proved highly sensitive and specific for iAs quantification. PMID:24401405

Chen, Guoying; Chen, Tuanwei

2014-02-01

136

CORRTEX Diagnostic Deployment for the SPE-III experiment, 24 July 2012: Fielding Report and Preliminary Data Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs Time Experiments (CORRTEX) diagnostic system was deployed for the third explosives test in the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) sequence to monitor and verify several conditions of the experiment including the detonation velocity of the explosive package and functioning of explosive initiators. Six distance-marked coaxial cables were installed on the SPE-III explosives canister, and key locations documented through along-cable length measurements and photography. CORRTEX uses electrical-pulse time-domain reflectometry to continuously record the two-way transit time (TWTT) of the cables. As the shock front of the detonation advances, the coaxial cable is shorted or destroyed, and the resulting TWTT also decreases. Interpretation of these changes as a function of TWTT can be converted to positional measurements using known parameters of the cables.

Sandoval, Thomas D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-29

137

Organopalladium compound 7b targets mitochondrial thiols and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

The advances in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during the last years were also accompanied by the development of evading strategies by tumor cells, resulting in chemotherapy resistance in some patients. Patented organopalladium compounds derived from the reaction of N,N-dimethyl-1-phenethylamine (dmpa) with [1,2-ethanebis(diphenylphosphine)] (dppe) exhibited a potent antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro in melanoma cells. We showed here that the cyclopalladated derivative [Pd2(R(+))C2, N-dmpa)2(?-dppe)Cl2], named compound 7b, was highly effective to promote cell death in the K562 human leukemia cells and its mechanisms of action were investigated. It was shown that compound 7b was able to promote exclusively apoptotic cell death in K562 cells associated to cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation. This cytotoxic effect was not observed in normal peripheral mononuclear blood cells. The compound 7b-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway was triggered by the protein thiol oxidation that resulted in the dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The preventive effect of the dithiothreitol on the compound 7b-induced cell death and all downstream events associated to apoptosis confirmed that death signal was elicited by the thiol oxidation. These findings contribute to the elucidation of the palladacycle 7b-induced cell death mechanism and present this compound as a promising drug in the CML antitumor chemotherapy. PMID:23744358

Moraes, V W R; Caires, A C F; Paredes-Gamero, E J; Rodrigues, T

2013-01-01

138

COMPARISON OF SPE\\/HPLC-DAD AND SPME\\/GC-MS METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN GRAPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method is described for determining nine fungicide residues in grapes, using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). The proposed method is compared with another one based on methanol extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). SPME experimental conditions were validated using spiked samples of different

139

UV-B–Induced DNA Damage and Repair in the Mouse Lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Epidemiologic studies have linked UV-B exposure to development of cortical cataracts, but the underlying molecular mechanism(s) is unresolved. Here, we used a mouse model to examine the nature and distribution of DNA photolesions produced by ocular UV-B irradiation. Methods. Anesthetized mice, eye globes, or isolated lenses were exposed to UV-B. Antibodies specific for 6-4 photoproducts (6-4 PPs) or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were used to visualize DNA adducts. Results. Illumination of intact globes with UV-B–induced 6-4 PP and CPD formation in cells of the cornea, anterior iris, and central lens epithelium. Photolesions were not detected in retina or lens cells situated in the shadow of the iris. Photolesions in lens epithelial cells were produced with radiant exposures significantly below the minimal erythemal dose. Lens epithelial cells rapidly repaired 6-4 PPs, but CPD levels did not markedly diminish, even over extended postirradiation recovery periods in vitro or in vivo. The repair of 6-4 PPs did not depend on the proliferative activity of the epithelial cells, since the repair rate in the mitotically-active germinative zone (GZ) was indistinguishable from that of quiescent cells in the central epithelium. Conclusions. Even relatively modest exposures to UV-B produced 6-4 PP and CPD photolesions in lens epithelial cells. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesions were particularly prevalent and were repaired slowly if at all. Studies on sun-exposed skin have established a causal connection between photolesions and so-called UV-signature mutations. If similar mechanisms apply in the lens, it suggests that somatic mutations in lens epithelial cells may contribute to the development of cortical cataracts. PMID:24022010

Mesa, Rosana; Bassnett, Steven

2013-01-01

140

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Protects against Amphotericin B Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rat Model  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to investigate whether caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis extract, has a protective effect on amphotericin B induced nephrotoxicity in rat models. Male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: (I) control group (n = 10), (II) CAPE group (n = 9) which received 10??mol/kg CAPE intraperitoneally (i.p.), (III) amphotericin B group (n = 7) which received one dose of 50?mg/kg amphotericin B, and (IV) amphotericin B plus CAPE group (n = 7) which received 10??mol/kg CAPE i.p. and one dose of 50?mg/kg amphotericin B. The left kidney was evaluated histopathologically for nephrotoxicity. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in the right kidney. Histopathological damage was prominent in the amphotericin B group compared to controls, and the severity of damage was lowered by CAPE administration. The activity of SOD, MDA, and NO levels increased and catalase activity decreased in the amphotericin B group compared to the control group (P = 0.0001, P = 0.003, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0001, resp.). Amphotericin B plus CAPE treatment caused a significant decrease in MDA, NO levels, and SOD activity (P = 0.04, P = 0.02, and P = 0.0001, resp.) and caused an increase in CAT activity compared with amphotericin B treatment alone (P = 0.005). CAPE treatment seems to be an effective adjuvant agent for the prevention of amphotericin B nephrotoxicity in rat models. PMID:25032223

Altunta?, Atila; Y?lmaz, H. Ramazan; Altunta?, Ay?egül; Uz, Efkan; Demir, Murat; Gökçimen, Alparslan; Aksu, O?uzhan; Bayram, Dilek ?enol; Sezer, Mehmet Tu?rul

2014-01-01

141

Excess NF-?B Induces Ectopic Odontogenesis in Embryonic Incisor Epithelium.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-?B signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-?B signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKK?, an essential component of the NF-?B pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikk?). K5-Ikk? mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikk? mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikk? mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-?B activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. PMID:25376721

Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

2015-01-01

142

Analysis of drugs of abuse by online SPE-LC high resolution mass spectrometry: Communal assessment of consumption.  

PubMed

An online SPE-LC-HRMS method was developed to monitor the consumption of 18 drugs of abuse (DOAs) including amphetamines, opioids, cocainics, cannabinoids, lysergics, and their corresponding metabolites in a well characterized college campus setting via wastewater analysis. Filtered and diluted (10×) sewage water samples (5mL inj.) were automatically pre-concentrated and analyzed in 15min using a Thermo EQuan MAX online SPE system equipped with a HyperSep™ Retain PEP (20×2.1mm×12?m) SPE column and a Hypersil Gold™ aQ (150×2.1mm×3?m) analytical column. A Q Exactive™ Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap HRMS was used in full scan mode (R=140,000) for positive identification, and quantitation of target compounds. Method detection limits for all analytes ranged between 0.6 and 1.7ng/L in sewage. A total of 14 DOAs were detected from two different locations (dorms and main college campus) within a one-year period. Most frequently detected drugs throughout the entire study were amphetamine (>96%) and THC's metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-?-9-THC (>100%) with maximum concentrations of 5956 and 2413ng/L respectively. Daily doses per 1000 people were determined in order to assess consumption of THC, amphetamine, heroin and cocaine, in both dorms and main campus. PMID:25553546

Heuett, Nubia V; Ramirez, Cesar E; Fernandez, Adolfo; Gardinali, Piero R

2015-04-01

143

Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting held in  

E-print Network

International, David Hill, Gas Research Institute. #12;2 MOHAGHEGH, POPA, KOPERNA, AND HILL SPE 57454 modeling, type curve matching, and infill drilling studies. They also contribute significantly to production

Mohaghegh, Shahab

144

uPAR and cathepsin B downregulation induces apoptosis by targeting calcineurin A to BAD via Bcl-2 in glioma.  

PubMed

Cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are postulated to play key roles in glioma invasion. Calcineurin is one of the key regulators of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Hence, we studied subcellular localization of calcineurin after transcriptional downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B in glioma. In the present study, efficient downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B increased the translocation of calcineurin A from the mitochondria to the cytosol, decreased pBAD (S136) expression and its interaction with 14-3-3? and increased the interaction of BAD with Bcl-xl. Co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B induced mitochondrial translocation of BAD, activation of caspase 3 as well as PARP and cytochrome c and SMAC release. These effects were inhibited by FK506 (10 ?M), a specific inhibitor of calcineurin. Calcineurin A was co-localized and also co-immunoprecipitated with Bcl-2. This interaction decreased with co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B and also with Bcl-2 inhibitor, HA 14-1 (20 ?g/ml). Altered localization and interaction of calcineurin A with Bcl-2 was also observed in vivo when uPAR and cathepsin B were downregulated. In conclusion, downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induced apoptosis by targeting calcineurin A to BAD via Bcl-2 in glioma. PMID:21964739

Malla, Rama Rao; Gopinath, Sreelatha; Gondi, Christopher S; Alapati, Kiranmai; Dinh, Dzung H; Tsung, Andrew J; Rao, Jasti S

2012-03-01

145

Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future. PMID:15084979

Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

2004-04-01

146

Mitochondrial Control of Nuclear Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anucleate cells can be induced to undergo programmed cell death (PCD), indicating the exist- ence of a cytoplasmic PCD pathway that functions independently from the nucleus. Cytoplas- mic structures including mitochondria have been shown to participate in the control of apop- totic nuclear disintegration. Before cells exhibit common signs of nuclear apoptosis (chromatin condensation and endonuclease-mediated DNA fragmentation), they

Naoufal Zamzami; Santos A. Susin; Philippe Marchetti

1996-01-01

147

Viral Control of Mitochondrial Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the process of pathogen–host co-evolution, viruses have developed a battery of distinct strategies to overcome biochemical and immunological defenses of the host. Thus, viruses have acquired the capacity to subvert host cell apoptosis, control inflammatory responses, and evade immune reactions. Since the elimination of infected cells via programmed cell death is one of the most ancestral defense mechanisms against

Lorenzo Galluzzi; Catherine Brenner; Eugenia Morselli; Zahia Touat; Guido Kroemer

2008-01-01

148

Ethylene mediates UV-B-induced stomatal closure via peroxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide synthesis in Vicia faba L.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is an important environmental signal for plant growth and development, but its signal transduction mechanism is unclear. UV-B is known to induce stomatal closure via hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and to affect ethylene biosynthesis. As ethylene is also known to induce stomatal closure via H(2)O(2) generation, the possibility of UV-B-induced stomatal closure via ethylene-mediated H(2)O(2) generation was investigated in Vicia faba by epidermal strip bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and assays of ethylene production. It was found that H(2)O(2) production in guard cells and subsequent stomatal closure induced by UV-B radiation were inhibited by interfering with ethylene biosynthesis as well as ethylene signalling, suggesting that ethylene is epistatic to UV-B radiation in stomatal movement. Ethylene production preceded H(2)O(2) production upon UV-B radiation, while exogenous ethylene induced H(2)O(2) production in guard cells and subsequent stomatal closure, further supporting the conclusion. Inhibitors for peroxidase but not for NADPH oxidase abolished H(2)O(2) production upon UV-B radiation in guard cells, suggesting that peroxidase is the source of UV-B-induced H(2)O(2) production. Taken together, our results strongly support the idea that ethylene mediates UV-B-induced stomatal closure via peroxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) generation. PMID:21212297

He, Junmin; Yue, Xiaozhen; Wang, Ruibin; Zhang, Yan

2011-05-01

149

Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS), established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly the Nevada Test Site) that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The initial NCNS project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment at the NNSS (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks at the Climax stock in northern Yucca Flat. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The data will be used to improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. The first SPE-N test (SPE-N-1) was a “calibration” shot conducted in May 2011, using 100 kilograms (kg) of explosives at the depth of 54.9 meters (m) (180 feet [ft]) in the U-15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m (150 ft) in the same source hole. Following the SPE-N-2 test, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast side, where the core hole penetrated it. The three-dimensional shape and symmetry of the damage zone are unknown at this time. Rather than spherical in shape, the dimensions of the damage zone could be influenced by the natural fracture sets in the vicinity. Geologic characterization of the borehole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for laboratory tests (to be reported by SNL). A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the U-15n#10 angle core hole between the drilled depths of 149 and 155 ft (straight-line distance or range station [RS] from the shot point of 7.5 to 5.7 m). However, several of the fractures observed in the U-15n#10 hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. These fractures are characterized by a “fresh,” mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets. The most distant fracture from the shot point that could be interpreted as having been caused by the explosion was seen at approximately RS 10.0 m. No other possibly explosion-induced fractures are apparent above the fault, but are common starting at RS 5.4 m, which is below the fault. It is unknown how the fault zone might have affected the propagation of seismic waves or how the materials in the fault zone (altered granite, breccia, gouge) were affected by the explosion. From RS 3.3 m to the end of the recovered core at RS 1.6 m, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

,

2012-09-18

150

Optimization of a pre-MEKC separation SPE procedure for steroid molecules in human urine samples.  

PubMed

Many steroid hormones can be considered as potential biomarkers and their determination in body fluids can create opportunities for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases and disorders of the human body. Most existing methods for the determination of steroids are usually time- and labor-consuming and quite costly. Therefore, the aim of analytical laboratories is to develop a new, relatively low-cost and rapid implementation methodology for their determination in biological samples. Due to the fact that there is little literature data on concentrations of steroid hormones in urine samples, we have made attempts at the electrophoretic determination of these compounds. For this purpose, an extraction procedure for the optimized separation and simultaneous determination of seven steroid hormones in urine samples has been investigated. The isolation of analytes from biological samples was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane and compared to solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18 and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) columns. To separate all the analytes a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK) technique was employed. For full separation of all the analytes a running buffer (pH 9.2), composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 10% methanol was selected. The methodology developed in this work for the determination of steroid hormones meets all the requirements of analytical methods. The applicability of the method has been confirmed for the analysis of urine samples collected from volunteers--both men and women (students, amateur bodybuilders, using and not applying steroid doping). The data obtained during this work can be successfully used for further research on the determination of steroid hormones in urine samples. PMID:24232737

Ol?dzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Dziomba, Szymon; Szmudanowski, Piotr; B?czek, Tomasz

2013-01-01

151

Maximal adamantyl-substituted retinoid-related molecule-induced apoptosis requires NF-?B noncanonical and canonical pathway activation  

PubMed Central

NF-?B transcription factors have a critical role in regulating cell survival and apoptosis. We have previously shown that 4-(3-Cl-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-chlorocinnamic acid (3-Cl-AHPC), an adamantyl-substituted retinoid molecule, induced apoptosis and required NF-?B activation in prostate and breast carcinoma cells. Here, we show that 3-Cl-AHPC activated both I?B kinase (IKK)? and IKK? with subsequent activation of the canonical and noncanonical NF-?B pathways in the human breast carcinoma and leukemia cell lines. 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated activation of the NF-?B canonical pathway occurred within 6?h, whereas maximal activation of the NF-?B noncanonical pathway required 48?h. Knockout of IKK? or IKK? expression in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and knockdown of IKK? or IKK? in MDA-MB-468 cells resulted in the inhibition of 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated apoptosis, indicating that activation of canonical and noncanonical pathways are required for maximal 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated apoptosis. 3-Cl-AHPC activation of the noncanonical pathway was preceded by caspase-mediated decrease in the E3-ligase c-IAP1 with subsequent stabilization of NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) expression, increased binding of NIK by TRAF3, activation of IKK?, and the resultant increased levels of RelB and p52. Increased expression of c-IAP1 blocked 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated stabilization of NIK levels and 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated apoptosis. Cdc37 expression was required for activation of IKK? and IKK? by 3-Cl-AHPC. These findings suggest that NF-?B pathways have an important role in 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20671747

Farhana, L; Dawson, M I; Murshed, F; Fontana, J A

2011-01-01

152

Apoptosis in virus infection dynamics models  

PubMed Central

In this paper, on the basis of the simplified two-dimensional virus infection dynamics model, we propose two extended models that aim at incorporating the influence of activation-induced apoptosis which directly affects the population of uninfected cells. The theoretical analysis shows that increasing apoptosis plays a positive role in control of virus infection. However, after being included the third population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes immune response in HIV-infected patients, it shows that depending on intensity of the apoptosis of healthy cells, the apoptosis can either promote or comfort the long-term evolution of HIV infection. Further, the discrete-time delay of apoptosis is incorporated into the pervious model. Stability switching occurs as the time delay in apoptosis increases. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results and display the different impacts of a delay in apoptosis. PMID:24963975

Fan, Ruili; Dong, Yueping; Huang, Gang; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

153

The Domains of Apoptosis: A Genomics Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, plays important roles in many aspects of normal physiology in animal species, including programmed death associated with fetal development or metamorphosis, tissue homeostasis, elimination of inappropriate cells in the immune system, and some aspects of aging. Defects in the regulation of apoptosis contribute to multiple diseases; for example, lack of apoptosis contributes to cancer, and excessive apoptosis is associated with neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. Apoptosis also functions as a defense mechanism against viruses and microbes. In the regulatory machinery that contols apoptosis, interactions between key proteins are determined by small protein segments or domains that allow cells to react appropriately to signals from within or outside the cell. In this Review, we examine the range of human proteins that contain these domains and discuss how the resultant protein interactions help control cell death. These same domains provide possible targets for the development of drugs that could beneficially modulate apoptosis.

John C. Reed (The Burnham Institute; REV); Kutbuddin S. Doctor (The Burnham Institute; REV); Adam Godzik (The Burnham Institute; REV)

2004-06-29

154

Ion channels in the regulation of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, a type of genetically controlled cell death, is a fundamental cellular mechanism utilized by multicellular organisms for disposal of cells that are no longer needed or potentially detrimental. Given the crucial role of apoptosis in physiology, deregulation of apoptotic machinery is associated with various diseases as well as abnormalities in development. Acquired resistance to apoptosis represents the common feature of most and perhaps all types of cancer. Therefore, repairing and reactivating apoptosis represents a promising strategy to fight cancer. Accumulated evidence identifies ion channels as essential regulators of apoptosis. However, the contribution of specific ion channels to apoptosis varies greatly depending on cell type, ion channel type and intracellular localization, pathology as well as intracellular signaling pathways involved. Here we discuss the involvement of major types of ion channels in apoptosis regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25450339

Kondratskyi, Artem; Kondratska, Kateryna; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

2014-10-27

155

GSK3? signaling is involved in ultraviolet B-induced activation of autophagy in epidermal cells  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure causes damage to skin and represents the primary etiological agent for skin cancer formation. UVB induces DNA damage and apoptosis in epidermal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that UVB activated autophagy in JB6 epidermal cells, which was evident by the formation of LC3 puncta, the induction of LC3 lipidation, the increase in beclin 1 expression, and the decrease in the levels of p62. Autophagy appeared to be a protective response to UVB-induced damage because inhibition of autophagy exacerbated UVB-induced cell death, and stimulation of autophagy offered protection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) was involved in UVB-induced autophagy. UVB inhibited GSK3? activation by simultaneously enhancing phosphorylation at Ser9 and suppressing Tyr216 phosphorylation. GSK3? negatively regulated autophagy; overexpression of wild-type or S9A (constitutive-active) GSK3? mutant inhibited UVB-mediated autophagy, while overexpression of a dominant-negative K85R mutant enhanced UVB-mediated autophagy. Inhibition of GSK3? also offered protection against UVB-mediated damage. UVB activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of autophagy through the inhibition of GSK3?. Taken together, our results suggest that UVB-stimulated autophagy is a protective response for epidermal cells and is mediated by the GSK3?/AMPK pathway. PMID:22961228

YANG, YANG; WANG, HAIPING; WANG, SIYING; XU, MEI; LIU, MEI; LIAO, MINGJUN; FRANK, JACQUELINE A.; ADHIKARI, SABAL; BOWER, KIMBERLY A.; SHI, XIANGLIN; MA, CUILING; LUO, JIA

2012-01-01

156

Oncogenes as regulators of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Although cancer is a disease that will afflict one out of three people in the Western world, when considered at a cellular level, it is a rare clonal event. Long-lived organisms, such as humans, have evolved strategies to restrict the development of potentially malignant cells, and one such mechanism is the coupling of proliferative and apoptotic pathways. Multiple oncogenes have the ability to trigger apoptosis when expressed in an inappropriate fashion, and this is thought to restrict tumour formation by eliminating potentially malignant cells that have acquired a mutation stimulating proliferation. Hence for a tumour to arise, in addition to mutations that drive proliferation, mutations that prevent apoptosis are also a prerequisite. PMID:14585076

Labazi, Mohamed; Phillips, Andrew C

2003-01-01

157

APOPTOSIS: Life and Death Decisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Screening small molecules for their ability to perturb a cellular pathway, a strategy called forward chemical genetics, can yield unexpected information about other pathway components. This is well illustrated by new work (Jiang et al.), as Nicholson and Thornberry discuss in their Perspective. Discovery of a small-molecule activator of apoptosis implicated a tumor suppressor protein and an oncoprotein in the regulation of the mitochondrial cell death pathway.

Donald W. Nicholson (Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, Merck Research Laboratories;); Nancy A. Thornberry (Merck Research Laboratories;)

2003-01-10

158

Simple SPE-HPLC determination of some common drugs and herbicides of environmental concern by pulsed amperometry.  

PubMed

In this work the electrochemical behavior of substances of environmental concern [bentazone, atrazine, carbamazepine, phenytoin and its metabolite 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, HPPH] on a glassy carbon working electrode (Ag/AgCl reference electrode) was studied with the aim to develop a HPLC method coupled with amperometric detection. Constant potential (DC), pulsed amperometric detection modes were studied. For the pulsed mode, several waveforms were set and investigated. Detection conditions were optimized as a function of eluent pH. In order to reduce the limits of detection and to analyze natural water samples, a SPE protocol was optimized to be coupled to the developed procedure. For this aim, five sorbents of different physico-chemical characteristics were tested optimizing a recovery procedure for each of the cartridge evaluated. At the optimized SPE conditions, recoveries were included in the range (R=90.2-100.5% for all the analytes, with excellent reproducibility (<%, n=3). The method detection limits obtained by pulsed amperometry after the SPE protocol (preconcentration factor 100) were 113 ng L(-1) (0.47 nmol L(-1)), 67 ng L(-1) (0.25 nmol L(-1)), 234 ng L(-1) (1.1 nmol L(-1)), for bentazone, HPPH and carbamazepine, respectively. Robustness of the method was assessed for each analyte at a concentration level corresponding to about three times the limit of detection, through the evaluation of intra-day (n=13) and inter-day tests (4 days, n=52). Finally the method was successfully applied for the analysis of a river sample (Po River, Turin, Italy). PMID:25281094

Rivoira, L; De Carlo, R M; Cavalli, S; Bruzzoniti, M C

2015-01-01

159

miR-125b induces cellular senescence in malignant melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background Micro RNAs (miRs) have emerged as key regulators during oncogenesis. They have been found to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mir-125b has been identified as an oncomir in various forms of tumours, but we have previously proposed that miR-125b is a suppressor of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Our goal was therefore to further examine this theory. Methods We used in-situ-hybridization to visualise miR-125b expression in primary tumours and in lymph node metastasis. Then using a miRVector plasmid containing a miR-125b-1 insert we transfected melanoma cell line Mel-Juso and then investigated the effect of the presence of a stable overexpression of miR-125b on growth by western blotting, flow cytometry and ?-galactosidase staining. The tumourogenicity of the transfected cells was tested using a murine model and the tumours were further examined with in-situ-hybridization. Results In primary human tumours and in lymph node metastases increased expression of miR-125b was found in single, large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm. A stable overexpression of miR-125b in human melanoma cell line Mel-Juso resulted in a G0/G1 cell cycle block and emergence of large cells expressing senescence markers: senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p21, p27 and p53. Mel-Juso cells overexpressing miR-125b were tumourigenic in mice, but the tumours exhibited higher level of cell senescence and decreased expression of proliferation markers, cyclin D1 and Ki67 than the control tumours. Conclusions Our results confirm the theory that miR-125b functions as a tumour supressor in cutaneous malignant melanoma by regulating cellular senescence, which is one of the central mechanisms protecting against the development and progression of malignant melanoma. PMID:24762088

2014-01-01

160

Selective removal of heavy metal ions using sol–gel immobilized and SPE-coated thiacrown ethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbent materials based on three thiacrown ethers, 1,4,7,10-tetrathiacyclododecane (12S4), 1,4,7,10,13-pentathiacyclopentadecane (15S5) and 1,4,7,10.13,16-hexathiacyclooctadecane (18S6) were prepared either by immobilizing the ligands into sol–gel (SG) matrix or coating on commercial solid phase extraction (SPE) column. SG sorbents were characterized by FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis\\/derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA\\/DTG). A marked thermal stability of the ligands when immobilized

Bahruddin Saad; Ching Ching Chong; Abdussalam Salhin Mohamad Ali; Ismail Ab Rahman; Norita Mohamad; Muhammad Idiris Saleh

2006-01-01

161

Taxol induces caspase-10-dependent apoptosis.  

PubMed

Taxol (paclitaxel) is known to inhibit cell growth and trigger significant apoptosis in various cancer cells. Although taxol induces apoptosis of cancer cells, its exact mechanism of action is not yet known. In this study we investigated death receptors, FAS-associated death domain protein (FADD), the activation of caspases-10 and -8 as well as the downstream caspases, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in taxol-induced apoptosis in the CCRF-HSB-2 human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Pretreating the cells with neutralizing antibodies to Fas, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha receptor 1, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors (DR4 and DR5) did not affect taxol-induced apoptosis, but transfection of the cells with a dominant negative FADD plasmid resulted in inhibition of taxol-induced apoptosis, revealing that taxol induces apoptosis independently of these death receptors but dependently on FADD. Furthermore, the drug induced activation of caspases-10, -8, -6, and -3, cleaved Bcl-2, Bid, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and lamin B, and down-regulated cellular levels of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) and X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). However, despite the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria in taxol-treated cells, caspase-9 was not activated. Inhibitors of caspases-8, -6, or -3 partially inhibited taxol-induced apoptosis, whereas the caspase-10 inhibitor totally abrogated this process. Taxol-induced apoptosis was also associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and a significant increase in ROS generation. However, increased ROS production was not directly involved in taxol-triggered apoptosis. Therefore, these results demonstrate for the first time that taxol induces FADD-dependent apoptosis primarily through activation of caspase-10 but independently of death receptors. PMID:15452117

Park, Soo-Jung; Wu, Ching-Haung; Gordon, John D; Zhong, Xiaoling; Emami, Armaghan; Safa, Ahmad R

2004-12-01

162

Mitochondrial Dynamics: Functional Link with Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria participate in a variety of physiologic processes, such as ATP production, lipid metabolism, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and calcium buffering. The morphology of mitochondria changes dynamically due to their frequent fusion and division in response to cellular conditions, and these dynamics are an important constituent of apoptosis. The discovery of large GTPase family proteins that regulate mitochondrial dynamics, together with novel insights into the role of mitochondrial fusion and fission in apoptosis, has provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular apoptosis. In this paper, we briefly summarize current knowledge of the role of mitochondrial dynamics in apoptosis and cell pathophysiology in mammalian cells. PMID:22536251

Otera, Hidenori; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

2012-01-01

163

Apoptosis and Molecular Targeting Therapy in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which maintains the healthy survival/death balance in metazoan cells. Defect in apoptosis can cause cancer or autoimmunity, while enhanced apoptosis may cause degenerative diseases. The apoptotic signals contribute into safeguarding the genomic integrity while defective apoptosis may promote carcinogenesis. The apoptotic signals are complicated and they are regulated at several levels. The signals of carcinogenesis modulate the central control points of the apoptotic pathways, including inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The tumor cells may use some of several molecular mechanisms to suppress apoptosis and acquire resistance to apoptotic agents, for example, by the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins such as BAX. In this review, we provide the main regulatory molecules that govern the main basic mechanisms, extrinsic and intrinsic, of apoptosis in normal cells. We discuss how carcinogenesis could be developed via defective apoptotic pathways or their convergence. We listed some molecules which could be targeted to stimulate apoptosis in different cancers. Together, we briefly discuss the development of some promising cancer treatment strategies which target apoptotic inhibitors including Bcl-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for apoptosis induction. PMID:25013758

Hassan, Mohamed; Watari, Hidemichi; AbuAlmaaty, Ali; Ohba, Yusuke; Sakuragi, Noriaki

2014-01-01

164

Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects. PMID:21943236

2011-01-01

165

Death-Defining Immune Responses After Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death whereby characteristic internal cellular dismantling is accompanied by the preservation of plasma membrane integrity. Maintaining this order during apoptosis prevents the release of cellular contents and ensures a noninflammatory death. Here, we consider examples of apoptosis in different contexts and discuss how the same form of cell death could have different immunological consequences. Multiple parameters such as cell death as a result of microbial infection, the nature of the inflammatory microenvironment, the type of responding phagocytic cells and the genetic background of the host organism all differentially influence the immunological consequences of apoptosis. PMID:24903539

Campisi, L.; Cummings, R. J.; Blander, J. Magarian

2014-01-01

166

Death-defining immune responses after apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death whereby characteristic internal cellular dismantling is accompanied by the preservation of plasma membrane integrity. Maintaining this order during apoptosis prevents the release of cellular contents and ensures a noninflammatory death. Here, we consider examples of apoptosis in different contexts and discuss how the same form of cell death could have different immunological consequences. Multiple parameters such as cell death as a result of microbial infection, the nature of the inflammatory microenvironment, the type of responding phagocytic cells and the genetic background of the host organism all differentially influence the immunological consequences of apoptosis. PMID:24903539

Campisi, L; Cummings, R J; Blander, J Magarian

2014-07-01

167

Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses  

PubMed Central

Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9??M and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0??M. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0??M histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02??M HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, and TNF? responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation. PMID:24473528

Borgwardt, Derek S.; Martin, Aaron D.; Van Hemert, Jonathan R.; Yang, Jianyi; Fischer, Carol L.; Recker, Erica N.; Nair, Prashant R.; Vidva, Robinson; Chandrashekaraiah, Shwetha; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Drake, David; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Vali, Shireen; Zhang, Yang; Brogden, Kim A.

2014-01-01

168

Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9 ?M and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0 ?M. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0 ?M histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02 ?M HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, and TNF? responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation.

Borgwardt, Derek S.; Martin, Aaron D.; van Hemert, Jonathan R.; Yang, Jianyi; Fischer, Carol L.; Recker, Erica N.; Nair, Prashant R.; Vidva, Robinson; Chandrashekaraiah, Shwetha; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Drake, David; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Vali, Shireen; Zhang, Yang; Brogden, Kim A.

2014-01-01

169

Liver myofibroblasts up-regulate monocyte CD163 expression via PGE2 during hepatitis B induced liver failure  

PubMed Central

Background Although patients with liver failure exhibit a generalized inflammatory-imbalance status, substantial evidence indicates that this immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory state may be deleterious. Increased expression of CD163 (known to be involved in several anti-inflammatory functions of the immune system) in patients with liver failure is significantly correlated with a fatal outcome. However, little is known of the regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of CD163. Methods We assessed the expression of CD163 on monocytes from both circulating cells and the liver tissues of patients with hepatitis B induced liver failure using flow cytometry and isolated the myofibroblasts from diseased livers. The ability of human liver myofibroblasts to regulate CD163 expression on monocytes was studied in vitro. Results We showed that CD163+ monocytes were enriched primarily in diseased livers and that they were associated with liver myofibroblasts in the same area. Accordingly, liver myofibroblasts were significantly superior to normal skin fibroblasts in inducing the expression of CD163 on monocytes in vitro. Moreover, we found that liver myofibroblasts triggered the activation of monocytes by secreting PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production in liver myofibroblasts using NS-398 markedly reduced CD163 expression in vitro. Conclusion These results suggest that liver myofibroblasts play a direct role in regulating the expression of CD163 on monocytes in human liver tissues and thereby may regulate monocyte function during hepatitis B induced liver failure. PMID:24597777

2014-01-01

170

Trace explosive detection in aqueous samples by solid-phase extraction ion mobility spectrometry (SPE-IMS).  

PubMed

Law enforcement agencies use ion mobility spectrometers for the detection of explosives, drugs of abuse, and chemical warfare agents. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has the advantages of short analysis times, detections in the parts per billion concentrations, and high sensitivity. On-site environmental analysis of explosives or explosive residues in water is possible with ion mobility spectrometers. Unfortunately, the direct analysis of low levels of explosives in water is difficult. Extraction provides a method for pre-concentrating the analytes and removing interferents. Coupling solid-phase extraction (SPE) with IMS is useful for the identification of trace amounts of explosives in water. Commercially available SPE disks were used. After extraction, the sample disk is inserted into the ion mobility spectrometer, where the analytes are thermally desorbed from the disk. Concentrations as low as one part per trillion were detected with a Barringer Ionscan 350. An external computer and acquisition software (LabVIEW, National Instruments) were used to collect data. SIMPLISMA (SIMPLe-to-use-Interactive Self-modeling Mixture Analysis) was applied to the data to resolve features that vary with respect to time. PMID:14610961

Buxton, Tricia L; Harrington, Peter de B

2003-02-01

171

A sensitive analytical procedure for monitoring acrylamide in environmental water samples by offline SPE-UPLC/MS/MS.  

