Sample records for spe b-induced apoptosis

  1. Inhibitory effect of beta-thujaplicin on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in mouse keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Nakano, H; Tamai, K; Sawamura, D; Hanada, K; Hashimoto, I; Arima, Y

    1998-01-01

    Sunburn cells are thought to represent ultraviolet B-induced apoptotic keratinocytes. It has been demonstrated that enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants effectively suppress sunburn cell formation, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the progression of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis. Metallothionein, a cytosol protein, has antioxidant activity, and overexpression of metallothionein has been reported to reduce the number of sunburn cells in mouse skin. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of metallothionein inhibits ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in mouse keratinocytes. These findings support the hypothesis that cellular metallothionein may play an important role in the inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of beta-thujaplicin, an extract from the woods of Thuja plicata D. Don. and Chamaecyparis obtuse, Sieb. et Zucc., on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and on metallothionein induction. Topical application of beta-thujaplicin decreased the number of ultraviolet B-mediated sunburn cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells in mouse ear skin. Incubation with beta-thujaplicin suppressed ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in cultured mouse keratinocytes. Histochemical analysis showed that topical application of beta-thujaplicin induced metallothionein protein in mouse skin. Northern analysis and western blotting revealed significant induction of metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein, respectively, in beta-thujaplicin-treated cultured mouse keratinocytes. These findings indicate that beta-thujaplicin inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and strongly suggest that the inhibitory mechanism is due to the antioxidant activity of metallothionein induced by the agent. PMID:9424082

  2. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevent didemnin B-induced apoptosis in HL60 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina L. Johnson; François Vaillant; Lawen Alfons

    1996-01-01

    Didemnin B induces rapid apoptosis in human promyeloid HL-60 cells with an optimal concentration of 1 ?M (Grubb et al. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 215, 1130–1136), but little is known about how it does so. In order to determine whether protein tyrosine phosphorylation is involved in this rapid induction of apoptosis, HL-60 cells were pre-treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

  3. Didemnin B induces apoptosis in proliferating but not resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, M A; Grubb, D R; Lawen, A

    2002-10-01

    We have previously shown that didemnin B, a branched cyclic depsipeptide composed of seven amino acids and two hydroxy acids, can induce rapid and complete apoptosis in HL-60 cells (Grubb, D.R. et al. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 215, 1130-1136). We now report that didemnin B can induce apoptosis in a wide range of transformed cell lines. Resting normal lymphocytes, however, are apparently unaffected by exposure to the drug. To investigate whether cell transformation, and/or cell proliferation is necessary for didemnin B to induce apoptosis, we examined the effect of didemnin B on freshly harvested human lymphocytes before and after stimulation with concanavalin A. Didemnin B induced apoptosis in normal lymphocytes only after mitogenic stimulation and therefore warrants further examination for its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent, especially for treatment of leukemia. PMID:12207173

  4. Didemnin B Induces Cell Death by Apoptosis: The Fastest Induction of Apoptosis Ever Described

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Grubb; E. J. Wolvetang; A. Lawen

    1995-01-01

    Didemnin B, a cyclic N-methylated peptolide induces apoptosis in human HL-60 cells. When incubated with 1 ?M didemnin B, unsynchronized HL-60 cultures undergo apoptosis to 100% within 140 minutes. Apoptosis has been assessed by the typical apoptotic morphology, the presence of double-stranded DNA fragments within the cytosol and the generation of DNA ladders. None of these characteristics of apoptosis are

  5. The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS-Related Caspase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Gong, Mei-Wei; Peng, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Tong; Ying, Min-Gang; Zheng, Qiu-Hong; Liu, Qin-Ying; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Dicitrinone B, a rare carbon-bridged citrinin dimer, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium citrinum. It was reported to have antitumor effects on tumor cells previously; however, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we found that dicitrinone B inhibited the proliferation of multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell, A375, was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. Subsequent observation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction revealed that the apoptosis induced by dicitrinone B may be triggered by over-producing ROS. Further studies indicated that the apoptosis was associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways under the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, compared with the first-line chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), dicitrinone B showed much more potent anticancer efficacy, suggesting that it might serve as a potential antitumor agent. PMID:24699111

  6. Rapamycin inhibits didemnin B-induced apoptosis in human HL-60 cells: evidence for the possible involvement of FK506-binding protein 25.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K L; Lawen, A

    1999-06-01

    In the present paper we show that the immunosuppressant rapamycin inhibits the induction of apoptosis by didemnin B in human promyeloid HL-60 cells. The mechanism of this inhibition is investigated using FK506, which competes with rapamycin for binding to their common target FK506-binding protein (FKBP)12. The lack of competition for rapamycin-mediated inhibition of didemnin B-induced apoptosis by FK506 suggests that rapamycin inhibits apoptosis through some mechanism other than inhibition of p70 S6 kinase activation. The lack of inhibition of didemnin B-induced apoptosis by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase further supports the conclusion that rapamycin does not inhibit didemnin B-induced apoptosis through inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway. Furthermore, didemnin B-induced apoptosis is not inhibited by the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase, roscovitine and olomoucine. This indicates that rapamycin does not act through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases. Together with the lack of competition for the effect of rapamycin by FK506, our data suggest the possible involvement of the FK506-binding protein, FKBP25, which is localized in the nucleus. This interpretation of our data gains support from the fact that didemnin B does not induce apoptosis in enucleated HL-60 cells, which supports the possible involvement of FKBP25 in the inhibition of apoptosis by rapamycin. PMID:10361256

  7. The Salmonella Invasin SipB Induces Macrophage Apoptosis by Binding to Caspase1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hersh; Denise M. Monack; Mark R. Smith; Nafisa Ghori; Stanley Falkow; Arturo Zychlinsky

    1999-01-01

    Recently, Salmonella spp. were shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages. The mechanism responsible for this process is unknown. In this report, we establish that the Inv-Spa type III secretion apparatus target invasin SipB is necessary and sufficient for the induction of apoptosis. Purified SipB microinjected into macrophages led to cell death. Binding studies show that SipB associates with the

  8. Didemnin B induces apoptosis in proliferating but not resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Baker; D. R. Grubb; A. Lawen

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that didemnin B, a branched cyclic depsipeptide composed of seven amino acids and two hydroxy acids, can induce rapid and complete apoptosis in HL-60 cells (Grubb, D.R. et al. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 215, 1130–1136). We now report that didemnin B can induce apoptosis in a wide range of transformed cell lines. Resting normal lymphocytes,

  9. Indole3-carbinol enhances ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis by sensitizing human melanoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D.-S. Kim; Y.-M. Jeong; S.-I. Moon; S.-Y. Kim; S.-B. Kwon; E.-S. Park; S.-W. Youn; K.-C. Park

    2006-01-01

    .  Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has been found to act against several types of cancer, while ultraviolet B (UVB) is known to induce\\u000a the apoptosis of human melanoma cells. Here, we investigated whether I3C can sensitize G361 human melanoma cells to UVB-induced\\u000a apoptosis. We examined the effects of combined I3C and UVB (I3C\\/UVB) at various dosages. I3C (200 ?M)\\/UVB (50 mJ\\/cm2) synergistically reduced melanoma cell

  10. Rapamycin inhibits didemnin B-induced apoptosis in human HL60 cells: Evidence for the possible involvement of FK506-binding protein 25

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina L Johnson; Alfons Lawen

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper we show that the immunosuppressant rapamycin inhibits the induction of apoptosis by didemnin B in human promyeloid HL-60 cells. The mechanism of this inhibition is investigated using FK506, which competes with rapamycin for binding to their common target FK506-binding protein (FKBP)12. The lack of competition for rapamycin-mediated inhibition of didemnin B-induced apoptosis by FK506 suggests that

  11. Indole-3-carbinol enhances ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis by sensitizing human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-S; Jeong, Y-M; Moon, S-I; Kim, S-Y; Kwon, S-B; Park, E-S; Youn, S-W; Park, K-C

    2006-11-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has been found to act against several types of cancer, while ultraviolet B (UVB) is known to induce the apoptosis of human melanoma cells. Here, we investigated whether I3C can sensitize G361 human melanoma cells to UVB-induced apoptosis. We examined the effects of combined I3C and UVB (I3C/UVB) at various dosages. I3C (200 microM)/UVB (50 mJ/cm(2)) synergistically reduced melanoma cell viability, whereas I3C (200 microM) or UVB (50 mJ/cm(2)), separately, had little effect on cell viability. DNA fragmentation assays indicated that I3C/UVB induced apoptosis. Further results show that I3C/UVB activates caspase-8, -3, and Bid and causes the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, I3C decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, whereas UVB increased the translocation of Bax to mitochondria. Thus, an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio by I3C/UVB may result in melanoma apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that I3C sensitizes human melanoma cells by down-regulating Bcl-2. PMID:17086378

  12. Eriocalyxin B-induced apoptosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through thiol-containing antioxidant systems and downstream signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Yue, G G L; Pu, J X; Sun, H D; Fung, K P; Leung, P C; Han, Q B; Lau, C B S; Leung, P S

    2014-01-01

    Thiol-containing antioxidant systems play an important role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis. Several anti-cancer agents act by targeting these systems by inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our earlier studies have shown that Eriocalyxin B (EriB), a diterpenoid isolated from Isodon eriocalyx, possesses anti-pancreatic tumour activities in vitro and in vivo. The present study further demonstrated that only thiol-containing antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or dithiothreitol (DTT), inhibited EriB-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. EriB suppressed the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems, thus increasing the intracellular ROS levels and regulating the MAPK, NF?B pathways. Treatment with EriB depleted the intracellular thiol-containing proteins in CAPAN-2 cells. In vivo studies also showed that EriB treatment (2.5 mg/kg) reduced the pancreatic tumour weights significantly in nude mice with increased superoxide levels. Taken together, our results shed important new light on the molecular mechanisms of EriB acting as an apoptogenic agent and its therapeutic potential for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24894173

  13. Cucurbitacin B induces DNA damage, G2/M phase arrest, and apoptosis mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leukemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajie; Zhao, Wenwen; Hao, Wenhui; Ren, Guowen; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B) is a natural product with potent anti-cancer activities in solid tumors. We investigated the anti-cancer effect of Cuc B on K562 leukemia cells. Cuc B drastically decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Cuc B treatment caused DNA damage, as shown by long tails in the comet assay and increased ?H2AX protein expression. Immunofluorescence, Fluo3- AM, and JC-1 staining results showed that Cuc B treatment induced nuclear ?H2AX foci, increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), respectively. Cuc B induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, as shown by flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, and protein expression analyses. In addition, Cuc B dramatically increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as measured by DCFH2-DA. N-acetyl-l-cysteine pretreatment significantly reversed Cuc B-induced DNA damage, increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, and reduced MMP, G2/M phase arrest, and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggested that ROS mediated Cuc B-induced DNA damage, G2/M arrest, and apoptosis in K562 cells. This study provides novel mechanisms to better understand the underlying anti-cancer mechanisms of Cuc B. PMID:24893803

  14. Mitochondrial cytochrome c release is caspase-dependent and does not involve mitochondrial permeability transition in didemnin B-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Grubb, D R; Ly, J D; Vaillant, F; Johnson, K L; Lawen, A

    2001-07-01

    Permeability transition, and a subsequent drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), have been suggested to be mechanisms by which cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria into the cytosol during apoptosis. Furthermore, a drop in DeltaPsi(m) has been suggested to be an obligate early step in the apoptotic pathway. Didemnin B, a branched cyclic peptolide described to have immunosuppressive, anti-tumour, and anti-viral properties, induces rapid apoptosis in a range of mammalian cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by didemnin B in cultured human pro-myeloid HL-60 cells is the fastest and most complete ever described with all cells being apoptotic after 3 h of treatment. By utilizing the system of didemnin B-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells, and the potent inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition, cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid, we show that permeability transition as determined by changes in DeltaPsi(m) and mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxing, is not a requirement for apoptosis or cytochrome c release. In this system, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release are shown to be dependent on caspase activation, and to occur concurrently with the release of caspase-9 from mitochondria, genomic DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. PMID:11494136

  15. Eosinophil-specific deletion of I?B? in mice reveals a critical role of NF-?B–induced Bcl-xL for inhibition of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christian; Willebrand, Ralf; Huber, Silke; Rupec, Rudolf A.; Wu, Davina; Locksley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are associated with type 2 immune responses to allergens and helminths. They release various proinflammatory mediators and toxic proteins on activation and are therefore considered proinflammatory effector cells. Eosinophilia is promoted by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-3, IL-5, and granulocyte macrophage–colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and can result from enhanced de novo production or reduced apoptosis. In this study, we show that only IL-5 induces differentiation of eosinophils from bone marrow precursors, whereas IL-5, GM-CSF, and to a lesser extent IL-3 promote survival of mature eosinophils. The receptors for these cytokines use the common ? chain, which serves as the main signaling unit linked to signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathways. Inhibition of NF-?B induced apoptosis of in vitro cultured eosinophils. Selective deletion of I?B? in vivo resulted in enhanced expression of Bcl-xL and reduced apoptosis during helminth infection. Retroviral overexpression of Bcl-xL promoted survival, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of Bcl-xL in murine or human eosinophils induced rapid apoptosis. These results suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting Bcl-xL in eosinophils could improve health conditions in allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25862560

  16. Eosinophil-specific deletion of I?B? in mice reveals a critical role of NF-?B-induced Bcl-xL for inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christian; Willebrand, Ralf; Huber, Silke; Rupec, Rudolf A; Wu, Davina; Locksley, Richard; Voehringer, David

    2015-06-18

    Eosinophils are associated with type 2 immune responses to allergens and helminths. They release various proinflammatory mediators and toxic proteins on activation and are therefore considered proinflammatory effector cells. Eosinophilia is promoted by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-3, IL-5, and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and can result from enhanced de novo production or reduced apoptosis. In this study, we show that only IL-5 induces differentiation of eosinophils from bone marrow precursors, whereas IL-5, GM-CSF, and to a lesser extent IL-3 promote survival of mature eosinophils. The receptors for these cytokines use the common ? chain, which serves as the main signaling unit linked to signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathways. Inhibition of NF-?B induced apoptosis of in vitro cultured eosinophils. Selective deletion of I?B? in vivo resulted in enhanced expression of Bcl-xL and reduced apoptosis during helminth infection. Retroviral overexpression of Bcl-xL promoted survival, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of Bcl-xL in murine or human eosinophils induced rapid apoptosis. These results suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting Bcl-xL in eosinophils could improve health conditions in allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25862560

  17. Amphotericin B-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity is prevented by the Na +, K +, 2Cl ?-cotransport blocker bumetanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Marklund; Roger Henriksson; Kjell Grankvist

    2000-01-01

    Amphotericin B is the most commonly used antifungal drug although it exhibits poor effectiveness and considerable toxicity during treatment. It acts as a ionophore inducing cellular potassium efflux. The efflux of potassium, which is necessary for cell shrinkage during apoptosis, is counteracted by increased inward pumping of potassium ions. Modulation of potassium pump activity could therefore interact with programmed cell

  18. Pseudolaric Acid B Induces Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Apoptosis in U87 Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad; Zheng, Bin; Yi, Fei; Rasul, Azhar; Gu, Zhuyi; Li, Ting; Gao, Hongwen; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2012-01-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PLAB) is one of the major bioactive components of Pseudolarix kaempferi. It has been reported to exhibit inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in several types of cancer cells. However, there is no report elucidating its effect on glioma cells and organ toxicity in vivo. In the present study, we found that PLAB inhibited growth of U87 glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50~10??M. Flow cytometry analysis showed that apoptotic cell death mediated by PLAB was accompanied with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Using Western blot, we found that PLAB induced G2/M phase arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in U87 cells. Apoptotic cell death was only partially inhibited by pancaspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, which suggested that PLAB-induced apoptosis in U87 cells is partially caspase-independent. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that PLAB induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via upregulation of p53, increased level of proapoptotic protein Bax, decreased level of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspase-3 and proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-independent apoptosis through apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, in vivo toxicity study demonstrated that PLAB did not induce significant structural and biochemical changes in mouse liver and kidneys at a dose of 25?mg/kg. Therefore, PLAB may become a potential lead compound for future development of antiglioma therapy. PMID:22778780

  19. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yue, Grace G.L. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lau, Clara B.S. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Sun, Handong [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, Yunnan (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, Yunnan (China); Fung, Kwok Pui [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Ping Chung [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Han, Quanbin, E-mail: simonhan@hkbu.edu.hk [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); School of Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Po Sing, E-mail: psleung@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. -- Highlights: ? We study Eriocalyxin B (EriB)'s cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines. ? EriB inhibits cell proliferation via mediation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ? The effects are involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and p53 pathway. ? In vivo study also shows EriB inhibits the growth of human pancreatic tumor. ? EriB can be a good candidate for chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

  20. Forskolin protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet (UV) B-induced apoptosis and increases DNA repair independent of its effects on melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Passeron, Thierry; Namiki, Takeshi; Passeron, Hélène; Le Pape, Elodie; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Melanin pigments provide efficient protection against ultraviolet (UV) B radiation but DNA repair also plays a key role in eliminating UV-induced damage and preventing the development of skin cancers. In this study, we demonstrate that forskolin, an agent that increases intracellular levels of cAMP, protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis independently from the amount of melanin in the skin. Forskolin enhances the removal of the two major types of UVB-induced DNA damage, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6,4-photoproducts, by facilitating DNA repair. These findings suggest new preventive approaches with topical formulations of forskolin or other bioactive agents that could be applied to the skin before sun exposure to increase its ability to repair DNA damage. PMID:18580960

  1. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yue, Grace G L; Lau, Clara B S; Sun, Handong; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung; Han, Quanbin; Leung, Po Sing

    2012-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:22561874

  2. IPSJ SIG Technical Report SPE Observer: Cell/B.E. SPE

    E-print Network

    Kourai, Kenichi

    SPE NOSCHED OS SPE 4.2 SPE SPE Memory Flow Controller MFC 1 Problem-State MFC SPE SPE DMA SPE MFC DMA.3 SPE OS PPE SPE NIC SPE LS 3 TCP/IP PPE SPE SPE MFC 32bit SPE Isolation PPE SPE SPE PPE SPE SPE OS PPE

  3. Mitochondrial cytochrome c release is caspase-dependent and does not involve mitochondrial permeability transition in didemnin B-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R Grubb; Jennifer D Ly; François Vaillant; Karina L Johnson; Alfons Lawen; A Lawen

    2001-01-01

    Permeability transition, and a subsequent drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), have been suggested to be mechanisms by which cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria into the cytosol during apoptosis. Furthermore, a drop in ??m has been suggested to be an obligate early step in the apoptotic pathway. Didemnin B, a branched cyclic peptolide described to have immunosuppressive, anti-tumour,

  4. Apoptosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda J. Miller (AAAS; )

    1998-08-28

    Apoptosis is a highly orchestrated form of cell death in which cells neatly commit suicide by chopping themselves into membrane-packaged bits. Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, has caught the imagination of researchers worldwide. This article introduces a special issue on apoptosis.