PubMed

The presence of acrylamide in natural systems is of concern from both environmental and health points of view. We developed an accurate and robust analytical procedure (offline solid phase extraction combined with UPLC/MS/MS) with a limit of quantification (20 ng L(-1)) compatible with toxicity threshold values. The optimized (considering the nature of extraction phases, sampling volumes, and solvent of elution) solid phase extraction (SPE) was validated according to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025 on groundwater, surface water, and industrial process water samples. Acrylamide is highly polar, which induces a high variability during the SPE step, therefore requiring the use of C(13)-labeled acrylamide as an internal standard to guarantee the accuracy and robustness of the method (uncertainty about 25 % (k?=?2) at limit of quantification level). The specificity of the method and the stability of acrylamide were studied for these environmental media, and it was shown that the method is suitable for measuring acrylamide in environmental studies. PMID:25471720

Togola, Anne; Coureau, Charlotte; Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; Touzé, Solène

2014-12-01

172

Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro  

E-print Network

Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro Wing-Yee Cheung,1: Osteocyte apoptosis, associated with reduced interstitial fluid flow, precedes osteoclast precursor. Totestthe associationbetweenfluidflow andosteocyte apoptosis,osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cellsweresubjectedto

You, Lidan

173

THE ROLE OF APOPTOSIS IN NEUROTOXICOLOGY.  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of apoptosis in neurodegeneration in developing animals and in adults has become increasingly apparent in the past ten years. Normal apoptosis occurs in the CNS from the embryonic stage through senescence, with different cells in each region of the nervous system having ...

174

The role of DNA fragmentation in apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation o f distinct DNA fragments of oligonucleosomal size (180–200 by lengths) is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis in many cells. Recent observations also suggest large DNA fragments and even single-strand cleavage events occur during cell death. These observations have raised many questions. What are the types o f DNA cleavage observed during apoptosis? What are the nucleases involved?

Carl D. Bortner; Nicklas B. E. Oldenburg; John A. Cidlowski

1995-01-01

175

Apoptosis in acquired and genetic hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an important physiological process. Normally, a healthy cell maintains a delicate balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, allowing it to live and proliferate. It is thus not surprising that disturbance of this delicate balance may result in disease. It is a well known fact that apoptosis also contributes to several acquired forms of hearing impairment. Noise-induced hearing loss is the result of prolonged exposure to excessive noise, triggering apoptosis in terminally differentiated sensory hair cells. Moreover, hearing loss caused by the use of therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and cisplatin potentially may result in the activation of apoptosis in sensory hair cells leading to hearing loss due to the “ototoxicity” of the drugs. Finally, apoptosis is a key contributor to the development of presbycusis, age-related hearing loss. Recently, several mutations in apoptosis genes were identified as the cause of monogenic hearing impairment. These genes are TJP2, DFNA5 and MSRB3. This implies that apoptosis not only contributes to the pathology of acquired forms of hearing impairment, but also to genetic hearing impairment as well. We believe that these genes constitute a new functional class within the hearing loss field. Here, the contribution of apoptosis in the pathology of both acquired and genetic hearing impairment is reviewed. PMID:21782914

de Beeck, Ken Op; Schacht, Jochen; Van Camp, Guy

2012-01-01

176

Serine\\/Threonine Protein Kinases and Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, our understanding of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has increased greatly, with the identification of some of the major components of the apoptotic programme and the processes regulating their activation. Although apoptosis is an intrinsic process present in all cells, it can be regulated by extrinsic factors, including hormones, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and cellular

Timothy G. Cross; Dagmar Scheel-Toellner; Nick V. Henriquez; Elizabeth Deacon; Mike Salmon; Janet M. Lord

2000-01-01

177

Implication of apoptosis in sperm cryoinjury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is an ongoing physiological phenomenon that has been documented to play a role in male infertility, if deregulated. Caspase activation, externalization of phosphatidylserine, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation are markers of apoptosis found in ejaculated human spermatozoa. These markers appear in excess in subfertile men and functionally incompetent spermatozoa. Sperm cryopreservation is a widely used procedure

Tamer M. Said; Aarti Gaglani; Ashok Agarwal

2010-01-01

178

CELL BIOLOGY: Apoptosis--the Calcium Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Calcium ions are crucial to many cellular processes including apoptosis. In their Perspective, Demaurex and Distelhorst explain new work that shows how calcium ions flowing between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria regulate programmed cell death, highlighting the ER as a new gateway to apoptosis (Scorrano et al.).

Nicolas Demaurex (University of Geneva Medical Center;Department of Physiology); Clark Distelhorst (Case Western Reserve University Medical School;Department of Medicine)

2003-04-04

179

Apoptosis: controlled demolition at the cellular level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is characterized by a series of dramatic perturbations to the cellular architecture that contribute not only to cell death, but also prepare cells for removal by phagocytes and prevent unwanted immune responses. Much of what happens during the demolition phase of apoptosis is orchestrated by members of the caspase family of cysteine proteases. These proteases target several hundred proteins

Rebecca C. Taylor; Sean P. Cullen; Seamus J. Martin

2008-01-01

180

Partial equilibrium approximations in Apoptosis  

E-print Network

Apoptosis is one of the most basic biological processes. In apoptosis, tens of species are involved in many biochemical reactions with times scales of widely differing orders of magnitude. By the law of mass action, the process is mathematically described with a large and stiff system of ODEs (ordinary differential equations). The goal of this work is to simplify such systems of ODEs with the PEA (partial equilibrium approximation) method. In doing so, we propose a general framework of the PEA method together with some conditions, under which the PEA method can be justified rigorously. The main condition is the principle of detailed balance for fast reactions as a whole. With the justified method as a tool, we made many attempts via numerical tests to simplify the Fas-signaling pathway model due to Hua et al. (2005) and found that nine of reactions therein can be well regarded as relatively fast. This paper reports our simplification of Hua at el.'s model with the PEA method based on the fastness of the nine ...

Huang, Ya-Jing

2012-01-01

181

Experimental design for TBT quantification by isotope dilution SPE-GC-ICP-MS under the European water framework directive.  

PubMed

In Europe the maximum allowable concentration for tributyltin (TBT) compounds in surface water has been regulated by the water framework directive (WFD) and daughter directive that impose a limit of 0.2ngL(-1) in whole water (as tributyltin cation). Despite the large number of different methodologies for the quantification of organotin species developed in the last two decades, standardised analytical methods at required concentration level do not exist. TBT quantification at picogram level requires efficient and accurate sample preparation and preconcentration, and maximum care to avoid blank contamination. To meet the WFD requirement, a method for the quantification of TBT in mineral water at environmental quality standard (EQS) level, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), was developed and optimised. The quantification was done using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) followed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical process was optimised using a design of experiment (DOE) based on a factorial fractionary plan. The DOE allowed to evaluate 3 qualitative factors (type of stationary phase and eluent, phase mass and eluent volume, pH and analyte ethylation procedure) for a total of 13 levels studied, and a sample volume in the range of 250-1000mL. Four different models fitting the results were defined and evaluated with statistic tools: one of them was selected and optimised to find the best procedural conditions. C18 phase was found to be the best stationary phase for SPE experiments. The 4 solvents tested with C18, the pH and ethylation conditions, the mass of the phases, the volume of the eluents and the sample volume can all be optimal, but depending on their respective combination. For that reason, the equation of the model conceived in this work is a useful decisional tool for the planning of experiments, because it can be applied to predict the TBT mass fraction recovery when the experimental conditions are drawn. This work shows that SPE is a convenient technique for TBT pre-concentration at pico-trace levels and a robust approach: in fact (i) number of different experimental conditions led to satisfactory results and (ii) the participation of two institutes to the experimental work did not impact the developed model. PMID:25618710

Alasonati, Enrica; Fabbri, Barbara; Fettig, Ina; Yardin, Catherine; Del Castillo Busto, Maria Estela; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Fisicaro, Paola

2015-03-01

182

Destruxin B Isolated from Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Induces Apoptosis via a Bcl-2 Family-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway in Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Destruxin B, isolated from entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, is one of the cyclodepsipeptides with insecticidal and anticancer activities. In this study, destruxin B was extracted and purified by ion-exchange chromatography, silica gel chromatography, and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The potential anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms of destruxin B in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines were characterized. Our results showed that destruxin B induced apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. This event was accompanied by the activation of caspase-2, -3, and -9. Moreover, destruxin B increased the expression level of proapoptotic molecule, PUMA, while decreased antiapoptotic molecule Mcl-1. Additionally, the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondrial membrane was observed upon destruxin B treatment. Knockdown of Bax by shRNA effectively attenuated destruxin-B-triggered apoptosis in A549 cells. Interestingly, similar toxic effects and underlying mechanisms including caspase activation, upregulation of PUMA, and downregulation of Mcl-1 were also observed in a p53-null lung cancer H1299 cell line upon destruxin B treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that destruxin-B-induced apoptosis in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells is via a Bcl-2 family-dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24204395

Wu, Chun-Chi; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Liu, Bing-Lan; Wu, Li-Chen; Chen, Yung-Ching; Tzeng, Yew-Min; Hsu, Shih-Lan

2013-01-01

183

WDM compatible and electrically tunable SPE-OCDMA system based on the temporal self-imaging effect.  

PubMed

A coding/decoding setup for a spectral phase encoding optical code-division multiple access (SPE-OCDMA) system has been developed. The proposal is based on the temporal self-imaging effect and the use of an easily tunable electro-optic phase modulator to achieve line-by-line coding of the transmitted signal, thus assuring compatibility with WDM techniques. Modulation of the code is performed at the same rate as the data, avoiding the use of high-bandwidth electro-optic modulators. As proof of concept of the technique, experimental results are presented for a back-to-back coder/decoder setup transmitting a 10 GHz unmodulated optical pulse train within an 80 GHz optical window and using 8-chip Hadamard codes. PMID:21283203

Tainta, S; Amaya, W; Erro, M J; Garde, M J; Sales, S; Muriel, M A

2011-02-01

184

SpeI restriction enzyme displays greater discriminatory power than XbaI enzyme does in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis study on 146 clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates.  

PubMed

Restriction enzymes SpeI and XbaI were used in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study for molecular characterization of 146 clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates. The PFGE parameters were optimized to enable comparable, reproducible, and robust results. The optimized parameters for both SpeI and XbaI restriction enzymes used in this study were 200 V and a pulse time of 5 to 65 s for a 28-h runtime. Using SpeI, 9 different clusters were identified, whereas 6 clusters were identified by XbaI digestion, which exhibited 85% similarity to SpeI. SpeI (discrimination index [D]=0.854) showed higher discriminatory power than XbaI did (D=0.464). PMID:21617308

Chua, Kek Heng; See, Kah Heng; Thong, Kwai Lin; Puthucheary, S D

2011-01-01

185

Hyperthermia induces apoptosis in thymocytes  

SciTech Connect

Mild hyperthermia (43{degree}C for 1 h) induces extensive double-stranded DNA fragmentation and, at a later time, cell death in murine thymocytes. The cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosome-sized fragments resembles that observed in examples of apoptosis including radiation-induced death of thymocytes. Following hyperthermia, incubation at 37{degree}C is necessary to detect DNA fragmentation, although protein and RNA synthesis do not seem to be required. Two protein synthesis inhibitors, cycloheximide and emetine, and two RNA synthesis inhibitors, actinomycin D and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, do not inhibit DNA fragmentation or cell death in heated thymocytes at concentrations which significantly block these effects in irradiated thymocytes. We have used this difference in sensitivity to show that the DNA fragmentation induced in thymocytes which are irradiated and then heated seems to be caused only by the heating and not by the irradiation.

Sellins, K.S.; Cohen, J.J. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA))

1991-04-01

186

APOPTOSIS: Death of a Monopoly?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Hunot and Flavell discuss recent findings in Nature by Joza et al. that point to the existence of a new sort of cell death. Cell death is required during the development of an organism to remove portions of the body that will not be needed; this cell death usually requires destructive enzymes called caspases to perform the final demolition of the cell. But cavitation, an early developmental process in the mouse embryo that requires cell death, has now been suggested to occur through a caspase-independent pathway that instead uses a mitochondrial protein called AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor).

Stéphane Hunot (Yale University School of Medicine;Section of Immunobiology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute); Richard A. Flavell (Yale University School of Medicine;Section of Immunobiology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

2001-05-04

187

Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2012-01-01

188

Manumycin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Manumycin exhibits an antitumor effect in a variety of cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC-3). Our previous studies demonstrated that manumycin induced the apoptosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and leukemia cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In the current study, we further evaluated the effect of manumycin in two prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and 22Rv1), and here we elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods The cell viability of prostate cancer cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay after treatment with manumycin for 48 hours. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry using annexin V and propidium iodide. The expressions of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family members and the activations of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were detected by Western blotting. Results Manumycin treatment resulted in significant decreases in the viabilities of the two prostate cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner through apoptosis, and this apoptosis involved caspase-9 activation. A specific inhibitor of caspase-9 protected cells from caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity induced by manumycin. We also found that manumycin downregulated Bcl-2 expression and upregulated Bax expression. Conclusion Our data suggest that manumycin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through regulation of the Bcl-2 family involving caspase-9 activation. These results suggest that manumycin may be beneficial for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:24899815

Li, Jing-Gao; She, Miao-Rong; Lu, Ci-Yong; Wei, Shan-Shan; Xia, Ping-Fang; Lu, Ze-Sheng; Peng, Qi

2014-01-01

189

Simultaneous online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of docetaxel, temsirolimus and sirolimus in whole blood and human plasma.  

PubMed

Docetaxel and temsirolimus are some of the most used drugs in a wide range of solid tumors. In preclinical studies, mTOR inhibitors such as temsirolimus have demonstrated synergistic cytotoxic effects with taxanes providing the rationale for combination studies. These anticancer agents exhibit a narrow therapeutic concentration range and due to their high inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variability, therapeutic dose monitoring by highly sensitive methods as LC-MS/MS are important for clinical research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive, fast and convenient method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of docetaxel, temsirolimus and its main metabolite, sirolimus, using paclitaxel, another anticancer drug, as the internal standard. These analytes were quantified by an integrated online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) system. Separation was performed on a Zorbax eclipse XDB-C8 (150mm×4.6mm, 5?m) column. The mass spectrometer tandem quadruple detector was equipped with jet stream electrospray ionization, monitored in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and operated in positive mode. A combination of protein precipitation with methanol/zinc sulphate (70:30) (v/v) and online SPE using a Zorbax eclipse plus C8 (12.5mm×4.6mm, 5?m) cartridge was used to extract the compounds. This method allows the use of the same reagents, sample treatment and analytical technique independently of whether the samples are whole blood or plasma. The method has been successfully validated and applied to real samples. It is a suitable method for dose adjustment and for evaluating potential drug interactions during combined treatments. PMID:23422405

Navarrete, Alicia; Martínez-Alcázar, M Paz; Durán, Ignacio; Calvo, Emiliano; Valenzuela, Belén; Barbas, Coral; García, Antonia

2013-03-15

190

Retigeric acid B-induced mitophagy by oxidative stress attenuates cell death against prostate cancer cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Aim: Retigeric acid B (RAB), a pentacyclic triterpenic acid from Lobaria kurokawae Yoshim, has been found to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of mitochondrial damage-caused mitophagy in RAB-induced prostate cancer cell death in vitro. Methods: Human prostate cancer PC3 and LNCaP cells were tested. Cell viability was analyzed with MTT assay. Cell apoptosis, ROS level and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (mt??) were measured with flow cytometry. Autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins were studied using Western blotting. GFP-LC3B puncta, mitochondrial swelling and mitophagy were examined morphologically. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure LC3B mRNA level, and siRNA was used to knock down LC3BII. Results: In both PC3 and LNCaP cells, RAB (15 ?mol/L) increased ROS accumulation and decreased mt?? in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, RAB induced mitochondrial swelling and mitophagy, significantly increased LC3B expression and conversion of LC3BI to LC3BII, and the elimination of mitochondria by LC3BII-containing autophagolysosomes. In addition, RAB suppressed the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation. Pretreatment of PC3 cells with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA (5 mmol/L) or the lysosomal protease inhibitor CQ (10 ?mol/L) significantly increased RAB-induced apoptosis. Similar results were obtained in RAB-treated PC3 cells with LC3B knocked down. Conclusion: RAB induces mitochondrial damage and mitophagy that attenuates RAB-induced prostate cancer cell death. Thus, suppression of mitophagy might be a potential strategy for improving the chemotherapeutic effects of RAB. PMID:23892275

Liu, Yong-qing; Ji, Yuan; Li, Xian-zhe; Tian, Ke-li; Yf Young, Charles; Lou, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Hui-qing

2013-01-01

191

Copyright 2007, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference and  

E-print Network

Copyright 2007, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers

192

Physics-based Reconstruction of Sedimentary Rocks Guodong Jin, UC Berkeley; Tad W. Patzek, SPE, UC Berkeley / Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and Dmitry B. Silin,  

E-print Network

SPE 83587 Physics-based Reconstruction of Sedimentary Rocks Guodong Jin, UC Berkeley; Tad W. Patzek that reconstructs nu- merically the geometrical structure and mechanical prop- erties of natural sedimentary rocks a reconstruction that resembles as closely as possible a given sedimentary rock with respect to its geometric

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

193

Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Formation Damage Conference held in  

E-print Network

SPE 86526 Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prepared by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers

194

Top-Down Intelligent Reservoir Modeling (TDIRM) Y.Gomez, Y. Khazaeni, S.D. Mohaghegh, SPE, West Virginia University, R. Gaskari, Intelligent Solutions, Inc.  

E-print Network

SPE 124204 Top-Down Intelligent Reservoir Modeling (TDIRM) Y.Gomez, Y. Khazaeni, S.D. Mohaghegh the validity of a recently introduced reservoir simulation and modeling technique. The technique, that is named Top-Down Intelligent Reservoir Modeling, TDIRM (not to be confused with BP's TDRM history matching

Mohaghegh, Shahab

195

HPLC-SPE-NMR identification of a novel metabolite containing the benzo[c]oxepin skeleton from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula culture.  

PubMed

HPLC-SPE-NMR analysis of a crude extract of fermentation broth of cultured PESTALOTIOPSIS VIRGATULA isolate TC-320 from TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. (Combretaceae) disclosed the presence of a simple but unprecedented low-molecular-weight metabolite, 9-hydroxybenzo[ C]oxepin-3[1 H]-one, subsequently isolated by a targeted purification procedure. PMID:19609838

Kesting, Julie R; Staerk, Dan; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

2009-08-01

196

Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop  

SciTech Connect

Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W. (Scripps)

2012-09-05

197

Calpain, an upstream regulator of thymocyte apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is the common phenotype of programmed or physiologic cell death, the process used to remove excess or defunct cells during normal tissue maintenance. One of the most studied cell types with respect to apoptosis is the immature T cell from the thymus, which activates its death program in response to an enormous variety of agents. Previously, our group implicated the calcium-dependent cytosolic protease calpain as a participant in thymocyte apoptosis initiated by glucocorticoids or irradiation. We found that the calpain inhibitors N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal (calpain inhibitor I) and carbenzoxy-val-phe-H (MDL 28,170) prevented dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of thymocytes; in this study, we show that two additional calpain active site inhibitors, L-3-carboxy-trans-2,3-epoxypropionyl-leu-amido-(4-guanidinio )butane ethyl ester (E64d) and carbenzoxy-leu-leu-tyr-CHN2 (ZLLY-CHN2), also prevent apoptosis in this model. Three compounds that inhibit lysosomal cysteine proteases, carbenzoxy-tyr-ala-CHN2 (ZYA-CHN2), ammonium chloride, and chloroquine, do not block apoptosis, indicating that the effect of the calpain inhibitors is not due to cross-inhibition of lysosomal proteases. In addition, I-benzyl-CH=C(SH)COOH (PD150606), a calpain inhibitor directed toward the calcium binding sites of calpain, also prevents apoptosis. Calpain is necessary for other models of programmed cell death that require new gene expression (induction models), those following treatment of thymocytes with the calcium ionophore A23187, ionomycin, or forskolin. However, two models of thymocyte apoptosis that do not require new gene expression (transduction models), those triggered by heat shock and by valinomycin, are calpain independent, as is calcium-triggered DNA fragmentation in isolated thymocyte nuclei. These experiments suggest an upstream regulatory role for calpain in a pathway to thymocyte apoptosis common to several inducers. PMID:9103432

Squier, M K; Cohen, J J

1997-04-15

198

Lamin proteolysis facilitates nuclear events during apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Expression of the adenovirus E1A oncogene stimulates both cell proliferation and p53-dependent apoptosis in rodent cells. p53 implements apoptosis in all or in part through transcriptional activation of bax, the product of which promotes cell death. The adenovirus E1B 19K product is homologous in sequence and in function to Bcl-2, both of which bind to and inhibit the activity of Bax and thereby suppress apoptosis. The E1B 19K protein also interacts with the nuclear lamins, but the role of this interaction in the regulation of apoptosis is not known. Lamins are, however, substrates for members of the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) family of cysteine proteases that are activated during apoptosis and function downstream of Bcl-2 in the cell death pathway. lamins are degraded during E1A- induced p53-dependent apoptosis. Lamin A and C are cleaved into 47- and 37-kD fragments, respectively, and the site of proteolysis is mapped to a conserved aspartic acid residue at position 230. The cleavage of lamins during apoptosis is consistent with the activation of an ICE- related cysteine protease down-stream of p53. No lamin protease activity was detected in cells expressing the E1B 19K protein, indicating that 19K functions upstream of protease activation in inhibiting apoptosis. Substitution of the aspartic acid at the cleavage site produced a mutant lamin protein that was resistant to proteolysis both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of uncleavable mutant lamin A or B attenuated apoptosis, delaying cell death and the associated DNA fragmentation by 12 h. Mutant lamin expressing cells failed to show the signs of chromatin condensation and nuclear shrinkage typical of cell death by apoptosis. Instead, the nuclear envelope collapsed and the nuclear lamina remained intact. However, the late stage of apoptosis was morphologically unaltered and formation of apoptotic bodies was evident. Thus, lamin breakdown by proteolytic degradation facilitates the nuclear events of apoptosis perhaps by facilitating nuclear breakdown. PMID:8978814

1996-01-01

199

A Caspase-Related Protease Regulates Apoptosis in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast can undergo cell death accompanied by cellular markers of apoptosis. However, orthologs of classical mammalian apoptosis regulators appeared to be missing from the yeast genome, challenging a common mechanism of yeast and mammalian apoptosis. Here we investigate Yor197w, a yeast protein with structural homology to mammalian caspases, and demonstrate caspase-like processing of the protein. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces apoptosis

Frank Madeo; Eva Herker; Corinna Maldener; Silke Wissing; Stephan Lächelt; Mark Herlan; Markus Fehr; Kirsten Lauber; Stephan J Sigrist; Sebastian Wesselborg; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

2002-01-01

200

MicroRNA-1 promotes apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API-5).  

PubMed

Although microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a known liver cancer suppressor, the role of miR-1 in apoptosis of hepatoma cells has remained largely unknown. Our study shows that ectopic miR-1 overexpression induced apoptosis of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) was found to be a potential regulator of miR-1 induced apoptosis, using a bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-1 and API-5 expression was observed in human liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Negative regulation of API-5 expression by miR-1 was demonstrated to promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Our study provides a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-1 in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. PMID:25433291

Li, Dong; Liu, Yu; Li, Hua; Peng, Jing-Jing; Tan, Yan; Zou, Qiang; Song, Xiao-Feng; Du, Min; Yang, Zheng-Hui; Tan, Yong; Zhou, Jin-Jun; Xu, Tao; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Qiong; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Tao; Wei, Dong; Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Huan-Yi; Qi, Zhong-Chun; Tang, Li-Jun; Wang, Tao; Guo, Xin; Hu, Yong-He; Zhang, Tao

2015-01-01

201

Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site  

SciTech Connect

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published material properties for the major lithologic units of the NNSS and surrounding region were used to build three-dimensional models for seismic wave propagation simulations. The geologic structure near the SPE shot point is quite varied including granitic, carbonate, tuff and alluvium lithologies. We performed preliminary ground motion simulations for a near-source domain covering 8 km x 8 km at the surface centered on the shot point to investigate various source and propagation effects using WPP, LLNL's anelastic seismic wave finite difference code. Simulations indicate that variations in wave propagation properties of the sub-surface will generate strongly path-dependent response once the energy has left the relatively small granitic geology of the near-surface Climax Stock near the SPE shot point. Rough topography to the north and west of SPE shot point causes additional complexity in the signals including energy on the transverse components. Waves propagate much faster through the granitic and carbonate formations and slower through the tuff and alluvium. Synthetic seismograms for a pure explosion source in a 3D geologic structure show large amplitudes on transverse component. For paths to the south sampling the granite, tuff and alluvium lithologies transverse component amplitudes are as high as 50% of that on the vertical and radial components.

Rodgers, A J; Wagoner, J; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

2010-11-07

202

Liquid Metering Centrifuge Sticks (LMCS): A Centrifugal Approach to Metering Known Sample Volumes for Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase separation is one of the most significant obstacles encountered during the development of analytical methods for water quality monitoring in spacecraft environments. Removing air bubbles from water samples prior to analysis is a routine task on earth; however, in the absence of gravity, this routine task becomes extremely difficult. This paper details the development and initial ground testing of liquid metering centrifuge sticks (LMCS), devices designed to collect and meter a known volume of bubble-free water in microgravity. The LMCS uses centrifugal force to eliminate entrapped air and reproducibly meter liquid sample volumes for analysis with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE). C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform that is being developed as a potential spacecraft water quality monitoring system. C-SPE utilizes solid phase extraction membranes impregnated with analyte-specific colorimetric reagents to concentrate and complex target analytes in spacecraft water samples. The mass of analyte extracted from the water sample is determined using diffuse reflectance (DR) data collected from the membrane surface and an analyte-specific calibration curve. The analyte concentration can then be calculated from the mass of extracted analyte and the volume of the sample analyzed. Previous flight experiments conducted in microgravity conditions aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft demonstrated that the inability to collect and meter a known volume of water using a syringe was a limiting factor in the accuracy of C-SPE measurements. Herein, results obtained from ground based C-SPE experiments using ionic silver as a test analyte and either the LMCS or syringes for sample metering are compared to evaluate the performance of the LMCS. These results indicate very good agreement between the two sample metering methods and clearly illustrate the potential of utilizing centrifugal forces to achieve phase separation and metering of water samples in microgravity.

Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Clarke, Mark S.

2007-01-01

203

Cortisol inhibits apoptosis in carp neutrophilic granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct effect of cortisol treatment on carp neutrophil viability was examined in vitro. Cortisol treatment caused an inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor blocker RU486, showing that rescue from apoptosis was receptor mediated. Using binding studies with radioactive cortisol, a single class of glucocorticoid receptors was detected with high affinity (Kd=2.6 nM) and low

F. A. A. Weyts; G. Flik; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

1998-01-01

204

Inhibition of glomerular cell apoptosis by heparin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of glomerular cell apoptosis by heparin.BackgroundHeparin, the multifunctional glycosaminoglycan, has been considered a therapeutic agent for glomerular diseases. Although a number of biological properties are postulated to explain its therapeutic utility, it is unknown whether heparin affects cell survival in the glomerulus. In this report, we investigated the effect of heparin on apoptosis of glomerular cells.MethodsCultured rat mesangial cells

Yoshihisa Ishikawa; Masanori Kitamura

1999-01-01

205

Genetic Defects of Apoptosis and Primary Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Programmed cell death is important for maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis. Several human inherited diseases with impaired apoptosis have been identified at the genetic level: autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caspase-8 deficiency state (CEDS), and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). These diseases feature excess lymphocyte accumulation, autoimmunity, and/or immunodeficiency. Elucidating their molecular pathogenesis has also provided new insights into the signaling mechanisms regulating apoptosis and lymphocyte activation. PMID:18424336

Su, Helen C.; Lenardo, Michael J.

2009-01-01

206

Inhibition of thymocyte apoptosis by berberine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find anti-apoptotic substances in plant resources, a microassay method for estimating DNA fragmentation was established using fluorochrome 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid dihydrochloride. Examination was made of various herbal medicines for inhibitory effects on glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in thymocytes. Several Kampo medicines, e.g. Oren-gedoku-to and San'o-shashin-to, were found to inhibit dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes. Some of these medicines contain Coptidis rhizoma (CR)

Naoko Miura; Masahiro Yamamoto; Toshiyuki Ueki; Toshiyuki Kitani; Kazunori Fukcuda; Yasuhiro Komatsu

1997-01-01

207

Endoglin differentially regulates TGF-b-induced Smad2/3 and Smad1/5 signalling and its expression correlates with extracellular matrix  

E-print Network

Endoglin differentially regulates TGF-b-induced Smad2/3 and Smad1/5 signalling and its expression TGF-b1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad3-driven transcriptional activity and ECM production TGF-b/ALK1/ Smad1/5 and ALK5/Smad2/3 signalling and ECM production in human chondrocytes

Buschmann, Michael

208

Prostaglandins antagonistically control Bax activation during apoptosis.  

PubMed

The Bax protein (Bcl-2-associated X protein) is pivotal for the apoptotic process. Bax, which resides in an inactive form in the cytosol of healthy cells, is activated during the early stages of apoptosis and becomes associated with mitochondria through poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that a family of bioactive lipids, namely prostaglandins, regulates Bax-dependent apoptosis. The prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) or its derivative PGA(2) binds to Bax, induces its change of conformation, and thereby triggers apoptosis. A cysteine present in the loop between the two transmembrane ?-helices of Bax, Cys126 is critical for its activation. PGD(2) inhibits PGE(2) binding to Bax and PGE(2)-induced apoptosis, as well as cell death induced by staurosporine and UV-B in various cell lines. This result is consistent with the fact that apoptosis is accompanied during these treatments by an increase in PGE(2). This process is distinct, yet cooperative, from that involving the BH3-only protein Bid. Our results establish that the PGE(2)/PGD(2) balance is involved in a new early mechanism of control in the activation of Bax during apoptosis. PMID:20966963

Lalier, L; Cartron, P-F; Olivier, C; Logé, C; Bougras, G; Robert, J-M; Oliver, L; Vallette, F M

2011-03-01

209

Prostaglandins antagonistically control Bax activation during apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The Bax protein (Bcl-2-associated X protein) is pivotal for the apoptotic process. Bax, which resides in an inactive form in the cytosol of healthy cells, is activated during the early stages of apoptosis and becomes associated with mitochondria through poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that a family of bioactive lipids, namely prostaglandins, regulates Bax-dependent apoptosis. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or its derivative PGA2 binds to Bax, induces its change of conformation, and thereby triggers apoptosis. A cysteine present in the loop between the two transmembrane ?-helices of Bax, Cys126 is critical for its activation. PGD2 inhibits PGE2 binding to Bax and PGE2-induced apoptosis, as well as cell death induced by staurosporine and UV-B in various cell lines. This result is consistent with the fact that apoptosis is accompanied during these treatments by an increase in PGE2. This process is distinct, yet cooperative, from that involving the BH3-only protein Bid. Our results establish that the PGE2/PGD2 balance is involved in a new early mechanism of control in the activation of Bax during apoptosis. PMID:20966963

Lalier, L; Cartron, P-F; Olivier, C; Logé, C; Bougras, G; Robert, J-M; Oliver, L; Vallette, F M

2011-01-01

210

The Source Physics Experiments (SPE): A Physics-Based Approach to Discriminate Low-Yield Nuclear Events (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discriminating low-yield nuclear explosions is one of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification. Work is currently underway in Nevada to address this challenge by conducting a series of experiments using a physics-based approach. This has been accomplished by using a multifaceted, multi-disciplinary approach that includes a range of activities, from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data both in the near field (< 100 m from the source) to the far field (> 100 m to 10 s km from the source). The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center. The goal of the SPE is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and to understand how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. To fully explore these problems, the SPE test series includes tests in both simple and complex geology cases. The current series is being conducted in a highly fractured granite body. This location was chosen, in part, because it was the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body and because generally the geology has been well characterized. In addition to historic data, high-resolution seismic reflection, cross-hole tomography, core samples, LIDAR, hyperspectral, and fracture mapping data have been acquired to further characterize and detect changes after each of the shot across the test bed. The complex geology series includes 7 planned shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival, Velocity of Detonation, down-hole accelerometers, surface accelerometers, infrasound, and a suite of seismic sensors of various frequency bands from the near field to the far field. This allows for the use of a single test bed in the granite instead of multiple test beds to obtain the same results. The shots are planned at various depths to obtain a Green's function, scaled depth-of-burial data, nominal depth-of-burial data and damage-zone data. Three shots have been executed to date and the fourth is planned for August 2013 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent shot at a depth of 315 ft (96 m). Over 400 data channels have been recorded on the first series of shots with high fidelity. Once the complex geology site data have been exploited, a new test bed will be developed in a simpler geology to test these physics-based models. Ultimately, the results from this project will provide the next advances in the science of monitoring to enable a physics-based predicative capability. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25946--1835.

Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.

2013-12-01

211

Real-Time Data Management, IP Telemetry, Data Integration, and Data Center Operations for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), Nevada National Security Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) manages time-series data and high-throughput IP telemetry for the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiment (SPE), underway on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). During active-source experiments, SPE's heterogeneous systems record over 350 channels of a variety of data types including seismic, infrasound, acoustic, and electro-magnetic. During the interim periods, broadband and short period instruments record approximately 200 channels of continuous, high-sample-rate seismic data. Frequent changes in sensor and station configurations create a challenging meta-data environment. Meta-data account for complete operational histories, including sensor types, serial numbers, gains, sample rates, orientations, instrument responses, data-logger types etc. To date, these catalogue 217 stations, over 40 different sensor types, and over 1000 unique recording configurations (epochs). Facilities for processing, backup, and distribution of time-series data currently span four Linux servers, 60Tb of disk capacity, and two data centers. Bandwidth, physical security, and redundant power and cooling systems for acquisition, processing, and backup servers are provided by NSL's Reno data center. The Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) System Computer Services (SCS) in Las Vegas provides similar facilities for the distribution server. NSL staff handle setup, maintenance, and security of all data management systems. SPE PIs have remote access to meta-data, raw data, and CSS3.0 compilations, via SSL-based transfers such as rsync or secure-copy, as well as shell access for data browsing and limited processing. Meta-data are continuously updated and posted on the Las Vegas distribution server as station histories are better understood and errors are corrected. Raw time series and refined CSS3.0 data compilations with standardized formats are transferred to the Las Vegas data server as available. For better data availability and station monitoring, SPE is beginning to leverage NSL's wide-area digital IP network with nine SPE stations and six Rock Valley area stations that stream continuous recordings in real time to the NSL Reno data center. These stations, in addition to eight regional legacy stations supported by National Security Technologies (NSTec), are integrated with NSL's regional monitoring network and constrain a high-quality local earthquake catalog for NNSS. The telemetered stations provide critical capabilities for SPE, and infrastructure for earthquake response on NNSS as well as southern Nevada and the Las Vegas area.

Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Williams, M.; Smith, K. D.

2012-12-01

212

Novel inhibitors are cytotoxic for myeloma cells with NFkB inducing kinase-dependent activation of NFkB  

PubMed Central

NFkB activity is critical for survival and proliferation of normal lymphoid cells and many kinds of B-cell tumors, including multiple myeloma (MM). NFkB activating mutations, which are apparent progression events, enable MM tumors to become less dependent on bone marrow signals that activate NFkB. Mutations that activate NFkB-inducing kinase (NIK) protein are the most prevalent among the many kinds of NFkB mutations in MM tumors. NIK is the main activating kinase of the alternative NFkB pathway, although over-expression of NIK also can activate the classical pathway. Two NIK inhibitors and an isomeric control were tested with human myeloma cell lines. These specific NIK inhibitors are selectively cytotoxic for cells with NIK-dependent activation of NFkB. Combination therapy targeting NIK and IKKbeta (as a main kinase of the classical NFkB pathway) represents a promising treatment strategy in MM. NIK inhibitors can also be useful tool for assessing the role of NIK and alternative NFkB pathway in different cells. PMID:24980832

Demchenko, Yulia N.; Brents, Leslie A.; Li, Zhihong; Bergsagel, Leif P.; McGee, Lawrence R.; Kuehl, Michael W.

2014-01-01

213

Interaction of COP1 and UVR8 regulates UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and stress acclimation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) portion of the solar radiation functions as an environmental signal for which plants have evolved specific and sensitive UV-B perception systems. The UV-B-specific UV RESPONSE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) and the multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) are key regulators of the UV-B response. We show here that uvr8-null mutants are deficient in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and hypersensitive to UV-B stress, whereas overexpression of UVR8 results in enhanced UV-B photomorphogenesis, acclimation and tolerance to UV-B stress. By using sun simulators, we provide evidence at the physiological level that UV-B acclimation mediated by the UV-B-specific photoregulatory pathway is indeed required for survival in sunlight. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that the wild type but not the mutant UVR8 and COP1 proteins directly interact in a UV-B-dependent, rapid manner in planta. These data collectively suggest that UV-B-specific interaction of COP1 and UVR8 in the nucleus is a very early step in signalling and responsible for the plant's coordinated response to UV-B ensuring UV-B acclimation and protection in the natural environment. PMID:19165148

Favory, Jean-Jacques; Stec, Agnieszka; Gruber, Henriette; Rizzini, Luca; Oravecz, Attila; Funk, Markus; Albert, Andreas; Cloix, Catherine; Jenkins, Gareth I; Oakeley, Edward J; Seidlitz, Harald K; Nagy, Ferenc; Ulm, Roman

2009-01-01

214

NF-?B-inducing kinase is a key regulator of inflammation-induced and tumour-associated angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is essential during development and in pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Inhibition of angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blocks disease progression, but most patients eventually develop resistance which may result from compensatory signalling pathways. In endothelial cells (ECs), expression of the pro-angiogenic chemokine CXCL12 is regulated by non-canonical nuclear factor (NF)-?B signalling. Here, we report that NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) and subsequent non-canonical NF-?B signalling regulate both inflammation-induced and tumour-associated angiogenesis. NIK is highly expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) in tumour tissues and inflamed rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Furthermore, non-canonical NF-?B signalling in human microvascular ECs significantly enhanced vascular tube formation, which was completely blocked by siRNA targeting NIK. Interestingly, Nik?/? mice exhibited normal angiogenesis during development and unaltered TNF?- or VEGF-induced angiogenic responses, whereas angiogenesis induced by non-canonical NF-?B stimuli was significantly reduced. In addition, angiogenesis in experimental arthritis and a murine tumour model was severely impaired in these mice. These studies provide evidence for a role of non-canonical NF-?B signalling in pathological angiogenesis, and identify NIK as a potential therapeutic target in chronic inflammatory diseases and tumour neoangiogenesis. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25043127

Noort, Ae R; van Zoest, Katinka PM; Weijers, Ester M; Koolwijk, Pieter; Maracle, Chrissta X; Novack, Deborah V; Siemerink, Martin J; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Tak, Paul P; Tas, Sander W

2014-01-01

215

CASPASE CONTROL: PROTAGONISTS OF CANCER CELL APOPTOSIS  

PubMed Central

Emergence of castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer is due to activation of survival pathways, including apoptosis suppression and anoikis resistance, and increased neovascularization. Thus targeting of apoptotic players is of critical significance in prostate cancer therapy since loss of apoptosis and resistance to anoikis are critical in aberrant malignant growth, metastasis and conferring therapeutic failure. The majority of therapeutic agents act through intrinsic mitochondrial, extrinsic death receptor pathways or endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways to induce apoptosis. Current therapeutic strategies target restoring regulatory molecules that govern the pro-survival pathways such as PTEN which regulates AKT activity. Other strategies focus on reactivating the apoptotic pathways either by down-regulating anti-apoptotic players such as BCL-2 or by up-regulating pro-apoptotic protein families, most notably, the caspases. Caspases are a family of cystine proteases which serve critical roles in apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. During tumorigenesis, significant loss or inactivation of lead members in the caspase family leads to impairing apoptosis induction, causing a dramatic imbalance in the growth dynamics, ultimately resulting in aberrant growth of human cancers. Recent exploitation of apoptosis pathways towards re-instating apoptosis induction via caspase re-activation has provided new molecular platforms for the development of therapeutic strategies effective against advanced prostate cancer as well as other solid tumors. This review will discuss the current cellular landscape featuring the caspase family in tumor cells and their activation via pharmacologic intervention towards optimized anti-cancer therapeutic modalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Apoptosis: Four Decades Later”. PMID:23070001

Fiandalo, M.V.; Kyprianou, N.

2013-01-01

216

Preparation and evaluation of a novel molecularly imprinted SPE monolithic capillary column for the determination of auramine O in shrimp.  

PubMed

A novel method combining molecular imprinting and SPE was developed in a capillary column for the determination of auramine O in shrimp. The capillary monolithic column was prepared by UV-initiated in situ polymerization, using auramine O as template and methacrylic acid and ethylene dimethacrylate as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The properties of the prepared capillary monolithic column were investigated under the optimized conditions coupled with HPLC, and then the morphologies of the inner polymers were characterized by SEM. The calibration curve was expressed as A = 103C + 19.8 (r = 0.9992) with a linear range of 0.25-25.0 ?g/mL, and the recoveries of auramine O at different concentrations in shrimp ranged from 90.5 to 92.4% with RSDs ranging from 2.1 to 4.4%. The capacities of the molecularly imprinted polymer and nonimprinted polymer columns were 0.722 and 0.147 ?g/mg, respectively, and the LOD (S/N = 3) of auramine O in shrimp was 17.85 ?g/kg. Under the selected conditions, the enrichment factors obtained were higher than 70-fold. The results indicate that the prepared molecularly imprinted capillary monolithic column was reliable and applicable to the analysis of auramine O in shrimp. PMID:23996859

Li, Jiangmei; Zhai, Haiyun; Chen, Zuanguang; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Zhenping; Su, Zihao

2013-11-01

217

Near-Infrared Spectral Monitoring of Triton with IRTF/SpeX II: Spatial Distribution and Evolution of Ices  

E-print Network

This report arises from an ongoing program to monitor Neptune's largest moon Triton spectroscopically in the 0.8 to 2.4 micron range using IRTF/SpeX. Our objective is to search for changes on Triton's surface as witnessed by changes in the infrared absorption bands of its surface ices N2, CH4, H2O, CO, and CO2. We have recorded infrared spectra of Triton on 53 nights over the ten apparitions from 2000 through 2009. The data generally confirm our previously reported diurnal spectral variations of the ice absorption bands (Grundy & Young 2004). Nitrogen ice shows a large amplitude variation, with much stronger absorption on Triton's Neptune-facing hemisphere. We present evidence for seasonal evolution of Triton's N2 ice: the 2.15 micron absorption band appears to be diminishing, especially on the Neptune-facing hemisphere. Although it is mostly dissolved in N2 ice, Triton's CH4 ice shows a very different longitudinal variation from the N2 ice, challenging assumptions of how the two ices behave. Unlike Trito...

Grundy, W M; Stansberry, J A; Buie, M W; Olkin, C B; Young, E F

2009-01-01

218

A ?-SPE procedure for the determination of cannabinoids and their metabolites in urine by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

In this paper the development and validation of a method for the analysis of THC-COOH, THC, THC-OH, CBD and CBN in their total form in urine by LC-MS/MS is presented. Tandem hydrolysis, i.e. enzymatic and basic, has been found optimal for the simultaneous analysis of the selected analytes in urine: basic hydrolysis is more effective for the cleavage of THC-COOH glucuronide while enzymatic hydrolysis allows the cleavage of the conjugated cannabinoids possessing ether bonds (THC, THC-OH, CBD). The whole procedure requires a 2h enzymatic hydrolysis using only 90?L of urine by ?-SPE extraction technique with C18 tips. Clear advantages in terms of time and of enzyme reduction are obtained and the cost of the analysis can be dramatically reduced. Satisfactory recovery values and matrix effect are obtained, and the chromatographic run, performed with a fused-core column, allowed the complete analyte separation in only 3min (total run 5.8min) with a common HPLC system. Furthermore the whole procedure has been validated according to SWGTOX guidelines: LOQs are between 6 and 10ppb, quite lower than the requested cut-off for urine testing; intermediate reproducibility of the selected analytes is below 10% and accuracy is between 85% and 113%, except for CBD, included only for semi-quantitative determination. PMID:24469020

Montesano, Camilla; Sergi, Manuel; Odoardi, Sara; Simeoni, Maria Chiara; Compagnone, Dario; Curini, Roberta

2014-03-01

219

Quantitative analysis of six polyynes and one polyene in Oplopanax horridus and Oplopanax elatus by pressurized liquid extraction and on-line SPE-HPLC.  

PubMed

A pressurized liquid extraction and on-line SPE-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyynes, including falcarindiol, oplopandiol, (11S,16S,9Z)-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol,1-acetate, oplopandiol acetate, oplopantriol A, oplopantriol B, and one polyene, (S,E)-nerolidol, in Oplopanax horridus and Oplpanax elatus. The analysis was conducted on a Grace Prevail C(18) column (3 microm, 7 mm x 33 mm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water after the sample loaded and washed with 42%ACN in 0.3 min on a phenomenex Strata-X on-line Extraction Cartridge SPE column (2.5 microm, 2.0 x 20 mm). All calibration curves of seven analytes showed good linearity within the test ranges. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify six polyynes and one polyene in two species of Oplopanax, O. horridus and O. elatus. PMID:20638214

Huang, Weihua; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Chong-zhi; Yuan, Chun-su; Li, Shao-ping

2010-12-01

220

Use of diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR to identify undeclared synthetic drugs in medicines illegally sold as phytotherapies.  

PubMed

The informal (and/or illegal) e-commerce of pharmaceutical formulations causes problems that governmental health agencies find hard to control, one of which concerns formulas sold as natural products. The purpose of this work was to explore the advantages and limitations of DOSY and HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR. These techniques were used to identify the components of a formula illegally marketed in Brazil as an herbal medicine possessing anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. DOSY was able to detect the major components present at higher concentrations. Complete characterization was achieved using HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR, and 1D and 2D NMR analyses enabled the identification of known synthetic drugs. These were ranitidine and a mixture of orphenadrine citrate, piroxicam, and dexamethasone, which are co-formulated in a remedy called Rheumazim that is used to relieve severe pain, but it is prohibited in Brazil because of a lack of sufficient pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information. PMID:23818305

Silva, Lorena M A; Filho, Elenilson G A; Thomasi, Sérgio S; Silva, Bianca F; Ferreira, Antonio G; Venâncio, Tiago

2013-09-01

221

Microtubule-targeted anticancer agents and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of microtubule (MT) assembly into the mitotic spindle during mitosis and the molecular signaling and execution of the various pathways to apoptosis. In the same period, the microtubule-targeted tubulin-polymerizing agents (MTPAs), notably paclitaxel and taxotere, have come to occupy a central role in the treatment of a variety of human epithelial cancers. Following their binding to B-tubulin, MTPAs inhibit MT dynamic instability, cell cycle G2/M phase transition and mitotic arrest of cancer cells. MTPA-induced anti-MT and cell cycle effects trigger the molecular signaling for the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This triggering is orchestrated through different molecular links and determined by the threshold for apoptosis that is set and controlled diversely in various cancer types. The complexity and regulatory potential of the links and the apoptosis threshold are integral to the transformed biology of the cancer cell. The emerging understanding of this biology and how it is influenced by treatment with MTPAs has highlighted novel strategies to further enhance the antitumor activity and overcome resistance to MTPA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:14663486

Bhalla, Kapil N

2003-12-01

222

Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ??m. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

2013-02-01

223

Apoptosis of beta cells in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Apoptosis in beta cells has been observed in response to diverse stimuli, such as glucose, cytokines, free fatty acids, leptin, and sulfonylureas, leading to the activation of polyol, hexosamine, and diacylglycerol/protein kinase-C (DAG/PKC) pathways that mediate oxidative and nitrosative stress causing the release of different cytokines. Cytokines induce the expression of Fas and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) by activating the transcription factor, nuclear factor-?b, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) in the ? cells in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Cytokines produced in beta cells also induce proapoptotic members of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The genetic alterations in apoptosis signaling machinery and the pathogenesis of diabetes include Fas, FasL, Akt, caspases, calpain-10, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). The other gene products that are involved in diabetes are nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2), small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), and Kruppel-like zinc finger protein Gli-similar 3 (GLIS3). The gene products having antiapoptotic nature are Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in type I and type II diabetes. Further studies on the apoptotic genes and gene products in diabetics may be helpful in pharmacogenomics and individualized treatment along with antioxidants targeting apoptosis in diabetes. PMID:25093391

Anuradha, Rachakatla; Saraswati, Mudigonda; Kumar, Kishore G; Rani, Surekha H

2014-11-01

224

From the Cover: Crystal structure of the zymogen form of the group A Streptococcus virulence factor SpeB: An integrin-binding cysteine protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic bacteria secrete protein toxins that weaken or disable their host, and thereby act as virulence factors. We have determined the crystal structure of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), a cysteine protease that is a major virulence factor of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes and participates in invasive disease episodes, including necrotizing fasciitis. The structure, determined for the 40-kDa precursor

Todd F. Kagawa; Jakki C. Cooney; Heather M. Baker; Sean McSweeney; Mengyao Liu; Siddeswar Gubba; James M. Musser; Edward N. Baker

2000-01-01

225

Dissolution of hydrogen and the ratio of the dissolved hydrogen content to the produced hydrogen in electrolyzed water using SPE water electrolyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of dissolved hydrogen in electrolyzed water using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer was investigated using a DH-meter. A ratio of the dissolved hydrogen content to an amount of hydrogen concentration calculated from charge passed during electrolysis was estimated. The ratio increased from 10 to 20% with a decrease in current density from 3.0 to 0.3 A dm?2.

Yoshinori Tanaka; Sakae Uchinashi; Yasuhiro Saihara; Kenji Kikuchi; Takuji Okaya; Zempachi Ogumi

2003-01-01

226

Determination and Characterization of Caffeine in Tea, Coffee and Soft Drinks by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (SPE - HPLC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine (1,3,5-trimethylxanthine), a mild addicting drug was isolated, purified and characterized from tea (black and green) and coffee. Isolation was done by liquid-liquid extraction using chloroform as an extracting solvent. Extraction was carried out in four steps such as leaching, dye removal, liquid extraction and recrystallization. Crude caffeine was purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The solvent used for

Abdul Mumin; Kazi Farida Akhter; Zainal Abedin

227

Direct rapid analysis of multiple PPCPs in municipal wastewater using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without SPE pre-concentration.  

PubMed

Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to develop a rapid, sensitive and reliable method without solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration for trace analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in in?uent and ef?uent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This method not only shortened the analysis time but also reduced analysis cost significantly by omitting SPE process and avoiding the consumption of SPE cartridge. Detection parameters for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis were optimized, including sample pH, eluent, mobile phase (solvent and additive), column temperature, and ?ow rate. Under the optimal conditions, all analytes were well separated and detected within 8.0min by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method quantification limits (MQLs) for the 11 PPCPs ranged from 0.040 to 88ngL(-1) and from 0.030 to 90ngL(-1) for influent and effluent, respectively. The matrix effect was systematically investigated and quantified for different types of samples. The analysis of in?uent and ef?uent samples of two WWTPs in Hong Kong revealed the presence of 11 PPCPs, including acyclovir, benzophenone-3, benzylparaben, carbamazepine, ethylparaben, fluconazole, fluoxetine, methylparaben, metronidazole, propylparaben, and ranitidine. Their concentrations ranged from 9.1 to 1810ngL(-1) in influent and from 6.5 to 823ngL(-1) in effluent samples collected from Hong Kong WWTPs. PMID:22790701

Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

2012-08-13

228

Application of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) to Monitoring Nickel(II) and Lead(II) in Spacecraft Water Supplies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Archived water samples collected on the International Space Station (ISS) and returned to Earth for analysis have, in a few instances, contained trace levels of heavy metals. Building on our previous advances using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a biocide monitoring technique, we are devising methods for the low level monitoring of nickel(II), lead(II) and other heavy metals. C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform based on the extraction of analytes onto a membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent that are then quantified on the surface of the membrane using a diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Along these lines, we have determined nickel(II) via complexation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and begun to examine the analysis of lead(II) by its reaction with 2,5- dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD) and 4-(2- pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR). These developments are also extending a new variant of C-SPE in which immobilized reagents are being incorporated into this methodology in order to optimize sample reaction conditions and to introduce the colorimetric reagent. This paper describes the status of our development of these two new methods.

Diaz, Neil C.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.; Rutz, Jeff; Mudgett, Paul; Schultz, John

2004-01-01

229

Simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs, and artificial sweeteners in environmental water samples using a single-step SPE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution.  

PubMed

A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 24 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) was developed. The method was based on a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution. In this study, a single-step SPE procedure was optimized for simultaneous extraction of all target analytes. Good recoveries (? 70%) were observed for all target analytes when extraction was performed using Chromabond(®) HR-X (500 mg, 6 mL) cartridges under acidic condition (pH 2). HPLC-MS/MS parameters were optimized for the simultaneous analysis of 24 PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in a single injection. Quantification was performed by using 13 isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS), which allows correcting efficiently the loss of the analytes during SPE procedure, matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. Method quantification limit (MQL) for most of the target analytes was below 10 ng/L in all water samples. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater samples collected in a local catchment area in Singapore. In conclusion, the developed method provided a valuable tool for investigating the occurrence, behavior, transport, and the fate of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in the aquatic environment. PMID:23708627

Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

2013-09-15

230

Lipid Metabolism, Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:25561239

Huang, Chunfa; Freter, Carl

2015-01-01

231

UV-B-induced signaling events leading to enhanced-production of catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures  

PubMed Central

Background Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. In cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. However, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of UV-B irradiation was found to increase the amount of catharanthine and transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc) and strictosidine synthase (Str). In the present study, the signaling pathway mediating UV-B-induced catharanthine accumulation in C. roseus suspension cultures were investigated. Results Here, we investigate whether cell surface receptors, medium alkalinization, Ca2+ influx, H2O2, CDPK and MAPK play required roles in UV-B signaling leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. C. roseus cells were pretreated with various agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components and their effects on the accumulation of Tdc and Str transcripts as well as amount of catharanthine production were investigated by various molecular biology techniques. It has been found that the catharanthine accumulation and transcription of Tdc and Str were inhibited by 3–4 fold upon pretreatment of various inhibitors like suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, inhibitors of calcium fluxes, staurosporine etc. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that cell surface receptor(s), Ca2+ influx, medium alkalinization, CDPK, H2O2 and MAPK play significant roles in UV-B signaling leading to stimulation of Tdc and Str genes and the accumulation of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. Based on these findings, a model for signal transduction cascade has been proposed. PMID:17988378

Ramani, Shilpa; Chelliah, Jayabaskaran

2007-01-01

232

DDM1 and ROS1 have a role in UV-B induced- and oxidative DNA damage in A. thaliana  

PubMed Central

Absorption of UV-B by DNA induces the formation of covalent bonds between adjacent pyrimidines. In maize and arabidopsis, plants deficient in chromatin remodeling show increased DNA damage compared to WT plants after a UV-B treatment. However, the role of enzymes that participate in DNA methylation in DNA repair after UV-B damage was not previously investigated. In this work, we analyzed how chromatin remodeling activities that have an effect on DNA methylation affects the repair of UV-B damaged DNA using plants deficient in the expression of DDM1 and ROS1. First, we analyzed their regulation by UV-B radiation in arabidopsis plants. Then, we demonstrated that ddm1 mutants accumulated more DNA damage after UV-B exposure compared to Col0 plants. Surprisingly, ros1 mutants show less CPDs and 6-4PPs than WT plants after the treatment under light conditions, while the repair under dark conditions is impaired. Transcripts for two photolyases are highly induced by UV-B in ros1 mutants, suggesting that the lower accumulation of photoproducts by UV-B is due to increased photorepair in these mutants. Finally, we demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage does not occur after UV-B exposure in arabidopsis plants; however, ros1 plants accumulate high levels of oxoproducts, while ddm1 mutants have less oxoproducts than Col0 plants, suggesting that both ROS1 and DDM1 have a role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Together, our data provide evidence that both DDM1 and ROS1, directly or indirectly, participate in UV-B induced- and oxidative DNA damage repair. PMID:24155752

Qüesta, Julia I.; Fina, Julieta P.; Casati, Paula

2013-01-01

233

p38-NF-?B-promoted mitochondria-associated apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in norcantharidin-treated HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Previous study proved that norcantharidin (NCTD) could exert its anticancer activity in a variety of malignant cell lines, including human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. In this study, we found that NCTD-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)-nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation and G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. NCTD-induced mitochondria-associated apoptosis was concomitant with the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)), translocation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, and release of cytochrome c. NCTD-led G2/M cell-cycle arrest was associated with the up-regulated p21 and p-cdc25c expression and the down-regulated cyclin B and cdc2 expression. Treatment of the cells with p38 inhibitor SB203580 and NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) showed that p38 functioned upstream of NF-?B, while augmented apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were induced in response to NCTD with NF-?B activation. Intriguingly, NF-?B had a negative feedback regulatory effect on p38 activation. Moreover, NCTD-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were significantly blocked by SB203580 and PDTC but not by pifithrin-? (p53 inhibitor). Therefore, p38-NF-?B induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and G2/M cell cycle arrest in NCTD-treated HeLa cells. PMID:23281704

Dong, Xiu; Li, Jian-Chun; Jiang, Yuan-Yuan; Xia, Ming-Yu; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

2012-01-01

234

Redox-dependent translocation of p53 to mitochondria or nucleus in human melanocytes after UVA- and UVB-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The p53 protein is an important transcription factor and tumor suppressor that is induced in response to many forms of cellular stress. UVA irradiation of human melanocytes caused generation of reactive oxygen species, which altered the intracellular redox balance and was accompanied by translocation of p53 to mitochondria. In contrast, UVB did not affect the redox status and p53 was translocated to the nucleus. Although different intracellular location of p53, UVA/B induced apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway detected as translocation of Bax to mitochondria, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspases. These events were all prevented by inhibition of p53 with pifithrin-alpha. Furthermore, inhibition of p53 prevented lysosomal membrane permeabilization, detected as translocation of cathepsins to the cytosol, after UVB exposure, whereas UVA-induced lysosomal release was unaffected by inhibition of p53. In control cells, p53 coimmunoprecipitated with the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) and upon UVA exposure the interaction was replaced by binding to the proapoptotic proteins Bax, Noxa, and Puma. Our findings suggest that UVA-induced apoptosis is caused by extensive oxidative damage leading to p53-regulated mitochondrial release, whereas UVB induces DNA damage and apoptosis signaling upstream of lysosomal membrane permeabilization. PMID:19158844

Wäster, Petra K; Ollinger, Karin M

2009-07-01

235

The TRAIL of oncogenes to apoptosis.  

PubMed

Despite the significant advances in clinical research, surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are still used as the primary method for cancer treatment. As compared to conventional therapies that often induce systemic toxicity and eventually contribute to tumor resistance, the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent that selectively triggers apoptosis in various cancer cells by interacting with its proapoptotic receptors DR4 and KILLER/DR5, while sparing the normal surrounding tissue. The intensive studies of TRAIL signaling pathways over the past decade have provided clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in carcinogenesis and identified an array of therapeutic responses elicited by TRAIL and its receptor agonists. Analysis of its activity at the molecular level has shown that TRAIL improves survival either as monotherapies or combinatorial therapies with other mediators of apoptosis or anticancer chemotherapy. Combinatorial treatments amplify the activities of anticancer agents and widen the therapeutic window by overcoming tumor resistance to apoptosis and driving cancer cells to self-destruction. Although TRAIL sensitivity varies widely depending on the cell type, nontransformed cells are largely resistant to death mediated by TRAIL Death Receptors (DRs). Genetic alterations in cancer can contribute in tumor progression and often play an important role in evasion of apoptosis by tumor cells. Remarkably, RAS, MYC and HER2 oncogenes have been shown to sensitise tumor cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Here, we summarise the cross-talk of oncogenic and apoptotic pathways and how they can be exploited toward efficient combinatorial therapeutic protocols. PMID:23813857

Oikonomou, Eftychia; Pintzas, Alexander

2013-01-01

236

Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 355Sonoma State University 2011-2012 Catalog nurS 312 bACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS i (4)  

E-print Network

Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 355Sonoma State University 2011-2012 Catalog nurS 312 bACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS i (4) Explore contemporary perspectives in baccalaureate nursing with emphasis, leadership and professional development. nurS 313 bACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS ii (4) Seminar, 4 hours

Ravikumar, B.

237

Inverse Relation between Disease Severity and Expression of the Streptococcal Cysteine Protease, SpeB, among Clonal M1T1 Isolates Recovered from Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB) is one of the major virulence factors produced by group A streptococci (GAS). In this study we investigated if differences exist in SpeB production by clonally related M1T1 clinical isolates derived from patients with invasive infections. Twenty-nine of these isolates were from nonsevere cases and 48 were from severe cases, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

RITA G. KANSAL; ALLISON MCGEER; DONALD E. LOW; ANNA NORRBY-TEGLUND; MALAK KOTB

2000-01-01

238

APOPTOSIS: Till Death Us Do Part  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Epithelial cells need to remain firmly attached to each other and to the extracellular matrix. In the event that these cells become detached, they undergo apoptosis. In a Perspective, Hunt and Evan discuss new work that identifies the trigger that sets in motion the apoptosis program following detachment (Puthalakath et al.). The trigger turns out to be the pro-apoptotic protein Bmf. This protein is attached to the myosin V motor complex of the actin cytoskeleton under normal conditions, but is set free once cells become detached.

Abigail Hunt (University of California-San Francisco Cancer Center; )

2001-09-07

239

APOPTOSIS: Mitochondria--the Death Signal Integrators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Many of the intricate pathways of apoptosis that instruct a cell to kill itself involve the convergence of key proteins on the membranes of mitochondria. Such proteins induce the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes and the release of caspase enzymes and nuclease activators that set in motion the final stages of programmed cell death. Now, as Brenner and Kroemer discuss in their Perspective, a proapoptotic transcription factor called TR3 has been found to move from its normal location in the nucleus to the mitochondria and to promote release of cytochrome c, a key event in apoptosis (Li et al.)

Catherine Brenner (Institut Gustave Roussy; Université de Technologie de Compiègne ;Apoptosis, Cancer and Immunity Laboratory associated with the National League Against Cancer); Guido Kroemer (Institut Gustave Roussy; Université de Technologie de Compiègne ;Apoptosis, Cancer and Immunity Laboratory associated with the National League Against Cancer)

2000-08-18

240

The Paracrine Role of Stem Cell Factor\\/c-kit Signaling in the Activation of Human Melanocytes in Ultraviolet-B-Induced Pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of stem cell factor with its receptor, c-kit, is well known to be critical to the survival of melanocytes. Little is known about the role(s) of the stem cell factor\\/c-kit interaction in epidermal pigmentation, however. To clarify whether the stem cell factor\\/c-kit signaling has a paracrine role in ultraviolet-B-induced pigmentation, we determined whether the exposure of human keratinocytes,

Akira Hachiya; Akemi Kobayashi; Atsushi Ohuchi; Yoshinori Takema; Genji Imokawa

2001-01-01

241

C5a receptor and thymocyte apoptosis in sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sepsis, apoptosis occurs in many different organs. The mediators responsible for induction of apoptosis are not clearly known, although there are some suggestions that C5a and the C5a receptor (C5aR) might be directly linked to apoptosis. In the cecal ligation\\/puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in rats, apoptosis occurs early in a variety of organs, especially in the thymus. We

Niels C. Riedemann; Ren-Feng Guo; Ines J. Laudes; Katie Keller; Vidya J. Sarma; Vaishalee Padgaonkar; Firas S. Zetoune; Peter A. Ward

2002-01-01

242

SPE HG-AAS method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in rice--results from method validation studies and a survey on rice products.  