  5. Apoptosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sherwin Wilk (Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; )

    2005-05-24

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering apoptosis and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture contains a discussion of the apoptosis genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, the properties of the caspases, the major components of the extrinsic apoptotic signal transduction pathway, and the major components of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway.

  6. Xerophilusin B induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and does not cause toxicity in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ran; Chen, Zhaoli; Zhou, Chengcheng; Luo, Mei; Shi, Xuejiao; Li, Jiagen; Gao, Yibo; Zhou, Fang; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong; He, Jie

    2015-01-23

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world and ranks as the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis partially due to its low sensitivity to chemotherapy agents, and the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Here, the antitumor activity of a natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid, xerophilusin B (1), which was isolated from Isodon xerophilus, a perennial herb frequently used in Chinese folk medicine for tumor treatment, was investigated. Compound 1 exhibited antiproliferative effects against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner with lower toxicity against normal human and murine cell lines. In vivo studies demonstrated that 1 inhibited tumor growth of a human esophageal tumor xenograft in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects, indicating its safety in treating ESCC. Furthermore, 1 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis through mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent activation of the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascade pathway in ESCC cell lines. In conclusion, the observations herein reported showed that 1 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ESCC and merits further preclinical and clinical investigation for cancer drug development. PMID:25555195

  7. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis of t(8;21) leukemia cells through NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways and triggers degradation of AML1ETO oncoprotein in a caspase-3-dependent manner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Wang; W-L Zhao; J-S Yan; P Liu; H-P Sun; G-B Zhou; Z-Y Weng; W-L Wu; X-Q Weng; X-J Sun; Z Chen; H-D Sun; S-J Chen

    2007-01-01

    Diterpenoids isolated from Labiatae family herbs have strong antitumor activities with low toxicity. In this study, Eriocalyxin B (EriB), a diterpenoid extracted from Isodon eriocalyx, was tested on human leukemia\\/lymphoma cells and murine leukemia models. Acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 was most sensitive to EriB. Significant apoptosis was observed, concomitant with Bcl-2\\/Bcl-XL downregulation, mitochondrial instability and caspase-3 activation. AML1-ETO

  8. A combination of STI571 and BCR-ABL1 siRNA with overexpressed p15INK4B induced enhanced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Xia, D.Y.; Liu, L.; Hao, M.W.; Liu, Q.; Chen, R.A.; Liang, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    p15INK4B, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, has been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Loss of or methylation of the p15INK4B gene in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells enhances myeloid progenitor formation from common myeloid progenitors. Therefore, we examined the effects of overexpressed p15INK4B on proliferation and apoptosis of CML cells. Overexpression of p15INK4B inhibited the growth of K562 cells by downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin D1 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B also induced apoptosis of K562 cells by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B together with STI571 (imatinib) or BCR-ABL1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) also enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of K562 cells. The enhanced effect was also mediated by reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. In conclusion, our study may provide new insights into the role of p15INK4B in CML and a potential therapeutic target for overcoming tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in CML. PMID:25387678

  9. Environmental testing of SPE fuel cell assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Adlhart

    1981-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cells can be operated at low ambient temperatures. The considered investigation provides an evaluation of SPE fuel cells assemblies over a broad range of ambient conditions. The conducted tests form part of a program which is concerned with the development of SPE devices for power requirements ranging up to a few hundred watts. Attention is

  10. Integrated OO system development using SPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking

    SPE is a programing environment for OO programming which supports multiple textual and graphical views of a program. Views are kept consistent with one another using a mechanism of update records. SPE is useful throughout all phases of the software development lifecycle providing support for conceptual level diagram construction, visual and textual programming, hypertext-based browsing, and visual debugging, together with

  11. Current SPE Hydrodynamic Modeling and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rougier, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    Extensive work has been conducted on SPE analysis efforts: Fault effects Non-uniform weathered layer analysis MUNROU: material library incorporation, parallelization, and development of non-locking tets Development of a unique continuum-based-visco-plastic strain-rate-dependent material model With corrected SPE data path is now set for a multipronged approach to fully understand experimental series shot effects.

  12. Biological Response to SPE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Kim, M.; Shinn, J. L.; Jones, T. D.; Chang, C. K.

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that a single solar particle event (SPE) can produce, over a short period of time, exposures on the order of LD50 for humans under normal physiological conditions. It is further recognized that recovery from injury over the period of exposure would greatly increase the chances of survival (dose rate effects) although such effects were left unquantified. In the present report we use the bioresponse model derived from a broad range of animal and human exposure data for evaluation of troop readiness in tactical nuclear warfare to evaluate the biological risk posed by the solar event of 4 August 1972. The astronaut blood forming organ (BFO) exposure in deep space would have been 2.2 Sv (1.6 Gy) in a space suit, 1.8 Sv (1.3 Gy) in an aluminum pressure vessel, and 0.7 Sv (0.5 Gy) in an equipment room compared to an X-ray mortality threshold of 1.5 Gy (assuming high dose rate). We find BFO dose rate effectiveness factors for this SPE on the order of 3 to 4, greatly reducing the mortality risks for this event. There is an approximate 3 percent chance that an even larger event may occur for which exposures could be 2-4 times higher. Assured survival of the astronaut requires added shelter shielding and a warning system for this event. The required mass of the shelter shield can be greatly reduced by using hydrogenous materials such as polymers, water, food, and other biological materials in its construction. Limitations of the current bioresponse model arise from the exposures taking place in the microgravity environment wherein the immune system is already challenged and the effective mortality threshold may be reduced by a factor of two. Such microgravity effects could greatly affect astronaut risks.

  13. Proceedings of the SPE California regional meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the SPE California regional meetings. Topics covered include: selection of tools for stimulation in horizontal cased hole, appraisal of analytical steamflood models, studies of fracture induced during cyclic steam injection, and extended-reach drilling from platform Irene.

  14. spe433-01 page 1 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Warren B.

    spe433-01 page 1 INTRODUCTION The reality of plate tectonics, as a description of relative motions that plate tectonics has operated in something like its present style for, at most, the past billion years, Driving mechanism and 3-D circulation of plate tectonics, in Sears, J.W., Harms, T.A., and Evenchick, C

  15. SPE44 Implements Sperm Cell Fate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhura Kulkarni; Diane C. Shakes; Katie Guevel; Harold E. Smith

    2012-01-01

    The sperm\\/oocyte decision in the hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for the characterization of stem cell fate specification and differentiation. The germline sex determination program that governs gamete fate has been well studied, but direct mediators of cell-type-specific transcription are largely unknown. We report the identification of spe-44 as a critical regulator of sperm gene expression.

  16. Unspecific activation of caspases during the induction of apoptosis by didemnin B in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K L; Grubb, D R; Lawen, A

    1999-02-01

    Caspases have been implicated in the induction of apoptosis in most systems studied. The importance of caspases for apoptosis was further investigated using the system of didemnin B-induced apoptosis. We found that benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone, a general caspase inhibitor, inhibits didemnin B-induced apoptosis in HL-60 and Daudi cells. Acetyl-YVAD-chloromethylketone, a caspase-1-like activity inhibitor, inhibits didemnin B-induced apoptosis in Daudi cells, whereas the caspase-3-like activity inhibitor, acetyl-DEVD-aldehyde, has no effect. Using immunoblots to investigate cleavage of caspases-1 and -3, we found that both caspases are activated in both cell lines. We showed that the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase is cleaved in these cells after didemnin B treatment. In both cell lines, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage is inhibited by benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone and also by acetyl-YVAD-chloromethylketone in Daudi cells. These results indicate that a caspase(s) other than caspase-3 is required for didemnin B-induced apoptosis. We show that caspases may be activated during apoptosis that are not required for the progression of apoptosis. PMID:10022509

  17. Apoptosis induced by weisiensin B isolated from Rabdosia weisiensis C.Y. Wu in K562.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-An; Chang, Jin-Chun; Feng, Xiao-Lu; Ding, Lan

    2015-04-01

    The ent-kaurane diterpenoid weisinensis B shows significant cytotoxicity to human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. It inhibits cell growth at low concentration and kills cells at high concentration. The compound induced cell apoptosis and necrosis mainly associated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and the ROS generation is the early event in weisiensin B induced cell apoptosis. PMID:26012257

  18. SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

  19. Assay Development for the Discovery of Semaphorin 3B Inducing Agents from Natural Product Sources

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yeonjoong; Pan, Li; Ren, Yulin; Fatima, Nighat; Ahmed, Safia; Chang, Leng Chee; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Swanson, Steven M.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a class of membrane-bound and secreted proteins. They have been found to regulate basic cell functions such as axonal growth cone guidance and recent studies have focused on their effect on tumor progression. Semaphorin 3B (Sema 3B) particularly is a secreted protein that has been known to modulate proliferation and apoptosis, processes that are critical for tumor progression and development. In spite of its importance, there is yet no high-throughput screening assay available to detect or quantify the expression of Sema 3B for natural product anticancer drug discovery purposes. Therefore, the development of a new high-throughput bioassay for the discovery of Sema 3B inducing agents from natural product sources is described herein. A wide variety of pure compounds and extracts from plants and microorganisms has been found suitable for screening using this Sema 3B assay to detect and quantify the effect of Sema 3B inducing agents and thereby identify new selective bioactive Sema 3B lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery and development. Also, this new bioassay procedure is based on a high-throughput platform using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that involves the optimization of sensitivity and selectivity levels as well as accuracy, reproducibility, robustness, and cost effectiveness. PMID:25016954

  20. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  1. Gadd45a Activation Protects Melanoma Cells from Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Fayolle; Julie Pourchet; Claude Caron de Fromentel; Alain Puisieux; Jean-François Doré; Thibault Voeltzel

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and biological studies indicate that solar UVB radiation is involved in cutaneous malignant melanoma etiology. Indeed, melanocytes are very frequently exposed to solar UV radiation, which induces cell damage and may promote cell transformation. We previously showed that melanocytes and melanoma cells exposed to UVB radiation activates a p53-independent pathway involving Gadd45a and, more recently, that Gadd45a plays a

  2. Overexpression of HSP70 prevents ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis of a human melanoma cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoung-Chan Park; Dong-Seok Kim; Hyun-Ok Choi; Kyu-Han Kim; Jin-Ho Chung; Hee-Chul Eun; Jae-Seon Lee; Jeong-Sun Seo

    2000-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract The heat shock response is a highly conserved reaction common to all cells and organisms. It has been reported that hyperthermic\\u000a treatment can induce the expression of the heat shock protein (HSP) and can protect cells from ultraviolet (UV) B radiation.\\u000a In this study, we evaluated the effects of induced HSP70 on resistance to UV radiation. G361 amelanotic human

  3. Photovoltaic-powered solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer system evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, P. D.; Piraino, M.

    1985-07-01

    The final results of the evaluation of a photovoltaic-powered solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer system at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Hydrogen Technology Evaluation Center (HTEC) are presented. The HTEC facility and the SPE electrolyzer system are described. Electrolyzer test results are then presented. A technoeconomic analysis of hydrogen production via PV-powered electrolysis and other options is reported. The use of grid versus photovoltaic electricity is evaluated parametrically. PV-electrolyzer system transient computer results are presented. The economic model on which the technoeconomic analysis is based is appended, as well as fitting equations and coefficients of some of the test results.

  4. Supporting flexible collaborative software development with SPE-Serendipity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Grundy

    1996-01-01

    Collaborative software development environments are large cooperative work systems. To effectively support collaborative development, such environments should support software process modelling and enactment, work coordination, and fully integrated software development tools. We describe the facilitation of collaborative software development using the Serendipity process modelling environment and SPE integrated software development environment. Serendipity provides flexible, graphical process modelling tools which are

  5. The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, is a large, coastal spe-

    E-print Network

    387 The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, is a large, coastal spe- cies of the western north (Bigelow and Schroeder, 1948; Springer, 1960). Sandbar sharks are targeted by commercial fisher- ies and account for up to 60% of the large coastal shark landings in U.S. southern waters (NMFS, 1993). Adults

  6. Auditory Teager Energy Cepstrum Coefficients for Robust Spe ech Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Dimitriadis; Petros Maragos; Alexandros Potamianos

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a feature extraction algorithm for robust spe ech recognition is introduced. The feature extraction algorit hm is motivated by the human auditory processing and the nonlinear Teager-Kaiser energy operator that estimates the true energy of the source of a resonance. The proposed features are labeled as Teager Energy Cepstrum Coefficients (TECCs). TECCs are computed by first filtering

  7. An improved SPE method for fractionation and identification of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Fauland, Alexander; Trötzmüller, Martin; Eberl, Anita; Afiuni-Zadeh, Somaieh; Köfeler, Harald; Guo, Xinghua; Lankmayr, Ernst

    2013-02-01

    This work reports an efficient and universal SPE method developed for separation and identification of phospholipids derived from complex biological samples. For the separation step, sequential combination of silica gel-aminopropyl-silica gel SPE cartridges is applied. This setup enables separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, and sphingomyelin into four fractions according to the polarity of their headgroups. Sample acquisition of the SPE fractions is performed by a high-resolution LC-MS system consisting of a hybrid linear IT Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer coupled to RP-HPLC. The unequivocal advantage of our SPE sample preparation setup is avoidance of analyte peak overlapping in the determination step done by RP-HPLC. Overlapping phospholipid signals would otherwise exert adverse ion suppression effects. An additional benefit of this method is the elimination of polar and nonpolar (e.g. neutral lipids) contaminants from the phospholipid fractions, which highly reduces contamination of the LC-MS system. The method was validated with fermentation samples of organic waste, where 78 distinct phospholipid and sphingomyelin species belonging to six lipid classes were successfully identified. PMID:23349108

  8. Mass distribution in 11B induced fission of 232Th

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Gubbi; A. Goswami; B. S. Tomar; A. Ramaswami; A. V. R. Reddy; P. P. Burte; S. B. Manohar; B. John

    1999-01-01

    Formation cross sections of several fission products have been determined using recoil catcher technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry in 11B induced fission of 232Th at Elab=72, 60, and 55 MeV. The data show significant admixture of fission from compound nucleus formed by complete fusion as well as targetlike nuclei formed by transfer reaction. Mass distributions for both the fissioning systems

  9. Efficient Ensemble-Based Closed-Loop Production Optimization Yan Chen, Dean S. Oliver, SPE, University of Oklahoma and Dongxiao Zhang, SPE, University of Southern California

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dongxiao

    by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position, SPE, University of Oklahoma and Dongxiao Zhang, SPE, University of Southern California Copyright 2008

  10. Copyright 2006, IADC/SPE Drilling Conference This paper was prepared for presentation at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference held in Miami,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Copyright 2006, IADC/SPE Drilling Conference This paper was prepared for presentation at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference held in Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 21­23 February 2006. This paper was selected of Drilling Contractors or Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author

  11. Glaucocalyxin A and B-induced cell death is related to GSH perturbation in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen Hua; Zhang, Zhen; Sima, Yang Hu; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jian Wen

    2013-10-01

    Glaucocalyxin (Gla) A-C are major ent-kauranoid diterpenoids isolated from Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx, a plant used in Chinese traditional medicine as an antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent. The present investigation was carried out to observe whether cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) plays important roles in Gla -induced cytotoxicity. Among major ent-kauranoid diterpenoids isolated, Gla A and B dose-dependently decreased the growth of HL-60 cells with an IC50 of approximately 6.15 and 5.86 µM at 24 h, respectively. Both Gla A and B could induce apoptosis, G2/M-phase cycle arrest, DNA damage and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HL-60 cells. Moreover, Gla A, B caused rapid decrease of the intracellular GSH content, while inhibition of cellular GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) augmented the induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HL-60 cells. On the other hand, the administration of GSH or GSH precursor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) could rescue Gla A, B-depleted cellular GSH, and abrogate the induced cytotoxicity, G2/M-phase cycle arrest, DNA damage and ROS accumulation in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, Gla A, B decreased the activity of the GSH-related enzymes including glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). These data suggest that the intracellular GSH redox system plays important roles in regulating the Gla A, B-induced cytotoxicity on HL-60 cells. PMID:23796245

  12. NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE SECOND SOURCE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (SPE2)

    SciTech Connect

    Antoun, T; Xu, H; Vorobiev, O; Lomov, I

    2011-10-20

    Motion along joints and fractures in the rock has been proposed as one of the sources of near-source shear wave generation, and demonstrating the validity of this hypothesis is a focal scientific objective of the source physics experimental campaign in the Climax Stock granitic outcrop. A modeling effort has been undertaken by LLNL to complement the experimental campaign, and over the long term provide a validated computation capability for the nuclear explosion monitoring community. The approach involves performing the near-field nonlinear modeling with hydrodynamic codes (e.g., GEODYN, GEODYN-L), and the far-field seismic propagation with an elastic wave propagation code (e.g., WPP). the codes will be coupled together to provide a comprehensive source-to-sensor modeling capability. The technical approach involves pre-test predictions of each of the SPE experiments using their state of the art modeling capabilities, followed by code improvements to alleviate deficiencies identified in the pre-test predictions. This spiral development cycle wherein simulations are used to guide experimental design and the data from the experiment used to improve the models is the most effective approach to enable a transition from the descriptive phenomenological models in current use to the predictive, hybrid physics models needed for a science-based modeling capability for nuclear explosion monitoring. The objective of this report is to describe initial results of non-linear motion predictions of the first two SPE shots in the Climax Stock: a 220-lb shot at a depth of 180 ft (SPE No.1), and a 2570-lb shot at a depth of 150 ft (SPE No.2). The simulations were performed using the LLNL ensemble granite model, a model developed to match velocity and displacement attenuation from HARDHAT, PILE DRIVER, and SHOAL, as well as Russian and French nuclear test data in granitic rocks. This model represents the state of the art modeling capabilities as they existed when the SPE campaign was launched in 2010, and the simulation results presented here will establish a baseline that will be used for gauging progress as planned modeling improvements are implemented during the remainder of the SPE program. The initial simulations were performed under 2D axisymmetric conditions assuming the geologic medium to be a homogeneous half space. However, logging data obtained from the emplacement hole reveal two major faults that intersect the borehole at two different depth intervals (NSTec report, 2011) and four major joint sets. To evaluate the effect of these discrete structures on the wave forms generated they have performed 2D and 3D analysis with a Lagrangian hydrocode, GEODYN-L that shares the same material models with GEODYN but can explicitly take joints and fault into consideration. They discuss results obtained using these two different approaches in this report.

  13. A Mycobacterium ulcerans toxin, mycolactone, induces apoptosis in primary human keratinocytes and in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Bozzo, Chiarella; Tiberio, Rossana; Graziola, Francesca; Pertusi, Ginevra; Valente, Guido; Colombo, Enrico; Small, Pamela L C; Leigheb, Giorgio

    2010-12-01

    The pathogenicity of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli ulcer) depends on cytotoxic effect of its exotoxin mycolactone. Since epidermis represents a barrier against infectious agents and balanced apoptosis is essential in epidermal homeostasis, we explored if mycolactone A/B induces apoptosis on two human keratinocyte populations, stem cells (KSC) and transit amplifying cells (TAC), and on human keratinocyte line, HaCaT. Treatment of TAC with 1 and 10 ng/ml mycolactone-induced 60 and 90% apoptosis. KSC were more resistant than TAC: 50 and 75% of cells underwent apoptosis after 10 and 100 ng/ml toxin-treatment. Higher doses (1000 ng/ml) induced about 30% apoptosis on HaCaT. In contrast, mycolactone A/B was devoid of toxicity neither on human hepatoma HuH7 nor on human embryonic kidney HEK 293 T cell lines. In conclusion, mycolactone induces apoptosis in human keratinocytes, thus contributing to Buruli ulcer lesions development. PMID:20800104

  14. Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology, program review, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell program is to advance the SPE fuel cell technology in four target areas. These areas are: (1) reduced fuel cell costs; (2) reduced fuel cell weight; (3) improved fuel cell efficiency; and (4) increased systems compatibility.

  15. SOCIAL WORK SPE/HLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    SOCIAL WORK SPE/HLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ toward specific degree course (Make no exceptions here) #12;SOCIAL WORK SPE/HLTH Plan Requirements Campus Minimum three units from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Academic Sub Plan

  16. SOCIAL WORK SPE/MHLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    SOCIAL WORK SPE/MHLTH Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students with no Academic Sub Plan] RQ below has not been used toward specific degree course (Make no exceptions here) #12;SOCIAL WORK SPE

  17. SOCIAL WORK SPE/AG Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    SOCIAL WORK SPE/AG Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students with no Academic Sub Plan] RQ 2285 Courses Not Used toward specific degree course (Make no exceptions here) #12;SOCIAL WORK SPE/AG Plan Requirements Campus

  18. spe-12 encodes a sperm cell surface protein that promotes spermiogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Nance, J; Minniti, A N; Sadler, C; Ward, S

    1999-01-01

    During spermiogenesis, Caenorhabditis elegans spermatids activate and mature into crawling spermatozoa without synthesizing new proteins. Mutations in the spe-12 gene block spermatid activation, rendering normally self-fertile hermaphrodites sterile. Mutant males, however, are fertile. Surprisingly, when mutant hermaphrodites mate with a male, their self-spermatids activate and form functional spermatozoa, presumably due to contact with male seminal fluid. Here we show that, in addition to its essential role in normal activation of hermaphrodite-derived spermatids, SPE-12 also plays a supplementary but nonessential role in mating-induced activation. We have identified the spe-12 gene, which encodes a novel protein containing a single transmembrane domain. spe-12 mRNA is expressed in the sperm-producing germ line and the protein localizes to the spermatid cell surface. We propose that SPE-12 functions downstream of both hermaphrodite- and male-derived activation signals in a spermatid signaling pathway that initiates spermiogenesis. PMID:10224255

  19. The Streptococcal Cysteine Protease SpeB Is Not a Natural Immunoglobulin-Cleaving Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Helena; Vindebro, Reine

    2013-01-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes has developed a broad variety of virulence mechanisms to evade the actions of the host immune defense. One of the best-characterized factors is the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB, an important multifunctional protease that contributes to group A streptococcal pathogenesis in vivo. Among many suggested activities, SpeB has been described to degrade various human plasma proteins, including immunoglobulins (Igs). In this study, we show that SpeB has no Ig-cleaving activity under physiological conditions and that only Igs in a reduced state, i.e., semimonomeric molecules, are cleaved and degraded by SpeB. Since reducing conditions outside eukaryotic cells have to be considered nonphysiological and IgG in a reduced state lacks biological effector functions, we conclude that SpeB does not contribute to S. pyogenes virulence through the proteolytic degradation of Igs. PMID:23569114

  20. NF?B induces overexpression of bovine FcRn

    PubMed Central

    Cervenak, Judit; Doleschall, Márton; Bender, Balázs; Mayer, Balázs; Schneider, Zita; Doleschall, Zoltán; Zhao, Yaofeng; B?sze, Zsuzsanna; Hammarström, Lennart; Oster, Wolfgang; Kacskovics, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Among the many functions of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) for IgG, it binds to IgG-opsonized antigen complexes and propagates their traffic into lysosomes where antigen processing occurs. We previously reported that transgenic (Tg) mice and rabbits that carry multiple copies and overexpress FcRn have augmented humoral immune responses. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) is a critical molecule in the signaling cascade in the immune response. NF?B induces human FcRn expression and our previous in silico analysis suggested NF?B binding sites in the promoter region of the bovine (b) FcRn ?-chain gene (FCGRT). Here, we report the identification of three NF?B transcription binding sites in the promoter region of this gene using luciferase reporter gene technology, electromobility shift assay and supershift analysis. Stimulation of primary bovine endothelial cells with the Toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mediates its effect via NF?B, resulted in rapid upregulation of the bFcRn expression and a control gene, bovine E-selectin. This rapid bFcRn gene induction was also observed in the spleen of bFcRn Tg mice treated with intraperitoneally injected LPS, analyzed by northern blot analysis. Finally, NF?B-mediated bFcRn upregulation was confirmed at the protein level in macrophages isolated from the bFcRn Tg mice using flow cytometry with a newly developed FcRn specific monoclonal antibody that does not cross-react with the mouse FcRn. We conclude that NF?B regulates bFcRn expression and thus optimizes its functions, e.g., in the professional antigen presenting cells, and contributes to the much augmented humoral immune response in the bFcRn Tg mice. PMID:24492342

  1. Neuropeptide B Induces Slow Wave Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Noriko; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Ichiki, Kanako; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kilduff, Thomas S.; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: Neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW) are two recently identified neuropeptides that act as endogenous ligands to orphan G protein coupled receptors, GPR7 and GPR8. In rodents, the GPR8 ortholog is absent and both NPB and NPW function exclusively through GPR7. Although NPB and NPW are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior, endocrine function, and pain sensation, their physiological role is incompletely understood. Design: NPB or saline was administered into the lateral ventricle of mice during both the light and dark periods. In separate experiments, spontaneous locomotor activity or EEG and EMG were recorded after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v). injection. To confirm the involvement of GPR7 in NPB-induced responses, GPR7 knockout mice were also subjected to i.c.v. injections. Measurements and Results: NPB injections reduced locomotor activity during the dark period, but not during the light period. EEG and EMG recordings in freely moving mice revealed that NPB injection decreased the time spent in the waking state and increased the time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) during the dark period. The time spent in paradoxical sleep was unaffected. The spectral power of NPB-induced SWS was indistinguishable from that of physiological SWS. The NPB-induced increase in SWS was not observed in GPR7 knockout mice. Conclusion: These results suggest that NPB induced physiological SWS through GPR7 and that NPB and GPR7 may have a role in modulating the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness. Citation: Hirashima N; Tsunematsu T; Ichiki K; Tanaka H; Kilduff TS; Yamanaka A. Neuropeptide B induces slow wave sleep in mice. SLEEP 2011;34(1):31-37. PMID:21203369

  2. yApoptosis: yeast apoptosis database

    PubMed Central

    Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Cvijovic, Marija; Molt, Andrea; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, programmed cell death (PCD) has become a popular research area due to its fundamental aspects and its links to human diseases. Yeast has been used as a model for studying PCD, since the discovery of morphological markers of apoptotic cell death in yeast in 1997. Increasing knowledge in identification of components and molecular pathways created a need for organization of information. To meet the demands from the research community, we have developed a curated yeast apoptosis database, yApoptosis. The database structurally collects an extensively curated set of apoptosis, PCD and related genes, their genomic information, supporting literature and relevant external links. A web interface including necessary functions is provided to access and download the data. In addition, we included several networks where the apoptosis genes or proteins are involved, and present them graphically and interactively to facilitate rapid visualization. We also promote continuous inputs and curation by experts. yApoptosis is a highly specific resource for sharing information online, which supports researches and studies in the field of yeast apoptosis and cell death. Database URL: http://www.ycelldeath.com/yapoptosis/ PMID:24082050

  3. yApoptosis: yeast apoptosis database.

    PubMed

    Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Cvijovic, Marija; Molt, Andrea; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, programmed cell death (PCD) has become a popular research area due to its fundamental aspects and its links to human diseases. Yeast has been used as a model for studying PCD, since the discovery of morphological markers of apoptotic cell death in yeast in 1997. Increasing knowledge in identification of components and molecular pathways created a need for organization of information. To meet the demands from the research community, we have developed a curated yeast apoptosis database, yApoptosis. The database structurally collects an extensively curated set of apoptosis, PCD and related genes, their genomic information, supporting literature and relevant external links. A web interface including necessary functions is provided to access and download the data. In addition, we included several networks where the apoptosis genes or proteins are involved, and present them graphically and interactively to facilitate rapid visualization. We also promote continuous inputs and curation by experts. yApoptosis is a highly specific resource for sharing information online, which supports researches and studies in the field of yeast apoptosis and cell death. DATABASE URL: http://www.ycelldeath.com/yapoptosis/. PMID:24082050

  4. Pax3 expression enhances PDGF-B-induced brainstem gliomagenesis and characterizes a subset of brainstem glioma.

    PubMed

    Misuraca, Katherine L; Barton, Kelly L; Chung, Alexander; Diaz, Alexander K; Conway, Simon J; Corcoran, David L; Baker, Suzanne J; Becher, Oren J

    2014-01-01

    High-grade Brainstem Glioma (BSG), also known as Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG), is an incurable pediatric brain cancer. Increasing evidence supports the existence of regional differences in gliomagenesis such that BSG is considered a distinct disease from glioma of the cerebral cortex (CG). In an effort to elucidate unique characteristics of BSG, we conducted expression analysis of mouse PDGF-B-driven BSG and CG initiated in Nestin progenitor cells and identified a short list of expression changes specific to the brainstem gliomagenesis process, including abnormal upregulation of paired box 3 (Pax3). In the neonatal mouse brain, Pax3 expression marks a subset of brainstem progenitor cells, while it is absent from the cerebral cortex, mirroring its regional expression in glioma. Ectopic expression of Pax3 in normal brainstem progenitors in vitro shows that Pax3 inhibits apoptosis. Pax3-induced inhibition of apoptosis is p53-dependent, however, and in the absence of p53, Pax3 promotes proliferation of brainstem progenitors. In vivo, Pax3 enhances PDGF-B-driven gliomagenesis by shortening tumor latency and increasing tumor penetrance and grade, in a region-specific manner, while loss of Pax3 function extends survival of PDGF-B-driven;p53-deficient BSG-bearing mice by 33%. Importantly, Pax3 is regionally expressed in human glioma as well, with high PAX3 mRNA characterizing 40% of human BSG, revealing a subset of tumors that significantly associates with PDGFRA alterations, amplifications of cell cycle regulatory genes, and is exclusive of ACVR1 mutations. Collectively, these data suggest that regional Pax3 expression not only marks a novel subset of BSG but also contributes to PDGF-B-induced brainstem gliomagenesis. PMID:25330836

  5. IL1B Induced Smad 7 Negatively Regulates Gastrin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Datta De, Dipanjana; Bhattacharjya, Sumana; Maitra, Meenakshi; Datta, Arindam; Choudhury, Abhijit; Dhali, G. K.; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2011-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori elicited IL1B is one of the various modulators responsible for perturbation of acid secretion in gut. We have earlier reported that IL1B activated NFkB downregulates gastrin, a major modulator of acid secretion. However, we hypothesized that regulation of gastrin by IL1B would depend on the cell's ability to integrate inputs from multiple signaling pathways to generate appropriate biological response. Principal Finding In this study, we report that IL1B induces Smad 7 expression by about 4.5 fold in gastric carcinoma cell line, AGS. Smad 7 resulted in transcriptional repression of gastrin promoter by about 6.5 fold when co -transfected with Smad 7 expression vector and gastrin-promoter luciferase in AGS cells. IL1B inhibited phosphorylation of Smad 3 and subsequently interfered with nuclear translocation of the positive Smad complex, thus occluding it off the gastrin promoter. IL1B promoter polymorphisms (-511T/-31C IL1B) are known to be associated with H. pylori associated gastro-duodenal ulcer. We observed that IL1B expressed from -31T promoter driven IL1B cDNA elicited 3.5 fold more Smad 7 than that expressed from the IL1B-31C variant in AGS cells. This differential activation of Smad 7 by IL1B promoter variants translated into differential downregulation of gastrin expression. We further analyzed Smad 7, NFkB, IL1B and gastrin expression in antral gut biopsy samples of patients with H. pylori associated duodenal ulcer and normal individuals. We observed that individuals with duodenal ulcer had significantly lower levels of IL1B, Smad 7, NFkB and corresponding higher level of gastrin expression. Conclusion Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1B repress gastrin expression by activating Smad 7 and subsequent inhibition of nuclear localization of Smad 3/4 complex. Polymorphic promoter variants of IL1B gene can modulate the IL1B expression which resulted in differential activation Smad 7 and consequent repression of gastrin expression, respectively. Analysis of H. pylori infected duodenal ulcer patient's gut biopsy samples also supported this observation. PMID:21445336

  6. Inhibition of Smoothened Signaling Prevents Ultraviolet B-Induced Basal Cell Carcinomas through Regulation of Fas Expression and Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Athar; Chengxin Li; Xiuwei Tang; Sumin Chi; Xiaoli Zhang; Arianna L. Kim; Stephen K. Tyring; Levy Kopelovich; Jennifer Hebert; Ervin H. Epstein Jr; David R. Bickers; Jingwu Xie

    2004-01-01

    Abnormal activation of the hedgehog-signaling pathway is the pivotal abnormality driving the growth of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), the most common type of human cancer. Antagonists of this pathway such as cyclopamine may therefore be useful for treatment of basal cell carcino- mas and other hedgehog-driven tumors. We report here that chronic oral administration of cyclopamine dramatically reduces (66%) UVB-

  7. Cucurbitacin B induced ATM-mediated DNA damage causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in a ROS-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajie; Wu, Guosheng; Bao, Jiaolin; Hao, Wenhui; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in plant kingdom with potent anti-cancer activities both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptosis. Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), could induce S or G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells while the detailed mechanisms remain to be clear. This study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s) responsible for Cuc B induced cell cycle arrest in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. We demonstrated that low concentrations of Cuc B dramatically induced G2/M phase arrest in A549 cells. Cuc B treatment caused DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) without affecting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the potential molecular target for Cuc B. Cuc B triggers ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1, which could be reversed by both ATM siRNA and Chk1 siRNA. Cuc B also triggers ATM-activated p53-14-3-3-? pathways, which could be reversed by ATM siRNA. Cuc B treatment also led to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. Furthermore, NAC pretreatment inhibited Cuc B induced DNA damage and G2/M phase arrest. Taken together, these results suggested that Cuc B induces DNA damage in A549 cells mediated by increasing intracellular ROS formation, which lead to G2/M cell phase arrest through ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1 and p53-14-3-3-? parallel branches. These observations provide novel mechanisms and potential targets for better understanding of the anti-cancer mechanisms of cucurbitacins. PMID:24505404

  8. SPE (trademark) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA). (Refurbishment of the technology demonstrator LFSPE oxygen generation subsystem)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    The SPE Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) has been modified to correct operational deficiencies present in the original system, and to effect changes to the system hardware and software such that its operating conditions are consistent with the latest configuration requirements for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The effectiveness of these changes has recently been verified through a comprehensive test program which saw the SPE OGA operate for over 740 hours at various test conditions, including over 690 hours, or approximately 460 cycles, simulating the orbit of the space station. This report documents the changes made to the SPE OGA, presents and discusses the test results from the acceptance test program, and provides recommendations for additional development activities pertinent to evolution of the SPE OGA to a flight configuration. Copies of the test data from the acceptance test program are provided with this report on 3.5 inch diskettes in self-extracting archive files.