PubMed

The present paper describes the development, validation and application of a method for inorganic arsenic (iAs) determination in rice samples. The separation of iAs from organoarsenic compounds was done by off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) detection. This approach was earlier developed for seafood samples (Rasmussen et al., Anal Bioanal Chem 403:2825-2834, 2012) and has in the present work been tailored for rice products and further optimised for a higher sample throughput and a lower detection limit. Water bath heating (90 °C, 60 min) of samples with dilute HNO3 and H2O2 solubilised and oxidised all iAs to arsenate (As(V)). Loading of buffered sample extracts (pH 6?±?1) followed by selective elution of arsenate from a strong anion exchange SPE cartridge enabled the selective iAs quantification by HG-AAS, measuring total arsenic (As) in the SPE eluate. The in-house validation gave mean recoveries of 101-106% for spiked rice samples and in two reference samples. The limit of detection was 0.02 mg kg(-1), and repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility were less than 6 and 9%, respectively. The SPE HG-AAS method produced similar results compared to parallel high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The SPE separation step was tested collaboratively, where the laboratories (N?=?10) used either HG-AAS or ICP-MS for iAs determination in a wholemeal rice powder. The trial gave satisfactory results (HorRat value of 1.6) and did not reveal significant difference (t test, p?>?0.05) between HG-AAS and ICP-MS quantification. The iAs concentration in 36 rice samples purchased on the Danish retail market varied (0.03-0.60 mg kg(-1)), with the highest concentration found in a red rice sample. PMID:23604416

Rasmussen, Rie R; Qian, Yiting; Sloth, Jens J

2013-09-01

243

VASP Activation via the G?13/RhoA/PKA Pathway Mediates Cucurbitacin-B-Induced Actin Aggregation and Cofilin-Actin Rod Formation  

PubMed Central

Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a potent antineoplastic agent of cucurbitacin triterpenoids, induces rapid disruption of actin cytoskeleton and aberrant cell cycle inhibiting carcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of such anticancer effects remains incompletely understood. In this study, we showed that CuB treatment rapidly induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation (i.e. activation) at the Ser157 residue and generated VASP clumps which were co-localized with amorphous actin aggregates prior to the formation of highly-ordered cofilin-actin rods in melanoma cells. Knockdown of VASP or inhibition of VASP activation using PKA-specific inhibitor H89 suppressed CuB-induced VASP activation, actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation. The VASP activation was mediated by cAMP-independent PKA activation as CuB decreased the levels of cAMP while MDL12330A, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, had weak effect on VASP activation. Knockdown of either G?13 or RhoA not only suppressed VASP activation, but also ameliorated CuB-induced actin aggregation and abrogated cofilin-actin rod formation. Collectively, our studies highlighted that the CuB-induced actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation was mediated via the G?13/RhoA/PKA/VASP pathway. PMID:24691407

Zhang, Yan-Ting; Xu, Li-Hui; Lu, Qun; Liu, Kun-Peng; Liu, Pei-Yan; Ji, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

2014-01-01

244

Stereoselective suppressive effects of protopanaxadiol epimers on UV-B-induced reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in human dermal keratinocytes.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the skin-related anti-photoaging activities of the 2 epimeric forms of protopanaxadiol (PPD), 20(S)-PPD and 20(R)-PPD, in cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). The anti-photoaging activity was evaluated by analyzing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as well as cell viability for HaCaT cells under UV-B irradiation. The activities for MMP-2 and -1 in conditioned medium were determined using gelatin zymography, and MMP-2 protein in the conditioned medium was detected using Western blot analysis. 20(S)-PPD, but not 20(R)-PPD, suppressed UV-B-induced ROS elevation. Neither of the epimers, at the concentrations used, exhibited cytotoxicity, irrespective of UV-B irradiation. 20(S)-PPD, but not 20(R)-PPD, exhibited an inhibitory effect on UV-B-induced MMP-2 activity and expression in HaCaT cells. In brief, only 20(S)-PPD, a major metabolic product of PPD-type ginsenosides, inhibits UV-B-induced ROS and MMP-2 elevation, implying its stereospecific anti-photoaging activity on the skin. PMID:25405256

Oh, Sun-Joo; Lee, Sihyeong; Kho, Ye Eun; Kim, Kyunghoon; Jin, Chang Duck; Lim, Chang-Jin

2015-01-01

245

Key Role of Mitochondria in Apoptosis of Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the mitochondrial potential, expression of phosphatidylserine, parameters of direct and lateral light scattering, and DNA fragmentation during spontaneous and induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied by flow cytofluorometry. Dexamethasone and Ca2+ ionophore A23187 served as inductors of apoptosis. A decrease in the mitochondrial potential is an early sign of spontaneous and induced apoptosis. Phosphatidylserine expression on

S. V. Boichuk; M. M. Minnebaev; I. G. Mustafin

2001-01-01

246

Oxygen Stress: A Regulator of Apoptosis in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen radicals are important components of metazoan apoptosis. We have found that apoptosis can be induced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by depletion of glutathione or by low external doses of H 2 O 2 . Cycloheximide prevents apoptotic death reveal- ing active participation of the cell. Yeast can also be triggered into apoptosis by a mutation in CDC48 or

Frank Madeo; Eleonore Fröhlich; Martin Ligr; Martin Grey; Stephan J. Sigrist; Dieter H. Wolf; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

1999-01-01

247

Alternative calibration techniques for counteracting the matrix effects in GC-MS-SPE pesticide residue analysis - A statistical approach.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the efficiency of application of four different multivariate calibration techniques, namely matrix-matched internal standard (MMIS), matrix-matched external standard (MMES), solvent-only internal standard (SOIS) and solvent-only external standard (SOES) on the detection and quantification of 20 organochlorine compounds from high, low and blank matrix water sample matrices by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled to solid phase extraction (SPE). Further statistical testing, using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) by applying MANOVA, T-tests and Levene's F tests indicates that matrix composition has a more significant effect on the efficiency of the analytical method than the calibration method of choice. Matrix effects are widely described as one of the major sources of errors in GC-MS multiresidue analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics proved that the matrix-matched internal standard calibration was the best approach to use for samples of varying matrix composition as it produced the most precise average mean recovery of 87% across all matrices tested. The use of an internal standard calibration overall produced more precise total recoveries than external standard calibration, with mean values of 77% and 64% respectively. The internal standard calibration technique produced a particularly high overall standard deviation of 38% at 95% confidence level indicating that it is less robust than the external standard calibration method which had an overall standard error of 32% at 95% confidence level. Overall, the matrix-matched external standard calibration proved to be the best calibration approach for analysis of low matrix samples which consisted of the real sample matrix as it had the most precise recovery of 98% compared to other calibration approaches for the low-matrix samples. PMID:24968235

Rimayi, Cornelius; Odusanya, David; Mtunzi, Fanyana; Tsoka, Shepherd

2015-01-01

248

Microtubule-targeted anticancer agents and apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of microtubule (MT) assembly into the mitotic spindle during mitosis and the molecular signaling and execution of the various pathways to apoptosis. In the same period, the microtubule-targeted tubulin-polymerizing agents (MTPAs), notably paclitaxel and taxotere, have come to occupy a central role in the treatment

Kapil N Bhalla

2003-01-01

249

The modulation of apoptosis by oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection. PMID:23741982

2013-01-01

250

Biophotonic probing of macromolecular transformations during apoptosis  

PubMed Central

We introduce here multiplex nonlinear optical imaging as a powerful tool for studying the molecular organization and its transformation in cellular processes, with the specific example of apoptosis. Apoptosis is a process of self-initiated cell death, critically important for physiological regulation and elimination of genetic disorders. Nonlinear optical microscopy, combining the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), has been used for analysis of spatial distribution of major types of biomolecules: proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in the cells while monitoring their changes during apoptosis. CARS imaging revealed that in the nuclei of proliferating cells, the proteins are distributed nearly uniformly, with local accumulations in several nuclear structures. We have found that this distribution is abruptly disrupted at the onset of apoptosis and is transformed to a progressively irregular pattern. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that pronounced aggregation of proteins in the nucleoplasm of apoptotic cells coincides with a gradual reduction in their mobility. PMID:20615987

Pliss, Artem; Kuzmin, Andrey N.; Kachynski, Aliaksandr V.; Prasad, Paras N.

2010-01-01

251

Controlling apoptosis by inhibition of caspases.  

PubMed

The intracellular cysteine proteinases grouped under the common name of caspases are important participants in the process of programmed cell death called apoptosis. Of the nearly fourteen mammalian members discovered thus far caspase 1 or (interleukin 1beta converting enzyme; ICE), and possibly other related family members also serve as activator of cytokines. In general, caspases act on a number of cellular targets including other caspase family members leading ultimately to apopto4 4is through a highly integrated and regulated biological, biochemical and genetic mechanism. The proper execution of apoptosis is crucial during developmental stages and continues to be of critical importance for the well being of the mature organism. However, in a number of degenerative diseases the pathological states are characterized by an exacerbated loss of certain types of cells, cellular death that has morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Fortunately, it has been known for sometime that induced apoptosis that proceeds through the activation of caspases can be inhibited to rescue these cells and allow them to remain viable. This realization has attracted attention towards caspases as likely targets for pharmacological intervention, believing that inhibition of their enzymatic activity in the compromised cells will prevent the unwanted high rate of cellular death. Here we survey natural and synthetic inhibitors of caspases that have been reported to date, including some commonly used peptide inhibitors that serve as "tool reagents" in research and others that have been used to map inhibitor binding interaction in the active site. PMID:11945133

Concha, N O; Abdel-Meguid, S S

2002-03-01

252

Measuring apoptosis in mammals in vivo.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is a mode of cell death that is essential in multicellular organisms for the removal of superfluous, damaged, or potentially dangerous cells during development, infection, or normal tissue homeostasis. To prevent inflammation, cells undergoing apoptosis produce "find-me" signals that trigger the recruitment of phagocytes, which clear the apoptotic cells on recognition of "eat-me" signals. Despite the loss of billions of cells per day by apoptosis in the human body, the number of apoptotic cells found in healthy tissue is surprisingly low and reflects the efficiency of this process. However, in certain conditions (e.g., in cancer cells responding to chemotherapy), the number of apoptotic cells is too high to be efficiently cleared by phagocytes, and apoptotic cells can be observed. In these situations, the detection of apoptosis may be helpful in monitoring disease progression as well as in predicting the responses of tumors to anticancer therapies. Here we introduce various methods for monitoring apoptotic cells in vivo using a murine model of B-cell lymphoma and a solid tumor xenograft. PMID:25368316

Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

2014-11-01

253

Peroxisome proliferators induce apoptosis in hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

In the AH-130 hepatoma, a poorly differentiated tumor, maintained by weekly transplantations in rats, a low percentage of cells spontaneously underwent apoptosis, mainly during the transition from logarithmic- to stationary-growth phase. It was possible to induce massive apoptosis of cells by treating them with clofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator and hypolipidemic drug. Similar results were obtained with HepG2 cells. With 1 mM clofibrate, apoptosis began to manifest itself after 1 h of treatment in vitro, and was assessed by morphological analysis, by DNA fragmentation carried out with agarose gel electrophoresis, and with flow cytometric determination of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling. The mechanisms whereby clofibrate induces apoptosis are still unclear. Since the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor was expressed at a very low level and was not stimulated by clofibrate in the AH-130 hepatoma cells, its involvement seems unlikely. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was not increased after clofibrate treatment. Phospholipids and cholesterol were significantly decreased. The decreased cholesterol content might suggest an inhibition of the mevalonate pathway and, therefore, of isoprenylation of proteins involved in cell proliferation. PMID:9674879

Canuto, R A; Muzio, G; Bonelli, G; Maggiora, M; Autelli, R; Barbiero, G; Costelli, P; Brossa, O; Baccino, F M

1998-01-01

254

A novel method for detection of apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

2012-04-15

255

A novel method for detection of apoptosis.  

PubMed

There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use. PMID:22348877

Zagariya, Alexander M

2012-04-15

256

Death penalty for keratinocytes: apoptosis versus cornification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeostasis implies a balance between cell growth and cell death. This balance is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Homeostasis is controlled by several mechanisms including apoptosis, a process by which cells condemned to death are completely eliminated. However, in some cases, total destruction and removal of dead cells is not desirable, as when they fulfil a

S Lippens; G Denecker; P Ovaere; P Vandenabeele; W Declercq

2005-01-01

257

Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

2004-01-01

258

Curcumin enhances the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells: molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, migration and angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that curcumin (a diferuloylmethane) inhibits growth and induces apoptosis, and also demonstrated that TRAIL induces apoptosis by binding to specific cell surface death receptors in prostate cancer cells. The objectives of this paper were to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin enhanced the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells. RESULTS: Curcumin enhanced

Sharmila Shankar; Qinghe Chen; Krishna Sarva; Imtiaz Siddiqui; Rakesh K Srivastava

2007-01-01

259

miR-30b, Down-Regulated in Gastric Cancer, Promotes Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth by Targeting Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with tumor development and progression. Our previous studies have revealed that H. pylori infection was able to induce the altered expression of miR-30b in gastric epithelial cells. However, little is known about the potential role of miR-30b in gastric cancer. Methods We analyzed the expression of miR-30b in gastric cancer cell lines and human gastric cancer tissues. We examined the effect of miR-30b mimics on the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro by flow cytometry (FCM) and caspase-3/7 activity assays. Nude mouse xenograft model was used to determine whether miR-30b is involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. The target of miR-30b was identified by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay and Western blot. Finally, we performed the correlation analysis between miR-30b and its target expression in gastric cancer. Results miR-30b was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and human gastric cancer tissues. Enforced expression of miR-30b promoted the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, and miR-30b could significantly inhibit tumorigenicity of gastric cancer by increasing the apoptosis proportion of cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was identified as the potential target of miR-30b, and miR-30b level was inversely correlated with PAI-1 expression in gastric cancer. In addition, silencing of PAI-1 was able to phenocopy the effect of miR-30b overexpression on apoptosis regulation of cancer cells, and overexpression of PAI-1 could suppressed the effect of promoting cell apoptosis by miR-30b, indicating PAI-1 is potentially involved in miR-30b-induced apoptosis on cancer cells. Conclusion miR-30b may function as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer by targeting PAI-1 and regulating the apoptosis of cancer cells. miR-30b could serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer. PMID:25170877

Zhu, En-Dong; Li, Na; Li, Bo-Sheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Mao, Xu-Hu; Guo, Gang; Zou, Quan-Ming; Xiao, Bin

2014-01-01

260

Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain modulates second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases mimetic-induced cell death through BIRC2/MAP3K14 signalling in acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

Overexpression of the apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC, also termed NOL3) protein predicts adverse outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and confers drug resistance to AML cells. The second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC, also termed DIABLO) mimetic, birinapant, promotes extrinsic apoptosis in AML cells. SMAC mimetics induce cleavage of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins, leading to stabilization of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-inducing kinase (MAP3K14, also termed NIK) and activation of non-canonical NF-?B signalling. To enhance the therapeutic potential of SMAC mimetics in AML, we investigated the regulation and role of ARC in birinapant-induced apoptosis. We showed that birinapant increases ARC in AML and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Downregulation of MAP3K14 by siRNA decreased ARC levels and suppressed birinapant-induced ARC increase. Reverse-phase protein array analysis of 511 samples from newly diagnosed AML patients showed that BIRC2 (also termed cIAP1) and ARC were inversely correlated. Knockdown of ARC sensitized, while overexpression attenuated, birinapant-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ARC knockdown in MSCs sensitized co-cultured AML cells to birinapant-induced apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that ARC is regulated via BIRC2/MAP3K14 signalling and its overexpression in AML or MSCs can function as a resistant factor to birinapant-induced leukaemia cell death, suggesting that strategies to inhibit ARC will improve the therapeutic potential of SMAC mimetics. PMID:25079338

Mak, Po Y; Mak, Duncan H; Ruvolo, Vivian; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Kornblau, Steven M; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Carter, Bing Z

2014-11-01

261

RTF+SpeX Near-IR Images and Spectra of the Moon Pre-impact and at Impact of SMART-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present SpeX 0.8-2.5 micron spectra and Br-gamma or J H or K-band images of the Moon on 2006 July 10 UT, 2006 Sep 1 UT, and 2006 Sep 3 UT. The first two dates are data taken in preparation (near Full Moon and 1 st quarter Moon) for observing the impact of ESA's SMART-1 Lunar satellite on 2006 Sep 3 UT. We hope to be presenting images (about 1 arc minute by 1 arc minute), and low resolution (Prism mode) spectra of the SMART-1 impact to be taken with the 60 arc second long slit.

Wooden, Diane H.; Ennico, Kimberly A.; Colaprete, Anthony; Lucey, Paul G.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Rayner, John T.; Meech, Karen J.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2006-01-01

262

Quantitative analysis of six polyynes and one polyene in Oplopanax horridus and Oplopanax elatus by pressurized liquid extraction and on-line SPE–HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressurized liquid extraction and on-line SPE–HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyynes, including falcarindiol, oplopandiol, (11S,16S,9Z)-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol,1-acetate, oplopandiol acetate, oplopantriol A, oplopantriol B, and one polyene, (S,E)-nerolidol, in Oplopanax horridus and Oplpanax elatus. The analysis was conducted on a Grace Prevail C18 column (3?m, 7mm×33mm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water after the sample loaded and

Weihua Huang; Jing Yang; Jing Zhao; Chong-zhi Wang; Chun-su Yuan; Shao-ping Li

2010-01-01

263

Fully automated trace level determination of parent and alkylated PAHs in environmental waters by online SPE-LC-APPI-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds that enter the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources, often used as markers to determine the extent, fate, and potential effects on natural resources after a crude oil accidental release. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE+GC-MS) has been extensively used to isolate and quantify both parent and alkylated PAHs. However, it requires labor-intensive extraction and cleanup steps and generates large amounts of toxic solvent waste. Therefore, there is a clear need for greener, faster techniques with enough reproducibility and sensitivity to quantify many PAHs in large numbers of water samples in a short period of time. This study combines online solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) separation with dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and tandem MS detection, to provide a one-step protocol that detects PAHs at low nanograms per liter with almost no sample preparation and with a significantly lower consumption of toxic halogenated solvents. Water samples were amended with methanol, fortified with isotopically labeled PAHs, and loaded onto an online SPE column, using a large-volume sample loop with an auxiliary LC pump for sample preconcentration and salt removal. The loaded SPE column was connected to an UPLC pump and analytes were backflushed to a Thermo Hypersil Green PAH analytical column where a 20-min gradient separation was performed at a variable flow rate. Detection was performed by a triple-quadrupole MS equipped with a gas-phase dopant delivery system, using 1.50 mL of chlorobenzene dopant per run. In contrast, LLE+GC-MS typically use 150 mL of organic solvents per sample, and methylene chloride is preferred because of its low boiling point. However, this solvent has a higher environmental persistence than chlorobenzene and is considered a carcinogen. The automated system is capable of performing injection, online SPE, inorganic species removal, LC separation, and MS/MS detection in 28 min. Selective reaction monitoring was used to detect 28 parent PAHs and 15 families of alkylated PAHs. The methodology is comparable to traditional GC-MS and was tested with surface seawater, rainwater runoff, and a wastewater treatment plant effluent. Positive detections above reporting limits are described. The virtual absence of sample preparation could be particularly advantageous for real-time monitoring of discharge events that introduce PAHs into environmental compartments, such as accidental releases of petroleum derivates and other human-related events. This work covers optimization of APPI detection and SPE extraction efficiency, a comparison with LLE+GC-MS in terms of sensitivity and chromatographic resolution, and examples of environmental applications. PMID:24217946

Ramirez, Cesar E; Wang, Chengtao; Gardinali, Piero R

2014-01-01

264

Development and validation of automated SPE-HPLC-MS/MS methods for the quantification of asenapine, a new antipsychotic agent, and its two major metabolites in human urine.  

PubMed

To support the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters of asenapine (ASE) in urine, we developed and validated online solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography methods with tandem mass spectrometry detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS) for the quantification of ASE and two of its major metabolites, N-desmethylasenapine (DMA) and asenapine-N?-glucuronide (ASG). The linearity in human urine was found acceptable for quantification in a concentration range of 0.500-100?ng/mL for ASE and DMA and 10.0-3000?ng/mL for ASG, respectively. PMID:22344545

de Boer, Theo; Meulman, Erik; Meijering, Henri; Wieling, Jaap; Dogterom, Peter; Lass, Holger

2012-12-01

265

Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tissue regeneration after wounding or amputation generally requires cell proliferation. Work in several model organisms, including Drosophila, Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, revealed a surprising function for caspases in cell proliferation after tissue damage, in addition to their known role in a form of cell death called apoptosis. In apoptotic cells, caspases can stimulate the production of secreted cytokines, such as Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β), Hedgehog family members, and prostaglandins, which in turn induce proliferation of neighboring cells, thus promoting tissue regeneration and homeostasis. These pathways can also contribute to tumorigenesis. This Review summarizes findings on this phenomenon, termed “apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation,” and contains three figures and 110 references.

Andreas Bergmann (MD Anderson Cancer Center;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV); Hermann Steller (Rockefeller University;Howard Hughes Medical Institute REV)

2010-10-26

266

THE CONSEQUENCES OF APOPTOSIS IN AUTOIMMUNITY  

PubMed Central

The clearance of apoptotic cells is a highly regulated mechanism, normally associated with anti-inflammatory response. During early stages of apoptosis the cell is promptly recognized and engulfed by professional phagocytes or tissue cells to avoid the outflow of intracellular content and limit the immunological reaction against released antigens. However, increasing evidences suggest that impairment in the uptake of apoptotic cell debris is linked to the development of autoimmunity. In fact, autoantigens have been demonstrated to be content within apoptotic bodies and apoptotic cells seems to be critical in the presentation of antigens, activation of innate immunity and regulation of macrophage cytokine secretion. We herein review the known mechanisms for regulating the uptake of the products of apoptosis in the development of autoimmunity. PMID:18513925

Lleo, Ana; Selmi, Carlo; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Gershwin, M. Eric

2008-01-01

267

Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 (Par-4), a Novel Substrate of Caspase-3 during Apoptosis Activation  

PubMed Central

Prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4) is a ubiquitously expressed proapoptotic tumor suppressor protein. Here, we show for the first time, that Par-4 is a novel substrate of caspase-3 during apoptosis. We found that Par-4 is cleaved during cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human normal and cancer cell lines. Par-4 cleavage generates a C-terminal fragment of ?25 kDa, and the cleavage of Par-4 is completely inhibited by a caspase-3 inhibitor, suggesting that caspase-3 is directly involved in the cleavage of Par-4. Caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells do not show Par-4 cleavage in response to cisplatin treatment, and restoration of caspase-3 in MCF-7 cells produces a decrease in Par-4 levels, with the appearance of a cleaved fragment. Additionally, knockdown of Par-4 reduces caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induction. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals that Par-4 cleavage by caspase-3 occurs at an unconventional site, EEPD131?G. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type Par-4 but not the Par-4 D131A mutant sensitizes cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Upon caspase-3 cleavage, the cleaved fragment of Par-4 accumulates in the nucleus and displays increased apoptotic activity. Overexpression of the cleaved fragment of Par-4 inhibits I?B? phosphorylation and blocks NF-?B nuclear translocation. We have identified a novel specific caspase-3 cleavage site in Par-4, and the cleaved fragment of Par-4 retains proapoptotic activity. PMID:22184067

Chaudhry, Parvesh; Singh, Mohan; Parent, Sophie

2012-01-01

268

HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is one of the presumptive causes of CD4+ T cell depletion during HIV infection and progression to AIDS. However, the precise role of HIV-1 in this process remains unexplained. HIV-1 protease (PR) has been suggested as a possible factor, but a direct link between HIV-1 PR enzymatic activity and apoptosis has not been established. Results Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This conclusion is based on in vivo observations of the direct localization of HIV-1 PR in mitochondria, a key player in triggering apoptosis. Moreover, we observed an HIV-1 PR concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the role of HIV-1 PR in activation of caspase 9, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we also identified a new HIV-1 PR interaction partner, breast carcinoma-associated protein 3 (BCA3). We found that BCA3 accelerates p53 transcriptional activity on the bax promoter, thus elevating the cellular level of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. PMID:24886575

2014-01-01

269

Autophagy and apoptosis dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Autophagy and apoptosis are basic physiologic processes contributing to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy encompasses pathways that target long-lived cytosolic proteins and damaged organelles. It involves a sequential set of events including double membrane formation, elongation, vesicle maturation and finally delivery of the targeted materials to the lysosome. Apoptotic cell death is best described through its morphology. It is characterized by cell rounding, membrane blebbing, cytoskeletal collapse, cytoplasmic condensation, and fragmentation, nuclear pyknosis, chromatin condensation/fragmentation, and formation of membrane-enveloped apoptotic bodies, that are rapidly phagocytosed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Neurodegenerative disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent, especially in the Western societies, with larger percentage of members living to an older age. They have to be seen not only as a health problem, but since they are care-intensive, they also carry a significant economic burden. Deregulation of autophagy plays a pivotal role in the etiology and/or progress of many of these diseases. Herein, we briefly review the latest findings that indicate the involvement of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases. We provide a brief introduction to autophagy and apoptosis pathways focusing on the role of mitochondria and lysosomes. We then briefly highlight pathophysiology of common neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Then, we describe functions of autophagy and apoptosis in brain homeostasis, especially in the context of the aforementioned disorders. Finally, we discuss different ways that autophagy and apoptosis modulation may be employed for therapeutic intervention during the maintenance of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24211851

Ghavami, Saeid; Shojaei, Shahla; Yeganeh, Behzad; Ande, Sudharsana R; Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan R; Mehrpour, Maryam; Christoffersson, Jonas; Chaabane, Wiem; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Kashani, Hessam H; Hashemi, Mohammad; Owji, Ali A; ?os, Marek J

2014-01-01

270

Apoptosis and its functional significance in molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death leading to apoptosis is essential for normal development and homeostasis in plants and throughout the\\u000a animal kingdom. Although there are differences in apoptotic mechanisms between lower animals and vertebrates, crucial biochemical\\u000a components of the programmed cell death pathways remained remarkably conserved throughout evolution. Despite decades of studies\\u000a on the neurobiology and development of mollusks, comparatively little is

Tibor Kiss

2010-01-01

271

Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis: Implications in cardiotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we discuss the role of nitric oxide synthase in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy, a prominent side effect of DOX chemotherapy in cancer patients. It is becoming increasingly clear that apoptosis of myocardial cells plays a critical role in the onset of cardiomyopathy. DOX exposure to endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes caused apoptotic cell death at sub-micromolar concentrations. DOX-induced generation

B. Kalyanaraman; Joy Joseph; Shashi Kalivendi; Suwei Wang; Eugene Konorev; Srigiridhar Kotamraju

2002-01-01

272

Noninvasive imaging of apoptosis in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molecular imaging have permitted the noninvasive imaging of apoptosis, a critical process underlying the\\u000a pathogenesis of many diseases of the cardiovascular system including atherosclerotic vascular disease, myocardial ischemia\\u000a and reperfusion injury, chronic heart failure, myocarditis, and cardiac allograft rejection. Multiple molecular targets including\\u000a phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and caspases have been targeted by a variety of imaging agents

Ethan Chauncey Korngold; Farouc Amin Jaffer; Ralph Weissleder; David Edwin Sosnovik

2008-01-01

273

HIV1 viral genes and mitochondrial apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrion is an organelle that regulates various cellular functions including the production of energy and programmed\\u000a cell death. Aberrant mitochondrial function is often concomitant with various cytopathies and medical disorders. The mitochondrial\\u000a membrane plays a key role in the induction of cellular apoptosis, and its destabilization, as triggered by both intracellular\\u000a and extracellular stimuli, results in the release of

Devon J. Shedlock; Daniel Hwang; Andy Y. Choo; Christopher W. Chung; Karuppiah Muthumani; David B. Weiner

2008-01-01

274

BIOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS OF CASPASE ACTIVATION DURING APOPTOSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Caspase activation plays a central role in the execution of apoptosis. The key components,of the biochemical,pathways,of caspase activation have been recently elucidated. In this review, we focus on the two most well-studied pathways of caspase activation: the cell surface death receptor pathway,and the mitochondria- initiated pathway. In the cell surface death receptor pathway, activation of caspase-8 following its

Imawati Budihardjo; Holt Oliver; Michael Lutter; Xu Luo; Xiaodong Wang

1999-01-01

275

NMR exposure sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMR technology has dramatically contributed to the revolution of image diagnostic. NMR apparatuses use combinations of microwaves\\u000a over a homogeneous strong (1 Tesla) static magnetic field. We had previously shown that low intensity (0.3–66 mT) static magnetic\\u000a fields deeply affect apoptosis in a Ca2+ dependent fashion (Fanelli et al., 1999 FASEBJ., 13;95–102). The rationale of the present study is to examine whether

L. Ghibelli; C. Cerella; S. Cordisco; G. Clavarino; S. Marazzi; M. De Nicola; S. Nuccitelli; M. D'Alessio; A. Magrini; A. Bergamaschi; V. Guerrisi; L. M. Porfiri

2006-01-01

276

Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3{beta}, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3{beta} (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3{beta} inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits.

Zhong Jin [Departments of Pediatrics, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Riley Hospital for Children, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 2641, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)]. E-mail: jizhong@iupui.edu; Yang Xianlin [Departments of Pediatrics, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Riley Hospital for Children, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 2641, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Yao Weiguo [Departments of Pediatrics, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Riley Hospital for Children, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 2641, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee Weihua [Departments of Pediatrics, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Riley Hospital for Children, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 2641, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

2006-12-01

277

Resistance of Actin to Cleavage during Apoptosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small number of cellular proteins present in the nucleus, cytosol, and membrane fraction are specifically cleaved by the interleukin-1? -converting enzyme (ICE)-like family of proteases during apoptosis. Previous results have demonstrated that one of these, the cytoskeletal protein actin, is degraded in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells upon serum withdrawal. Extracts from etoposide-treated U937 cells are also capable of cleaving actin. It was assumed that cleavage of actin represented a general phenomenon, and a mechanism coordinating proteolytic, endonucleolytic, and morphological aspects of apoptosis was proposed. We demonstrate here that actin is resistant to degradation in several different human cells induced to undergo apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli, including Fas ligation, serum withdrawal, cytotoxic T-cell killing, and DNA damage. On the other hand, cell-free extracts from these cells and the ICE-like protease CPP32 were capable of cleaving actin in vitro. We conclude that while actin contains cleavage sites for ICE-like proteases, it is not degraded in vivo in human cells either because of lack of access of these proteases to actin or due to the presence of other factors that prevent degradation.

Song, Qizhong; Wei, Tie; Lees-Miller, Susan; Alnemri, Emad; Watters, Dianne; Lavin, Martin F.

1997-01-01

278

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Liver Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte injury is ubiquitous in clinical practice, and the mode of cell death associated with this injury is often apoptosis, especially by death receptors. Information from experimental systems demonstrates that hepatocyte apoptosis is sufficient to cause liver hepatic fibrogenesis. The mechanisms linking hepatocyte apoptosis to hepatic fibrosis remain incompletely understood, but likely relate to engulfment of apoptotic bodies by professional phagocytic cells and stellate cells, and release of mediators by cells undergoing apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis with caspase inhibitors has demonstrated beneficial effects in murine models of hepatic fibrosis. Recent studies implicating Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in liver injury and fibrosis are also of particular interest. Engulfment of apoptotic bodies is one mechanism by which the TLR9 ligand (CpG DNA motifs) could be delivered to this intracellular receptor. These concepts suggest therapy focused on interrupting the cellular mechanisms linking apoptosis to fibrosis would be useful in human liver diseases. PMID:20960379

Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Gores, Gregory J.

2011-01-01

279

Paraquat Induces Apoptosis through Cytochrome C Release and ERK Activation.  

PubMed

Paraquat has been suggested to induce apoptosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, little is known about the mechanism of paraquat-induced apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is required for paraquat-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. Paraquat treatment resulted in activation of ERK, and U0126, inhibitors of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, prevented apoptosis. Moreover, paraquat-induced apoptosis was associated with cytochrome C release, which could be prevented by treatment with the MEK inhibitors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ERK activation plays an active role in mediating paraquat-induced apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells. PMID:25489417

Seo, Hong Joo; Choi, Sang Joon; Lee, Jung-Hee

2014-11-01

280

CD45 regulates apoptosis in peripheral T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key mechanism for regulating lymphocyte numbers. Murine lymph node lymphocytes cultured in vitro without added stimuli show significant levels of apoptosis over 24 h, detectable by staining with Annexin V. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes from transgenic (Tg) mice expressing single CD45RABC or CD45RO isoforms show increased apoptosis and the extent of apoptosis is inversely correlated with the level of CD45 expression. CD45 Tg cells exhibit phosphatidyl serine translocation and DNA oligonucleosome formation, and can be partially rescued from apoptosis by culture in caspase inhibitors or common gamma-chain-binding cytokines. We conclude that CD45 is an important regulator of spontaneous apoptosis in T lymphocytes and this mechanism may contribute to the disease associations reported for individuals expressing CD45 variant alleles. PMID:16621865

Liu, Zhe; Dawes, Ritu; Petrova, Svetla; Beverley, Peter C L; Tchilian, Elma Z

2006-06-01

281

Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

2012-03-01

282

Self-consumption: the interplay of autophagy and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Autophagy and apoptosis control the turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and of cells within organisms, respectively, and many stress pathways sequentially elicit autophagy, and apoptosis within the same cell. Generally autophagy blocks the induction of apoptosis, and apoptosis-associated caspase activation shuts off the autophagic process. However, in special cases, autophagy or autophagy-relevant proteins may help to induce apoptosis or necrosis, and autophagy has been shown to degrade the cytoplasm excessively, leading to ‘autophagic cell death’. The dialogue between autophagy and cell death pathways influences the normal clearance of dying cells, as well as immune recognition of dead cell antigens. Therefore, the disruption of the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis has important pathophysiological consequences. PMID:24401948

Mariño, Guillermo; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Baehrecke, Eric H.; Kroemer, Guido

2014-01-01

283

Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. PMID:24355796

Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

2014-01-01

284

A fast method for screening and/or quantitation of tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolites in urine by automated SPE/LC/MS/MS.  

PubMed

Marijuana is one of the most commonly used illicit substances. The high usage of this substance results in it being commonly encountered in clinical samples throughout the USA and Europe. Due to its wide availability and use, marijuana is also commonly encountered in forensic toxicology laboratories. The proposed method utilized an automated solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The automated SPE procedure was developed using Hysphere C8-EC sorbent, and the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation was performed using an Xterra MS C(18) column with a total runtime of 10 min. The standard curves linearity generally fell between 6 and 500 ng/mL. The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 4 ng/mL, and the limits of quantitation ranged from 8 to 12 ng/mL. The bias and imprecision were determined using a simple analysis of variance (single factor). The results demonstrate bias as <11% and percent imprecision as <12% for all components at four quality control levels. This method has been in use for over 2 years and has been applied to numerous forensic samples. When compared to other published methods, it exceeds others in its simplicity and speed of analysis. This method takes advantage of robotics and automation for a total analysis time of 10 min, including sample preparation, separation, and detection. PMID:20582401

Jagerdeo, Eshwar; Montgomery, Madeline A; Karas, Roman P; Sibum, Martin

2010-09-01

285

Monolithic poly (SPE-co-BVPE) capillary columns as a novel hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phase for the separation of polar analytes.  

PubMed

A novel hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase was prepared by the co-polymerisation of zwitterionic N,N'-dimethyl-N-methacryloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium betaine (SPE) and the crosslinker 1,2-bis(p-vinylphenyl) ethane (BVPE) in the presence of the porogens, toluene and methanol. Monolithic columns were produced by carrying out the ?,?'-azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiated reaction for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h inside a 200 ?m i.d. fused silica capillary at 75°C (water bath). The optimum polymerisation time was shown to be 2 h, as this resulted in good porosity, due to enlarged flow-channels and the presence of a higher proportion of mesopores provided a relatively larger surface area than the other columns. The chromatographic properties of the optimised poly (SPE-co-BVPE) monolithic column were evaluated with test mixtures containing both basic and neutral compounds in the HILIC gradient separation mode. This produced relatively sharp peaks (average peak width at half height=0.1 min) with average asymmetry factors of 1.4 and baseline resolution was obtained for all the compounds. Using the isocratic separation of the test mixture, the number of theoretical plates (N) per metre calculated was between 26,888 and 35,930 by using average values obtained for triplicate injections of the compounds thiourea, toluene and acrylamide. PMID:23141347

Foo, Hsiao Ching; Heaton, James; Smith, Norman W; Stanley, Shawn

2012-10-15

286

Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants in biological fluids after sequential SPE.  