  9. Crystal structure of a dimeric form of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1).

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew D; Gendlina, Inessa; Collins, Carleen M; Acharya, K Ravi

    2004-09-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1) is a bacterial superantigen associated with scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). SpeA1 is found in both monomeric and dimeric forms, and previous work suggested that the dimer results from an intermolecular disulfide bond between the cysteines at positions 90 of each monomer. Here, we present the crystal structure of the dimeric form of SpeA1. The toxin crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with two dimers in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The final structure has a crystallographic R-factor of 21.52% for 7248 protein atoms, 136 water molecules, and 4 zinc atoms (one zinc atom per molecule). The implications of SpeA1 dimer on MHC class II and T-cell receptor recognition are discussed. PMID:15295110

  10. Apoptosis in Drug Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Fulda; Klaus-Michael Debatin

    2003-01-01

    Apoptosis, the cell's intrinsic death program, plays an important role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Imbalances between cell death and survival may result in premature death, uncontrolled proliferation or tumor formation. Also, killing of cancer cells by various cytotoxic approaches such as anticancer drugs, ?-irradiation, suicide genes or immunotherapy, is predominantly mediated through induction of apoptosis in target cells.

  11. Calpains, mitochondria, and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew A.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial activity is critical for efficient function of the cardiovascular system. In response to cardiovascular injury, mitochondrial dysfunction occurs and can lead to apoptosis and necrosis. Calpains are a 15-member family of Ca2+-activated cysteine proteases localized to the cytosol and mitochondria, and several have been shown to regulate apoptosis and necrosis. For example, in endothelial cells, Ca2+ overload causes mitochondrial calpain 1 cleavage of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger leading to mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Also, activated calpain 1 cleaves Bid, inducing cytochrome c release and apoptosis. In renal cells, calpains 1 and 2 promote apoptosis and necrosis by cleaving cytoskeletal proteins, which increases plasma membrane permeability and cleavage of caspases. Calpain 10 cleaves electron transport chain proteins, causing decreased mitochondrial respiration and excessive activation, or inhibition of calpain 10 activity induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. In cardiomyocytes, calpain 1 activates caspase 3 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase during tumour necrosis factor-?-induced apoptosis, and calpain 1 cleaves apoptosis-inducing factor after Ca2+ overload. Many of these observations have been elucidated with calpain inhibitors, but most calpain inhibitors are not specific for calpains or a specific calpain family member, creating more questions. The following review will discuss how calpains affect mitochondrial function and apoptosis within the cardiovascular system. PMID:22581845

  12. Apoptosis-based therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Reed

    2002-01-01

    Many of today's medical illnesses can be attributed directly or indirectly to problems with apoptosis ? a programmed cell-suicide mechanism. Disorders in which defective regulation of apoptosis contributes to disease pathogenesis or progression can involve either cell accumulation, in which cell eradication or cell turnover is impaired, or cell loss, in which the cell-suicide programme is inappropriately triggered. Identification of

  13. Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianpeng; Hao, Jianxiong; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Li, Yingcong; Liu, Rui; Li, Lite

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the anticancer properties of cannabisin B, purified from hempseed hull, in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells. The results indicate that cannabisin B significantly inhibited cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death rather than typical apoptosis. Cell viability transiently increased upon the addition of a low concentration of cannabisin B but decreased upon the addition of high concentrations. Cannabisin B-induced changes in cell viability were completely inhibited by pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), indicating that the induction of autophagy by cannabisin B caused cell death. Additionally, cannabisin B induced S phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cannabisin B was found to inhibit survival signaling by blocking the activation of AKT and down-stream targets of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These findings suggest that cannabisin B possesses considerable antiproliferative activity and that it may be utilised as a promising chemopreventive agent against hepatoblastoma disease. PMID:23411211

  14. Vps33b pathogenic mutations preferentially affect VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes.

    PubMed

    Tornieri, Karine; Zlatic, Stephanie A; Mullin, Ariana P; Werner, Erica; Harrison, Robert; L'hernault, Steven W; Faundez, Victor

    2013-12-20

    Mutations in Vps33 isoforms cause pigment dilution in mice (Vps33a, buff) and Drosophila (car) and the neurogenic arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome in humans (ARC1, VPS33B). The later disease is also caused by mutations in VIPAS39, (Vps33b interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator, SPE-39 homolog; ARC2), a protein that interacts with the HOmotypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a tether necessary for endosome-lysosome traffic. These syndromes offer insight into fundamental endosome traffic processes unique to metazoans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these mutant phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here we investigate interactions of wild-type and disease-causing mutations in VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b by yeast two hybrid, immunoprecipitation and quantitative fluorescent microscopy. We find that although few mutations prevent interaction between VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b, some mutants fragment VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes, but all mutants alter the subcellular localization of Vps33b to VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes. Our data suggest that the ARC syndrome may result through impaired VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b-dependent endosomal maturation or fusion. PMID:23918659

  15. The Superantigen Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin C (SPE-C) Exhibits a Novel Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Lin; Tiedemann, Rodger E.; Moffat, S. Louise; Fraser, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SPE-C) is a potent superantigen that stimulates V?2-bearing human T cells, but is inactive in mice. SPE-C binds with high affinity to both human HLA-DR and murine I-E molecules, but not to murine I-A molecules in a zinc-dependent fashion. Competition binding studies with other recombinant toxins revealed that SPE-C lacks the generic low affinity major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II ?-chain binding site common to all other bacterial superantigens. Despite this, SPE-C cross-links MHC class II to induce homotypic aggregation of class II–bearing B cells. Nondenaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography revealed that both wild-type and recombinant SPE-C exist in a stable dimer at neutral or alkaline pH. These data support a recent crystal structure of SPE-C and reveal yet another mechanism by which bacterial superantigens ligate and cross-link MHC class II. PMID:9236189

  16. Steap4 attenuates high glucose and S100B-induced effects in mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chao-Tang; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Lu, Chi-Yu; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Chen, Hung-Chun; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2015-01-01

    Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 4 (Steap4)-knockout mice develop hyperglycaemia and inflammation whereas Steap4 overexpression attenuates atherosclerosis in diabetic mice. Thus, we studied the roles of Steap4 in high glucose (HG, 27.5 mM) or S100B (1 ?M, a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end-product or RAGE)-induced effects in mouse mesangial (MES13) cells. We found that HG-induced Steap4 protein expression was dependent on S100B. HG increased cell membrane, but not cytosolic, Steap4 protein expression. HG increased protein-protein interaction between Steap4 and S100B, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry of immunoprecipitated S100B. SP600125, LY294002 and AG490 attenuated S100B-induced Steap4 protein expression or gene transcriptional activity. A mutation in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) site 2 of the Steap4 promoter constructs resulted in a marked decrease in HG or S100B-induced activation of Steap4 gene transcription. Overexpression of Steap4 attenuates HG or S100B-induced collagen IV, fibronectin and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression. Overexpression of Steap4 attenuates HG or S100B-induced transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Moreover, overexpression of Steap4 attenuates S100B-induced signalling. Finally, overexpressing Steap4 attenuated renal expression of fibronectin, S100B, TGF-?, type IV collagen, p-Akt, p-extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and p-Stat3 in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Thus, overexpression of Steap4 attenuated HG or S100B-induced effects in MES13 cells and attenuated some of S100B-induced effects in diabetic mouse kidneys. PMID:25817898

  17. Robust Determination of the Pore Space Morphology in Sedimentary Rocks Dmitry B. Silin, SPE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Guodong Jin, SPE, UC Berkeley; and

    E-print Network

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    SPE 84296 Robust Determination of the Pore Space Morphology in Sedimentary Rocks Dmitry B. Silin the mor- phology (shapes and connectivity) of the pore space of a sedimentary rock. Our approach is based, the proposed algorithm produces a stick-and- ball diagram of the rock pore space. One of distinctive features

  18. Apoptosis in the Hair Follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia V Botchkareva; Gurpreet Ahluwalia; Douglas Shander

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in many physiological processes, ranging from morphogenetic events to adult tissue homeostasis, and defects in its regulation contribute to many disorders. Here we review molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in the hair follicle (HF), whose cyclical growth pattern is repeatedly interrupted by apoptosis-driven involution (catagen). We review the common mechanisms underlying apoptosis in the HF during

  19. Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Reimann; Clemens A. Schmitt

    The observation that tumor development frequently is accompanied by apoptotic defects and the meanwhile accepted view that\\u000a the vast majority of conventional anticancer agents primarily cause DNA damage to subsequently initiate the apoptotic machinery,\\u000a have led to the conclusions that the capability to undergo apoptosis must contribute to the outcome of cancer therapy and\\u000a that mutations compromising apoptosis might confer

  20. Selective determination of potential impurities in an active pharmaceutical ingredient using HPLC-SPE-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Eiichi; Niijima, Jun; Asakawa, Naoki

    2013-10-01

    The present paper describes the selective determination of two synthetic intermediates (2,4-dichloro-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (IMP-1) and its derivative (IMP-2) as potential impurities in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-A using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated via on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) (HPLC-SPE-HPLC). Two synthetic intermediates that are potential impurities in API-A were concentrated on-line on two Shimadzu MAYI-ODS SPE columns (10 mm×4.6 mm I.D.) after heartcutting in 1st dimension HPLC (1st HPLC) using a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK ACR C18 column (250 mm × 10.0 mm I.D.). Each analyte retained on these SPE columns was transferred to 2nd dimension HPLC (2nd HPLC) with a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK MG-II column (150 mm × 3.0 mm I.D.) for further separation and was subsequently detected with high sensitivity UV. The HPLC-SPE-HPLC system achieved a stepwise downsizing in HPLC. The method was validated and found to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.25-250 ppm of each intermediate in API-A with respect to a 500 ?L injection of 40 mg/mL of API-A in dimethyl sulfoxide. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these impurities in API batches, and the results demonstrated the usefulness of HPLC-SPE-HPLC for the selective determination of trace impurities in APIs. PMID:23806999

  1. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  2. Spacecraft Solar Particle Event (SPE) Shielding: Shielding Effectiveness as a Function of SPE model as Determined with the FLUKA Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve; Atwell, William; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of both satellite and surface neutron monitor data demonstrate that the widely utilized Exponential model of solar particle event (SPE) proton kinetic energy spectra can seriously underestimate SPE proton flux, especially at the highest kinetic energies. The more recently developed Band model produces better agreement with neutron monitor data ground level events (GLEs) and is believed to be considerably more accurate at high kinetic energies. Here, we report the results of modeling and simulation studies in which the radiation transport code FLUKA (FLUktuierende KAskade) is used to determine the changes in total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event environments (SEE) behind aluminum, polyethylene, carbon, and titanium shielding masses when the assumed form (i. e., Band or Exponential) of the solar particle event (SPE) kinetic energy spectra is changed. FLUKA simulations have fully three dimensions with an isotropic particle flux incident on a concentric spherical shell shielding mass and detector structure. The effects are reported for both energetic primary protons penetrating the shield mass and secondary particle showers caused by energetic primary protons colliding with shielding mass nuclei. Our results, in agreement with previous studies, show that use of the Exponential form of the event

  3. Apoptosis-an introduction.

    PubMed

    Lawen, Alfons

    2003-09-01

    Apoptosis has become a major research area in the biomedical sciences. As there are more than 13,000 papers published annually on the topic, it is impossible to keep track on all developments in the area. The individual aspects of molecular control of apoptosis are well reviewed, but more general, introductory recent reviews into the field are lacking. This review aims to give a brief overview of the field, providing an introduction into the literature for students and newcomers; as it is written for the un-initiated, wherever possible, review articles will be cited rather than original papers. PMID:12938178

  4. LC-SPE-NMR Identification of Co-products from Biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyphenated technique of LC-SPE-NMR was utilized to isolate and identify cinnamic acids and investigate their derivatives from the chloroform extract from Coastal bermudagrass. This method has shown to be useful in handling impure mixtures of extractants from biomass material. It overcomes the ...

  5. MULTI-SPE OF CAFFEINE AND CATECHIN COMPOUNDS FROM GREEN TEA BY CAFFEINE AND (+) CATECHIN MIPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinzhe Jin; Yong-Hao Xuan; Ying-Shan Jin; Kyung Ho Row

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the caffeine and some catechin compounds (+) C, EC, and EGCG were extracted from green tea by using two molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbent materials in a multi-solid-phase extraction (SPE) process known as MISPE (molecular imprinted solid-phase extraction). To obtain synthesis of MIP, (+) catechin (and caffeine) was employed as the template, AM (and MAA) as

  6. STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE-2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE compounds in drinking or waste22 water processes has become very popular in recent years. LC-MS/MS is a powerful23 analytical tool often used to determine pharmaceutical residues at trace level in water.24

  7. M1 SPE Physique du Climat TD1 -rayonnement et effet de serre

    E-print Network

    Codron, Francis

    M1 SPE ­ Physique du Climat TD1 - rayonnement et effet de serre I Variations autour du modèle de l dans le visible et opaques (absorbantes) dans l'infrarouge. On note l'albédo, S la constante solaire flux solaire incident vaut 400 W m-2, le flux infra-rouge sortant au sommet de l'atmosphère 280 W m-2

  8. SOCIAL WORK SPE/CSS Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    SOCIAL WORK SPE/CSS Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ Minimum nine units from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students Effective FA02/1410 (09/03/2002) LN 0030 Minimum three units from the School of Social Work or other

  9. SOCIAL WORK SPE/CY Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    SOCIAL WORK SPE/CY Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GSW RQ Minimum nine units from the School of Social Work or other graduate level courses [Students02/1410 (09/03/2002) LN 0030 Minimum three units from the School of Social Work or other graduate

  10. spe440-12 3rd pages The Geological Society of America

    E-print Network

    spe440-12 3rd pages 249 The Geological Society of America Special Paper 440 2008 Plate tectonics and appear to be remarkably similar to predictions from a plate-tectonic conceptual model. Care- fully as old as ca. 3500 Ma. Keywords: plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, Precambrian, Archean, Proterozoic

  11. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is an estuary-dependent marine spe-

    E-print Network

    730 Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is an estuary-dependent marine spe- cies found in coastal to Vera Cruz, Mexico (Yokel, 1966, 1980). Red drum are highly sought after as food and gamefish. Annual the sale of red drum was pro- hibited. Recreational fishing effort directed toward red drum in Florida has

  12. Apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Mattson

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal death underlies the symptoms of many human neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, stroke, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The identification of specific genetic and environmental factors responsible for these diseases has bolstered evidence for a shared pathway of neuronal death — apoptosis — involving oxidative stress, perturbed calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of cysteine proteases called

  13. The biochemistry of apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael O. Hengartner

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis — the regulated destruction of a cell — is a complicated process. The decision to die cannot be taken lightly, and the activity of many genes influence a cell's likelihood of activating its self-destruction programme. Once the decision is taken, proper execution of the apoptotic programme requires the coordinated activation and execution of multiple subprogrammes. Here I review the

  14. Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stoian, M; State, N; Stoica, V; Radulian, G

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Apoptosis is an inborn process that has been preserved during evolution; it allows the cells to systematically inactivate, destroy and dispose of their own components thus leading to their death. This programme can be activated by both intra and extracellular mechanisms. The intracellular components involve a genetically defined development programme while the extracellular aspects regard endogenous proteins, cytokines and hormones as well as xenobiotics, radiations, oxidative stress and hypoxia. The ability of a cell to enter apoptosis as a response to a “death" signal depends on its proliferative status, the position in the cell cycle and also on the controlled expression of those genes that have the capacity of promoting and inhibiting cell death. The fine regulation of these parameters needs to be maintained in order to ensure the physiological environment required for the induction of apoptosis. Any malfunction in any of the steps of controlled cellular death can lead to dysfunctions and, as a consequence, to different pathological conditions. The importance of apoptosis lies in its active nature and in the potential of controlling biological systems. PMID:25408720

  15. G1P3, an IFN-induced survival factor, antagonizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyath, Venugopalan; Glaser, Keith B.; Waring, Jeffrey F.; Baz, Rachid; Hussein, Mohamad A.; Borden, Ernest C.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of IFN-?2b for human multiple myeloma has been variable. TRAIL has been proposed to mediate IFN-?2b apoptosis in myeloma. In this study we assessed the effects of IFN-?2b signaling on the apoptotic activity of TRAIL and human myeloma cell survival. While TRAIL was one of the most potently induced proapoptotic genes in myeloma cells following IFN-?2b treatment, less than 20% of myeloma cells underwent apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) with prosurvival activity might suppress TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Consistent with this, IFN-?2b stabilized mitochondria and inhibited caspase-3 activation, which antagonized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxicity after 24 hours of cotreatment in cell lines and in fresh myeloma cells, an effect not evident after 72 hours. Induced expression of G1P3, an ISG with largely unknown function, was correlated with the antiapoptotic activity of IFN-?2b. Ectopically expressed G1P3 localized to mitochondria and antagonized TRAIL-mediated mitochondrial potential loss, cytochrome c release, and apoptosis, suggesting specificity of G1P3 for the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated downregulation of G1P3 restored IFN-?2b–induced apoptosis. Our data identify the direct role of a mitochondria-localized prosurvival ISG in antagonizing the effect of TRAIL. Curtailing G1P3-mediated antiapoptotic signals could improve therapies for myeloma or other malignancies. PMID:17823654

  16. UV-B-induced plant stress as a possible cause of ten-year hare cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vidar Selås

    2006-01-01

    Predation has been assumed to be a necessary factor in the ten-year population cycle of the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis). The UV-B-induced plant stress hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that hare performance, especially reproduction, is negatively related to sunspot numbers, because production of UV-B-protective phenolics in food plants in periods of low sunspot activity, when the

  17. From transcription to activation: how group A streptococcus, the flesh-eating pathogen, regulates SpeB cysteine protease production.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ronan K; Musser, James M

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) is a protease secreted by group A streptococci and known to degrade a wide range of host and GAS proteins in vitro. Although the role of SpeB in GAS infection is debated, recent evidence has conclusively demonstrated that SpeB is critical for the pathogenesis of severe invasive disease caused by GAS. Genetic inactivation of the speB gene results in significantly decreased virulence in a necrotizing fasciitis model of infection. Production of fully active SpeB by GAS is extremely complex. Following transcription and translation the SpeB protein is secreted as an inactive zymogen, which is autocatalytically processed through a series of intermediates to form an active protease. Each step from transcription to protease activation is tightly controlled and regulated by the bacterial cell reflecting the critical role played by this virulence factor in GAS infection. Here we review the molecular aspects of SpeB production by GAS from transcription to activation and the multiple layers of control involved. PMID:21707787

  18. SMG1 and NIK regulate apoptosis induced by Smac mimetic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, H H; St Jean, M; Beug, S T; Lejmi-Mrad, R; LaCasse, E; Baird, S D; Stojdl, D F; Screaton, R A; Korneluk, R G

    2011-01-01

    Smac mimetic compounds (SMCs) are experimental small molecules that induce tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)-dependent cancer cell death by targeting the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. However, many cancer cell lines are resistant to SMC-mediated apoptosis despite the presence of TNF?. To add insight into the mechanism of SMC-resistance, we used functional siRNA-based kinomic and focused chemical screens and identified suppressor of morphogenesis in genitalia-1 (SMG1) and NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) as novel protective factors. Both SMG1 and NIK prevent SMC-mediated apoptosis likely by maintaining FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) levels to suppress caspase-8 activation. In SMC-resistant cells, the accumulation of NIK upon SMC treatment enhanced the activity of both the classical and alternative nuclear factor-?B pathways, and increased c-FLIP mRNA levels. In parallel, persistent SMG1 expression in SMC-resistant cells repressed SMC-mediated TNF?-induced JNK activation and c-FLIP levels were sustained. Importantly, SMC-resistance is overcome by depleting NIK and SMG1, which appear to facilitate the downregulation of c-FLIP in response to SMC and TNF? treatment, leading to caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. Collectively, these data show that SMG1 and NIK function as critical repressors of SMC-mediated apoptosis by potentially converging on the regulation of c-FLIP metabolism. PMID:21490678

  19. Apoptosis in leukoaraiosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Brown, William R; Moody, Dixon M; Challa, Venkata R; Thore, Clara R; Anstrom, John A

    2002-11-15

    Leukoaraiosis (LA), an age-related degenerative condition, appears as an area of hyperintense signal in the deep white matter on MRI. It may be caused by chronic ischemia. LA lesions are characterized by demyelination, loss of glial cells, spongy appearance, and occlusion of veins and venules by collagenous thickening of the vessel walls. Since necrosis is not obvious in LA lesions, we investigated the occurrence of apoptosis. We obtained 1.5-cm-thick coronal brain slices at autopsy from two patients with LA. MRI was performed on the brain slices. Blocks were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Sections were stained by several methods including the TUNEL method for DNA fragmentation. Some TUNEL-positive cells showed nuclear morphology indicative of apoptosis. In case 1, TUNEL-positive cells were more numerous in an LA lesion than in nearby unaffected white matter (P=0.008). In case 2, LA lesions were examined in six areas; left and right frontal, middle, and occipital slices. TUNEL-positive cells were more numerous in the LA lesions than in nearby white matter (P=0.002). We also found TUNEL-positive cells in the cortex and in the walls of blood vessels. In case 1, more severe venous collagenosis was found in the LA lesion, which was near the cortex, than in the periventricular area, where venous collagenosis and LA are more commonly found. The presence of numerous scattered cells in the LA lesions showing DNA fragmentation suggests that those cells are damaged and dying, at least some by apoptosis. The apoptosis in the white matter adjacent to the LA lesions suggests progressive cell loss and expansion of the LA lesions. PMID:12417378

  20. Mitochondria and Apoptosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas Green (La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology; )

    1998-08-28

    A variety of key events in apoptosis focus on mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators (such as cytochrome c), changes in electron transport, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, altered cellular oxidation-reduction, and participation of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. The different signals that converge on mitochondria to trigger or inhibit these events and their downstream effects delineate several major pathways in physiological cell death.

  1. Mitochondrial control of apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Kroemer; Naoufal Zamzami; Santos A. Susin

    1997-01-01

    The apoptotic process can be subdivided into three phases: a death-stimulus-dependent, heterogeneous induction phase, a common effector phase during which the ‘decision to die’ is taken, and a common degradation phase during which cells acquire the biochemical and morphological features of end-stage apoptosis. Here, Guido Kroemer, Naoufal Zamzami and Santos Susin discuss the implication of mitochondrial events in the apoptotic

  2. Mitochondria in Neutrophil Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. van Raam; A. J. Verhoeven; T. W. Kuijpers

    2006-01-01

    Central in the regulation of the short life span of neutrophils are their mitochondria. These organelles hardly contribute\\u000a to the energy status of neutrophils but play a vital role in the apoptotic process. Not only do the mitochondria contain cytotoxic\\u000a proteins that are released during apoptosis and contribute to caspase activation, but they also act as sensors of the metabolic

  3. Apoptosis in Cardiovascular Pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid el Azzouzi; Meriem Bourajjaj; Paula A. Martins; Leon J. Windt

    The loss of cardiomyocytes in the human myocardium results in overloading of the heart, causing structural remodeling of the\\u000a heart and deterioration of the cardiac function, eventually leading to heart failure. Cellular suicide or apoptosis of cardiac\\u000a muscle cells has been identified as an essential process in the progression to heart failure. This process entails a highly\\u000a structured series of

  4. Cbl-b differentially regulates activation-induced apoptosis in T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Allison; Jang, Sihyug; Salgame, Padmini

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that ligation of CD3 induces antiapoptotic signals in T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and in contrast causes Th1 cells to undergo apoptosis. Here we show that Cbl-b is accountable for the unequal response, revealing a previously unknown cell-specific regulatory function for the molecule. Absence of Cbl-b resulted in resistance to activation-induced apoptosis in murine Th1 cells following CD3 ligation, akin to what is observed in Th2 cells containing Cbl-b. Concurrent with the apoptosis profile, CD3 ligation in the absence of Cbl-b induced raft mobilization and cytoskeletal rearrangement in Th1 cells. Despite their ability to signal from CD3, Th2 cells did not aggregate their rafts, providing an explanation for cell-specific activity of Cbl-b. PMID:16313364

  5. Cucurbitacin B inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via STAT3 pathway inhibition in A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MENG; BIAN, ZHI-GANG; ZHANG, YI; WANG, JIA-HE; KAN, LIANG; WANG, XIN; NIU, HUI-YAN; HE, PING

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are a great source of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The present study was conducted to investigate whether cucurbitacin B (CuB), one of the most potent and widely used cucurbitacins, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in the A549 lung cancer cell line. Furthermore, CuB induced apoptosis of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The present study also demonstrated that CuB dose-dependently inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, with cell cycle inhibition and cyclin B1 downregulation. Apoptosis induced by CuB was shown to be associated with cytochrome c release, B-cell lymphoma 2 downregulation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway inhibition. CuB may prove to be a useful approach for the chemotherapy of lung cancer. PMID:25242136

  6. Cucurbitacin B inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via STAT3 pathway inhibition in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Bian, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jia-He; Kan, Liang; Wang, Xin; Niu, Hui-Yan; He, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Natural products are a great source of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The present study was conducted to investigate whether cucurbitacin B (CuB), one of the most potent and widely used cucurbitacins, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in the A549 lung cancer cell line. Furthermore, CuB induced apoptosis of A549 cells in a -concentration-dependent manner, as determined by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The present study also demonstrated that CuB dose-dependently inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, with cell cycle inhibition and cyclin B1 downregulation. Apoptosis induced by CuB was shown to be associated with cytochrome c release, B-cell lymphoma 2 downregulation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway inhibition. CuB may prove to be a useful approach for the chemotherapy of lung cancer. PMID:25242136

  7. Apoptosis--an introduction Alfons Lawen

    E-print Network

    Ramos, Joe W.

    Apoptosis--an introduction Alfons Lawen Summary Apoptosis has become a major research area of apoptosis are well re- viewed, but more general, introductory recent reviews into the field are lacking. Introduction into cell death The word ``apoptosis'' comes from the ancient Greek apo´pto´sis, meaning

  8. Analysis of metalaxyl residues in wines by SPE in combination with HRCGC and GC\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L'ubica Kakalíková; Eva Matisová; Ján Leško

    1996-01-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) with the porous carbon sorbent CARB GR was used for the preconcentration of metalaxyl residues from a variety of Slovak grape wines with subsequent capillary GC and GC\\/MS analysis. Recovery was tested at various concentrations of metalaxyl in standard solutions (recovery,R=92%, relative standard deviation RSD=4.3%) and in wines. The value of recovery in spiked wines was

  9. SPE-HPLC\\/DAD determination of trimethoprim, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin in water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danijela Ašperger; Sandra Babi?; Dragana Mutavdži? Pavlovi?; Davor Dolar; Krešimir Košuti?; Alka J. M. Horvat; Marija Kaštelan-Macan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array UV detection (HPLC\\/DAD) after SPE sample pretreatment for simultaneous analysis of pharmaceuticals from three different classes: enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim, has been developed, optimised and validated. The chromatographic separation was developed on spiked wellspring water samples and checked on model wastewater samples of veterinary pharmaceuticals before and after RO\\/NF membrane treatment

  10. Determination of DDT and metabolites in surface water and sediment using LLE, SPE, ACE and SE.

    PubMed

    Sibali, Linda L; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Zvinowanda, Caliphs

    2009-12-01

    Surface water and sediment samples collected from Jukskei River in South Africa, were subjected to different extraction techniques, liquid-liquid (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), activated carbon extraction (ACE) and soxhlet extraction (SE) for sediment. The samples were extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned in a silica gel column and the extracts quantified using a Varian 3800 GC-ECD. The percentage recovery test for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD in water ranged from 80%-96% and 76%-95% (LLE); 56%-76% and 56%-70% (SPE) and 75%-84% (ACE), respectively; while that recoveries for sediment samples varied from 65%-95% for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 80%-91% for 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD. The high recoveries exhibited by ACE compared very well with LLE and SE. This was not the case with SPE which exhibited the lowest value of recoveries for both 2,4 and 4,4'DDD, DDE and DDT standard samples. The mean concentrations of DDT and metabolites ranged from nd-1.10 ?g/L, nd-0.80 ?g/L, nd-1.21 ?g/L and 1.92 ?g/L for LLE, SPE, ACE and SE, respectively. The total DDT (2,4' and 4,4'-DDT) in water and sediment samples ranged from 1.20-3.25 ?g/L and 1.82-5.24 ?g/L, respectively. The low concentrations of the DDT metabolites obtained in the present study may suggest a recent contamination of the river by DDT. PMID:19714283

  11. Determination of DDT and Metabolites in Surface Water and Sediment Using LLE, SPE, ACE and SE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda L. Sibali; Jonathan O. Okonkwo; Caliphs Zvinowanda

    2009-01-01

    Surface water and sediment samples collected from Jukskei River in South Africa, were subjected to different extraction techniques,\\u000a liquid–liquid (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), activated carbon extraction (ACE) and soxhlet extraction (SE) for sediment.\\u000a The samples were extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned in a silica gel column and the extracts quantified using a Varian\\u000a 3800 GC-ECD. The percentage recovery test for 2,4?DDT,

  12. Determination of antibiotic compounds in water by on-line SPE-LC\\/MSD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keun-Joo Choi; Sang-Goo Kim; Chang-won Kim; Seung-Hyun Kim

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to provide an improved approach for the analysis of antibiotics, which normally exist at low concentration in complex matrices such as receiving streams of wastewater treatment plant discharge. The analytical method developed in this study combines an existing pretreatment technique of solid-phase extraction (SPE) with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC\\/MSD) through on-line connection. The on-line connection suppressed

  13. Role of Apoptosis in disease

    PubMed Central

    Favaloro, B.; Allocati, N.; Graziano, V.; Di Ilio, C.; De Laurenzi, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since the initial description of apoptosis, a number of different forms of cell death have been described. In this review we will focus on classic caspase-dependent apoptosis and its variations that contribute to diseases. Over fifty years of research have clarified molecular mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling as well and shown that alterations of these pathways lead to human diseases. Indeed both reduced and increased apoptosis can result in pathology. More recently these findings have led to the development of therapeutic approaches based on regulation of apoptosis, some of which are in clinical trials or have entered medical practice. PMID:22683550

  14. The Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli Spermidine Synthase SpeE Reveals a Unique Substrate-binding Pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Chua, T; Tkaczuk, K; Bujnicki, J; Sivaraman, J

    2010-01-01

    Polyamines are essential in all branches of life. Biosynthesis of spermidine, one of the most ubiquitous polyamines, is catalyzed by spermidine synthase (SpeE). Although the function of this enzyme from Escherichia coli has been thoroughly characterized, its structural details remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of E. coli SpeE and study its interaction with the ligands by isothermal titration calorimetry and computational modelling. SpeE consists of two domains - a small N-terminal {beta}-strand domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain that adopts a canonical methyltransferase (MTase) Rossmann fold. The protein forms a dimer in the crystal and in solution. Structural comparison of E. coli SpeE to its homologs reveals that it has a large and unique substrate-binding cleft that may account for its lower amine substrate specificity.

  15. Optimization and validation of organochlorine compounds in adipose tissue by SPE-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Pestana, Diogo; Monteiro, Rosário; Faria, Gil; Meireles, Manuela; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Teixeira, Diana; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Scientific evidence has shown an association between organochlorine compounds (OCC) exposure and human health hazards. Concerning this, OCC detection in human adipose samples has to be considered a public health priority. This study evaluated the efficacy of various solid-phase extraction (SPE) and cleanup methods for OCC determination in human adipose tissue. Octadecylsilyl endcapped (C??-E), benzenesulfonic acid modified silica cation exchanger (SA), poly(styrene-divinylbenzene (EN) and EN/RP?? SPE sorbents were evaluated. The relative sample cleanup provided by these SPE columns was evaluated using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The C??-E columns with strong homogenization were found to provide the most effective cleanup, removing the greatest amount of interfering substance, and simultaneously ensuring good analyte recoveries higher than 70%. Recoveries?>?70% with standard deviations (SD)?