PubMed

A novel method for the simultaneous determination of six benzodiazepines (BZDs) and four tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in biological fluids by HPLC with UV detection at 240 nm has been developed. After a deproteinization step biological fluids were analyzed by direct injection. SPE on Nexus cartridges was also applied. Since two compounds, namely imipramine and diazepam, were coeluting, a sequential SPE protocol has been developed. BZDs were eluted by a mixture of methanol/ACN(1:1), followed by the elution of TCAs with methanol. Separation was performed on a Kromasil C8 column (250 x 64 mm(2) id, 5 microm) using a mobile phase of 0.05 MCH3COONH4/ACN/methanol (initial composition 55:15:30 v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min delivered by a gradient program within 15 min. Colchicine was used as the internal standard (4 ng/microL). The method was linear for all analytes up to 20 ng/lL, with coefficients of regression between 0.996 and 0.99996. LODs and LOQs were 0.08-1.17 and 0.28-3.91 ng/lL, respectively. Recovery was in the range of 92.8-108.7% for within-day and 91.9-109.9% for between-day assays, with RSD values lower than 10.0% for all matrices. PMID:18646258

Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

2008-07-01

287

Production of unusual dispiro metabolites in Pestalotiopsis virgatula endophyte cultures: HPLC-SPE-NMR, electronic circular dichroism, and time-dependent density-functional computation study.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula, derived from the plant Terminalia chebula and previously found to produce a large excess of a single metabolite when grown in the minimal M1D medium, was induced to produce a variety of unusual metabolites by growing in potato dextrose broth medium. Analysis of the fermentation medium extract was performed using an HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR hyphenated system, which led to the identification of a total of eight metabolites (1-8), six of which are new. Most of the metabolites are structurally related and are derivatives of benzo[c]oxepin, rare among natural products. This includes dispiro derivatives 7 and 8 (pestalospiranes A and B), having a novel 1,9,11,18-tetraoxadispiro[6.2.6.2]octadecane skeleton. Relative and absolute configurations of the latter were determined by a combination of NOESY spectroscopy and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy supported by time-dependent density-functional theory calculations (B3LYP/TZVP level). This work demonstrates that a largely complete structure elucidation of numerous metabolites present in a raw fermentation medium extract can be performed by the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique using only a small amount of the extract, even with unstable metabolites that are difficult to isolate by traditional methods. PMID:21942847

Kesting, Julie R; Olsen, Lars; Staerk, Dan; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

2011-10-28

288

On-line SPE-UHPLC method using fused core columns for extraction and separation of nine illegal dyes in chilli-containing spices.  

PubMed

The presented work describes the development of a simple, fast and effective on-line SPE-UHPLC-UV/vis method using fused core particle columns for extraction, separation and quantitative analysis of the nine illegal dyes, most frequently found in chilli-containing spices. The red dyes Sudan I-IV, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Para Red, and Methyl Red were separated and analyzed in less than 9 min without labor-consuming pretreatment procedure. The chromatographic separation was performed on Ascentis Express RP-Amide column with gradient elution using mixture of acetonitrile and water, as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and 55°C of temperature. As SPE sorbent for cleanup and pre-concentration of illegal dyes short guard fused core column Ascentis Express F5 was used. The applicability of proposed method was proven for three different chilli-containing commercial samples. Recoveries for all compounds were between 90% and 108% and relative standard deviation ranged from 1% to 4% for within- and from 2% to 6% for between-day. Limits of detection showed lower values than required by European Union regulations and were in the range of 3.3-10.3 µg L(-1) for standard solutions, 5.6-235.6 µg kg(-1) for chilli-containing spices. PMID:25159432

Khalikova, Maria A; Satínský, Dalibor; Smidrkalová, Tereza; Solich, Petr

2014-12-01

289

SPE coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC with flame ionization detection for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of benzodiazepines.  

PubMed

SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextration was used for the extraction of ultra-trace amounts of benzodiazepines (BZPs) including, diazepam, midazolam, and alprazolam, from ultra-pure water, tap water, fruit juices, and urine samples. The analytes were adsorbed from large volume samples (60 mL) onto octadecyl silica SPE columns. After the elution of the desired compounds from sorbents with 2.0 mL acetone, 0.5 mL of eluent containing 40.0 ?L chloroform was injected rapidly into 4.5 mL pure water. After extraction and centrifugation, 2 ?L of the sedimented phase was injected into a GC equipped with a flame ionization detector. Several parameters affecting this process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, LODs ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ?g/L, a linear dynamic range of 0.1-100 ?g/L and relative SDs in the range of 4.4-10.7% were attained. Very high preconcentration factors ranging from 3895-7222 were achieved. The applicability of the method for the extraction of BZPs from different types of complicated matrices, such as tap water, fruit juices, and urine samples, was studied. The obtained results reveal that the proposed method is a good technique for the extraction and determination of BZPs in complex matrices. PMID:24243833

Ghobadi, Masoomeh; Yamini, Yadollah; Ebrahimpour, Behnam

2014-02-01

290

Identification of three novel polyphenolic compounds, origanine A-C, with unique skeleton from Origanum vulgare L. using the hyphenated LC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS methods.  

PubMed

Identification of new compounds especially those with new skeletons from plant kingdom has long been a vital aspect for understanding phytochemistry, plant metabolisms and discovering new bioactive compounds. In this study, we identified and isolated three novel polyphenolic compounds, origanine A-C, from a well-researched plant Origanum vulgare L. using the hyphenated LC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS methods. Based on the combined information from UV-visible, accurate mass and 2D NMR spectra together with computational calculations, we found that these compounds all had a novel skeleton of cyclohexenetetracarboxylic acids attached with some well-known bioactive moieties including 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl, 4-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol (gastrodin), and 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid (danshensu) residues. These findings provided crucial information to fill the gaps in our knowledge in terms of the plant secondary metabolism. This study also indicated the necessity for further research in plant secondary metabolism for even well-studied plants and demonstrated the powerfulness of the hyphenated LC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS methods for comprehensive analysis of plant metabolites in particular for discovering new natural compounds. PMID:22142199

Liu, Hongbing; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Huili; Yu, Haiyan; Wu, Xiangyu; Xiao, Chaoni; Dai, Hui; Hao, Fuhua; Zhang, Limin; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

2012-01-11

291

The SpeX Prism Library: 1000+ low-resolution, near-infrared spectra of ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SpeX Prism Library (SPL) is a uniform compilation of low-resolution (?/?? ? 75-120), near-infrared (0.8--2.5 ?m) spectra spanning a decade of observations with the IRTF SpeX spectrograph. Primarily containing ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs, this spectral library has been used in over 100 publications to date, facilitating a broad range of science on low mass stars, exoplanets, high redshift sources and instrument/survey design. I summarize the contents of the SPL and highlight a few of the key scientific results that have made use of this resource, as well as applications in education, outreach and art. I also outline the future plans of the SPL, which include a reanalysis of early data, better integration and dissemination of source and spectral metadata, conversion to Virtual Observatory formats, development of a Python software package for community analysis, and a design for a node-based visual programming platform that can facilitate citizen science and project-based learning in stellar spectroscopy. http://www.browndwarfs.org/spexprism

Burgasser, Adam J.

292

Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9?gkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9?gkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0?gkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0?gkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

2015-06-01

293

Induction of gastric epithelial apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Helicobacter pylori may promote gastric carcinogenesis through increasing gastric epithelial cell proliferation. How H pylori does so is unknown. Programmed, non-necrotic, cell death (apoptosis) occurs throughout the gut and is linked to proliferation. It was hypothesised that H pylori may induce hyper-proliferation through increasing apoptosis. AIM--To measure the effect of H pylori infection on gastric epithelial apoptosis in situ. PATIENTS--Patients

S F Moss; J Calam; B Agarwal; S Wang; P R Holt

1996-01-01

294

Rybp interacts with Hippi and enhances Hippi-mediated apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rybp (DEDAF) has been shown to interact with DED-containing proteins and to encode pro-apoptotic functions. Here we characterize\\u000a a novel interaction between Rybp and Hippi, a protein implicated in neuronal apoptosis as well as in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s\\u000a disease. Rybp can synergize with Hippi to enhance Caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and also appears to be essential for Hippi-mediated\\u000a apoptosis. Moreover,

Sasha E. Stanton; Jennifer K. Blanck; Joseph Locker; Nicole Schreiber-Agus

2007-01-01

295

Disintegrin causes proteolysis of ?-catenin and apoptosis of endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disintegrins, the snake venom-derived arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, have been demonstrated to inhibit angiogenesis through induction of endothelial cell apoptosis. However, it is not clear how a disintegrin causes endothelial apoptosis. In this study, we elucidated the action mechanism of disintegrin in causing endothelial apoptosis by using rhodostomin as a tool. We showed that cell detachment was observed at the early

Wen-Bin Wu; Hui-Chin Peng; Tur-F. u Huang

2003-01-01

296

A CDKN2-like polymorphism in Xiphophorus LG V is associated with UV-B-induced melanoma formation in platyfish–swordtail?hybrids  

PubMed Central

The genetic basis of spontaneous melanoma formation in spotted dorsal (Sd) Xiphophorus platyfish–swordtail hybrids has been studied for decades, and is adequately explained by a two-gene inheritance model involving a sex-linked oncogene, Xmrk, and an autosomal tumor suppressor, DIFF. The Xmrk oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase related to EGFR; the nature of the DIFF tumor suppressor gene is unknown. We analyzed the genetic basis of UV-B-induced melanoma formation in closely related, spotted side platyfish–swordtail hybrids, which carry a different sex-linked pigment pattern locus, Sp. We UV-irradiated spotted side Xiphophorus platyfish–swordtail backcross hybrids to induce melanomas at frequencies 6-fold higher than occur spontaneously in unirradiated control animals. To identify genetic determinants of melanoma susceptibility in this UV-inducible Xiphophorus model, we genotyped individual animals from control and UV-irradiated experimental regimes using allozyme and DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms and tested for joint segregation of genetic markers with pigmentation phenotype and UV-induced melanoma formation. Joint segregation results show linkage of a CDKN2-like DNA polymorphism with UV-B-induced melanoma formation in these hybrids. The CDKN2-like polymorphism maps to Xiphophorus linkage group V and exhibits recombination fractions with ES1 and MDH2 allozyme markers consistent with previous localization of the DIFF tumor suppressor locus. Our results indicate that the CDKN2-like sequence we have cloned and mapped is a candidate for the DIFF tumor suppressor gene. PMID:8917541

Nairn, Rodney?S.; Kazianis, Steven; McEntire, Brenda?B.; Della?Coletta, Luis; Walter, Ronald?B.; Morizot, Donald?C.

1996-01-01

297

Detection and quantification of apoptosis in transiently transfected adherent cells.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is a highly conserved form of cell death present in all eukaryotic cell types and controlled by multiple genes. Several methods have been developed to quantify apoptosis, but none is adapted for all cell types. It is particularly difficult to reliably assay apoptosis of adherent cells. We describe a new, rapid and reliable flow cytometric method which can be used for quantifiying apoptosis in a sub-population of transiently transfected adherent cells. This technique is based on the detection of transfected cells and the apoptotic sub-population by immunofluorescence and Annexin-V labelling, respectively. PMID:9801327

Lassus, P; Hibner, U

1998-11-15

298

Detection and quantification of apoptosis in transiently transfected adherent cells.  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is a highly conserved form of cell death present in all eukaryotic cell types and controlled by multiple genes. Several methods have been developed to quantify apoptosis, but none is adapted for all cell types. It is particularly difficult to reliably assay apoptosis of adherent cells. We describe a new, rapid and reliable flow cytometric method which can be used for quantifiying apoptosis in a sub-population of transiently transfected adherent cells. This technique is based on the detection of transfected cells and the apoptotic sub-population by immunofluorescence and Annexin-V labelling, respectively. PMID:9801327

Lassus, P; Hibner, U

1998-01-01

299

Determination of pesticide residues in fish tissues by modified QuEChERS method and dual-d-SPE clean-up coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to modify the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method for the determination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in fatty animal matrices such as fish muscle tissues of carp and sturgeon collected from Carp Valley, Lesser Poland. Pesticides extraction effectiveness was evaluated at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level and efficiency of the dispersive-solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step was evaluated by comparison testing two different d-SPE clean-up stages, first the addition of the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA?+?SAX?+?NH2), and secondly the addition of C18 after extracts enrichment with the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA?+?SAX?+?NH2), introducing a novel concept of clean-up named dual-d-SPE clean-up. Analysis of pesticide residues was performed by Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS) working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Linear relation was observed from 0 to 200 ng mL(-1) and determination coefficient R (2) ?>?0.997 in all instances for all target analytes. Better recoveries and cleanliness of extracts in both samples, carp and sturgeon tissues, were obtained after C18 addition during the dual-d-SPE clean-up step. Recoveries were in the range 70-120 %, with relative standard deviation lower than 10 % at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level for most pesticides. LODs ranged 0.001-0.003 mg kg(-1), while LOQs ranged 0.004-0.009 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied analyzing pesticide residues in real carp and sturgeon muscle samples; detectable pesticide residues were observed, but in all of the cases contamination level was lower than the default maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union (EU), Regulation (EC) N 396/2005. PMID:25074831

Molina-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Cieslik, Ewa; Cieslik, Iwona; Walkowska, Izabela

2015-01-01

300

Apoptosis-inducing protein, AIP, from parasite-infected fish induces apoptosis in mammalian cells by two different molecular mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIP (apoptosis-inducing protein) is a protein purified and cloned from Chub mackerel infected with the larval nematode, Anisakis simplex, which induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells including human tumor cell lines. AIP has shown structural and functional homology to L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) which oxidizes several L-amino acids including L-lysine and AIP-induced apoptosis has been suggested to be mediated by

M Murakawa; S-K Jung; K Iijima; S Yonehara

2001-01-01

301

CHEMOSENSITIZATION BY A NON-APOPTOGENIC HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70-BINDING APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR MUTANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemosensitization by a non-apoptogenic heat shock protein 70-binding apoptosis inducing factor mutant Abstract HSP70 inhibits apoptosis by neutralizing the caspase activator Apaf-1 and by interacting with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial flavoprotein wh...

302

Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Prevents Apoptosis via the Akt/I?B Kinase Pathway: Role of Nuclear Factor-?B and Bcl-2  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin produced by some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli that specifically activates Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases. We previously reported that this toxin prevents the ultraviolet-B–induced apoptosis in epithelial cells, with a mechanism that remained to be defined. In this work, we show that the proteasomal degradation of the Rho GTPase is necessary to achieve cell death protection, because inhibition of Rho degradation abolishes the prosurvival activity of CNF1. We hypothesize that Rho inactivation allows the activity of Rac to become dominant. This in turn leads to stimulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/I?B kinase/nuclear factor-?B prosurvival pathway and to a remarkable modification in the architecture of the mitochondrial network, mainly consisting in the appearance of elongated and interconnected mitochondria. Importantly, we found that Bcl-2 silencing reduces the ability of CNF1 to protect cells against apoptosis and that it also prevents the CNF1-induced mitochondrial changes. It is worth noting that the ability of a bacterial toxin to induce such a remodeling of the mitochondrial network is herein reported for the first time. The possible pathophysiological relevance of this finding is discussed. PMID:17507655

Miraglia, Alessandro Giamboi; Travaglione, Sara; Meschini, Stefania; Falzano, Loredana; Matarrese, Paola; Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Viora, Marina; Fabbri, Alessia

2007-01-01

303

Honey induces apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: The fact that antioxidants have several preventative effects against different diseases, such as coronary diseases, inflammatory disorders, neurologic degeneration, aging, and cancer, has led to the search for food rich in antioxidants. Honey has been used as a traditional food and medical source since ancient times. However, recently many scientists have been concentrating on the antioxidant property of honey. By use of human renal cancer cell lines (ACHN), we investigated the antiproliferative activity, apoptosis, and the antitumor activity of honey. Materials and Methods: The cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with 10% fetal bovine serum treated with different concentrations of honey for 3 consecutive days. Cell viability was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by flow cytometry. Results: Honey decreased the cell viability in the malignant cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values against the ACHN cell lines were determined as 1.7 ± 0.04% and 2.1 ± 0.03% ?g/mL after 48 and 72 h, respectively. Honey induced apoptosis of the ACHN cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry histogram of treated cells. Conclusion: It might be concluded that honey may cause cell death in the ACHN cells, in which apoptosis plays an important role. Most of the drugs used in the cancer treatment are apoptotic inducers, hence apoptotic nature of honey is considered vital. Therefore, it prompted us to investigate honey as a potential candidate for renal cancer treatment. PMID:21472079

Samarghandian, Saeed; Afshari, Jalil Tavakkol; Davoodi, Saiedeh

2011-01-01

304

Apoptosis in cultured hNT neurons.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important mechanism shaping the size of different cell populations within the developing nervous system. In our study we used the NT2/D1 clone originally established from the Ntera 2 cell line to investigate the baseline levels of apoptosis in cultured postmitotic hNT (NT2-N) neurons previously treated for 3, 4 or 5 weeks with retinoic acid (RA) and compared it with apoptosis in NT2 precursors unexposed to RA. First, we examined whether different lengths of exposure to RA might affect baseline apoptotic rate in differentiating hNT neurons. Second, we investigated whether cultured hNT neurons, previously shown to possess dopaminergic characteristics, would be preferentially affected by apoptosis. Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (tdt)-labeling technique we found that the postmitotic hNT neuronal cells exposed to RA demonstrated significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells (12.5-15.8%) in comparison to rapidly dividing NT2 precursor cell line (3.6-4.4%) at both studied (1 and 5 days in vitro, DIV) time points. Similar apoptotic nuclear morphology, including a variable extent of nuclear fragmentation was observed in all examined hNT cultures. On the other hand, the incidence of apoptotic nuclei was rare in cultures of NT2 precursors not subjected to RA treatment. Combined immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Hoechst staining revealed dopaminergic hNT neurons destined to die. Our double-labeling studies have demonstrated that only a subset of TH-positive hNT cells had condensed chromatin after 1 (approx. 15%) and 5 (approx. 20%) DIV. NT2 precursors were not TH-positive. Collectively, our results demonstrated that exposure to differentiating agent RA triggers an apoptotic commitment in a subset of postmitotic hNT neurons. These results suggest that this cell line may serve as a model of neuronal development to test various pathogenic factors implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as to screen numerous pharmacological treatments that may slow or prevent dopaminergic deterioration. PMID:11287065

Zigova, T; Willing, A E; Saporta, S; Daadi, M M; McGrogan, M P; Randall, T S; Freeman, T B; Sanchez-Ramos, J; Sanberg, P R

2001-03-29

305

A Virion-Associated Protein Kinase Induces Apoptosis?  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis and inhibition of host gene expression are often associated with virus infections. Many viral polypeptides modulate apoptosis by direct interaction with highly conserved apoptotic pathways. Some viruses induce apoptosis during late stages of the infection cycle, while others inhibit apoptosis to facilitate replication or maintain persistent infection. In previous work, we showed that Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) or CIV virion protein extract induces apoptosis in spruce budworm and cotton boll weevil cell cultures. Here, we characterize the product of a CIV gene (iridovirus serine/threonine kinase; istk) with signature sequences for S/T kinase and ATP binding. ISTK appears to belong to the superfamily, vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs). The istk gene was expressed in Pichia pastoris vectors. Purified ISTK (48 kDa) exhibited S/T kinase activity. Treatment with ISTK induced apoptosis in budworm cells. A 35-kDa cleavage product of ISTK retaining key signature sequences was identified during purification. Pichia-expressed 35-kDa polypeptide, designated iridoptin, induced apoptosis and inhibition of host protein synthesis in budworm and boll weevil cells. A mutation in the ATP-binding site eliminated both kinase and apoptosis activity of iridoptin, suggesting that kinase activity is essential for induction of apoptosis. Analysis with custom antibody confirmed that ISTK is a structural component of CIV particles. This is the first demonstration of a viral kinase inducing apoptosis in any virus-host system and the first identification of a factor inducing apoptosis or host protein shutoff for the family Iridoviridae. PMID:21994449

Chitnis, Nilesh S.; Paul, Eric R.; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Henderson, Curtis W.; Ganapathy, Saranya; Taylor, Patrick V.; Virdi, Kamaldeep S.; D’Costa, Susan M.; May, Ashley R.; Bilimoria, Shan L.

2011-01-01

306

A virion-associated protein kinase induces apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis and inhibition of host gene expression are often associated with virus infections. Many viral polypeptides modulate apoptosis by direct interaction with highly conserved apoptotic pathways. Some viruses induce apoptosis during late stages of the infection cycle, while others inhibit apoptosis to facilitate replication or maintain persistent infection. In previous work, we showed that Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) or CIV virion protein extract induces apoptosis in spruce budworm and cotton boll weevil cell cultures. Here, we characterize the product of a CIV gene (iridovirus serine/threonine kinase; istk) with signature sequences for S/T kinase and ATP binding. ISTK appears to belong to the superfamily, vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs). The istk gene was expressed in Pichia pastoris vectors. Purified ISTK (48 kDa) exhibited S/T kinase activity. Treatment with ISTK induced apoptosis in budworm cells. A 35-kDa cleavage product of ISTK retaining key signature sequences was identified during purification. Pichia-expressed 35-kDa polypeptide, designated iridoptin, induced apoptosis and inhibition of host protein synthesis in budworm and boll weevil cells. A mutation in the ATP-binding site eliminated both kinase and apoptosis activity of iridoptin, suggesting that kinase activity is essential for induction of apoptosis. Analysis with custom antibody confirmed that ISTK is a structural component of CIV particles. This is the first demonstration of a viral kinase inducing apoptosis in any virus-host system and the first identification of a factor inducing apoptosis or host protein shutoff for the family Iridoviridae. PMID:21994449

Chitnis, Nilesh S; Paul, Eric R; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Henderson, Curtis W; Ganapathy, Saranya; Taylor, Patrick V; Virdi, Kamaldeep S; D'Costa, Susan M; May, Ashley R; Bilimoria, Shan L

2011-12-01

307

Taurine induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins of mitochondria.  

PubMed

Taurine (Tau), the most abundant free amino acid in humans has numerous potential health benefits through its antioxidant and anti?inflammatory properties. However, limited studies have assessed its effect on tumors and the antitumor mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the cellular and molecular changes induced by Tau, leading to the induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines MCF?7 and MDA?MB?231. MCF?7 is p53 pro?cient (p53+/+) and MDA?MB?231 is a p53 null mutant (p53-/-). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by MTT. Flow cytometry and hoechst33342 fluorescent staining were employed to detect apoptosis. Spectrophotometry was used to detect caspase?3 activity. Reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the levels of mRNA and proteins of p53?upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax and Bcl?2. Finally, the affect of Tau on the growth of MDA?MB?231?cell?nude mice xenografts was examined. In the study, Tau inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of the two cell lines in a concentration? and time?dependent manner. Notably, the inhibitory effect of Tau on p53-/- cancer cells was clearly significant compared to the p53+/+ cancer cells. Further studies showed that Tau promoted apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and inhibited the growth of tumor in nude mice by inducing the expression of PUMA, which further up? and downregulated the expression of Bax and Bcl?2 protein, giving rise to increased activation of caspase?3. Collectively, these results indicate that Tau is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of breast cancer through increasing the PUMA expression independent of p53 status. PMID:25395275

Zhang, Xiali; Lu, Hongfei; Wang, Yibing; Liu, Chunju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zheng, Shuangyan; Wan, Fusheng

2015-01-01

308

Role and Interrelationship of G? Protein, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Nitric Oxide in Ultraviolet B-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Leaves1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Heterotrimeric G proteins have been shown to transmit ultraviolet B (UV-B) signals in mammalian cells, but whether they also transmit UV-B signals in plant cells is not clear. In this paper, we report that 0.5 W m?2 UV-B induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by eliciting a cascade of intracellular signaling events including G? protein, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO). UV-B triggered a significant increase in H2O2 or NO levels associated with stomatal closure in the wild type, but these effects were abolished in the single and double mutants of AtrbohD and AtrbohF or in the Nia1 mutants, respectively. Furthermore, we found that UV-B-mediated H2O2 and NO generation are regulated by GPA1, the G?-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. UV-B-dependent H2O2 and NO accumulation were nullified in gpa1 knockout mutants but enhanced by overexpression of a constitutively active form of GPA1 (cG?). In addition, exogenously applied H2O2 or NO rescued the defect in UV-B-mediated stomatal closure in gpa1 mutants, whereas cG? AtrbohD/AtrbohF and cG? nia1 constructs exhibited a similar response to AtrbohD/AtrbohF and Nia1, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that G? activation of NO production depends on H2O2. The mutants of AtrbohD and AtrbohF had impaired NO generation in response to UV-B, but UV-B-induced H2O2 accumulation was not impaired in Nia1. Moreover, exogenously applied NO rescued the defect in UV-B-mediated stomatal closure in the mutants of AtrbohD and AtrbohF. These findings establish a signaling pathway leading to UV-B-induced stomatal closure that involves GPA1-dependent activation of H2O2 production and subsequent Nia1-dependent NO accumulation. PMID:23341360

He, Jun-Min; Ma, Xian-Ge; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Tie-Feng; Xu, Fei-Fei; Chen, Yi-Ping; Liu, Xiao; Yue, Ming

2013-01-01

309

Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro  

E-print Network

Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro Wing-Yee Cheung,1 online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/jor.21283 ABSTRACT: Osteocyte associationbetweenfluidflow andosteocyte apoptosis,osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cellsweresubjectedto either oscillatoryfluidflow (10

Simmons, Craig A.

310

Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36?h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor ? and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone. PMID:25239298

Brazil, Timothy J.; Dixon, Padraic M.; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C.

2014-01-01

311

PRMT6 mediates CSE induced inflammation and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces apoptosis and inflammation, but the mechanism is unknown. Arginine methyltransferase (PRMT6) catalyzes the asymmetric di-methylation of histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2me2a) to control global level transcription. We hypothesized that PRMT6 mediates CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation through H3R2me2a. The apoptosis after CSE treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was fully measured with real-time reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and Annexin-V staining. Meanwhile, the inflammation in HUVECs after CSE exposure was detected with real-time reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and ELISA. CSE treatment promoted apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs, coinciding with the decreased protein abundance of PRMT6. Meanwhile, HUVECs transfected with PRMT6 expressing plasmid inhibited the CSE-induced apoptosis and inflammation. Also, the inhibition of PRMT6 promoted the apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs induced by CSE. Notably, H3R2me2a was associated with the modulation of PRMT6 in CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs. In conclusion, PRMT6 mediates CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation through H3R2me2a in HUVECs. PMID:25481537

Kang, Naixing; Chen, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zeng, Huihui; He, Xue; Zhu, Yingqun

2015-01-01

312

Changes in apoptosis of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes with aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many alterations with aging occur at the cellular and organic levels in the immune system ultimately leading to a decrease in the immune response. Our aim in the present work was to study apoptosis of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) with aging under various stimulations since apoptosis might play an important role in several pathologies encountered with aging. The PMN of healthy

T Fülöp Jr; C Fouquet; P Allaire; N Perrin; G Lacombe; J Stankova; M Rola-Pleszczynski; D Gagné; J. R Wagner; A Khalil; G Dupuis

1997-01-01

313

Structural studies of Bcl2-family regulators of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins

P. W. Stevens; X. Cai; M. Schiffer

1996-01-01

314

Myocardial Cell Death and Apoptosis in Hibernating Myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was designed to study apoptosis in hypoperfused hibernating myocardium subtending severe coronary stenosis.Background. Apoptosis contributes to myocyte death in acute myocardial infarction.Methods. A left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis was created in 13 pigs and maintained for 24 h (n = 4), 7 days (n = 5) and 4 weeks (n = 4) to reduce coronary blood

Chunguang Chen; Lijie Ma; Douglas R Linfert; Tianjie Lai; John T Fallon; Linda D Gillam; David D Waters; Gregory J Tsongalis

1997-01-01

315

Cell apoptosis and proliferation in experimental chronic obstructive uropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell apoptosis and proliferation in experimental chronic obstructive uropathy. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in kidneys with chronic obstructive uropathy (COU) have not been adequately studied. Whether these fundamental cellular processes play any role in the pathogenesis and evolution of COU remains undetermined. Sprague-Dawley rats with COU induced by unilateral ureteral ligation were sacrificed at postoperative days 1, 6, 9, 15,

Luan D Truong; Gordana Petrusevska; Guang Yang; Tayfun Gurpinar; Scott Shappell; Juan Lechago; Diane Rouse; Wadi N Suki

1996-01-01

316

Death by design: mechanism and control of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active cellular suicide by apoptosis plays important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, AIDS, stroke and many neurodegenerative disorders. A central step in the execution of apoptosis is the activation of an unusual class of cysteine proteases, termed caspases, that are widely expressed as inactive zymogens. Originally, the mechanisms for regulating the

Zhiwei Song; Hermann Steller

1999-01-01

317

Molecular failure of apoptosis: inappropriate cell survival and mutagenesis?  

PubMed

Since cell death by apoptosis is achieved through complex interactions between numerous molecular components, cells may fail to die when stimulated because of molecular abnormalities in the apoptosis pathway or in its control mechanisms. Such inappropriate cell survival is well established when apoptosis is suppressed by elevated expression of bcl-2, at least for some cell types. Many cells undergo apoptosis at moderate levels of DNA damage and suppression of such apoptosis might be expected to increase the rate of mutation because of the persistence of cells with damaged DNA. We and others have now confirmed this prediction in bcl-2 transfected cells. Suppression of the apoptosis pathway can only lead to inappropriate cell survival if it relates to events before the cell becomes committed to die. We have analyzed this question for agents that inhibit the caspases, the site-specific proteases which form the biochemical core of the process of apoptosis. We have shown that inhibition of certain caspases does lead to the survival of Jurkat human T-cells induced to undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis. PMID:10022300

Williams, G T; Critchlow, M R; Hedge, V L; O'Hare, K B

1998-12-28

318

Apoptosis in the Rat Penis After Penile Denervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeDespite the advances in nerve sparing prostatectomy for prostate cancer, some patients develop impotence or subjectively complain of a decrease in penile size. We hypothesized that these clinical observations may be explained by injury to the cavernous nerves resulting in programmed cell death (apoptosis) within the penis. We utilized a rat model of penile denervation in order to demonstrate apoptosis

Lonnie T. Klein; Mark I. Miller; Ralph Buttyan; Anthony J. Raffo; Martin Burchard; Glen Devris; Yi Chen Cao; Carl Olsson; Ridwan Shabsigh

1997-01-01

319

Rosiglitazone induces cardiotoxicity by accelerated apoptosis.  

PubMed

Present investigation explores the cardiotoxicity of rosiglitazone (ROSI) using rat heart cardiomyocytes and db/db mice. In H9c2 cells, ROSI at 50 and 60 ?M induced an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and superoxide generation, along with an increase in the expression of various subunits of NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthases, confirmed that ROSI-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells is by ROS generation. The increase in the expression of the antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) further confirmed this notion. Heme oxygenase-1, having an important role in cell protection against oxidative stress, was found to be increased along with induction of nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor and increased protein kinase C ? expression. Moreover, in db/db mice, oral administration of ROSI (10 mg/kg) for 10 days induced an increase in serum creatinine kinase-MB, tissue antioxidants like SOD, catalase, GR, GST, GPx expression, cardiac troponin T, and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression strongly support the in vitro findings. Furthermore, global gene expression studies also showed the perturbation of oxidative phosphorylation, fat cell differentiation, and electron transport chain following ROSI treatment in vivo. These results suggested that ROSI-induced cardiac damage is due to accelerated apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24249632

Mishra, Pratibha; Singh, Sarvendra Vikram; Verma, Ajeet Kumar; Srivastava, Pallavi; Sultana, Sarwat; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

2014-06-01

320

Aloin induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells.  

PubMed

Aloe is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, there are continuing concerns over the toxicity and the purity of aloe-based products. The primary class of compounds responsible for aloe-induced toxicity are anthraquinones. One of these, aloe-emodin, has been extensively investigated for apoptosis inducing effects. Conversely, the precursor to aloe-emodin, aloin, has been subjected to only minimal investigation of any cytotoxic effects. Jurkat T cells, an established model for the study of compound toxicity, were used to evaluate the effect of aloin on cell viability. Cells were analyzed using flow cytometry and microscopy for cell size and granularity, cell membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell cycle profile. Treatment with aloin resulted in a reduction in cell size, compromised membrane integrity, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, treatment with aloin resulted in alteration of the cell cycle, specifically a block at G2/M phase. Importantly, the loss of cell membrane integrity was preceded by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a mitochondrial-dependent pathway for aloin-induced apoptosis. These observations provide insight into the potential mechanisms of aloin-induced toxicity and thus, perhaps, aloe preparation-induced toxicity. Furthermore, because of the concern over the safety of aloe-based supplements, this work suggests that aloe supplements not containing aloin may be safer than aloe supplements containing aloin, and that aloin should be considered in addition to concentrations of aloe-emodin. PMID:18068945

Buenz, Eric J

2008-03-01

321

Apoptosis and proliferation in the trigeminal placode.  