  16. Overview of passive Chemcatcher sampling with SPE pretreatment suitable for the analysis of NPEOs and NPs.

    PubMed

    Ahkola, Heidi; Herve, Sirpa; Knuutinen, Juha

    2013-03-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) is an important piece of environmental legislation that protects rivers, lakes, coastal waters and groundwaters (EC 2000). The implementation of the WFD requires the establishment and use of novel and low-cost monitoring programmes, and several methods, e.g. passive sampling, have been developed to make the sampling process more representative compared to spot sampling. This review considers passive sampling methods focusing mainly on a passive sampler named Chemcatcher®, which has been used for monitoring several harmful compounds in aquatic environments. Also, the sample treatment and analysis of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and nonylphenol (NPs) from water using solid phase extraction (SPE) is briefly summarized. The procedure of Chemcatcher passive sampling is quite similar to that of the SPE extraction since it concentrates the studied compounds from water as well. After sampling, the accumulated substances are extracted from the receiving phase of the sampler. The concentrations of NPEOs and NPs are currently monitored by taking conventional spot samples; SPE can be successfully used as a pretreatment procedure. Chemcatcher® passive sampling technique is a simple and useful monitoring tool and can be applied to new chemicals, such as NPEOs and NPs in aquatic environments. PMID:22983602

  17. Application of HPLC-DAD and TLC-DAD after SPE to the Quantitative Analysis of Pesticides in Water Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Tuzimski; Jan Sobczy?ski

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present a new procedure for the analysis of pesticides in water samples with use of solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and thin layer chromatography with diode array scanning (TLC-DAD). Pesticides were enriched from lakes water samples by solid phase extraction (SPE) on C18\\/SDB-1, C18, C18

  18. Apoptosis, cancer and cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Bold; Paula M. Termuhlen; David J. McConkey

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis. Apoptosis is essential in the homeostasis of normal tissues of the body, especially those of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system and skin. There is increasing evidence that the processes of neoplastic

  19. spe-10 Encodes a DHHC–CRD Zinc-Finger Membrane Protein Required for Endoplasmic Reticulum/Golgi Membrane Morphogenesis During Caenorhabditis elegans Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Elizabeth J.; Lindsey, Wesley C.; Kroft, Tim L.; Singson, Andrew W.; L'Hernault, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    C. elegans spermatogenesis employs lysosome-related fibrous body–membranous organelles (FB–MOs) for transport of many cellular components. Previous work showed that spe-10 mutants contain FB–MOs that prematurely disassemble, resulting in defective transport of FB components into developing spermatids. Consequently, spe-10 spermatids are smaller than wild type and contain defective FB–MO derivatives. In this article, we show that spe-10 encodes a four-pass integral membrane protein that has a DHHC–CRD zinc-finger motif. The DHHC–CRD motif is found in a large, diverse family of proteins that have been implicated in palmitoyl transfer during protein lipidation. Seven spe-10 mutants were analyzed, including missense, nonsense, and deletion mutants. An antiserum to SPE-10 showed significant colocalization with a known marker for the FB–MOs during wild-type spermatogenesis. In contrast, the spe-10(ok1149) deletion mutant lacked detectable SPE-10 staining; this mutant lacks a spe-10 promoter and most coding sequence. The spe-10(eb64) missense mutation, which changes a conserved residue within the DHHC–CRD domain in all homologues, behaves as a null mutant. These results suggest that wild-type SPE-10 is required for the MO to properly deliver the FB to the C. elegans spermatid and the DHHC–CRD domain is essential for this function. PMID:16143610

  20. Cholesterol oxidase from Bordetella species promotes irreversible cell apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma by cholesterol oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Xian, G; Li, M; Zhang, Y; Yang, M; Yu, Y; Lv, H; Xuan, S; Lin, Y; Gao, L

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase (COD), an enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of cholesterol, has been applied to track the distribution of membrane cholesterol. Little investigations about the effect of COD on tumor cells have been performed. In the present study, we provided evidence that COD from Bordetella species (COD-B), induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. COD-B treatment inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in dose- and time-dependent manner, which was not reversed and was even aggravated by cholesterol addition. Further investigation indicated that COD-B treatment promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that cholesterol addition further elevated ROS levels. Moreover, COD-B treatment resulted in JNK and p38 phosphorylation, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, activated caspase-3 and cytochrome C release, which likely responded to freshly produced hydrogen peroxide that accompanied cholesterol oxidation. Catalase pretreatment could only partially prevent COD-B-induced events, suggesting that catalase inhibited H2O2-induced signal transduction but had little effect on signal pathways involved in cholesterol depletion. Our results demonstrated that COD-B led to irreversible cell apoptosis by decreasing cholesterol content and increasing ROS level. In addition, COD-B may be a promising candidate for a novel anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25118932

  1. Mechanism of the Antigen-Independent Cytokinergic SPE-7 IgE Activation of Human Mast Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bax, Heather J; Bowen, Holly; Dodev, Tihomir S; Sutton, Brian J; Gould, Hannah J

    2015-01-01

    Release of pro-inflammatory mediators by mast cells is a key feature of allergic disease. The 'dogma' is that IgE molecules merely sensitise mast cells by binding Fc?RI prior to cross-linking by multivalent allergen, receptor aggregation and mast cell activation. However, certain monoclonal IgE antibodies have been shown to elicit mast cell activation in an antigen-independent cytokinergic manner, and DNP-specific murine SPE-7 IgE is the most highly cytokinergic antibody known. We show that both monovalent hapten and recombinant SPE-7 IgE Fab inhibit its cytokinergic activity as measured by mast cell degranulation and TNF-? release. Using SPE-7 IgE, a non-cytokinergic human IgE and a poorly cytokinergic murine IgE, we reveal that interaction of the Fab region of 'free' SPE-7 IgE with the Fab of Fc?RI-bound SPE-7 IgE is the basis of its cytokinergic activity. We rule out involvement of IgE Fc, C?1 and C?/? domains, and propose that 'free' SPE-7 IgE binds to Fc?RI-bound SPE-7 IgE by an Fv-Fv interaction. Initial formation of a tri-molecular complex (one 'free' IgE molecule cross-linking two receptor-bound IgE molecules) leads to capture of further 'free' and receptor-bound IgEs to form larger clusters that trigger mast cell activation. PMID:25892150

  2. A novel polyamine allosteric site of SpeG from Vibrio cholerae is revealed by its dodecameric structure.

    PubMed

    Filippova, Ekaterina V; Kuhn, Misty L; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Kiryukhina, Olga; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Ballicora, Miguel A; Anderson, Wayne F

    2015-03-27

    Spermidine N-acetyltransferase, encoded by the gene speG, catalyzes the initial step in the degradation of polyamines and is a critical enzyme for determining the polyamine concentrations in bacteria. In Escherichia coli, studies have shown that SpeG is the enzyme responsible for acetylating spermidine under stress conditions and for preventing spermidine toxicity. Not all bacteria contain speG, and many bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to either acquire or silence it for pathogenesis. Here, we present thorough kinetic analyses combined with structural characterization of the VCA0947 SpeG enzyme from the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Our studies revealed the unexpected presence of a previously unknown allosteric site and an unusual dodecameric structure for a member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. We show that SpeG forms dodecamers in solution and in crystals and describe its three-dimensional structure in several ligand-free and liganded structures. Importantly, these structural data define the first view of a polyamine bound in an allosteric site of an N-acetyltransferase. Kinetic characterization of SpeG from V. cholerae showed that it acetylates spermidine and spermine. The behavior of this enzyme is complex and exhibits sigmoidal curves and substrate inhibition. We performed a detailed non-linear regression kinetic analysis to simultaneously fit families of substrate saturation curves to uncover a simple kinetic mechanism that explains the apparent complexity of this enzyme. Our results provide a fundamental understanding of the bacterial SpeG enzyme, which will be key toward understanding the regulation of polyamine levels in bacteria during pathogenesis. PMID:25623305

  3. Use of solid phase extraction (SPE) to evaluate in vitro skin permeation of aescin.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, L; Carbone, C; Giannone, I; Puglisi, G

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of assessing aescin in vitro permeation through human skin by determining the amount of aescin permeated using conventional HPLC procedures after extraction of skin permeation samples by means of solid phase extraction (SPE). Aescin in vitro skin permeation was assessed from aqueous solutions and gels using both Franz-type diffusion cells and flow-through diffusion cells. The SPE method used was highly accurate (mean accuracy 99.66%), highly reproducible (intra-day and inter-day variations lower than 2.3% and 2.2%, respectively) and aescin recovery from normal saline was greater than 99%. The use of Franz-type diffusion cells did not allow us to determine aescin flux values through excised human skin, therefore aescin skin permeation parameters could be calculated only using flow-through diffusion cells. Plotting the cumulative amount of aescin permeated as a function of time, linear relationships were obtained from both aqueous solution and gel using flow-through diffusion cells. Aescin flux values through excised human skin from aqueous gel were significantly lower than those observed from aqueous solution (p < 0.05). Calculating aescin percutaneous absorption parameters we evidenced that aescin partition coefficient was lower from the aqueous gel with respect to the aqueous solution. Therefore, the SPE method used in this study was suitable to determine aescin in vitro skin permeation parameters from aqueous solutions and gels using a conventional HPLC method for the analysis of the skin permeation samples. PMID:17557740

  4. Large-N Over the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase I and Phase II Test Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Carmichael, J. D.; Mellors, R. J.; Abbott, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification is source discrimination of low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity, both natural and anthropogenic. Work is underway at the Nevada National Security Site to conduct a series of chemical explosion experiments using a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary approach. The goal of this series of experiments, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is to refine the understanding of the effect of earth structures on source phenomenology and energy partitioning in the source region, the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field, and the development of S waves observed in the far field. To fully explore these problems, the SPE series includes tests in both hard and soft rock geologic environments. The project comprises a number of activities, which range from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data from both the near field (<100 m) and the far field (>100 m). SPE includes a series of planned explosions (with different yields and depths of burials), which are conducted in the same hole and monitored by a diverse set of sensors recording characteristics of the explosions, ground-shock, seismo-acoustic energy propagation. This presentation focuses on imaging the full 3D wavefield over hard rock and soft rock test beds using a large number of seismic sensors. This overview presents statistical analyses of optimal sensor layout required to estimate wavefield discriminants and the planned deployment for the upcoming experiments. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Macrophage Apoptosis in Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tabas, Ira; Seimon, Tracie; Timmins, Jenelle; Li, Gang; Lim, Wahseng

    2009-01-01

    Plaque necrosis in advanced atheromata, which triggers acute atherothrombotic vascular events, is caused by the apoptosis of lesional macrophages coupled with defective phagocytic clearance of the dead cells. The central enabling event in macrophage apoptosis relevant to advanced atherosclerosis is the unfolded protein response (UPR), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. The UPR effector CHOP (GADD153) amplifies release of ER Ca2+ stores, which activates a central integrator of apoptosis signaling, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). CaMKII, in turn, leads to activation of pro-apoptotic STAT1, induction of the death receptor Fas, and stimulation of the mitochondria-cytochrome c pathway of apoptosis. While these pathways are necessary for apoptosis, apoptosis occurs only when the cells are also exposed to one or more additional “hits.” These hits amplify pro-apoptotic pathways and/or suppress compensatory cell-survival pathways. A second hit relevant to atherosclerosis is activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as scavenger and toll-like receptors. In vivo relevance is suggested by the fact that advanced human lesions express markers of UPR activation that correlate closely with the degree of plaque vulnerability and macrophage apoptosis. Moreover, studies with genetically altered mice have shown that ER stress and PRR activation are causative for advanced lesional macrophage apoptosis and plaque necrosis. In summary, a key cellular event in the conversion of benign to vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis. Further understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of this event may lead to novel therapies directed at preventing the clinical progression of atheromata. PMID:19751413

  6. Keratinocyte Apoptosis in Epidermal Development and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Raj; Douglas E Brash; Douglas Grossman

    2006-01-01

    Keratinocyte (KC) apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating epidermal development and restraining carcinogenesis. Apoptosis balances proliferation to maintain epidermal thickness, contributes to stratum corneum formation and may eliminate pre-malignant cells. Apart from the normal developmental program, KC apoptosis can be triggered by UV light and other stimuli. Dysfunctional apoptosis occurs in some skin diseases, such as psoriasis and skin

  7. Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for measurement of physical and mechanical properties. A video was also run in the source hole after it was cleaned out. A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the angle core hole between 5.7 and 7.5 m from the shot point. However, several of the fractures observed in the core hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. The fractures are characterized by a “fresh,” mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets; they are common starting at about 5.4 m from the shot point. Within about 3.3 m of the shot point to the end of the recovered core at 1.6 m from the shot point, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

  8. SPE-MS analysis of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion assays: a tool to increase throughput and steamline workflow.

    PubMed

    Miller, Vaughn P

    2012-05-01

    In an effort to create faster and more efficient bioanalytical methods for drug development, many investigators have evaluated a variety of SPE-MS systems. Over the past 15 years online systems have evolved from run times of >1.5 min/sample to <10 s/sample. High-throughput SPE-MS methods for in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion screening assays have been described by several laboratories and shown to produce results comparable to conventional LC-MS/MS systems. While quantitative analysis of small molecules in biological matrixes holds many challenges, for several applications SPE-MS methods have achieved comparable results to LC-MS/MS with the benefit of 10-30-times the throughput. Based on its distinct advantages of throughput and streamlined workflow efficiencies, SPE-MS is a useful tool for the analysis of many in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion assays and in vivo bioanalytical studies. Further development of SPE-MS methods and analysis workflows has the potential to expand the capabilities of this technology for other challenging bioanalytical applications. PMID:22612690

  9. Rhodamine B induces long nucleoplasmic bridges and other nuclear anomalies in Allium cepa root tip cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dehong; Bai, Bing; Jiang, Donghua; Shi, Lin; Cheng, Shunchang; Tao, Dongbing; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-03-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of rhodamine B on root tip cells of Allium cepa was investigated. A. cepa were cultured in water (negative control), 10 ppm methyl methanesulfonate (positive control), and three concentrations of rhodamine B (200, 100, and 50 ppm) for 7 days. Rhodamine B inhibited mitotic activity; increased nuclear anomalies, including micronuclei, nuclear buds, and bridged nuclei; and induced oxidative stress in A. cepa root tissues. Furthermore, a substantial amount of long nucleoplasmic bridges were entangled together, and some nuclei were simultaneously linked to several other nuclei and to nuclear buds with nucleoplasmic bridges in rhodamine B-treated cells. In conclusion, rhodamine B induced cytogenetic effects in A. cepa root tip cells, which suggests that the A. cepa root is an ideal model system for detecting cellular interactions. PMID:24234815

  10. Role of AtMSH7 in UV-B-induced DNA damage recognition and recombination.

    PubMed

    Lario, Luciana Daniela; Botta, Pablo; Casati, Paula; Spampinato, Claudia Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) system maintains genome integrity by correcting replication-associated errors and inhibiting recombination between divergent DNA sequences. The basic features of the pathway have been highly conserved throughout evolution, although the nature and number of the proteins involved in this DNA repair system vary among organisms. Plants have an extra mismatch recognition protein, MutS?, which is a heterodimer: MSH2-MSH7. To further understand the role of MSH7 in vivo, we present data from this protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. First, we generated transgenic plants that express ?-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of the MSH7 promoter. Histochemical staining of the transgenic plants indicated that MSH7 is preferentially expressed in proliferating tissues. Then, we identified msh7 T-DNA insertion mutants. Plants deficient in MSH7 show increased levels of UV-B-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers relative to wild-type (WT) plants. Consistent with the patterns of MSH7 expression, we next analysed the role of the protein during somatic and meiotic recombination. The frequency of somatic recombination between homologous or homeologous repeats (divergence level of 1.6%) was monitored using a previously described GUS recombination reporter assay. Disruption of MSH7 has no effect on the rates of somatic homologous or homeologous recombination under control conditions or after UV-B exposure. However, the rate of meiotic recombination between two genetically linked seed-specific fluorescent markers was 97% higher in msh7 than in WT plants. Taken together, these results suggest that MSH7 is involved in UV-B-induced DNA damage recognition and in controlling meiotic recombination. PMID:25465032

  11. Mitochondria and apoptosis: emerging concepts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mark Xiang

    2015-01-01

    As mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, their damage during the cell suicide process of apoptosis is essentially responsible for cellular demise in most cells. A key family of proteins, the B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family, determines the integrity of mitochondria in the face of apoptotic insult. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular details of how apoptosis is initiated and how it culminates is essential if apoptosis is to fulfil its undoubted potential as a therapeutic target to treat diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative conditions. Recent advances have provided significant insight into the control of this fundamental process while prompting a re-evaluation of what was considered dogma in the field. Emerging evidence also points to a potential overarching control network that governs not only apoptosis but other fundamental mitochondrial processes, including mitochondrial fission/fusion and quality control. PMID:26097715

  12. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711....

  13. Design and test status for life support applications of SPE oxygen generation systems. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titterington, W. A.; Erickson, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced six-man rated oxygen generation system has been fabricated and tested as part of a NASA/JSC technology development program for a long lived, manned spacecraft life support system. Details of the design and tests results are presented. The system is based on the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis technology and its nominal operating conditions are 2760 kN/sq m (400 psia) and 355 K (180 F) with an electrolysis module current density capability up to 350 mA/sq cm (326 ASF). The system is centered on a 13-cell SPE water electrolysis module having a single cell active area of 214 sq cm (33 sq in) and it incorporates instrumentation and controls for single pushbutton automatic startup/shutdown, component fault detection and isolation, and self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. The system has been tested in both the orbital cyclic and continuous mode of operation. Various parametric tests have been completed to define the system capability for potential application in spacecraft environmental systems.

  14. Systematic optimization of an SPE with HPLC-FLD method for fluoroquinolone detection in wastewater.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Blaney, Lee

    2015-01-23

    This paper describes a selective and ultra-sensitive analytical method for simultaneous determination of 11 fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in environmental and wastewater samples. The method employs offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). A weak cation exchange SPE protocol was developed with a novel loading volume optimization algorithm and a methanol cleanup step to remove background organic matter. Various parameters were optimized to recover FQs from water/wastewater and analyte recovery was generally greater than 80%. Chromatographic separation of the 11 FQs was achieved on a 150 mm pentafluorophenyl column using a gradient elution scheme with methanol, acetonitrile, and 20mM phosphate buffer (pH=2.4). Excitation and emission wavelengths were individually optimized for each FQ using fluorescence spectroscopy; the excitation and emission wavelengths were 276-296 nm and 444-506 nm, respectively. Instrumental quantitation limits were 20-100 pg of mass injected. Of the 11 FQs investigated, seven (i.e., ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, norfloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin) were detected during a four-month sampling campaign of wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water. Concentrations of FQs in raw wastewater, wastewater effluent, and wastewater-impacted surface water were 5-1292, 2-504, and 4-187ng/L, respectively. PMID:25200119

  15. Recent improvements in SPE3D: a VR-based surgery planning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Verdonschot, Nico

    2014-02-01

    SPE3D is a surgery planning environment developed within TLEMsafe project [1] (funded by the European Commission FP7). It enables the operator to plan a surgical procedure on the customized musculoskeletal (MS) model of the patient's lower limbs, send the modified model to the biomechanical analysis module, and export the scenario's parameters to the surgical navigation system. The personalized patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) MS model is registered with 3-D MRI dataset of lower limbs and the two modalities may be visualized simultaneously. Apart from main planes, any arbitrary MRI cross-section can be rendered on the 3-D MS model in real time. The interface provides tools for: bone cutting, manipulating and removal, repositioning muscle insertion points, modifying muscle force, removing muscles and placing implants stored in the implant library. SPE3D supports stereoscopic viewing as well as natural inspection/manipulation with use of haptic devices. Alternatively, it may be controlled with use of a standard computer keyboard, mouse and 2D display or a touch screen (e.g. in an operating room). The interface may be utilized in two main fields. Experienced surgeons may use it to simulate their operative plans and prepare input data for a surgical navigation system while student or novice surgeons can use it for training.

  16. Bovine lactoferricin causes apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells by sequential permeabilization of the cell membrane and targeting of mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, Jamie S. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Angela [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Salsman, Jayme [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Top, Deniz [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Antueno, Roberto de [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Duncan, Roy [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Hoskin, David W. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada) and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada)]. E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca

    2007-07-15

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that kills Jurkat T-leukemia cells by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, the process by which LfcinB triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is not well understood. Here, we show that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells was preceded by LfcinB binding to, and progressive permeabilization of the cell membrane. Colloidal gold electron microscopy revealed that LfcinB entered the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells prior to the onset of mitochondrial depolarization. LfcinB was not internalized by endocytosis because endocytosis inhibitors did not prevent LfcinB-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, intracellular delivery of LfcinB via fusogenic liposomes caused the death of Jurkat T-leukemia cells, as well as normal human fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings suggest that LfcinB caused damage to the cell membrane that allowed LfcinB to enter the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells and mediate cytotoxicity. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that intracellular LfcinB co-localized with mitochondria in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, while flow cytometry and colloidal gold electron microscopy showed that LfcinB rapidly associated with purified mitochondria. Furthermore, purified mitochondria treated with LfcinB rapidly lost transmembrane potential and released cytochrome c. We conclude that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells resulted from cell membrane damage and the subsequent disruption of mitochondrial membranes by internalized LfcinB.

  17. 23,24-Dihydrocucurbitacin B induces G 2\\/M cell-cycle arrest and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (Bcap37)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Yang; Shihua Wu; Qiuhui Zhang; Feiyan Liu; Ping Wu

    2007-01-01

    23,24-Dihydrocucurbitacin B (DHCB), a cucurbitacin-derived compound known to posses anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, DHCB, isolated from roots of Trichosanthes kirilowli which is a traditional Chinese herb medicine used as treatments for cancer and other diseases, has been found to inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cell lines Bcap37, HeLa, SW620, SMMC-7721, K562 and MCF-7 in a dose-

  18. Apoptosis and the trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, S.; Yanagisawa, T.; Sera, K.; Ling, Pi; Futatsugawa, S.; Hatakeyama, S.

    1996-04-01

    The dose dependence on the intra-tumoral Mg concentration for the development of radiation-induced apoptosis was tested in vivo in Sarcoma-180 in BALB/c mice. The frequency of apoptosis was calculated as the number of apoptotic bodies per 100 nuclei by assaying with microscopic examination of H&E stain at 400× magnification. The Mg concentration was measured by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after 10 or 20 Gy 6 MeV electron irradiation of two groups of mice with and without oral administration of 0.1 mmol MgCl 2 solution. There was a strong dose dependence on intra-tumoral Mg concentration for developing radiation-induced apoptosis ( r = 0.78-0.89). The frequency of apoptosis was increased by oral administration of MgCl 2. There was the possibility of radio-sensitization by facilitating the radiation-induced apoptosis by oral Mg administration.

  19. Determination of gadolinium in river water by SPE preconcentration and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Hennebrüder, Kristina; Wennrich, Rainer; Mattusch, Jürgen; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Engewald, Werner

    2004-05-28

    An analytical scheme was developed for the determination of Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA), Gd and the other rare earth elements (REE) in river water by inductively coupled plasma (quadrupole) mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS). The preconcentration step was essential, since the limits of detection of this multielemental analytical technique are higher than the trace concentrations of the interesting elements in river water. Solid phase extraction (SPE) with different commercially available complexing agents (Chelex 100, Toyopearl and ethylhexylphosphates) was employed for the preconcentration of REE. The investigations revealed that complex stability (varying in dependence of the pH value) has a strong influence on the degree of the enrichment of Gd-DTPA. Based on acidified water samples (pH<3) a procedure using ethylhexylphosphates was proposed for the preconcentration of Gd and REE from surface water samples. For this purpose C(18)-cartridges loaded with ethylhexylphosphates were used, resulting in an enrichment factor of 40. PMID:18969433

  20. An Overview of the Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Snelson, C. M., Chipman, V. D., White, R. L., Emmitt, R. F., Townsend, M. J., Barker, D., Lee, P.

    2012-07-11

    Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE-N) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface accelerometers, infrasound, and a suite of seismic sensors of various frequency bands from the near field to the far field. This allows for the use of a single test bed in the simple geology case instead of multiple tests beds to obtain the same results. The shots are planned at various depths to obtain a Green’s function, scaled-depth of burial data, nominal depth of burial data and damage zone data. SPE1-N was conducted in May 2011 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 180 ft (55 m). SPE2-N was conducted in October 2011 as a 2200 lb (1000 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 150 ft (46 m). SPE3-N was conducted in July 2012 as a 2200 lb (1000 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 150 ft (46 m) in the damaged zone. Over 400 data channels were recorded for each of these shots and data recovery was about 95% with high signal to noise ratio. Once the simple geology site data has been utilized, a new test bed will be developed in a complex geology site to test these physics based models. Ultimately, the results from this project will provide the next advances in the science of monitoring to enable a physics-based predicative capability.

  1. Identification of an epithelial cell receptor responsible for Clostridium difficile TcdB-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, Michelle E; Farrow, Melissa A; Chandrasekaran, Ramyavardhanee; Sheng, Jinsong; Rubin, Donald H; Lacy, D Borden

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in the United States. The two main virulence factors of C. difficile are the large toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which enter colonic epithelial cells and cause fluid secretion, inflammation, and cell death. Using a gene-trap insertional mutagenesis screen, we identified poliovirus receptor-like 3 (PVRL3) as a cellular factor necessary for TcdB-mediated cytotoxicity. Disruption of PVRL3 expression by gene-trap mutagenesis, shRNA, or CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis resulted in resistance of cells to TcdB. Complementation of the gene-trap or CRISPR mutants with PVRL3 resulted in restoration of TcdB-mediated cell death. Purified PVRL3 ectodomain bound to TcdB by pull-down. Pretreatment of cells with a monoclonal antibody against PVRL3 or prebinding TcdB to PVRL3 ectodomain also inhibited cytotoxicity in cell culture. The receptor is highly expressed on the surface epithelium of the human colon and was observed to colocalize with TcdB in both an explant model and in tissue from a patient with pseudomembranous colitis. These data suggest PVRL3 is a physiologically relevant binding partner that can serve as a target for the prevention of TcdB-induced cytotoxicity in C. difficile infection. PMID:26038560

  2. Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 SPE Annual Technical Conference and

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A., 24­27 September of pressure and concentration. Simulations described in this paper consider the process of oil-base mud-filtrate invasion into reservoirs containing mixtures of connate water and oil. Subsequently, we simulate formation

  3. Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of the process of mud-filtrate invasion yield 2D cross-sections of water saturation, salt concentration affected by both the relative proportion of lithology and the invasion of mud filtrate. Water saturation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 26­29 September 2004

  4. Copyright 2007, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2007 SPE Annual Technical Conference and

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, Texas 75083-3836 U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435. Abstract We quantify the influence of oil-base mud-filtrate consists of adding water and surfactant to a multi-component OBM invading a formation saturated

  5. Probabilistic Modeling for Decision Support in Integrated Operations Martin Giese, University of Oslo; Reidar B. Bratvold, SPE, University of Stavanger

    E-print Network

    Sahay, Sundeep

    SPE 127761 Probabilistic Modeling for Decision Support in Integrated Operations Martin Giese within the CODIO project on COllaborative Decision support for Integrated Operations. As one part was carried out within the CODIO project on COllaborative Decision support for Integrated Operations. CODIO

  6. 1053-5888/13/$31.002013IEEE IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [129] MAy 2013 ommunication networks have evolved from spe-

    E-print Network

    Giannakis, Georgios

    have evolved from spe- cialized research and tactical transmission systems to large-scale and highly complex interconnec- tions of intelligent devices, increasingly becoming more commercial, consumer is for ubiquitous smart network devices to enable data- driven statistical learning algorithms for distributed

  7. Copyright 2002, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in San Antonio, Texas, 29 September­2 October 2002. Prototypes of in-situ permanent sensors include pressure gauges, acoustic geophones, and direct-current (DC . Malinverno and Torres-Verdín2 on the other hand, have described a procedure to estimate water invasion

  8. Direct, On-Site, On-Cartridge Toxicokinetic Sampling Prior to On-Line SPE: A Feasibility Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tump; M. J. Hilhorst; J. A. Ooms; J. Wieling

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed sample introduction method prior to on-line SPE and liquid chromatography, termed “sorbent sampling” [1], was tested for its applicability in bioanalysis. The proof of principle described in this article demonstrates the applicability of sorbent sampling for a pharmacokinetic (PK) study with carbamazepine in rats. In this experiment two rats were dosed with carbamazepine and at several time

  9. Optimization of an SPE and GC/MS Method for Analyzing Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Bodour, A.; Murray, K. E.

    2006-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are compounds that interrupt hormonal functions in the body. The literature reports the presence of EDCs in all environmental matrices (air, water and soil) at concentrations of at least 1 nanogram/liter (ng/l), which may be high enough to induce adverse health effects. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for detecting trace amounts of EDCs in water is very important for investigating and controlling their concentrations in the environment. This study investigated a method for analyzing four known or suspected EDCs (chlorpyrifos, musk HHCB, diethyl phthalate, and butylated hydroxyanisole) in water samples. The analytical method was based on the USGS wastewater method developed by Zaugg et al. (2001), but modified, using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The EDCs were extracted using 60mg Water Oasis hydrophilic-lipophillic balance (HLB) extraction cartridges. The SPE efficiency was investigated by using different initial extraction volumes and different EDC concentrations. The lowest concentration was 1ng/l and the lowest extraction volume was 100mL. Results of the study indicate that the initial oven temperature conditions and rate of temperature increases affects the peak signal to noise ratio and the sample run-time in the GC/MS. An increase in gas flow rate did not show any significant changes and hence was maintained at 1ml/min. Preliminary data suggests that the percent recovery of the compounds obtained using this method either met or exceeded those presented by Zaugg et al. (2001) as the USGS wastewater method.

  10. Characteristics of Four SPE Classes According to Onset Timing and Proton Acceleration Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Roksoon

    2015-04-01

    In our previous work (Kim et al., 2015), we suggested a new classification scheme, which categorizes the SPEs into four groups based on association with flare or CME inferred from onset timings as well as proton acceleration patterns using multienergy observations. In this study, we have tried to find whether there are any typical characteristics of associated events and acceleration sites in each group using 42 SPEs from 1997 to 2012. We find: (i) if the proton acceleration starts from a lower energy, a SPE has a higher chance to be a strong event (> 5000 pfu) even if the associated flare and CME are not so strong. The only difference between the SPEs associated with flare and CME is the location of the acceleration site. For the former, the sites are very low ( ~1 Rs) and close to the western limb, while the latter has a relatively higher (mean=6.05 Rs) and wider acceleration sites. (ii) When the proton acceleration starts from the higher energy, a SPE tends to be a relatively weak event (< 1000 pfu), in spite of its associated CME is relatively stronger than previous group. (iii) The SPEs categorized by the simultaneous proton acceleration in whole energy range within 10 minutes, tend to show the weakest proton flux (mean=327 pfu) in spite of strong related eruptions. Their acceleration heights are very close to the locations of type II radio bursts. Based on those results, we suggest that the different characteristics of the four groups are mainly due to the different mechanisms governing the acceleration pattern and interval, and different condition such as the acceleration location.

  11. The mechanism of PDT-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiongwei; Liu, Timon C.; Ding, Xin-Min; Gu, Ying; Liu, Fan-Guang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2003-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can induce apoptosis in many cancer cells in vitro and in tumors in vivo. Cells become more oxidation with PDT, and maintain differentiation and proliferation, go apoptosis and necrosis with the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. ROS can induce apoptosis through mitochondria by inhibiting respiration chain or oxidative phosphorylation or damaging mitochondrial membrane. ROS can initiate apoptosis through endoplamic reticulum(ER) by opening Ca2+ channel or starting unfold protein response (UPR). ROS can also induce apoptosis through Golgi by producing ganglioside GD3 by use of ceramide, which induces apoptosis by activating caspase-3, JNK and p38 MAPK. It can also induce apoptosis by activating Bip (mitochondria-dependant) or preocaspase-12 (mitochondria- independent) or inhibiting protein synthesizing. There are so complicated cross-talking among different signal pathways or organnells that we think PDT-induced apoptosis is mediated by multiplex pathways and excessive levels in a refined network.

  12. Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G M

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis is a major form of cell death, characterized initially by a series of stereotypic morphological changes. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the gene ced-3 encodes a protein required for developmental cell death. Since the recognition that CED-3 has sequence identity with the mammalian cysteine protease interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE), a family of at least 10 related cysteine proteases has been identified. These proteins are characterized by almost absolute specificity for aspartic acid in the P1 position. All the caspases (ICE-like proteases) contain a conserved QACXG (where X is R, Q or G) pentapeptide active-site motif. Capases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes comprising an N-terminal peptide (prodomain) together with one large and one small subunit. The crystal structures of both caspase-1 and caspase-3 show that the active enzyme is a heterotetramer, containing two small and two large subunits. Activation of caspases during apoptosis results in the cleavage of critical cellular substrates, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and lamins, so precipitating the dramatic morphological changes of apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and tumour necrosis factor activates caspase-8 (MACH/FLICE/Mch5), which contains an N-terminus with FADD (Fas-associating protein with death domain)-like death effector domains, so providing a direct link between cell death receptors and the caspases. The importance of caspase prodomains in the regulation of apoptosis is further highlighted by the recognition of adapter molecules, such as RAIDD [receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-associated ICH-1/CED-3-homologous protein with a death domain]/CRADD (caspase and RIP adapter with death domain), which binds to the prodomain of caspase-2 and recruits it to the signalling complex. Cells undergoing apoptosis following triggering of death receptors execute the death programme by activating a hierarchy of caspases, with caspase-8 and possibly caspase-10 being at or near the apex of this apoptotic cascade. PMID:9337844

  13. Streptococcal SpeB Cleaved PAR-1 Suppresses ERK Phosphorylation and Blunts Thrombin-Induced Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Miriam; Andreoni, Federica; Zinkernagel, Annelies Sophie; Schuepbach, Reto Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background The family of 4 related protease-activated receptors (PAR-1, 2, 3 & 4) expressed by mammalian cells allow to sense for and react to extracellular proteolytic activity. Since major human bacterial pathogens secret a wide array of protease(-s) we investigated whether they interfere with human PAR function. Methodology/Principal Findings Supernatants from cultures of major human bacterial pathogens were assayed for the presence of protease(-s) capable to cleave overexpressed human PAR-1, 2, 3 and 4 reporter constructs. Group A streptococcus (GAS) was found to secret a PAR-1-cleaving protease. Experiments involving genetical and pharmacological gain and loss of function identified streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B SpeB as the protease responsible. On the host’s side analysis of overexpressed PAR-1 carrying alanine substitutions and deletions showed the amino acid residue leucine44 on PAR-1’s extracellular N-terminus to be the only cleavage site. Complementary studies on endogenously expressed PAR-1 using PAR-1 blocking antibodies further supported our conclusion. Through PAR-1 cleavage SpeB efficiently blunted thrombin-induced induction of the ERK-pathway in endothelial cells and prevented platelets aggregation in response to thrombin. Conclusions/Significance Our results identify a novel function of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB. By cleaving human PAR-1 at the N-terminal amino acid residue leucine44 SpeB rendered endothelial cells unresponsive to thrombin and prevented human platelets from thrombin-induced aggregation. These results suggest that by blunting PAR-1 signaling, SpeB modulates various innate host responses directed against invasive GAS potentially helping the invasive bacteria to escape. This may allow to tailor additional treatments in the future since upon invasion of the blood stream endothelial cells as well as platelets and mononuclear cells respond to PAR-1 agonists aiming to prevent further bacterial dissemination. PMID:24278414

  14. Leading Edge Measuring and Modeling Apoptosis

    E-print Network

    Gauthier, Eric

    Leading Edge Review Measuring and Modeling Apoptosis in Single Cells Sabrina L. Spencer1 mathematical models and quantitative, often single-cell, data to study apoptosis. We discuss the delay and systems pharmacology. Introduction Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death involving caspases