PubMed

The neurogenic trigeminal placode develops from the crescent-shaped panplacodal primordium which delineates the neural plate anteriorly. We show that, in Tupaia belangeri, the trigeminal placode is represented by a field of focal ectodermal thickenings which over time changes positions from as far rostral as the level of the forebrain to as far caudal as opposite rhombomere 3. Delamination proceeds rostrocaudally from the ectoderm adjacent to the rostral midbrain, and contributes neurons to the trigeminal ganglion as well as to the ciliary ganglion/oculomotor complex. Proliferative events are centered on the field prior to the peak of delamination. They are preceded, paralleled and, finally, outnumbered by apoptotic events which proceed rostrocaudally from non-delaminating to delaminating parts of the field. Apoptosis persists upon regression of the placode, thereby exhibiting a massive "wedge" of apoptotic cells which includes the postulated position of the "ventrolateral postoptic placode" (Lee et al. in Dev Biol 263:176-190, 2003), merges with groups of lens-associated apoptotic cells, and disappears upon lens detachment. In conjunction with earlier work (Washausen et al. in Dev Biol 278:86-102, 2005) our findings suggest that apoptosis contributes repeatedly to the disintegration of the panplacodal primordium, to the elimination of subsets of premigratory placodal neuroblasts, and to the regression of placodes. PMID:19915864

Knabe, Wolfgang; Obermayer, Bastian; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg; Brunnett, Guido; Washausen, Stefan

2009-12-01

322

Ochratoxin A induces apoptosis in neuronal cells  

PubMed Central

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), which is produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium subspecies, is a frequently present contaminant of food and feedstuffs. OTA exhibits a wide range of toxic activities including nephro- and hepatotoxicity. However, little is known regarding potential neurotoxic effects of OTA. In the present study primary neurons as well as SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of OTA (0.1–2.5 ?mol/L). OTA treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity in both neuronal cell types. Caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated in response to OTA treatment. Furthermore, caspase inhibitors were effective in partly counteracting OTA induced neurocytotoxicity. OTA induced apoptosis was accompanied by a loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Overall, present data indicated that OTA is neurotoxic at relatively low concentrations. OTA induced neurotoxicity seems to be, at least party, mediated by apoptosis. OTA may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease) in which apoptotic processes are centrally involved. PMID:19148691

Zhang, Xiangnan; Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine; Lou, Yijia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Huebbe, Patricia

2009-01-01

323

Lobaplatin inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the anti-cancer effect of lobaplatin on human gastric cancer cells, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The human gastric cancer cell lines MKN-28, AGS and MKN-45 were used. The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin was detected using an MTS cell proliferation assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. The expression of apoptosis-regulated genes was examined at the protein level using Western blot. RESULTS: Lobaplatin inhibited the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells and induced apoptosis, which may be associated with the up-regulation of Bax expression, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, p53 expression and the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. CONCLUSION: The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin may be due to its ability of inducing apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, which would support the potential use of lobaplatin for the therapy of gastric cancer. PMID:25516654

Yin, Chu-Yang; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Tian, Lei; Ye, Ming; Yang, Xin-Ying; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

2014-01-01

324

Time and concentration dependency of MacroGard(®) induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

In previous studies an effect of ?-glucan on apoptosis in fish was noted and in this investigation we determine the time and concentration dependency of this effect. Primary cell cultures of pronephric carp cells were incubated for 6, 24, 48 h with various concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 ?g/ml of MacroGard(®) ?-glucan. Apoptosis was monitored via acridine orange staining. Results indicate a clear effect of time and concentration on the induction of apoptosis in vitro, with only concentration ?500 ?g/ml causing significantly higher percentages of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis was detected after 6 h. This concentration dependent effect has to be considered when studying apoptosis in relation to immunostimulation. PMID:25463286

Miest, J J; Hoole, D

2015-02-01

325

HPLC-SPE-NMR Characterization of Major Metabolites in Salvia fruticosa Mill. Extract with Antifungal Potential: Relevance of Carnosic Acid, Carnosol, and Hispidulin.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic fungi are considered of significant economic importance for adversely affecting both quantitatively and qualitatively fresh and processed produce. Extracts of Salvia fruticosa were initially screened for their antifungal activity, and the ethyl acetate fraction, being the most active, was further analyzed using HPLC-SPE-NMR hyphenation. The methoxylated flavones hispidulin, salvigenin, and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol, and 12-methoxycarnosic acid were identified as the major components of the extract. In addition, the concentration levels of all identified components were determined using q-NMR. The antifungal activity of the crude extract and selected phytochemicals was estimated against the fungal species Aspergillus tubingensis, Botrytis cinerea, and Penicillium digitatum. The estimated MIC and MFC values of the ethyl acetate extract of S. fruticosa, as well as three of its major constituents, carnosic acid, carnosol, and hispidulin, support their antifungal activity, especially against B. cinerea and P. digitatum, suggesting their potential use in food and agricultural systems. PMID:25537192

Exarchou, Vassiliki; Kanetis, Loukas; Charalambous, Zenovia; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Gekas, Vassilis; Goulas, Vlasios

2015-01-21

326

Comparison of the bioactivity of mometasone furoate 0.1% fatty cream, betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% cream and betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream in humans. Inhibition of UV-B-induced inflammation monitored by laser Doppler blood flowmetry.  

PubMed

The bioactivity of a novel topical glucocorticosteroid, mometasone furoate 0.1% fatty cream was compared with betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% cream and betametasone valerate 0.1% cream. An ultraviolet light (UV-B)-induced inflammation assay in humans was used, and the combined effect of a single, open application of the corticosteroids was evaluated. Reduction of UV-B induced inflammation was monitored by laser Doppler blood flowmetry, clinical skin scoring and skin reflectance spectrophotometry. Skin scoring and reflectance spectrophotometry were found unsuitable because one of the cream vehicles contained titanium dioxide which shielded skin erythema. Laser Doppler blood flowmetry showed that mometasone furoate 0.1% fatty cream was more than twofold better in reducing UV-B-induced inflammation than betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% cream and betametasone valerate 0.1% cream, and that the effect was sustained for at least 24 h after a single application. PMID:8274288

Bjerring, P

1993-01-01

327

Apoptosis in capillary endothelial cells in ageing skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) is a consistent hallmark of ageing. Apoptosis plays an important role in muscle atrophy, and the intent of this study was to specify whether apoptosis is restricted to myofibre nuclei (myonuclei) or occurs in satellite cells or stromal cells of extracellular matrix (ECM). Sarcopenia in mouse gastrocnemius muscle was characterized by myofibre atrophy, oxidative type grouping, delocalization of myonuclei and ECM fibrosis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) indicated a sharp rise in apoptosis during ageing. TUNEL coupled with immunostaining for dystrophin, paired box protein-7 (Pax7) or laminin-2?, respectively, was used to identify apoptosis in myonuclei, satellite cells and stromal cells. In adult muscle, apoptosis was not detected in myofibres, but was restricted to stromal cells. Moreover, the age-related rise in apoptotic nuclei was essentially due to stromal cells. Myofibre-associated apoptosis nevertheless occurred in old muscle, but represented < 20% of the total muscle apoptosis. Specifically, apoptosis in old muscle affected a small proportion (0.8%) of the myonuclei, but a large part (46%) of the Pax7+ satellite cells. TUNEL coupled with CD31 immunostaining further attributed stromal apoptosis to capillary endothelial cells. Age-dependent rise in apoptotic capillary endothelial cells was concomitant with altered levels of key angiogenic regulators, perlecan and a perlecan domain V (endorepellin) proteolytic product. Collectively, our results indicate that sarcopenia is associated with apoptosis of satellite cells and impairment of capillary functions, which is likely to contribute to the decline in muscle mass and functionality during ageing. PMID:24245531

Wang, Huijuan; Listrat, Anne; Meunier, Bruno; Gueugneau, Marine; Coudy-Gandilhon, Cécile; Combaret, Lydie; Taillandier, Daniel; Polge, Cécile; Attaix, Didier; Lethias, Claire; Lee, Kijoon; Goh, Kheng Lim; Béchet, Daniel

2014-01-01

328

Inhibition of apoptosis by the retinoblastoma gene product.  

PubMed Central

Tissue homeostasis and the prevention of neoplasia require regulatory co-ordination between cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Several cellular proteins, including c-myc and E2F, as well as viral proteins such as E1A, have dual functions as positive regulators of apoptosis and proliferation. The product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene, pRb, binds these proteins and is known to function in growth suppression. To examine whether pRb may function as a negative regulator of both proliferation and apoptosis, we analyzed apoptosis induced in transfected derivatives of the human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2. Ionizing radiation induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in SAOS-2 cells, which lack pRb expression. In both a transient and stable transfection assay, SAOS-2 derivatives expressing wild-type (wt) pRb exhibited increased viability and decreased apoptosis following treatment at a variety of radiation doses. Expression in SAOS-2 of a mutant pRb that fails to complex with several known binding partners of pRb, including E1A and E2F, did not protect SAOS-2 cells from apoptosis. Radiation exposure induced a G2 arrest in SAOS-2 and in derivatives expressing pRb. Inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression by aphidicolin treatment failed to protect SAOS-2 cells or pRb-expressing isolates from undergoing apoptosis. Our data document a novel function for pRb in suppressing apoptosis and suggest that several proteins shown to induce apoptosis, including E1A, E2F and c-myc, may do so by interfering with the protective function of pRb. Images PMID:7859736

Haas-Kogan, D A; Kogan, S C; Levi, D; Dazin, P; T'Ang, A; Fung, Y K; Israel, M A

1995-01-01

329

GCR and SPE organ doses in deep space with different shielding: Monte Carlo simulations based on the FLUKA code coupled to anthropomorphic phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts' exposure to space radiation is of high concern for long-term missions, especially for those in deep space such as possible travels to Mars. In these cases shielding optimization is a crucial issue, and simulations based on radiation transport codes and anthropomorphic model phantoms can be of great help. In this work the FLUKA Monte Carlo code was coupled with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a "voxel" model) to calculate organ-averaged dose, dose equivalent and "biological dose" in the various tissues and organs following exposure to the August 1972 Solar Particle Event and to Galactic Cosmic Rays under different shielding conditions. The "biological dose" was characterized by the average number of induced "Complex Lesions" (CLs) per cell in a given organ or tissue, where CLs are clustered DNA breaks which can play an important role in chromosome aberration induction. Separate calculation of the contributions from secondary hadrons - in particular neutrons - with respect to primary particles allowed us to quantify the role played by nuclear interactions occurring in the shield and in the human body. Specifically for GCR, the contributions from the different components of the incident primary spectra were calculated separately as well. As expected, the SPE doses showed a dramatic decrease with increasing Al shielding. Furthermore, for SPEs internal organs received much lower doses with respect to skin, and nuclear interactions were found to be of minor importance. A 10 g/cm 2 Al storm shelter turned out to be sufficient to respect the NCRP limits for 30-days LEO missions in case of a SPE similar to the August 1972 event. In contrast with SPEs, GCR absorbed doses remained roughly constant with increasing Al shielding. The organ-averaged dose equivalent and biological dose showed a (slight) decrease starting from a shield thickness of 2 g/cm 2, probably due the lower LET of projectile fragments.

Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Cerutti, F.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Mairani, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Parini, V.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Zankl, M.

330

1 S.R. REEVES, D.G. HILL, R.L. TINER, P.A. BASTIAN, M.W. CONWAY & S. MOHAGHEGH SPE 55627 Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.  

E-print Network

1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented

Mohaghegh, Shahab

331

Page 352 Courses: Nursing (NURS) Sonoma State University 2010-2011 Catalog nurS 313 BACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS ii (4)  

E-print Network

Page 352 Courses: Nursing (NURS) Sonoma State University 2010-2011 Catalog nurS 313 BACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS ii (4) Seminar, 4 hours. Application of baccalaureate nursing perspectives in childbearing and child-rearing families. Preventive and therapeutic aspects of nursing care for the pregnant

Ravikumar, B.

332

Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 367Sonoma State University 2013-2014 Catalog nurS 313 BACCALAureAte nurSing perSpeCtiVeS ii (4)  

E-print Network

Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 367Sonoma State University 2013-2014 Catalog nurS 313 BACCALAureAte nurSing perSpeCtiVeS ii (4) This course expands knowledge about the role of the professional nurse in society by exploring leadership and advocacy as integral components of professional nursing. It examines

Ravikumar, B.

333

Page 328 Courses: German (GER) Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog ger 314 LiterAture And CuLture oF tHe gerMAn-SpeAking  

E-print Network

Page 328 Courses: German (GER) Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog ger 314 LiterAture And CuLture oF tHe gerMAn-SpeAking WorLd (4) Studies of literature, film, art, and the cultural history of German of the skills acquired in GER 101. Students build on their knowledge of German culture. They improve

Ravikumar, B.

334

Determination of analytes in medical herbs extracts by SPE coupled with two-dimensional planar chromatography in combination with diode array scanning densitometry and HPLC-diode array detector.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an application of 2-D high-performance planar chromatography-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-DAD after solid-phase extraction (SPE) for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides (isoproturon, aziprotryne, hexazinone, flufenoxuron, methabenzthiazuron, procymidone, and ?-cypermethrin) in Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) samples. The procedure described for the determination of compounds is inexpensive and can be applied to routine analysis of analytes in medical herbs' samples after preliminary cleanup and concentration by SPE. Average recoveries on C18 SPE cartridges of pesticides eluted with 5 mL tetrahydrofuran by the proposed HPLC-DAD method, before and after 2-D-high-performance planar chromatography separation of analytes from M. officinalis L. samples spiked with pesticide at a concentration level of 10 ?g/g in plant material are presented. Method validation parameters for the quantification of pesticides by the proposed HPLC-DAD after SPE method are also presented. PMID:21171173

Tuzimski, Tomasz

2011-01-01

335

Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric bioanalysis using normal-phase columns with aqueous/organic mobile phases - a novel approach of eliminating evaporation and reconstitution steps in 96-well SPE.  

PubMed

Bioanalytical methods using automated 96-well solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. SPE methods typically require manual steps of drying of the eluates and reconstituting of the analytes with a suitable injection solvent possessing elution strength weaker than the mobile phase. In this study, we demonstrated a novel approach of eliminating these two steps in 96-well SPE by using normal-phase LC/MS/MS methods with low aqueous/high organic mobile phases, which consisted of 70-95% organic solvent, 5-30% water, and small amount of volatile acid or buffer. While the commonly used SPE elution solvents (i.e. acetonitrile and methanol) have stronger elution strength than a mobile phase on reversed-phase chromatography, they are weaker elution solvents than a mobile phase for normal-phase LC/MS/MS and therefore can be injected directly. Analytical methods for a range of polar pharmaceutical compounds, namely, omeprazole, metoprolol, fexofenadine, pseudoephedrine as well as rifampin and its metabolite 25-desacetyl-rifampin, in biological fluids, were developed and optimized based on the foregoing principles. As a result of the time saving, a batch of 96 samples could be processed in one hour. These bioanalytical LC/MS/MS methods were validated according to "Guidance for Industry - Bioanalytical Method Validation" recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States. PMID:12362389

Naidong, Weng; Shou, Wilson Z; Addison, Thomas; Maleki, Saber; Jiang, Xiangyu

2002-01-01

336

Ginsenoside compound K induces apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor  

PubMed Central

Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence rate in Southern China. Although there are conventional therapies, the side effects and toxicities are not always tolerable for patients. Recently, the tumoricidal effect of ginsenosides on different cancer cells has been studied. This study aims to investigate the anti-cancer effect of ginsenosides on NPC cells and their underlying mechanism. Methods The cytotoxicity of ginsenosides on NPC cell line HK-1 was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. A xenograft tumor model was established by injecting nude mice with HK-1 cells. The activation of caspases and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Nuclear translocation of AIF was also studied by immunofluorescence staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 dye using flow cytometry. Results Four ginsenosides, 20 (S)-Rh2, compound K (CK), panaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), induced apoptotic cell death in HK-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CK inhibited HK-1 xenograft tumor growth most extensively and depleted mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and induced translocation of AIF from cytoplasm to nucleus in HK-1 cells. In addition, depletion of AIF by siRNA abolished CK-induced HK-1 cell death. Conclusion Ginsenoside CK-induced apoptosis of HK-1 cells was mediated by the mitochondrial pathway and could significantly inhibit tumor growth in vivo. PMID:24690317

2014-01-01

337

Apoptosis and the systolic dysfunction in congestive heart failure. Story of apoptosis interruptus and zombie myocytes.  

PubMed

Although previously it was believed that apoptosis could not occur in the terminally differentiated tissue, such as adult heart muscle cells, recent studies in endomyocardial biopsies from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in explanted hearts from patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing cardiac transplantation have demonstrated histologic evidence of apoptosis. Whereas neurohormonal activation during heart failure leads to compensatory hemodynamic alterations, coupled with ventricular dilatation, it induces transcription factors and myocyte hypertrophy. Persistent growth stimulation in terminally differentiated cells may lead paradoxically to apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis in cardiomyopathic hearts is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and activation of proteolytic caspase-8 and -3. Although the caspases are duly processed, the fragmentation of the nuclear proteins (including DNA) is completed less frequently, and only a variable degree of fragmentation of cytoplasmic proteins (including contractile proteins) is observed. It is hypothesized that release of cytochrome c from mitochondria should interfere with energy production and lead to functional impairment and variable loss of contractile proteins in a living heart muscle cell should contribute to systolic dysfunction. Because a nuclear blueprint is retained, however, the dysfunctional cell may continue to exist and in favorable conditions, such as with LVAD support, the apoptotic process may subside. Potential feasibility of reversal of heart failure should renew efforts to develop more targeted pharmaceutical intervention within the apoptotic cascade and allow newer paradigm for the management of heart failure. PMID:11787805

Narula, J; Arbustini, E; Chandrashekhar, Y; Schwaiger, M

2001-02-01

338

Cellular and Nuclear Degradation during Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis ensures quick death and quiet clearance of unwanted or damaged cells, without inducing much, if any, immunological responses from the organism. In metazoan organisms, apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by other cells. The degradation of cellular content is initiated in apoptotic cells and completed within engulfing cells. In apoptotic cells, caspase-mediated proteolysis cleaves protein substrates into fragments; nuclear DNA is partially degraded into nucleosomal units; and autophagy potentially contributes to apoptotic-cell removal. In engulfing cells, specific signaling pathways promote the sequential fusion of intracellular vesicles with phagosomes and lead to the complete degradation of apoptotic cells in an acidic environment. Phagocytic receptors that initiate the engulfment of apoptotic cells play an additional and critical role in initiating phagosome maturation through activating these signaling pathways. Here we highlight recent discoveries made in invertebrate models and mammalian systems, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the efficient degradation of apoptotic cells. PMID:19781927

He, Bin; Lu, Nan; Zhou, Zheng

2009-01-01

339

Lysine methyltransferase Smyd2 suppresses p53-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential physiological process for proper embryogenesis as well as for homeostasis during aging. In addition, apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms causing cell loss in pathophysiological conditions such as heart failure. Thus, inhibition of apoptosis is an important approach for preventive and therapeutic strategies. Here we show that the histone 3 lysine 4- and lysine 36-specific methyltransferase Smyd2 acts as an endogenous antagonistic player of p53-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Smyd2 protein levels were significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes upon cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis or myocardial infarction, while p53 expression was enhanced. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smyd2 in cultured cardiomyocytes further enhanced cobalt chloride-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In contrast, Smyd2 overexpression resulted in marked methylation of p53 and prevented its accumulation as well as apoptotic cell death in an Hsp90-independent manner. Moreover, overexpression, of Smyd2, but not Smyd2Y240F lacking a methyl transferase activity, significantly rescued CoCl2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardioblasts. Finally, Smyd2 cardiomyocyte-specific deletion in vivo promoted apoptotic cell death upon myocardial infarction, which correlated with enhanced expression of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax. Collectively, our data indicate Smyd2 as a cardioprotective protein by methylating p53. PMID:25014164

Sajjad, Amna; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Vergarajauregui, Silvia; Troidl, Christian; Schermuly, Ralph T; Tucker, Haley O; Engel, Felix B

2014-11-01

340

Viruses, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation-a double-edged sword.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a fundamental and widespread cell biological process that is distinct from cell necrosis and can be induced by a wide variety of stimuli including viral infections. Apoptosis may occur via either the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways and confers several advantages to the virally infected host including the prevention of further viral propagation and the potential inhibition and resolution of inflammatory processes. Several viruses have been shown to have the capacity to induce apoptosis in susceptible cells including herpes simplex virus, Varicella-zoster virus, rabies virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and reovirus. Apoptosis has also been observed in human African trypanosomiasis which is an infection caused by a protozoan parasite. The mechanisms leading to apoptosis may differ depending on the type of infection. Apoptosis has been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases and also psychiatric disorders but the true clinical significance of such observations is not certain, and, though interesting, it is very difficult to ascribe causation in these conditions. The presence of inflammation in the central nervous system in any neurological condition, including those associated with a viral infection, is not necessarily an absolute marker of serious disease and the notion of 'good' versus 'bad' inflammation is considered to be valid in some circumstances. The precise relationship between viruses, apoptosis, and inflammation is viewed as a complex one requiring further investigation to unravel and understand its nature. PMID:25604493

Kennedy, Peter G E

2015-02-01

341

Retinoids induce Nur77-dependent apoptosis in mouse thymocytes.  

PubMed

Nur77 is a transcription factor, which plays a determinant role in mediating T cell receptor-induced cell death of thymocytes. In addition to regulation of transcription, Nur77 contributes to apoptosis induction by targeting mitochondria, where it can convert Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein into a proapoptotic molecule. Previous studies have demonstrated that retinoids are actively produced in the mouse thymus and can induce a transcription-dependent apoptosis in mouse thymocytes. Here we show that retinoic acids induce the expression of Nur77, and retinoid-induced apoptosis is completely dependent on Nur77, as retinoids were unable to induce apoptosis in Nur77 null thymocytes. In wild-type thymocytes retinoids induced enhanced expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, TRAIL, NDG-1, Gpr65 and Bid, all of them in a Nur77-dependent manner. The combined action of these proteins led to Caspase 8-dependent Bid cleavage in the mitochondria. In addition, we could demonstrate the Nur77-dependent induction of STAT1 leading to enhanced Bim expression, and the mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 leading to the exposure of the Bcl-2/BH3 domain. The retinoid-induced apoptosis was dependent on both Caspase 8 and STAT1. Our data together indicate that retinoids induce a Nur77-dependent cell death program in thymocytes activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. PMID:25576519

Kiss, Beáta; Tóth, Katalin; Sarang, Zsolt; Garabuczi, Éva; Szondy, Zsuzsa

2015-03-01

342

Sphingolipids: regulators of crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis and autophagy are two evolutionarily conserved processes that maintain homeostasis during stress. Although the two pathways utilize fundamentally distinct machinery, apoptosis and autophagy are highly interconnected and share many key regulators. The crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is complex, as autophagy can function to promote cell survival or cell death under various cellular conditions. The molecular mechanisms of crosstalk are beginning to be elucidated and have critical implications for the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer. Sphingolipids are a class of bioactive lipids that mediate many key cellular processes, including apoptosis and autophagy. By targeting several of the shared regulators, sphingolipid metabolites differentially regulate the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, individual sphingolipid species appear to “switch” autophagy toward cell survival (e.g., sphingosine-1-phosphate) or cell death (e.g., ceramide, gangliosides). This review assesses the current understanding of sphingolipid-induced apoptosis and autophagy to address how sphingolipids mediate the “switch” between the cell survival and cell death. As sphingolipid metabolism is frequently dysregulated in cancer, sphingolipid-modulating agents, or sphingomimetics, have emerged as a novel chemotherapeutic strategy. Ultimately, a greater understanding of sphingolipid-mediated crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy may be critical for enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy of these agents. PMID:23152582

Young, Megan M.; Kester, Mark; Wang, Hong-Gang

2013-01-01

343

Mechanism of ziram-induced apoptosis in human T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Ziram as a dithiocarbamate fungicide is widely used throughout the world in agriculture. We previously found that ziram significantly inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in a dose-dependent manner. To explore the mechanism of this inhibition, we investigated ziram-induced apoptosis in human T lymphocytes. Jurkat T cells were treated with ziram at 0.031-1 ?M for 2-24 h. Freshly isolated primary human T cells were treated with ziram at 0.0625-1 ?M for 15 and 24 h. Apoptosis was determined by FITC-Annexin V/PI staining and the TUNEL assay. To explore the mechanism of apoptosis, intracellular levels of active caspases 3, 3/7, 8, and 9 and pan-caspase and mitochondrial cytochrome-c release were determined by flow cytometry. Disruption to mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined with a MitoLight(™) Apoptosis Detection Kit. We found that ziram induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both Jurkat cells and primary human T cells. The primary human T cells were more sensitive to ziram than the Jurkat cell line. Ziram induced increases in active caspases 3, 3/7, 8, and 9 and pan-caspase in a dose-dependent manner, and a caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK, partially but significantly inhibited the apoptosis. Moreover, a general caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, significantly and almost completely blocked the apoptosis. Ziram also disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential and caused mitochondrial cytochrome-c release. These findings indicate that ziram can induce apoptosis in human T cells, and the apoptosis is mediated by both the caspase-cascade and the mitochondria/cytochrome-c pathways. PMID:22159898

Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kawada, Tomoyuki

2012-04-01

344

Stochastic modeling of p53-regulated apoptosis upon radiation damage  

E-print Network

We develop and study the evolution of a model of radiation induced apoptosis in cells using stochastic simulations, and identified key protein targets for effective mitigation of radiation damage. We identified several key proteins associated with cellular apoptosis using an extensive literature survey. In particular, we focus on the p53 transcription dependent and p53 transcription independent pathways for mitochondrial apoptosis. Our model reproduces known p53 oscillations following radiation damage. The key, experimentally testable hypotheses that we generate are - inhibition of PUMA is an effective strategy for mitigation of radiation damage if the treatment is administered immediately, at later stages following radiation damage, inhibition of tBid is more effective.

Bhatt, Divesh; Bahar, Ivet

2011-01-01

345

Morphological and cytochemical determination of cell death by apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Several modes of cell death are now recognized, including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Oftentimes the distinctions between these various modes may not be apparent, although the precise mode may be physiologically important. Accordingly, it is often desirable to be able to classify the mode of cell death. Apoptosis was originally defined by structural alterations in cells observable by transmitted light and electron microscopy. Today, a wide variety of imaging and cytochemical techniques are available for the investigation of apoptosis. This review will highlight many of these methods, and provide a critique on the advantages and disadvantages associated with them for the specific identification of apoptotic cells in culture and tissues. PMID:18000678

Sobel, Burton E.; Budd, Ralph C.

2007-01-01

346

MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 60:553561 (2001) Apoptosis in Sea Urchin Oocytes, Eggs, and  

E-print Network

MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 60:553±561 (2001) Apoptosis in Sea Urchin Oocytes, Eggs of apoptosis assays in sea urchin oocytes, eggs, and early embryos experimentally induced to apoptose: apoptosis; sea urchin; oocyte; egg; staurosporine INTRODUCTION Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays

Wessel, Gary M.

347

Renal cell apoptosis in chronic obstructive uropathy: The roles of caspases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal cell apoptosis in chronic obstructive uropathy: The roles of caspases.BackgroundApoptosis of tubular and interstitial cells is well documented in kidneys with chronic obstructive uropathy (COU) and probably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The molecular control of apoptosis in COU remains poorly understood. Apoptosis in general is known to proceed initially along distinct pathways, which

Luan D. Truong; Yeong-Jin Choi; Chun Chui Tsao; Gustavo Ayala; David Sheikh-Hamad; George Nassar; Wadi N. Suki

2001-01-01

348

Alymphoplasia ( aly )-type Nuclear Factor k B-inducing Kinase (NIK) Causes Defects in Secondary Lymphoid Tissue Chemokine Receptor Signaling and Homing of Peritoneal Cells to the Gut-associated Lymphatic Tissue System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alymphoplasia ( aly ) mice, which carry a point mutation in the nuclear factor k B-inducing ki- nase (NIK) gene, are characterized by the systemic absence of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, disorganized splenic and thymic architectures, and immunodeficiency. Another unique feature of aly\\/aly mice is that their peritoneal cavity contains more B1 cells than normal and aly\\/ 1 mice.

Sidonia Fagarasan; Reiko Shinkura; Tadashi Kamata; Fumiaki Nogaki; Koichi Ikuta; Kei Tashiro; Tasuku Honjo

349

Theiler's virus-induced apoptosis in cerebrovascular endothelial cells.  

E-print Network

(BBB). This report indicates the ability of both the neurovirulent and the persistent strains of Theiler's virus to induce apoptosis in the functional units of the BBB - the cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CVE) both in vitro and in vivo. Induction...

Nayak, Mamatha Somanath

2004-09-30

350

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

351

Norcantharidin Induces HL-60 Cells Apoptosis In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Norcantharidin (NCTD) is the demethylated form of cantharidin, which is the active substance of mylabris, and is known to have anticancer potentials. The aim of this paper was to assess the apoptosis-inducing effect of NCTD on HL-60 cells. Methods. The effects of NCTD were detected by flow cytometer on the cell toxicity, cell cycle, and apoptosis of HL-60 cells cultured in vitro. Results. After 48-hour treatment with NCTD, the growth of HL-60 cells was inhibited significantly. The summit of apoptosis appeared after 24 hours. The percentage of the cells in G1 phase decreased and then increased in S and G2+ M phase, while the S and G2+ M phases were blocked after treatment with 5, 10, and 50??mol/L NCTD for 24 hours. Conclusions. NCTD can induce the apoptosis of HL-60 cells and inhibit the fissiparism, and the domino effect was obviously correlated with the time and dosage. PMID:22778770

Jiang, You-Ming; Meng, Zhen-Zhi; Yue, Guang-Xin; Chen, Jia-Xu

2012-01-01

352

Norcantharidin Induces HL-60 Cells Apoptosis In Vitro.  

PubMed

Norcantharidin (NCTD) is the demethylated form of cantharidin, which is the active substance of mylabris, and is known to have anticancer potentials. The aim of this paper was to assess the apoptosis-inducing effect of NCTD on HL-60 cells. Methods. The effects of NCTD were detected by flow cytometer on the cell toxicity, cell cycle, and apoptosis of HL-60 cells cultured in vitro. Results. After 48-hour treatment with NCTD, the growth of HL-60 cells was inhibited significantly. The summit of apoptosis appeared after 24 hours. The percentage of the cells in G(1) phase decreased and then increased in S and G(2)+ M phase, while the S and G(2)+ M phases were blocked after treatment with 5, 10, and 50??mol/L NCTD for 24 hours. Conclusions. NCTD can induce the apoptosis of HL-60 cells and inhibit the fissiparism, and the domino effect was obviously correlated with the time and dosage. PMID:22778770

Jiang, You-Ming; Meng, Zhen-Zhi; Yue, Guang-Xin; Chen, Jia-Xu

2012-01-01

353

Clematis mandshurica protected to apoptosis of rat chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the effect of SKI 306X, a purified extract from the mixture of three herbs, i.e. Clematis mandshurica, Trichosanthes kirilowii and Prunella vulgaris, on apoptosis in chondrocytes.

Sung W. Lee; Won T. Chung; Sun M. Choi; Kyung T Kim; Ki S. Yoo; Young H. Yoo

2005-01-01

354

Induction of apoptosis by adenovirus E4orf4 protein.  

PubMed

Adenovirus E4orf4 protein is a multifunctional viral regulator that induces p53-independent apoptosis in transformed cells, but not in normal cells. E4orf4-induced apoptosis can occur without activation of known caspases, although E4orf4 induces caspase activity in some cell lines. The interaction of E4orf4 with a specific subpopulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) molecules that contain B subunits, but not with those that contain B' subunits, is required for induction of apoptosis. This review suggests the potential use of E4orf4 in cancer therapy, and discusses whether E4orf4-induced apoptosis plays a role in the viral life cycle. Future research directions are also highlighted. PMID:11225841

Kleinberger, T

2000-06-01

355

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus induced apoptosis in swine testes cell cultures.  

PubMed

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus which causes severe gastroenteritis and atrophy of intestinal villous epithelial cells in piglets. However, the mechanism of cell death caused by TGEV is not known. In this study, we report that TGEV induces cell death by apoptosis. TGEV-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and terminal deoxytransferase digoxigenin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Double labeling experiment confirmed the result from electron microscopy and showed that most of the apoptotic cells were bystander cells as they were negative for TGEV nucleic acids. Results of this study indicate that TGEV induces apoptosis in vitro and that most of the cells undergoing apoptosis are bystander cells, thus amplifying the cytopathic effect of TGEV. PMID:9930203

Sirinarumitr, T; Kluge, J P; Paul, P S

1998-01-01

356

Fish as model systems for the study of vertebrate apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a process of pivotal importance for multi-cellular organisms and due to its implication in the development of\\u000a cancer and degenerative disease it is intensively studied in humans and mammalian model systems. Invertebrate models of apoptosis\\u000a have been well-studied, especially in C. elegans and D. melanogaster, but as these are evolutionarily distant from mammals the relevance of findings for

Gerhard Krumschnabel; Jason E. Podrabsky

2009-01-01

357

Modulation of radiation-induced apoptosis by thiolamines.  

PubMed

Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8.3 hybridoma after a 60-min (LD50 = 4.5 mM) or during a 20-h (LD50 = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-h exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50% apoptosis within 20 h. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-min or 20-h exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidine prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4 mM for 15 min) or cysteine (10 mM for 60 min) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 h) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 min beginning 60 min after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 h beginning 60 min after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations. PMID:9343109

Warters, R L; Roberts, J C; Wilmore, B H; Kelley, L L

1997-10-01

358

Chalcones from Angelica keiskei Induce Apoptosis in Stomach Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis was observed in human stomach cancer KATO III cells exposed to two chalcones isolated from the stems of ashitaba (Umbelliferae, Angelica keiskei). Exposure of the KATO III cells to the chalcones, identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and H-NMR to be xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin, produced oligonucreosomal-sized fragments, a characteristic of apoptosis. The DNA fragmentation of the KATO III cells could

Shinsaku Takaoka; Hiroshige Hibasami; Kazuya Ogasawara; Nami Imai

2008-01-01

359

Morphological and cytochemical determination of cell death by apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modes of cell death are now recognized, including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Oftentimes the distinctions\\u000a between these various modes may not be apparent, although the precise mode may be physiologically important. Accordingly,\\u000a it is often desirable to be able to classify the mode of cell death. Apoptosis was originally defined by structural alterations\\u000a in cells observable by transmitted light

Douglas J. Taatjes; Burton E. Sobel; Ralph C. Budd

2008-01-01

360

Role of Smac in human leukaemic cell apoptosis and proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smac (or DIABLO) is a recently identified, novel proapoptotic molecule, which is released from mitochondria into the cytosol during apoptosis. Smac functions by eliminating the caspase-inhibitory properties of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP), particularly XIAP. In this study, we stably transfected both full-length (FL) and mature (MT) Smac genes into the K562 and CEM leukaemic cell lines. Both FL

Li Jia; Yasmeen Patwari; Stephen M Kelsey; Srinivasa M Srinivasula; Samir G Agrawal; Emad S Alnemri; Adrian C Newland

2003-01-01

361

A Plant Defense Response Effector Induces Microbial Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotin is a tobacco PR-5 protein that has antifungal activity and is implicated in host-plant defense. We show here that osmotin induces apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Induction of apoptosis was correlated with intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and was mediated by RAS2, but not RAS1. Osmotin treatment resulted in suppression of transcription of stress-responsive genes via the RAS2\\/cAMP pathway.

Meena L Narasimhan; Barbara Damsz; Maria A Coca; José I Ibeas; Dae-Jin Yun; José M Pardo; Paul M Hasegawa; Ray A Bressan

2001-01-01

362

Modulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Thiolamines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8-3 hybridoma after 60-minute (LD(sub50) = 4.5mM) or during a 20-hour (LD(sub50) = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-hour exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50 percent apoptosis within 20 hours. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-minute or 20-hour exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidime prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4mM for 15 minutes) or cysteine (10mM for 60 minutes) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 hours) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 minutes beginning 60 minutes after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 hours beginning 60 minutes after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations.

Warters, R. L.; Roberts, J. C.; Wilmore, B. H.; Kelley, L. L.

1997-01-01

363

Radiation-induced apoptosis in microvascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The response of the microvasculature to ionizing radiation is thought to be an important factor in the overall response of both normal tissues and tumours. It has recently been reported that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, protects large vessel endothelial cells from radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Microvessel cells are phenotypically distinct from large vessel cells. We studied the apoptotic response of confluent monolayers of capillary endothelial cells (ECs) to ionizing radiation and bFGF. Apoptosis was assessed by identifying changes in nuclear morphology, recording cell detachment rates and by detecting internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Withdrawal of bFGF alone induces apoptosis in these monolayers. The magnitude of this apoptotic response depends upon the duration of bFGF withdrawal. Irradiation (2-10 Gy) induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Radiation-induced apoptosis occurs in a discrete wave 6-10 h after irradiation, and radiation-induced apoptosis is enhanced in cultures that are simultaneously deprived of bFGF. For example, 6 h after 10 Gy, 44.3% (s.e. 6.3%) of cells in the monolayer simultaneously deprived of bFGF exhibit apoptotic morphology compared with 19.8% (s.e. 3.8%) in the presence of bFGF. These studies show that either bFGF withdrawal or ionizing radiation can induce apoptosis in confluent monolayers of capillary endothelial cells and that radiation-induced apoptosis can be modified by the presence of bFGF. PMID:9043022

Langley, R E; Bump, E A; Quartuccio, S G; Medeiros, D; Braunhut, S J

1997-01-01

364

Induction of apoptosis by adenovirus E4orf4 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenovirus E4orf4 protein is a multifunctional viral regulator that induces p53-independent apoptosis in transformed cells, but not in normal cells. E4orf4-induced apoptosis can occur without activation of known caspases, although E4orf4 induces caspase activity in some cell lines. The interaction of E4orf4 with a specific subpopulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) molecules that contain B subunits, but not with those

T. Kleinberger

2000-01-01

365

Induction of apoptosis in frog virus 3-infected cells.  

PubMed

The ability of frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species of the family Iridoviridae, to induce apoptosis was examined by monitoring DNA cleavage, chromatin condensation, and cell-surface expression of phosphotidylserine (PS) in fathead minnow (FHM) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. In productively infected FHM cells, DNA fragmentation was first noted at 6-7 h postinfection and was clearly seen by 17 h postinfection, while chromatin condensation was detected at 8.5 h postinfection. As with some other viruses, FV3-induced apoptosis did not require de novo viral gene expression as both heat-inactivated and UV-inactivated virus readily triggered DNA fragmentation in FHM cells. Moreover, FV3-induced apoptosis was blocked in FHM cells by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that virus infection triggers programmed cell death through activation of the caspase cascade. FV3 infection also triggered apoptosis in BHK cells as monitored by TUNEL and annexin V binding assays. To determine whether FV3, similar to other large DNA viruses, encoded proteins that block or delay apoptosis, mock- and FV3-infected FHM cells were osmotically shocked and assayed for DNA fragmentation 3 hours later. DNA fragmentation was clearly seen whether or not shocked cells were previously infected with FV3, indicating that infection with FV3 did not block apoptosis induced by osmotic shock in FHM cells. The above results demonstrate that iridoviruses triggered apoptosis and that the induction of programmed cell death did not require viral gene expression. However, it remains to be determined if virion attachment to target cells is sufficient to induce cell death, or if apoptosis is triggered directly or indirectly by one or more virion-associated proteins. PMID:12642103

Chinchar, V G; Bryan, Locke; Wang, J; Long, Scott; Chinchar, G D

2003-02-15

366

Critical Roles of Ca 2+ and K + Homeostasis in Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis occurs during the development, aging, and in various disease states. The apoptotic biochemical cascade involves\\u000a activation of caspases, release of mitochondrial apoptotic factors, and nuclear DNA fragmentation, subjecting to regulation\\u000a by pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 genes. Emerging evidence supports that apoptosis is controlled by ionic mechanisms involving\\u000a changes in Ca2+ and K+ homeostasis. It is proposed that Ca2+ changes

Shan Ping Yu

367

Drug-induced reactivation of apoptosis abrogates HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal antivirals that eliminate viral infection by destroying infected cells. A drug-based drug discovery program, based on these compounds, is warranted to determine the potential of such agents in clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24086341

Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D; Cambiaghi, Tavane D; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Heller, Debra S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M; Cone, Richard A; Holland, Bart; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B

2013-01-01

368

PUMA Induces the Rapid Apoptosis of Colorectal Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through global profiling of genes that were expressed soon after p53 expression, we identified a novel gene termed PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). The protein encoded by PUMA was found to be exclusively mitochondrial and to bind to Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL through a BH3 domain. Exogenous expression of PUMA resulted in an extremely rapid and profound apoptosis that occurred

Jian Yu; Lin Zhang; Paul M. Hwang; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein

2001-01-01

369

Simultaneous analysis of psychotropic phenylalkylamines in oral fluid by GC-MS with automated SPE and its application to legal cases.  

PubMed

Phenylalkylamine derivatives, such as methamphetamine (MA), amphetamine (AM), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), phentermine (PT), fenfluramine (FFA) and phenmetrazine (PM), and ketamine (KT) are widely abused recreational or anorectic drugs in Korea and are regulated under the Controlled Substance Act in Korea. Phenylalkylamines and ketamine analysis is normally performed using both urine and hair samples but there is no established method for the simultaneous analysis of all these phenylalkylamines and ketamine in oral fluids. Oral fluid is easy to collect/handle and can provide an indication of recent drug abuse. In this study, to confirm the presence of phenylalkylamine derivatives and ketamine in oral fluid after screening with an immunoassay, an analytical method using automated solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and fully validated according to international guidelines. The applicability of the assay was demonstrated by analyzing of authentic oral fluid samples and the results of oral fluid analysis were compared with those in urine and hair to to evaluate the feasibility of oral fluid in forensic cases. The recovery of phenylalkylamines and ketamine from oral fluid collection devices was also assessed. Oral fluid specimens from 23 drug abuse suspects submitted by the police were collected using Salivette (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany), Quantisal (Immunalysis, Pomona, CA) or direct expectoration. The samples were screened using a biochip array analyzer (Evidence Investigator, Randox, Antrim, UK). For confirmation, the samples were analyzed by GC-MS in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode after extraction using automated SPE (RapidTrace, Zymark, MA, USA) with a mixed-mode cation exchange cartridge (CLEAN SCREEN, 130 mg/3 ml, UCT, PA, USA) and derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFA). The results from the immunoassay were consistent with those from GC-MS. Twenty oral fluid samples gave positive results for MA, AM, PT and/or PM among the 23 cases, which gave positive results in urine and/or hair. Although large variations in the MA, AM, PT and PM concentrations were observed in three different specimens, the oral fluid specimen was useful for demonstrating phenylalkylamines and ketamine abuse as an alternative specimen for urine. PMID:21377815

Choi, Hyeyoung; Baeck, Seungkyung; Jang, Moonhee; Lee, Sooyeun; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun

2012-02-10

370

Models and Monte Carlo simulations of GCR and SPE organ doses with different shielding, based on the FLUKA code coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts' exposure to space radiation is of major concern for long-term missions, especially for those in deep space such as a possible mission to Mars. Shielding optimization is therefore a crucial issue, and simulations based on radiation transport codes coupled with anthropomorphic model phantoms can be of great help. In this work, carried out with the FLUKA MC code and two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a "voxel" model), distributions of physical (i.e. absorbed), equivalent and "biological" dose in the various tissues and organs were calculated in different shielding conditions for solar minimum and solar maximum GCR spectra, as well as for the August 1972 Solar Particle Event. The biological dose was modeled as the average number of "Complex Lesions" (CL) per cell in a given organ. CLs are clustered DNA breaks previously calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations and integrated in the condensed-history FLUKA code. This approach is peculiar in that it is an example of a mechanistically-based quantification of the ionizing radiation action in biological targets; indeed CLs have been shown to play a fundamental role in chromosome aberration induction. The contributions of primary particles and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, thus allowing quantification of the role of nuclear reactions in the shield and in the human body. As expected, the doses calculated for the 1972 SPE decrease dramatically with increasing the Al shielding; nuclear reactions were found to be of minor importance, although their role is higher for internal organs and large shielding. An Al shield thickness of 10 g/cm2 appears sufficient to respect the 30-day deterministic limits recommended by NCRP for missions in Low Earth Orbit. In contrast with the results obtained for SPE, GCR doses to internal organs are not significantly lower than skin doses. However, the relative contribution of secondary hadrons was found to be more important for internal organs due to nuclear interactions in the human body. Both for skin and for internal organs, the physical dose was found to be essentially independent of the shield thickness. The equivalent and biological doses to skin show a significant decrease starting from 5 g/cm2, whereas internal organs show more complex trends characterized by minima and maxima mainly dependent on the organ type. Polyethylene shielding resulted to be more effective with respect to Aluminum.

Ballarini, F.; Fluka-Phantoms Team

371

Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins as therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have a critical role in the control of apoptotic machinery, and has been explored as a therapeutic target. Here, we have examined the functional importance of IAPs in multiple myeloma (MM) by using a Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases)-mimetic LCL161. We observed that LCL161 was able to potently induce apoptosis in some MM cell lines but not in others. Examining the levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) post LCL161 treatment indicated clear downregulation of both XIAP activity and cIAP1 levels in both the sensitive and less sensitive (resistant) cell lines. cIAP2, however, was not downregulated in the cell line resistant to the drug. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of cIAP2 significantly enhanced the effect of LCL161, indicating the importance of downregulation of all IAPs simultaneously for induction of apoptosis in MM cells. LCL161 induced marked up regulation of the Jak2/Stat3 pathway in the resistant MM cell lines. Combining LCL161 with a Jak2-specific inhibitor resulted in synergistic cell death in MM cell lines and patient cells. In addition, combining LCL161 with death-inducing ligands clearly showed that LCL161 sensitized MM cells to both Fas-ligand and TRAIL. PMID:24402161

Ramakrishnan, V; Painuly, U; Kimlinger, T; Haug, J; Rajkumar, S V; Kumar, S

2014-07-01

372

Noxa Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cell Apoptosis by Proteasome Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Aim Induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis is a viable therapeutic strategy to reduce liver fibrogenesis. Although BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family trigger pro-apoptotic pathways, the BH3-only proteins mediating HSC apoptosis have not been well defined. Our aim, using proteasome inhibition as a model to induce HSC apoptosis, was to examine the BH3-only proteins contributing to cell death of this key liver cell subtype. Methods Apoptosis was induced by treating LX-2 cells, an immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line, and primary rat stellate cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Results Treatment with proteasome inhibitors increased expression of Noxa both at the mRNA (16-fold) and protein (22-fold) levels indicating that both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms contributed to the increase in cellular Noxa levels. Knockdown of Noxa by siRNA significantly attenuated cell death, mechanistically implicating Noxa as a key apoptotic mediator of proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death. Given the pivotal role for the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein A1 in activated HSC survival, we determined if Noxa bound to this survival protein. Noxa was shown to physically bind the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein A1 by co-immunoprecipitation. Conclusions Noxa contributes to proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of stellate cells likely by binding A1. Strategies to therapeutically increase Noxa expression may be useful for inducing HSC apoptosis. PMID:20557369

Sosa Seda, Ivette M.; Mott, Justin L.; Akazawa, Yuko; Barreyro, Fernando J.; Bronk, Steven F.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Gores, Gregory J.

2010-01-01

373

Lovastatin-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines.  

PubMed

The cholesterol-lowering medications, statins, inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in an array of cancer cell lines, including melanoma. We investigated the apoptotic mechanism of lovastatin on human melanoma cell lines in vitro. The cytotoxicity of statins on multiple cell lines was examined by Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One solution cell proliferation assay (MTS assay). Apoptosis was assayed by ethidium bromide and acridine orange morphologic assays, an Annexin V apoptosis detection kit and active caspase 3 assays. Farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate add-back experiments were performed to better define the molecular mechanisms mediating lovastatin cytotoxicity. Lovastatin caused cytotoxicity in human and murine melanoma cells, but did not induce toxicity in an epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. For human melanoma cells, lovastatin precipitated cell rounding, increased the percentage of apoptotic cells detected by ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining and by the Annexin V apoptosis detection kit, and resulted in a 50-fold increase in active caspase 3, corroborating that lovastatin induced apoptosis. Adding back geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not farnesyl pyrophosphate, reversed the effects of lovastatin in A375 cells. Of the five statins tested, pravastatin was least effective in killing melanoma cells. Lovastatin induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in multiple melanoma cell lines via a geranylation-specific mechanism. This study supports a possible role of lovastatin as a therapeutic, adjuvant or chemopreventive agent for melanoma. PMID:15846140

Shellman, Yiqun G; Ribble, Deborah; Miller, Leslie; Gendall, John; Vanbuskirk, Kayleen; Kelly, Desiree; Norris, David A; Dellavalle, Robert P

2005-04-01

374

Analysis of apoptosis during hair follicle regression (catagen)  

PubMed Central

Keratinocyte apoptosis is a central element in the regulation of hair follicle regression (catagen), yet the exact location and the control of follicular keratinocyte apoptosis remain obscure. To generate an "apoptomap" of the hair follicle, we have studied selected apoptosis-associated parameters in the C57BL/6 mouse model for hair research during normal and pharmacologically manipulated, pathological catagen development. As assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP fluorescein nick end-labeling (TUNEL) stain, apoptotic cells not only appeared in the regressing proximal follicle epithelium but, surprisingly, were also seen in the central inner root sheath, in the bulge/isthmus region, and in the secondary germ, but never in the dermal papilla. These apoptosis hot spots during catagen development correlated largely with a down-regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio but only poorly with the expression patterns of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme, p55TNFR, and Fas/Apo-1 immunoreactivity. Instead, a higher correlation was found with p75NTR expression. During cyclophosphamide-induced follicle dystrophy and alopecia, massive keratinocyte apoptosis occurred in the entire proximal hair bulb, except in the dermal papilla, despite a strong up-regulation of Bax and p75NTR immunoreactivity. Selected receptors of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor family and members of the Bcl-2 family may also play a key role in the control of follicular keratinocyte apoptosis in situ. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5. a Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9403711

Lindner, G.; Botchkarev, V. A.; Botchkareva, N. V.; Ling, G.; van der Veen, C.; Paus, R.

1997-01-01

375

Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in chondrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis (OA) is closely associated with the death of chondrocytes in apoptosis fashion. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), higher expression following acute damage in OA patients, has been shown to be up-regulated during apoptosis in a bulk of experimental models. This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of H2O2-induced rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. Articular cartilage was biopsied from the joints of 6 weeks old New Zealand rabbits. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability. We used flow cytometry to assess the form of cell death with Annexin-V/PI double staining, and found that H2O2 treatment induced apoptosis in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Exposure of chondrocytes to 1.5 mM of H2O2 for 2 h induced a burst apoptosis that can be alleviated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) pretreatment, an anti-oxidant amino-acid derivative. Loss of mitochondria membrane potential (??m) was evaluated using confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry (FCM). H2O2 treatment induced a marked reduction of ??m, and the abrupt disappearance of ??m occurred within 5 minutes. These results indicate that H2O2 induces a rapid apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in rabbit chondrocytes.

Zhuang, Cai-ping; Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

2012-03-01

376

Noxa couples lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis during oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The exact roles of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in oxidative stress-triggered apoptosis are not completely understood. Here, we first studied the temporal relation between LMP and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during the initial stage of apoptosis caused by the oxidative stress inducer H2O2. Despite its essential role in mediating apoptosis, the expression of the BH3-only Bcl-2 protein Noxa was dispensable for LMP. In contrast, MOMP was dependent on Noxa expression and occurred downstream of LMP. When lysosomal membranes were stabilized by the iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine, H2O2-induced increase in DNA damage, Noxa expression, and subsequent apoptosis were abolished by the inhibition of LMP. Importantly, LMP-induced Noxa expression increase was mediated by p53 and seems to be a unique feature of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Finally, exogenous iron loading recapitulated the effects of H2O2 on the expression of BH3-only Bcl-2 proteins. Overall, these data reveal a Noxa-mediated signaling pathway that couples LMP with MOMP and ultimate apoptosis during oxidative stress. PMID:23770082

Eno, Colins O; Zhao, Guoping; Venkatanarayan, Avinashnarayan; Wang, Bing; Flores, Elsa R; Li, Chi

2013-12-01

377

C5a receptor and thymocyte apoptosis in sepsis.  

PubMed

In sepsis, apoptosis occurs in many different organs. The mediators responsible for induction of apoptosis are not clearly known, although there are some suggestions that C5a and the C5a receptor (C5aR) might be directly linked to apoptosis. In the cecal ligation/puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in rats, apoptosis occurs early in a variety of organs, especially in the thymus. We demonstrate that thymocytes from normal rats show specific, saturable, and high affinity binding of 125I-labeled recombinant rat C5a. C5a binding to thymocytes was significantly increased 3 h after CLP and also when thymocytes from normal rats were first incubated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IL-6. The expression of C5aR mRNA in thymocytes was markedly increased 3, 6, and 12 h after CLP and increased similarly when normal thymocytes were first exposed to LPS or IL-6 in vitro. Thymocytes obtained 2 or 3 h after CLP and exposed in vitro to C5a, but not normal thymocytes, underwent increased apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin-V binding, coinciding with increased activation of caspases 3, 6, and 8. These data provide the first direct evidence that in the early onset of sepsis, increased expression of C5aR occurs in thymocytes, which increases their susceptibility to C5a-induced apoptosis. PMID:12039868

Riedemann, Niels C; Guo, Ren-Feng; Laudes, Ines J; Keller, Katie; Sarma, Vidya J; Padgaonkar, Vaishalee; Zetoune, Firas S; Ward, Peter A

2002-06-01

378

Inhibition of apoptosis by the actin-regulatory protein gelsolin.  

PubMed Central

Gelsolin is an actin-regulatory protein that modulates actin assembly and disassembly, and is believed to regulate cell motility in vivo through modulation of the actin network. In addition to its actin-regulatory function, gelsolin has also been proposed to affect cell growth. Our present experiments have tested the possible involvement of gelsolin in the regulation of apoptosis, which is significantly affected by growth. When overexpressed in Jurkat cells, gelsolin strongly inhibited apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, C2-ceramide or dexamethasone, without changing the F-actin morphology or the levels of Fas or Bcl-2 family proteins. Upon the induction of apoptosis, an increase in CPP32(-like) protease activity was observed in the control vector transfectants, while it was strongly suppressed in the gelsolin transfectants. Pro-CPP32 protein, an inactive form of CPP32 protease, remained uncleaved by anti-Fas treatment in the gelsolin transfectants, indicating that gelsolin blocks upstream of this protease. The tetrapeptide inhibitor of CPP32(-like) proteases strongly inhibited Fas-mediated apoptosis, but only partially suppressed both C2-ceramide- and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that the critical target responsible for the execution of apoptosis may exist upstream of CPP32(-like) proteases in Jurkat cells and that gelsolin acts on this target to inhibit the apoptotic cell death program. PMID:9303309

Ohtsu, M; Sakai, N; Fujita, H; Kashiwagi, M; Gasa, S; Shimizu, S; Eguchi, Y; Tsujimoto, Y; Sakiyama, Y; Kobayashi, K; Kuzumaki, N

1997-01-01

379

Distinguishing between apoptosis and necrosis using a capacitance sensor.  

PubMed

Apoptosis and necrosis are two different paths for cell death. One of differences between apoptosis and necrosis is the cell morphology. Apoptotic cells shrink without loosing the integrity of their plasma membrane and break into smaller pieces called apoptotic bodies that other body cells recognize and eat. In contrast, necrotic cells swell and their plasma membrane eventually ruptures. Since the cell membrane is closely related to the capacitance (or dielectric constant), we have fabricated a capacitance sensor, which can measure the capacitance of cells, and investigated its time dependence during apoptosis and necrosis for TE2 cells induced by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and ethanol. The capacitance decreases monotonically during apoptosis. For necrosis, however, step-like behaviors are observed and dips are found in the dC/dt-t curves. The time-lapse images of TE2 cells, which have been taken simultaneously with the capacitance measurements, show that the dips in the dC/dt-t curves are probably due to the rupture of cell membrane. These results suggest that apoptosis and necrosis are differentiated by the capacitance measurements. PMID:19233636

Lee, Ri Mi; Choi, Hyangtae; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Kunhong; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

2009-04-15

380

Rabies virus infects mouse and human lymphocytes and induces apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Attenuated and highly neurovirulent rabies virus strains have distinct cellular tropisms. Highly neurovirulent strains such as the challenge virus standard (CVS) are highly neurotropic, whereas the attenuated strain ERA also infects nonneuronal cells. We report that both rabies virus strains infect activated murine lymphocytes and the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line in vitro. The lymphocytes are more permissive to the attenuated ERA rabies virus strain than to the CVS strain in both cases. We also report that in contrast to that of the CVS strain, ERA viral replication induces apoptosis of infected Jurkat T cells, and cell death is concomitant with viral glycoprotein expression, suggesting that this protein has a role in the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that (i) rabies virus infects lymphocytes, (ii) lymphocyte infection with the attenuated rabies virus strain causes apoptosis, and (iii) apoptosis does not hinder rabies virus production. In contrast to CVS, ERA rabies virus and other attenuated rabies virus vaccines stimulate a strong immune response and are efficient live vaccines. The paradoxical finding that a rabies virus triggers a strong immune response despite the fact that it infects lymphocytes and induces apoptosis is discussed in terms of the function of apoptosis in the immune response. PMID:9311815

Thoulouze, M I; Lafage, M; Montano-Hirose, J A; Lafon, M

1997-01-01

381

RNA interference targeting sensitive-to-apoptosis gene potentiates doxorubicin- and staurosporine-induced apoptosis of PC3 cells.  

PubMed

Several anticancer agents exert their cancer cell killing effects by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, a combination of ROS-producing agents and the inhibition of ROS elimination promotes the death of cancer cells. The sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG) protein, a redox-inducible protein and potential ROS scavenger, protects mammalian cells from redox agent-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we found that silencing of SAG expression in human prostate cancer PC3 cells by transfection with SAG small-interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly enhanced susceptibility to doxorubicin- and to staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, pre-treatment with the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed increases in ROS and apoptosis. This study suggests that knockdown of SAG augments the apoptosis of PC3 cells exposed to doxorubicin or staurosporine presumably by increasing intracellular ROS levels. PMID:23482753

Yang, Eun Sun; Huh, Yun Jeong; Park, Jeen-Woo

2013-03-01

382

NF-?B inducing kinase, a central signaling component of the non-canonical pathway of NF-?B, contributes to ovarian cancer progression.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of female death and the development of novel therapeutic approaches is urgently required. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is constitutively activated in several types of cancer including ovarian cancer and is known to support the survival of cancer cells. However, molecular mechanisms of persistent activation of NF-?B in ovarian cancer remain largely unknown. We report here that, in addition to the previously reported canonical activation, NF-?B is activated through the noncanonical pathway in ovarian cancer cells. RNA interference-mediated silencing of NF-?B inducing kinase (NIK), a central regulator of the noncanonical pathway, reduced the NF-?B2/p52 DNA binding activity and NF-?B-dependent reporter gene expression as well as NF-?B target gene expression. Notably, anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth was impaired in NIK-depleted cells. Depletion of NIK also suppressed tumor formation in the nude mouse xenograft assay. These results indicate that NIK plays a key role in constitutive NF-?B activation and the progression of ovarian cancer cells and suggest that NIK represents an attractive therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:24533079

Uno, Masaya; Saitoh, Yasunori; Mochida, Kanako; Tsuruyama, Eri; Kiyono, Tohru; Imoto, Issei; Inazawa, Johji; Yuasa, Yasuhito; Kubota, Toshiro; Yamaoka, Shoji

2014-01-01

383

Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2013-10-01

384

A novel association between filamin A and NF-?B inducing kinase couples CD28 to inhibitor of NF-?B kinase ? and NF-?B activation.  

PubMed

CD28 costimulatory molecule plays a critical role in the activation of NF-?B. Indeed, while stimulation of T cells with either professional APCs or anti-TCR plus anti-CD28 antibodies efficiently activates NF-?B, TCR alone fails to do that. Moreover, CD28 stimulation by B7 in the absence of TCR may activate I?B kinase ? (IKK?) and a non-canonical NF-?B2-like pathway, in human primary CD4(+) T cells. Despite its functional relevance in NF-?B activation, the molecules connecting autonomous CD28-mediated signals to IKK? and NF-?B activation remain still unknown. In searching for specific upstream activators linking CD28 to the IKK?/NF-?B cascade, we identify a novel constitutive association between filamin A (FLNa) and the NF-?B inducing kinase (NIK), in both Jurkat and human primary T cells. Following CD28 engagement by B7, in the absence of TCR, FLNa-associated NIK is activated and induces IKK? kinase activity. Both proline (P(208)YAP(211)P(212)) and tyrosine residues (Y(206)QPY(209)APP) within the C-terminal proline-rich motif of CD28 are involved in the recruitment of FLNa/NIK complexes to the membrane as well as in the activation of NIK and IKK?. PMID:21277899

Muscolini, Michela; Sajeva, Angela; Caristi, Silvana; Tuosto, Loretta

2011-05-01

385

Detection of apoptosis during planarian regeneration by the expression of apoptosis-related genes and TUNEL assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a tightly organized cell death process that plays a crucial role in metazoan development, but it has not yet been revealed whether apoptotic events are involved in the process of regeneration. Here, we tried to detect apoptotic cells during planarian regeneration using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay as well as the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Three

Jung Shan Hwang; Chiyoko Kobayashi; Kiyokazu Agata; Kazuho Ikeo; Takashi Gojobori

2004-01-01

386

Neurotensin protects pancreatic beta cells from apoptosis.  

PubMed

The survival of pancreatic beta cells depends on the balance between external cytotoxic and protective molecular systems. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) has been shown to regulate certain functions of the endocrine pancreas including insulin and glucagon release. However, the mechanism of action of NT as well as the identification of receptors involved in the pancreatic functions of the peptide remained to be studied. We demonstrate here that NT is an efficient protective agent of pancreatic beta cells against cytotoxic agents. Both beta-TC3 and INS-1E cell lines and the mouse pancreatic islet cells express the three known NT receptors. The incubation of beta cells with NT protects cells from apoptosis induced either by staurosporine or by IL-1beta. In beta-TC3 cells, NT activates both MAP and PI-3 kinases pathways and strongly reduces the staurosporine or the Il-1beta-induced caspase-3 activity by a mechanism involving Akt activation. The NTSR2 agonist levocabastine displays the same protective effect than NT whereas the NTSR1 antagonist is unable to block the effect of NT suggesting the predominant involvement of the NTSR2 in the action of NT on beta cells. These results clearly indicate for the first time that NT is able to protect endocrine beta cells from external cytotoxic agents, a role well correlated with its release in the circulation after a meal. PMID:18456542

Coppola, Thierry; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Antoine, Aurélie; Vincent, Jean-Pierre; Mazella, Jean

2008-01-01

387

Signal antonymy: a mechanism for apoptosis induction.  

PubMed

The unfolding of the developmental programme and the organization of multicellular organisms require that cell numbers in differentiating and differentiated tissues are regulated. This is done by two distinct processes : control of cell proliferation and differentiation to a post-mitotic stage; and control of survival in post-mitotic cells. It is argued that elimination of cells by programmed cell death (PCD), which operates in both cases, is regulated by distinct mechanisms: PCD in post-mitotic cells corresponds to 'death-by-default' of (counter apoptotic) survival signals (Raff, 1992), while apoptosis in cycling cells, or in resting cells submitted to proliferative signals, results from antonymy in signalling pathways, i.e. a situation where a cell simultaneously engages into incompatible pathways of proliferation and cell cycle arrest. Antonymy arises in cells irreversibly committed to either proliferation or arrest and responding to a contradictory signal. In turn, the irreversible commitment arises by uncoupling of signal transduction from co-ordinated pathways (as in transformed cells with constitutive expression of growth-associated genes or in terminally differentiated post-mitotic cells). PMID:17180004

Hibner, U; Coutinho, A

1994-07-01

388

New method for the determination of carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides in water samples using on-line SPE fused core column chromatography.  

PubMed

A new HPLC column-switching method using large volume sample injection and fused-core columns for on-line solid phase extraction have been developed for the determination of the following carbamates and pyrethroids: aldicarb, carbaryl, pirimicarb, carbofuran, kadethrin, flumethrin, fenpropathrin, fenoxycarb, tau-fluvalinate and fenvalerate, in surface water samples. Sudan I was used as internal standard. The proposed method was performed using 100 µl sample injection followed by an on-line solid phase extraction procedure and finally the compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The separation was carried out on C-18 reversed phase column based on fused-core particle technology. The influence of the injected sample volume, the variables affecting to SPE process and the conditions for the separation on an analytical column, were studied and optimized. The limits of detection ranged from 5.5 to 8.9 µg L(-1), and limits of quantification from 18.4 to 29.7 µg L(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 15%. This new analytical procedure was satisfactorily applied for the determination of these organic pollutants in surface water samples located in Czech Republic. Concentration levels were found for some of these pollutants up to 26.11 µg L(-1) in the river Elbe and up to 34.53 µg L(-1) in the closed lakes samples. PMID:25127636

Fernández-Ramos, C; Satínský, D; Solich, P

2014-11-01

389

Flow injection analysis-solid phase extraction (FIA-SPE) method for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of penicillins using methylene blue grafted polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

A simple, fast, and fully automated FIA-SPE method with UV detection for the preconcentration and determination of the investigated penicillins has been developed. This paper provides adequate procedure for the preconcentration and determination of the studied compounds in pharmaceuticals and milk samples. Penicillins (penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin) are extracted in a mincolumn packed with methylene blue grafted polyurethane foam (MBGPUF) material. The antibiotics are eluted by hydrochloric acid solution to the flow cell of UV-vis spectrophotometer at 230 nm. The analytes are preconcentrated on the sorbent at pH 8.0-9.5 and sample flow rate 3.0 mL/min. Elution was performed with 200 microL 0.2 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid at 2 mL min(-1). Sample throughput is 12h(-1) at 120 s preconcentration time. High selectivity of the sorbent for the analytes was achieved at the specified pH range. The enrichment factors achieved are 14, 16, and 11 with 3 sigma detection limits of 12, 15, and 19 ng mL(-1) for penicillin G, amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these antibiotics in pharmaceutical control and contaminated milk samples with RSD

El-Shahat, M F; Burham, N; Azeem, S M Abdel

2010-05-15

390

Distributions of H 2O and CO 2 ices on Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon from IRTF/SpeX observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 0.8-2.4 ?m spectral observations of uranian satellites, obtained at IRTF/SpeX on 17 nights during 2001-2005. The spectra reveal for the first time the presence of CO 2 ice on the surfaces of Umbriel and Titania, by means of 3 narrow absorption bands near 2 ?m. Several additional, weaker CO 2 ice absorptions have also been detected. No CO 2 absorption is seen in Oberon spectra, and the strengths of the CO 2 ice bands decline with planetocentric distance from Ariel through Titania. We use the CO 2 absorptions to map the longitudinal distribution of CO 2 ice on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, showing that it is most abundant on their trailing hemispheres. We also examine H 2O ice absorptions in the spectra, finding deeper H 2O bands on the leading hemispheres of Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, but the opposite pattern on Oberon. Potential mechanisms to produce the observed longitudinal and planetocentric distributions of the two ices are considered.

Grundy, W. M.; Young, L. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Young, E. F.; Buie, M. W.

2006-10-01

391

Rapid and selective quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink teas from Chinese market using SPE and UPLC-UV.  

PubMed

An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) sample pre-treatment was developed and validated for the rapid quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink (RTD) teas. UPLC analysis of twenty-seven RTD teas from the Chinese market revealed that the L-theanine levels in various types of RTD teas were significantly different. RTD green teas were found to contain highest mean L-theanine level (37.85±20.54 mg/L), followed by jasmine teas (36.60±12.08 mg/L), Tieguanying teas (18.54±3.46 mg/L) black teas (16.89±6.56), Pu-erh teas (11.31±0.90 mg/L) and oolong teas (3.85±2.27 mg/L). The ratio of total polyphenols content to L-theanine content could be used as a featured parameter for differentiating RTD teas. L-theanine in RTD teas could be a reliable quality parameter that is complementary to total polyphenols. PMID:22868106

Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Yun; Song, Weiqi; Zhao, Bo; Dou, Yuling

2012-11-15

392

Occurrence of polar organic contaminants in the dissolved water phase of the Danube River and its major tributaries using SPE-LC-MS(2) analysis.  

PubMed

Polar water-soluble organic contaminants were analysed in the dissolved liquid water phase of river water samples from the Danube River and its major tributaries (within the Joint Danube Survey 2). Analyses were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). In total, 34 different polar organic compounds were screened. Focus was given on pharmaceutical compounds (such as ibuprofen, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine), pesticides and their degradation products (e.g. bentazone, 2,4-D, mecoprop, atrazine, terbutylazine, desethylterbutylazine), perfluorinated acids (PFOS; PFOA), and endocrine disrupting compounds (nonylphenol, NPE(1)C, bisphenol A, estrone). The most relevant polar compounds identified in the Danube River basin in terms of frequency of detection, persistency, and concentration levels were 1H-benzotriazole (median concentration 185 ng/L), caffeine (87 ng/L), tolyltriazole (73 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (49 ng/L), carbamazepine (33 ng/L), 4-nitrophenol (29 ng/L), 2,4-dinitrophenol (19 ng/L), PFOA (17 ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (16 ng/L), desethylatrazine (11 ng/L), and 2,4-D (10 ng/L). The highest contamination levels were found in the area around Budapest and in the tributary rivers Arges (Romania), Timok (Bulgaria), Rusenski Lom (Bulgaria), and Velika Morava (Serbia). PMID:20074769

Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Contini, Serafino

2010-04-01

393

SpeX SPECTROSCOPY OF UNRESOLVED VERY LOW MASS BINARIES. I. IDENTIFICATION OF 17 CANDIDATE BINARIES STRADDLING THE L DWARF/T DWARF TRANSITION  

SciTech Connect

We report the identification of 17 candidate brown dwarf binaries whose components straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. These sources were culled from a large near-infrared spectral sample of L and T dwarfs observed with the Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX spectrograph. Candidates were selected on the basis of spectral ratios which segregate known (resolved) L dwarf/T dwarf pairs from presumably single sources. Composite templates, constructed by combining 13,581 pairs of absolute flux-calibrated spectra, are shown to provide statistically superior fits to the spectra of our 17 candidates as compared to single templates. Ten of these candidates appear to have secondary components that are significantly brighter than their primaries over the 1.0-1.3 {mu}m band, indicative of rapid condensate depletion at the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. Our results support prior indications of enhanced multiplicity amongst early-type T dwarfs; 53% +- 7% of the T0-T4 dwarfs in our spectral sample are found to be either resolved or unresolved (candidate) pairs, although this is consistent with an intrinsic (volume complete) brown dwarf binary fraction of only 15%. If verified, this sample of spectral binaries more than doubles the number of known L dwarf/T dwarf transition pairs, enabling a broader exploration of this poorly understood phase of brown dwarf atmospheric evolution.

Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cruz, Kelle L. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Michael; Looper, Dagny L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Reid, I. Neill, E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Marin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2010-02-20

394

Novel magnetic SPE method based on carbon nanotubes filled with cobalt ferrite for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in honey and tea.  

PubMed

A novel magnetic SPE method based on magnetic cobalt ferrite filled carbon nanotubes (MFCNTs) coupled with GC with electron capture detection was developed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tea and honey samples. The MFCNTs were prepared through the capillarity of carbon nanotubes for drawing mixed cobalt and iron nitrates solution into their inner cavity followed by heating to 550°C under Ar to form the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. SEM images provided visible evidence of the filled cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in the multiwalled nanotubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated no adhesion of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and metal salts on the outer surface of the MFCNTs. Eight OCPs were extracted with the MFCNTs. The enrichment factors were in the range of 52-68 for eight OCPs. The LODs for the eight OCPs were in the range of 1.3-3.6 ng/L. The recoveries of the OCPs for honey and tea samples were 83.2-128.7 and 72.6-111.0%, respectively. The RSDs for these samples were below 6.8%. The new method is particularly suited to extract nonpolar and weakly polar analytes from a complex matrix and could potentially be extended to other target analytes. PMID:23926126

Du, Zhuo; Liu, Miao; Li, Gongke

2013-10-01

395

Bioaccumulation assessment of the sunscreen agent 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate in human semen by automated online SPE-LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The proven endocrine disruption nature of the sunscreen ingredient 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate (EDP) calls for research to understand its distribution and bioaccumulation in the human body. A sensitive analytical method to determine EDP and its metabolites in human semen based on online SPE-LC-MS/MS is described. The method has been fully validated and a standard addition calibration has been used for quantification to correct the observed matrix effects. The on-column detection limits of the analytes are between 0.2 and 0.6 ng, depending on the analyte and the sample. The repeatability of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in the range 4.6-9.4%. The method was satisfactorily applied to semen samples from male volunteers who were subjected to single and repeated whole-body applications of an EDP-containing sunscreen product. EDP metabolites were found at different concentrations in semen samples from the repeated application study, thus showing evidences of bioaccumulation in humans. PMID:21637928

León-González, Zacarías; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

2011-08-01

396

4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root characterised using LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS techniques.  

PubMed

The combination of hyphenated techniques, LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS, to isolate and identify minor isomeric compounds from an ethyl acetate fraction of Taraxacum officinale root was employed in this study. Two distinct fractions of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol were isolated and characterised by spectroscopic methods. The (1)H NMR spectra and MS data revealed two groups of compounds, one of which were derivatives of the di-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative of the inositol compound tetrahydroxy-5-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl] oxycyclohexyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate, while the other group consisted of similar tri-substituted inositol derivatives. For both fractions the derivatives of inositols vary in the number of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid groups present and their position and geometry on the inositol ring. In total, three di-substituted and three tri-substituted 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid inositol derivates were identified for the first time along with a further two previously reported di-substituted inositol derivatives. PMID:24359632

Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P; McLoughlin, P

2014-02-01

397

Determination of parent and substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-fat salmon using a modified QuEChERS extraction, dispersive SPE and GC-MS  

PubMed Central

A fast and easy modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, rugged and safe) extraction method has been developed and validated for determination of 33 parent and substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in high-fat smoked salmon that greatly enhances analyte recovery compared to traditional QuEChERS procedures. Sample processing includes extraction of PAHs into a solution of ethyl acetate, acetone and iso-octane followed by cleanup with dispersive SPE and analysis by GC-MS in SIM mode. Method performance was assessed in spike recovery experiments (500 ng/g wet weight) in three commercially available smoked salmon with 3 – 11% fat. Recoveries of some 2, 3 and 5-ring PAHs were improved 50 – 200% over traditional methods, while average recovery across all PAHs was improved 67%. Method precision was good with replicate extractions typically yielding relative standard deviations < 10% and detection limits were in the low ng/g range. With this method, a single analyst could extract and cleanup ? 60 samples for PAH analysis in an 8 hour work day. PMID:21732651

Forsberg, Norman D.; Wilson, Glenn R.; Anderson, Kim A.

2011-01-01

398

Development of a targeted method for twenty-three metabolites related to polyphenol gut microbial metabolism in biological samples, using SPE and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies have concerned the profiling of polyphenol microbial metabolites, especially in urine or plasma, but only a few have regarded their accurate quantification. This study reports on a new ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with electrospray ionisation (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) using a simple clean-up step with solid phase extraction (SPE) and validation on different biological matrices. The method was tested with spiked samples of liver, heart, kidneys, brain, blood and urine. The purification procedure, after the evaluation of three different cartridges, makes it possible to obtain cleaner samples and better quantification of putative trace metabolites, especially related to dietary studies, with concentrations below ng/g in tissue and for urine and blood, starting from ng/ml. Limits of detection and linear range were also assessed using mixed polyphenol metabolite standards. Short chromatographic separation was carried out for 23 target compounds related to the polyphenol microbial metabolism, coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for their accurate quantification. By analysing different spiked biological samples we were able to test metabolite detection in the matrix and validate the overall recovery of the method, from purification to quantification. The method developed can be successfully applied and is suitable for high-throughput targeted metabolomics analysis related to nutritional intervention, or the study of the metabolic mechanism in response to a polyphenol-rich diet. PMID:25059152

Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Guella, Graziano; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

2014-10-01

399

Use of Chromatographic (SPE-HPLC) and Spectrophotometric Methods for Differentiation of Salix Species Through Correlation Analysis and FreeViz Projection.  

PubMed

The major concern of the present article is research into the combination of analytical assessment and multi-correlative data interpretation. For this purpose, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was developed for the simultaneous quantification of salicin, salicylalcohol derivatives, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and monomeric catechins after solid phase extraction (SPE). On the basis of an established and validated HPLC method, 49 different Salix samples were extracted, purified, and analysed. Furthermore, the quantity of total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric reaction) and the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity test) were determined and correlated. This yielded correlation coefficients at P-values less than 0.05 of 0.775, 0.967, 0.932, and 0.989 for Salix fragilis, Salix rubens, Salix purpurea (2006), and Salix purpurea (2007), respectively. Correlation with mean values of each species between total polyphenols content and % DPPH inhibition values occurred at a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.851. Linear correlations of quantified HPLC data with DPPH data and with total polyphenols content could also be found for salicin, gentisic acid, naringin, and salicylic acid. Finally, by combining HPLC data with total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity through 3-D scatter plots and FreeViz data projection, it was shown that primarily the amount of epicatechin and saligenin beside DPPH values and total polyphenols content enable the classification into plant species and further by year of harvest. PMID:21118078

Kasemsook, S; Stecher, G; Fuchsberger, C; Abel, G; Popp, M; Bonn, G K

2010-11-29

400

Effect of mycoplasmas on apoptosis of 32D cells is species-dependent.  

PubMed

We previously showed that mycoplasmal infection effectively prevented apoptosis of infected cells, whereas other researchers have indicated that mycoplasmal infection promoted apoptosis. To understand the mechanism underlying this discrepancy, five different species of mycoplasmas were investigated for their effects on apoptosis of interleukin (IL)-3-dependent 32D cells. Results revealed that Mycoplasma fermentans and M. penetrans effectively supported continuous growth of 32D cells after IL-3 withdrawal. M. fermentans was more potent than M. penetrans. This effect was achieved by way of preventing apoptosis and stimulating cell proliferation. On the contrary, M. hominis and M. salivarium accelerated apoptosis of 32D cells. M. genitalium had no significant effect on apoptosis. The RNase protection assay indicated that the proapoptotic and antiapoptotic mycoplasmas altered the expression of major apoptosis regulatory genes differently. The difference in apoptosis regulatory gene expression induced by different species of mycoplasmas might be accountable for their effects on host cell apoptosis. PMID:17486403

Zhang, Shimin; Lo, Shyh-Ching

2007-05-01

401

Analysis of nitrosamines in water by automated SPE and isotope dilution GC/HRMS Occurrence in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant, and in chlorinated samples from a reservoir and a sewage treatment plant effluent.  

PubMed

A method based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and isotope dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has been developed for the analysis of nine nitrosamines in water samples. The combination of automated SPE and GC/HRMS for the analysis of nitrosamines has not been reported previously. The method shows as advantages the selectivity and sensitivity of GC/HRMS analysis and the high efficiency of automated SPE with coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were achieved, along with a greater facility of the procedure and less dependence on the operator with regard to the methods based on manual SPE. Quality requirements for isotope dilution-based methods were accomplished for most analysed nitrosamines, regarding to trueness (80-120%), method precision (<15%) and MDLs (0.08-1.7 ng/L). Nineteen water samples (16 samples from a drinking water treatment plant {DWTP}, 2 chlorinated samples from a sewage treatment plant {STP} effluent, and 1 chlorinated sample from a reservoir) were analysed. Concentrations of nitrosamines in the STP effluent were 309.4 and 730.2 ng/L, being higher when higher doses of chlorine were applied. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were the main compounds identified in the STP effluent, and NDEA was detected above 200 ng/L, regulatory level for NDMA in effluents stated in Ontario (Canada). Lower concentrations of nitrosamines were found in the reservoir (20.3 ng/L) and in the DWTP samples (n.d. -28.6 ng/L). NDMA and NDEA were respectively found in the reservoir and in treated and highly chlorinated DWTP samples at concentrations above 10 ng/L (guide value established in different countries). The highest concentrations of nitrosamines were found after chlorination and ozonation processes (ozonated, treated and highly chlorinated water) in DWTP samples. PMID:18656677

Planas, Carles; Palacios, Oscar; Ventura, Francesc; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

2008-08-15

402

Natural killer cells induce eosinophil activation and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are potent inflammatory cells with numerous immune functions, including antigen presentation and exacerbation of inflammatory responses through their capacity to release a range of largely preformed cytokines and lipid mediators. Thus, timely regulation of eosinophil activation and apoptosis is crucial to develop beneficial immune response and to avoid tissue damage and induce resolution of inflammation. Natural Killer (NK) cells have been reported to influence innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple mechanisms including cytotoxicity against other immune cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the interaction between NK cells and eosinophils. Co-culture experiments revealed that human NK cells could trigger autologous eosinophil activation, as shown by up-regulation of CD69 and down-regulation of CD62L, as well as degranulation, evidenced by increased CD63 surface expression, secretion of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN). Moreover, NK cells significantly and dose dependently increased eosinophil apoptosis as shown by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Direct contact was necessary for eosinophil degranulation and apoptosis. Increased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cocultured eosinophils and inhibition of eosinophil CD63 expression by pharmacologic inhibitors suggest that MAPK and PI3K pathways are involved in NK cell-induced eosinophil degranulation. Finally, we showed that NK cells increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression by eosinophils in co-culture and that mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and antimycin) partially diminished NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting the implication of mitochondrial ROS in NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVAD-FMK) only slightly decreased eosinophil apoptosis in coculture. Altogether, our results suggest that NK cells regulate eosinophil functions by inducing their activation and their apoptosis. PMID:24727794

Awad, Ali; Yassine, Hanane; Barrier, Mathieu; Vorng, Han; Marquillies, Philippe; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Duez, Catherine

2014-01-01

403

Mst1 inhibition rescues ?1-adrenergic cardiomyopathy by reducing myocyte necrosis and non-myocyte apoptosis rather than myocyte apoptosis.  

PubMed

It is generally held that inhibition of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) protects the heart through reducing myocyte apoptosis. We determined whether inhibition with a dominant-negative Mst1 (DN-Mst1) would protect against the cardiomyopathy induced by chronic ?1-adrenergic receptor (?1-AR) stimulation by preventing myocyte apoptosis. DN-Mst1 mice were mated with ?1-AR transgenic (Tg) mice and followed for 20 months. ?1-AR Tg mice developed cardiomyopathy as they aged, as reflected by premature mortality and depressed cardiac function, which were rescued in ?1-AR × DN-Mst1 bigenic mice. Surprisingly, myocyte apoptosis did not significantly decrease with Mst1 inhibition. Instead, Mst1 inhibition predominantly reduced non-myocyte apoptosis, e.g., fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils and endothelial cells. Fibrosis in the hearts with cardiomyopathy increased fivefold and this increase was nearly abolished in the bigenic mice with Mst1 inhibition. Regression analysis showed no correlation between myocyte apoptosis and cardiac function or myocyte number, whereas the latter two correlated significantly, p < 0.05, with fibrosis, which generally results from necrosis. To examine the role of myocyte necrosis, chronic ?-AR stimulation with isoproterenol was induced for 24 h and myocyte necrosis was assessed by 1 % Evans blue dye. Compared to WT, DN-Mst1 mice showed significant inhibition, p < 0.05, of myocyte necrosis. We confirmed this result in Mst1-knockout mice, which also showed significant protection, p < 0.05, against myocyte necrosis compared to WT. These data indicate that Mst1 inhibition rescued cardiac fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction in ?1-AR cardiomyopathy. However, this did not occur through Mst1 inhibition of myocyte apoptosis but rather by inhibition of cardiomyocyte necrosis and non-myocyte apoptosis, features of Mst1 not considered previously. PMID:25600225

Lee, Grace J; Yan, Lin; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F

2015-03-01

404

TEGDMA causes apoptosis in primary human gingival fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Previous in vivo studies have revealed that resins may generate a persistent inflammation of oral tissues and cell death as well. Apoptosis is an important regulated process that results in rapid cell death. This study tested the hypothesis that the comonomer triethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) causes apoptosis. The effects of TEGDMA on proliferation and apoptosis in primary oral fibroblasts were analyzed by light microscopy and flow cytometry (FACS; Annexin V-assay). TEGDMA at 5 and 7.5 mM inhibited proliferation after 24 hrs. No increased frequency of apoptosis or necrosis was observed with 1 mM or 2.5 mM TEGDMA after 24 hrs. Apoptosis and Annexin V-positive cells were observed with 5 mM and 7.5 mM TEGDMA by light microscopy after 24 hrs. A dramatic increase in apoptotic cells was detected by FACS after 24 hrs with 7.5 mM TEGDMA. Thus, TEGDMA was cytotoxic and "apoptotic" in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PMID:14514762

Janke, V; von Neuhoff, N; Schlegelberger, B; Leyhausen, G; Geurtsen, W

2003-10-01

405

MAVS-Mediated Apoptosis and Its Inhibition by Viral Proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Host responses to viral infection include both immune activation and programmed cell death. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor, MAVS (IPS-1, VISA or Cardif) is critical for host defenses to viral infection by inducing type-1 interferons (IFN-I), however its role in virus-induced apoptotic responses has not been elucidated. Principal Findings We show that MAVS causes apoptosis independent of its function in initiating IFN-I production. MAVS-induced cell death requires mitochondrial localization, is caspase dependent, and displays hallmarks of apoptosis. Furthermore, MAVS?/? fibroblasts are resistant to Sendai virus-induced apoptosis. A functional screen identifies the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nonstructural protein (NSP15) as inhibitors of MAVS-induced apoptosis, possibly as a method of immune evasion. Significance This study describes a novel role for MAVS in controlling viral infections through the induction of apoptosis, and identifies viral proteins which inhibit this host response. PMID:19404494

Liesman, Rachael M.; O'Connor, Brian P.; Bergstralh, Daniel T.; Chen, Zhijian J.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

2009-01-01

406

Osteoblasts Protect AML Cells from SDF-1-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The bone marrow provides a protective environment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that often allows leukemic stem cells to survive standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Targeting these leukemic stem cells within the bone marrow is critical for preventing relapse. We recently demonstrated that SDF-1, a chemokine abundant in the bone marrow, induces apoptosis in AML cell lines and in patient samples expressing high levels of its receptor, CXCR4. Here we show that a subset of osteoblast lineage cells within the bone marrow can protect AML cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to the SDF-1 naturally present in that location. In co-culture systems, osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation protected AML cell lines and patient isolates from SDF-1-induced apoptosis. The differentiation of the osteoblast cell lines, MC3T3 and W-20-17, mediated this protection via a cell contact-independent mechanism. In contrast, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, the precursors of osteoblasts, induced apoptosis in AML cells via a CXCR4-dependent mechanism and failed to protect AML cells from exogenously added SDF-1. These results indicate that osteoblasts in the process of differentiation potently inhibit the SDF-1-driven apoptotic pathway of CXCR4-expressing AML cells residing in the bone marrow. Drugs targeting this protective mechanism could potentially provide a new approach to treating AML by enhancing the SDF-1-induced apoptosis of AML cells residing within the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:24851270

Kremer, Kimberly N.; Dudakovic, Amel; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Philips, Rachael L.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Karp, Judith E.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Hedin, Karen E.

2014-01-01

407

Gene expression during ER stress–induced apoptosis in neurons  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of protein glycosylation, rapidly induced the expression of target genes of the unfolded protein response. However, prolonged treatment also triggered a delayed, caspase-dependent cell death. Microarray analysis of gene expression changes during tunicamycin-induced apoptosis revealed that the Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only family member, Bcl-2 binding component 3/p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Bbc3/PUMA), was the most strongly induced pro-apoptotic gene. Expression of Bbc3/PUMA correlated with a Bcl-xL–sensitive release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Increased expression of Bbc3/PUMA was also observed in p53-deficient human cells, in response to the ER stressor thapsigargin, and in rat hippocampal neurons after transient forebrain ischemia. Overexpression of Bbc3/PUMA was sufficient to trigger apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and human cells deficient in Bbc3/PUMA showed dramatically reduced apoptosis in response to ER stress. Our data suggest that the transcriptional induction of Bbc3/PUMA may be sufficient and necessary for ER stress–induced apoptosis. PMID:12913114

Reimertz, Claus; Kögel, Donat; Rami, Abdelhaq; Chittenden, Thomas; Prehn, Jochen H.M.

2003-01-01

408

Induction of apoptosis by the transcription factor c-Jun.  

PubMed Central

c-Jun, a signal-transducing transcription factor of the AP-1 family, normally implicated in cell cycle progression, differentiation and cell transformation, recently has also been linked to apoptosis. To explore further the functional roles of c-Jun, a conditional allele was generated by fusion of c-Jun with the hormone-binding domain of the human estrogen receptor (ER). Here we demonstrate that increased c-Jun activity is sufficient to trigger apoptotic cell death in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. c-Jun-induced apoptosis is evident at high serum levels, but is enhanced further in factor-deprived fibroblasts. Furthermore, apoptosis by c-Jun is not accompanied by an increase in DNA synthesis. Constitutive overexpression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 delays the c-Jun-mediated cell death. The regions of c-Jun necessary for apoptosis induction include the amino-terminal transactivation and the carboxy-terminal leucine zipper domain, suggesting that c-Jun may activate cell death by acting as a transcriptional regulator. We further show that alpha-fodrin, a substrate of the interleukin 1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and CED-3 family of cysteine proteases, becomes proteolytically cleaved in cells undergoing cell death by increased c-Jun activity. Moreover, cell-permeable irreversible peptide inhibitors of the ICE/CED-3 family of cysteine proteases prevented the cell death. PMID:9130714

Bossy-Wetzel, E; Bakiri, L; Yaniv, M

1997-01-01

409

Induction of apoptosis by iridovirus virion protein extract.  

PubMed

Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; IIV-6) is the type member of the genus Iridovirus (family Iridoviridae, large icosahedral cytoplasmic DNA viruses). CIV induces death and deformity in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, replicates productively in larvae of the cotton boll weevil, and significantly reduces laboratory populations of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. CIV virion protein extract (CVPE) shuts down host protein synthesis in several insect cell lines and induces mortality in neonate boll weevil larvae. We report here that CVPE induces apoptosis in spruce budworm and boll weevil cell lines, as detected by blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and TUNEL assay. Tissue culture toxicity dose assays (TCTD(50)) showed that spruce budworm cells were eight times more sensitive to CVPE than boll weevil cells. Pancaspase inhibitor suppressed apoptosis but had marginal effect on inhibition of host protein synthesis. Moreover, the CVPE dose for apoptosis was 1000-fold lower than the dose for shutdown of host synthesis. We also detected protein kinase activity in CVPE. Heating CVPE at 60 degrees C for 30 min destroyed all three activities. Our results suggest that one or more polypeptides in CIV induce apoptosis. This is the first study demonstrating apoptosis induction by a member of the genus Iridovirus and by virion extracts of a member of the family Iridoviridae. PMID:17347770

Paul, E R; Chitnis, N S; Henderson, C W; Kaul, R J; D'Costa, S M; Bilimoria, S L

2007-01-01

410

Alpha particles induce apoptosis through the sphingomyelin pathway.  

PubMed

The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) ? radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET ? particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with ? particles emitted by the ²²?Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on ?-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated ? particles using a planar ²?¹Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five ?-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that ? particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:21631289

Seideman, Jonathan H; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A; McDevitt, Michael R; Howell, Roger W; Kolesnick, Richard N; Scheinberg, David A

2011-10-01

411

Apoptosis and proliferation in developing, mature, and regressing epibranchial placodes.  

PubMed

Epibranchial placodes and rhombencephalic neural crest provide precursor cells for the geniculate, petrosal, and nodose ganglia. In chick embryos and in Tupaia belangeri, apoptosis in rhombomeres 3 and 5 helps to select premigratory precursor cells and to segregate crest cell streams derived from the even-numbered rhombomeres. Much less is known about the patterns and functions of apoptosis in epibranchial placodes. We found that, in Tupaia belangeri, combined anlagen of the otic placode and epibranchial placode 1 transiently share a primordial low grade thickening with post-otic epibranchial placodes. Three-dimensional reconstructions reveal complementary, spatially, and temporally regulated apoptotic and proliferative events that demarcate the otic placode and epibranchial placode 1, and help to individualize three pairs of epibranchial placodes in a rostrocaudal sequence. Later, rostrocaudal waves of proliferation and apoptosis extend from dorsal to ventral parts of the placodes, paralleled by the dorsoventral progression of precursor cell delamination. These findings suggest a role for apoptosis during the process of neuroblast generation in the epibranchial placodes. Finally, apoptosis eliminates remnants of the placodes in the presence of late invading macrophages. PMID:15649463

Washausen, Stefan; Obermayer, Bastian; Brunnett, Guido; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg; Knabe, Wolfgang

2005-02-01

412

Lipocalin-2 Induces Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis by Increasing Intracellular Iron Accumulation*  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to determine whether lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis, the mechanisms involved, and the functional significance. Emerging evidence suggests that Lcn2 is a proinflammatory adipokine associated with insulin resistance and obesity-related complications, such as heart failure. Here, we used both primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells and demonstrated for the first time that Lcn2 directly induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, an important component of cardiac remodeling leading to heart failure. This was shown by detection of DNA fragmentation using TUNEL assay, phosphatidylserine exposure using flow cytometry to detect annexin V-positive cells, caspase-3 activity using enzymatic assay and immunofluorescence, and Western blotting for the detection of cleaved caspase-3. We also observed that Lcn2 caused translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax to mitochondria and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Using transient transfection of GFP-Bax, we confirmed that Lcn2 induced co-localization of Bax with MitoTracker® dye. Importantly, we used the fluorescent probe Phen Green SK to demonstrate an increase in intracellular iron in response to Lcn2, and depleting intracellular iron using an iron chelator prevented Lcn2-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Administration of recombinant Lcn2 to mice for 14 days increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis as well as an acute inflammatory response with compensatory changes in cardiac functional parameters. In conclusion, Lcn2-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is of physiological significance and occurs via a mechanism involving elevated intracellular iron levels and Bax translocation. PMID:22117066

Xu, Guoxiong; Ahn, JinHee; Chang, SoYoung; Eguchi, Megumi; Ogier, Arnaud; Han, SungJun; Park, YoungSam; Shim, ChiYoung; Jang, YangSoo; Yang, Bo; Xu, Aimin; Wang, Yu; Sweeney, Gary

2012-01-01

413

Modulation of apoptosis signaling in etoposide-treated lymphoma cells.  

PubMed

Signals of etoposide (ETO) induced apoptosis were studied in a human (B) lymphoma cell line, HT58. Morphology and DNA fragmentation assays proved the appearance of apoptosis after a short ETO treatment (4 hours). Modulation of signal components of this apoptotic pathway resulted the following a) phorbol ester (PMA) or heat shock inhibited apoptosis, which was prevented by staurosporine b) 3-amino-benzamide, a potent poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor, had no significant effect; c) cysteine reactive compounds, such as iodoacetamide and phenylarsine oxide, as well as protease inhibitor TPCK were very active inhibitors of apoptosis; d) protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, potentiated cell death; e) the ETO-induced p53 protein overexpression had neither enhancing nor protecting effect on the apoptotic process. In conclusion, in the majority of HT58 lymphoma cells the apoptotic machinery is "primed" (the components are already expressed) and ETO-induced apoptosis is regulated by STA sensitive phosphorylation and proteolysis by cystein proteases, but not affected by ADP-ribozylation or p53. PMID:9252689

Sebestyén, A; Mihalik, R; Peták, I; Kopper, L

1997-01-01

414

Ziram induces apoptosis and necrosis in human immune cells.  

PubMed

Ziram as a dithiocarbamate fungicide is widely used throughout the world in agriculture and as an accelerating agent is used in latex production. In order to investigate ziram-induced apoptosis/necrosis and its underlying mechanism in human immune cells, a human monocyte-like cell line (U937) was treated with ziram at 0.0312-2 ?M for 2-24 h at 37 °C in a 5% CO? incubator. Apoptosis/necrosis induced by ziram was determined by analysis of FITC-Annexin-V/PI staining and the intracellular level of active caspase-3 by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation analysis. We found that ziram induced apoptosis/necrosis in U937 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as shown by FITC-Annexin-V/PI staining. DNA fragmentation was detected when cells were treated with 0.5, 1, or 2 ?M ziram for 24 h. Ziram also induced an increase in intracellular active caspase-3 in U937 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and a caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK, significantly inhibited the ziram-induced apoptosis. Moreover, it was found that ziram induced mitochondrial cytochrome c release in U937 cells. These findings indicate that ziram can induce apoptosis/necrosis in U937 cells, and this effect is partially mediated by activation of intracellular caspase-3 and mitochondrial cytochrome c release. PMID:20842346

Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kawada, Tomoyuki

2011-04-01

415

Running head: Apoptosis in the anterior pituitary Corresponding author:  

E-print Network

Tissue homeostasis results from a balance between cell proliferation and cell death by apoptosis. Estradiol affects proliferation as well as apoptosis in hormone-dependent tissues. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary gland to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cycling female rats, and the influence of estradiol in this response in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were chronically estrogenized by implanting Silastic capsules containing 1 mg 17?-estradiol (E2). Cycling or OVX and E2treated rats were injected with LPS (250 µg/rat; i.p.). Apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL method in sections of the anterior pituitary gland and spleen. Chronic estrogenization induced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland. Acute endotoxemia triggered apoptosis of cells in the anterior pituitary gland of E2-treated rats but not of OVX rats. No differences were observed in the apoptotic response to LPS in spleen between OVX and E2-treated rats. The apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary to LPS was variable along the estrous cycle, being higher at proestrus than at estrus or diestrus I. Approximately 75 % of the apoptotic cells were identified as lactotropes by

Seilicovich A; Daniel Pisera; Centro De Investigaciones En Reproducción

416

Serine racemase: a key player in apoptosis and necrosis  

PubMed Central

A fine balance between cell survival and cell death is required to sculpt the nervous system during development. However, an excess of cell death can occur following trauma, exposure to neurotoxins or alcohol, and some developmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) support synaptic plasticity and survival of many neuronal populations whereas inappropriate activation may promote various forms of cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis representing the two extremes of a continuum of cell death processes both “in vitro” and “in vivo.” Hence, by identifying the switches controlling pro-survival vs. apoptosis and apoptosis vs. pro-excitotoxic outcome of NMDAR stimulation, NMDAR modulators could be developed that selectively block the cell death enhancing pro-survival signaling or synaptic plasticity mediated by NMDAR. Among these modulators, a role is emerging for the enzyme serine racemase (SR) that synthesizes D-serine, a key co-agonist with glutamate at NMDAR. This review summarizes the experimental evidence from “in vitro” neuronal cultures—with special emphasis on cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)—and “in vivo” models of neurodegeneration, where the dual role of the SR/D-serine pathway as a master regulator of apoptosis and the apoptosis-necrosis shift will be discussed. PMID:24795622

Canu, Nadia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pollegioni, Loredano

2014-01-01

417

Spectral imaging-based methods for quantifying autophagy and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Spectral imaging systems are capable of detecting and quantifying subtle differences in light quality. In this study we coupled spectral imaging with fluorescence and white light microscopy to develop new methods for quantifying autophagy and apoptosis. For autophagy, we employed multispectral imaging to examine spectral changes in the fluorescence of LC3-GFP, a chimeric protein commonly used to track autophagosome formation. We found that punctate autophagosome-associated LC3-GFP exhibited a spectral profile that was distinctly different from diffuse cytosolic LC3-GFP. We then exploited this shift in spectral quality to quantify the amount of autophagosome-associated signal in single cells. Hydroxychloroquine (CQ), an anti-malarial agent that increases autophagosomal number, significantly increased the punctate LC3-GFP spectral signature, providing proof-of-principle for this approach. For studying apoptosis, we employed the Prism and Reflector Imaging Spectroscopy System (PARISS) hyperspectral imaging system to identify a spectral signature for active caspase-8 immunostaining in ex vivo tumor samples. This system was then used to rapidly quantify apoptosis induced by lexatumumab, an agonistic TRAIL-R2/DR5 antibody, in histological sections from a preclinical mouse model. We further found that the PARISS could accurately distinguish apoptotic tumor regions in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, which allowed us to quantify death receptor-mediated apoptosis in the absence of an apoptotic marker. These spectral imaging systems provide unbiased, quantitative and fast means for studying autophagy and apoptosis and complement the existing methods in their respective fields. PMID:21757995

Dolloff, Nathan G; Ma, Xiahong; Dicker, David T; Humphreys, Robin C; Li, Lin Z

2011-01-01

418

Induction of apoptosis in infantile hemangioma endothelial cells by propranolol.  

PubMed

Propranolol, a non-selective ?-blocker, is emerging as an effective treatment for complicated hemangiomas. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the therapeutic effects of propranolol against hemangiomas, using primary infantile hemangioma endothelial cells (IHECs). IHECs were treated with various concentrations of propranolol and morphological changes and apoptosis were assessed. Changes in the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes were examined. Annexin-V staining revealed that propranolol at 40, 50 and 60 ?g/ml caused a concentration-dependent increase in the apoptosis of IHECs. Morphological analyses revealed that exposure to 50 ?g/ml propranolol resulted in typical apoptotic changes, including shrinkage, the formation of apoptotic bodies and retention of plasma membrane integrity. Gene expression analyses revealed that propranolol treatment led to a marked increase in the expression of caspase-8, cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, as well as a concomitant reduction in lamin B1 expression. Our data collectively demonstrate that propranolol induces apoptosis of IHECs through activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, which represents an important mechanism for its therapeutic effects against infantile hemangiomas. PMID:24137229

Tu, Jun-Bo; Ma, Rui-Zhao; Dong, Qiang; Jiang, Fei; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Li, Quan-Yan; Pattar, Parukjan; Zhang, Hao

2013-08-01

419