  15. Effect of Daily Hemodialysis on Monocytes Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Andrikos; Emanuela Buoncristiani; Vincenzo D’Intini; Valeria Bordoni; Monica Bonello; Nathan Levin; Umberto Buoncristiani; Michail Pappas; Claudio Ronco

    2005-01-01

    Uremia is associated with a state of immune dysfunction with increased susceptibility to infection and malignancy possibly related to dysregulation of immune system cell apoptosis. Peritoneal dialysis can restore plasma apoptosis activity on monocytes compared to intermittent hemodialysis. Whether the continuous modality or diverse clearance mechanisms involved are responsible is unknown. Apoptosis rates correlate with phagocytic function highlighting the benefit

  16. The role of apoptosis in pulmonary fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Uhal

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis has been defined as ''gene-directed cellular self-destruction'' and is an active process that is tightly regulated by a number of gene products, which promote or block cell death. Apoptotic death can be triggered by a wide variety of stimuli and, importantly, not all cells necessarily undergo apoptosis in response to the same stimulus. Abnormal regulation of apoptosis has been

  17. Study of apoptosis in human liver cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Min Shan; Juan Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the action of apoptosis in occurrence of liver cacinomas in vivo and the biological effect of Solanum lyratum Thumb on BEL-7404 cell line inducing apoptosis in vitro. METHODS: The apoptosis in the liver carcinoma was detected with terminal deoxynucl neotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL); the cancer cells cultured in DMED medium were treated with

  18. Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future. PMID:15084979

  19. Viral Control of Mitochondrial Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Galluzzi; Catherine Brenner; Eugenia Morselli; Zahia Touat; Guido Kroemer

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the process of pathogen–host co-evolution, viruses have developed a battery of distinct strategies to overcome biochemical and immunological defenses of the host. Thus, viruses have acquired the capacity to subvert host cell apoptosis, control inflammatory responses, and evade immune reactions. Since the elimination of infected cells via programmed cell death is one of the most ancestral defense mechanisms against

  20. UV-B–Induced DNA Damage and Repair in the Mouse Lens

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Rosana; Bassnett, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Epidemiologic studies have linked UV-B exposure to development of cortical cataracts, but the underlying molecular mechanism(s) is unresolved. Here, we used a mouse model to examine the nature and distribution of DNA photolesions produced by ocular UV-B irradiation. Methods. Anesthetized mice, eye globes, or isolated lenses were exposed to UV-B. Antibodies specific for 6-4 photoproducts (6-4 PPs) or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were used to visualize DNA adducts. Results. Illumination of intact globes with UV-B–induced 6-4 PP and CPD formation in cells of the cornea, anterior iris, and central lens epithelium. Photolesions were not detected in retina or lens cells situated in the shadow of the iris. Photolesions in lens epithelial cells were produced with radiant exposures significantly below the minimal erythemal dose. Lens epithelial cells rapidly repaired 6-4 PPs, but CPD levels did not markedly diminish, even over extended postirradiation recovery periods in vitro or in vivo. The repair of 6-4 PPs did not depend on the proliferative activity of the epithelial cells, since the repair rate in the mitotically-active germinative zone (GZ) was indistinguishable from that of quiescent cells in the central epithelium. Conclusions. Even relatively modest exposures to UV-B produced 6-4 PP and CPD photolesions in lens epithelial cells. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesions were particularly prevalent and were repaired slowly if at all. Studies on sun-exposed skin have established a causal connection between photolesions and so-called UV-signature mutations. If similar mechanisms apply in the lens, it suggests that somatic mutations in lens epithelial cells may contribute to the development of cortical cataracts. PMID:24022010

  1. Significant involvement of nuclear factor-?B-inducing kinase in proper differentiation of ?? and ?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Koji; Okabe, Motohito; Kajiura, Satoshi; Noma, Haruka; Shinohara, Nobukata; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) is known to play a critical role in maintaining proper immune function. This is exemplified in the spontaneous mutant mouse lacking functional NIK, alymphoplasia (aly), which is simultaneously immune-compromised and autoimmune-prone. To investigate the role of NIK in ?? T-cell repertoire formation, we analysed T-cell development in aly/aly mice bearing a transgenic T-cell receptor (TCR). Although there were no apparent abnormalities in the mature ?? T cells of non-transgenic aly/aly mice, the maturation efficiency of idiotypehigh+ T cells in the TCR-transgenic mice was lower in aly/aly mice compared with those found in aly/+ mice, suggesting that the mature ?? T-cell repertoire could be altered by the absence of functional NIK. In one strain of TCR-transgenic aly/aly mice with a negatively selecting H-2 background, the proportion of CD8low+ idiotypehigh+ cells, which are thought to potentially represent the ?? lineage of T cells, was markedly decreased. When the ?? T cells in non-transgenic aly/aly mice were investigated, the proportion of ?? T cells in the peripheral organs of aly/aly mice was found to be one-half to one-fifth of those in aly/+ mice. Analyses of bone marrow chimera mice indicated that NIK in host cells, rather than in donor cells was important for generating a normal number of peripheral ?? T cells. Collectively, these results suggest that NIK could be involved in thymic positive selection of some ?? T cells and that NIK in non-haematopoietic cells is important for the optimal development and/or maintenance of ?? T cells. PMID:24117043

  2. Schisandrin A and B induce organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 transporter activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cheng-Xian; Deng, Sheng; Yin, Ji-Ye; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is the most important transporter in the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. OATP1B1 plays an important role in the hepatic uptake of many endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including many clinical drugs. At present, the combinational usage of Chinese traditional herbal medicines and conventional chemical pharmaceuticals may affect the activity of enzymes and transporters activity and cause absorption of their substrates and metabolic changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of schisandrin A, schisandrin B and tanshinone IIA, which were extracted from medicinal plants, on OATP1B1 activity. HepG2 cells are used as in vitro models for OATP1B1 activity studies. A combination of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tertazolium bromide (MTT) assays, real-time RT-PCR, and transporter activity analysis were employed. We found that schisandrin A and B increased OATP1B1 mRNA levels by 1.81-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.87-fold (p < 0.01) at concentration of 10 ?M, respectively. Schisandrin A of 1 ?M and 10 ?M and schisandrin B of 10 ?M significantly increased the uptake of [3H] estrone-3-sulfate (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Tanshinone IIA had no effect on the mRNA expression and transport activity of OATP1B1 at nontoxic concentrations. Our study suggests that schisandrin A and B induced OATP1B1 expression and increased its transporter activity in HepG2 cells. PMID:25975095

  3. Isorhamnetin Protects Human Keratinocytes against Ultraviolet B-Induced Cell Damage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xia; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Shin, Jennifer H; Park, Yeunsoo; Yoo, Suk Jae; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-01-01

    Isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin) is a flavonoid derived from the fruits of certain medicinal plants. This study investigated the photoprotective properties of isorhamnetin against cell damage and apoptosis resulting from excessive ultraviolet (UV) B exposure in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Isorhamnetin eliminated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuated the oxidative modification of DNA, lipids, and proteins in response to UVB radiation. Moreover, isorhamnetin repressed UVB-facilitated programmed cell death in the keratinocytes, as evidenced by a reduction in apoptotic body formation, and nuclear fragmentation. Additionally, isorhamnetin suppressed the ability of UVB light to trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, these results indicate that isorhamnetin has the potential to protect human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cell damage and death.

  4. Isorhamnetin Protects Human Keratinocytes against Ultraviolet B-Induced Cell Damage.

    PubMed

    Han, Xia; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Shin, Jennifer H; Park, Yeunsoo; Yoo, Suk Jae; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-07-01

    Isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin) is a flavonoid derived from the fruits of certain medicinal plants. This study investigated the photoprotective properties of isorhamnetin against cell damage and apoptosis resulting from excessive ultraviolet (UV) B exposure in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Isorhamnetin eliminated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuated the oxidative modification of DNA, lipids, and proteins in response to UVB radiation. Moreover, isorhamnetin repressed UVB-facilitated programmed cell death in the keratinocytes, as evidenced by a reduction in apoptotic body formation, and nuclear fragmentation. Additionally, isorhamnetin suppressed the ability of UVB light to trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, these results indicate that isorhamnetin has the potential to protect human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cell damage and death. PMID:26157553

  5. The role and interactions of cytosolic alkalization and hydrogen peroxide in ultraviolet B-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Ge, Xiao-Min; Wu, Mi-Mi; Li, Xuan; He, Jun-Min

    2014-02-01

    Cytosolic alkalization has been shown to function as a key player in multiple stimuli-induced stomatal closure, but its role and relationship with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in ultraviolet B (UV-B)-induced stomatal closure remains unknown. In this paper, by stomatal bioassay and laser-scanning confocal microscopy, we observed that 0.5 W m(-2) UV-B induced cytosolic alkalization and H2O2 production in guard cells while inducing stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Butyrate (a weak acid) reduced the cytosolic pH/H2O2 production and prevented stomatal closure by UV-B. Methylamine (a weak base) induced H2O2 production and stomatal closure while enhancing the cytosolic alkalization in guard cells under light alone. The rise in cytosolic pH of wild-type guard cells on exposure to UV-B was evident at 15 min and substantial at 45 min while H2O2 production started to largely increase after 60 min. The failure of UV-B-induced H2O2 production in AtrbohD/F guard cells did not affect the changes of guard cell pH during the first 60 min of UV-B radiation, but largely suppressed cytosolic alkalization after 60 min of UV-B radiation. These results indicate that cytosolic alkalization mediates UV-B-induced stomatal closure via activating H2O2 production and that H2O2 production can feedback-enhance cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells. PMID:24388518

  6. [Cell senescence induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in rodent transformed cells resistant to apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Shitikova, Zh V; Aksenov, N D; Pospelov, V A; Pospelov, T V

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate to induce senescence in cells derived from rat embryonic fibroblasts transformed by E1A+E1B19 kDa oncogenes has been studied. These transformants are resistant to apoptosis in response to gamma-irradiation and growth factor deprivation. The process of cell senescence was investigated by the analysis of cell growth curves, G1/S and G2/M cell cycle arrest, and senescent associated beta-galactosidase expression. The irreversibility of sodium butyrate antiproliferative activity was analyzed by clonogenic assay. We show that sodium butyrate suppresses proliferation and induces senescence in the E1A+E1B19 kDa transformed cells. Interestingly, NaB induces growth arrest due to accumulation of cells in G2/M phase, these cells are not tetraploid but mainly binuclear. Thus, in case of NaB induced senescence in E1A+E1B19 kDa transformed fibroblasts, the observed suppression of cell proliferation may be the result of cytokinesis failure leading to formation of binuclear and multinuclear cells incapable to proliferate. PMID:21598691

  7. Expression of CD40 induces neural apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Y; Rabizadeh, S; Camerini, D; Bredesen, D E

    1997-11-01

    The tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily includes 12 members, some of which (e.g., tumor necrosis factor receptor I and FAS) induce cell death triggered by ligand binding. Another member of the superfamily, the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR, induces neural apoptosis, with apoptosis being inhibited by binding of ligand to the receptor. As such, it is a candidate for the mediation of neurotrophin dependence. Here, we show that CD40, a superfamily member that is closely related to p75NTR, also induces neural apoptosis, but apoptosis is inhibited by binding of the G28-5 monoclonal antibody to CD40. These results provide further support for a model in which some members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily induce apoptosis triggered by ligand binding, whereas other members may, at least under certain conditions, induce apoptosis in the absence of ligand binding, with apoptosis being inhibited by binding of ligand or monoclonal antibody. PMID:9364323

  8. CORRTEX Diagnostic Deployment for the SPE-III experiment, 24 July 2012: Fielding Report and Preliminary Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, Thomas D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-29

    The Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs Time Experiments (CORRTEX) diagnostic system was deployed for the third explosives test in the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) sequence to monitor and verify several conditions of the experiment including the detonation velocity of the explosive package and functioning of explosive initiators. Six distance-marked coaxial cables were installed on the SPE-III explosives canister, and key locations documented through along-cable length measurements and photography. CORRTEX uses electrical-pulse time-domain reflectometry to continuously record the two-way transit time (TWTT) of the cables. As the shock front of the detonation advances, the coaxial cable is shorted or destroyed, and the resulting TWTT also decreases. Interpretation of these changes as a function of TWTT can be converted to positional measurements using known parameters of the cables.

  9. ACME encoded speG abrogates the unique hypersensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to exogenous polyamines

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gauri S.; Spontak, Jeffrey S.; Klapper, David G.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines, including spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd), are aliphatic cations that are reportedly synthesized by all living organisms. They exert pleiotropic effects on cells and are required for efficient nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Here, we report that the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus lacks identifiable polyamine biosynthetic genes, and consequently produces no Spm/Spd or their precursor compounds putrescine and agmatine. Moreover, while supplementing defined medium with polyamines generally enhances bacterial growth, Spm and Spd exert bactericidal effects on S. aureus at physiologic concentrations. Small colony variants specifically lacking menaquinone biosynthesis arose after prolonged Spm exposure and exhibited reduced polyamine-sensitivity. However, other respiratory-defective mutants were no less susceptible to Spm implying menaquinone itself rather than general respiration is required for full Spm-toxicity. Polyamine hypersensitivity distinguishes S. aureus from other bacteria and is exhibited by all tested strains save those belonging to the USA-300 group of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We identified one gene within the USA-300-specific Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) encoding a Spm/Spd N-acetyltransferase that is necessary and sufficient for polyamine resistance. S. aureus encounters significant polyamine levels during infection, however the acquisition of ACME encoded speG allows USA-300 clones to circumvent polyamine-hypersensitivity, a peculiar trait of S. aureus. PMID:21902734

  10. Midkine is a NF-?B-inducible gene that supports prostate cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    You, Zongbing; Dong, Ying; Kong, Xiangtian; Beckett, Laurel A; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Melamed, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Background Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor that is over-expressed in various human cancers and plays important roles in cell transformation, growth, survival, migration, and angiogenesis. However, little is known about the upstream factors and signaling mechanisms that regulate midkine gene expression. Methods Two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3 were studied for their expression of midkine. Induction of midkine expression in LNCaP cells by serum, growth factors and cytokines was determined by Western blot analysis and/or real-time quantitative reverse-transcription – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion assay when the LNCaP cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and/or recombinant midkine. When the LNCaP cells were treated with recombinant midkine, activation of intracellular signalling pathways was determined by Western blot analysis. Prostate tissue microarray slides containing 129 cases (18 normal prostate tissues, 40 early stage cancers, and 71 late stage cancers) were assessed for midkine expression by immunohistochemical staining. Results We identified that fetal bovine serum, some growth factors (epidermal growth factor, androgen, insulin-like growth factor-I, and hepatocyte growth factor) and cytokines (TNF? and interleukin-1beta) induced midkine expression in a human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells. TNF? also induced midkine expression in PC3 cells. TNF? was the strongest inducer of midkine expression via nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. Midkine partially inhibited TNF?-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Knockdown of endogenous midkine expression by small interfering RNA enhanced TNF?-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Midkine activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, midkine expression was significantly increased in late stage prostate cancer, which coincides with previously reported high serum levels of TNF? in advanced prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings provide the first demonstration that midkine expression is induced by certain growth factors and cytokines, particularly TNF?, which offers new insight into understanding how midkine expression is increased in the late stage prostate cancer. PMID:18275606

  11. Development of efficient SPE–TLC method and evaluation of biological interactions of contraceptives with progesterone receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran Ali; Iqbal Hussain; Kishwar Saleem; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein

    TLC–SPE methodologies were developed to ascertain biological interactions of norethindrone acetate and dydrogesterone contraceptives with plasma progesterone receptor proteins. TLC solvent system for plain and Cu(II) impregnated silica gel plates was n-hexane-n-butanol (90:10, v\\/v), which took 20min to run up to 10.0cm. The best separation was on Cu(II) impregnated plates due to maximum difference in Rf values and compact spots.

  12. An evaluation of antifouling booster biocides in Gran Canaria coastal waters using SPE-LC MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro Sánchez Rodríguez; Zoraida Sosa Ferrera; José Juan Santana Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) technique for seawater samples coupled to quantification using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) is described to quantify relevant antifouling booster biocides of ecotoxicological concern (Diuron, TCMTB, Irgarol 1051 and Dichlofluanid). The optimised methodology provides a sensitive, easy to use and efficient analytical procedure with detection limits in the range of between 0.1 and 0.2?ng?L and

  13. Combined SPE and HPTLC as a Screening Assay of Urinary Cotinine from Male Adolescents Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bazylak; H. Brózik; W. Sabanty

    Cotinine, as the main metabolite of nicotine, has been determined in urine using solid-phase extraction and the high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (SPE-HPTLC) method. The urine samples were collected from a group of 35 male adolescents which were moderate or significantly exposed to home environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). l-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone was used as the internal standard in the proposed screening procedure. The thin-layer

  14. Pin1 in Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Esther B.E.; Bonni, Azad

    2009-01-01

    While the role of the prolyl isomerase Pin1 in dividing cells has long been recognized, Pin1’s function in postmitotic neurons is poorly understood. We have identified a novel mechanism by which Pin1 mediates activation of the mitochondrial cell death machinery specifically in neurons. This perspective presents a sophisticated signaling pathway that triggers neuronal apoptosis upon JNK-mediated phosphorylation of the BH3-only protein BIMEL at serine 65. Pin1 is enriched at the mitochondria in neurons together with BIMEL and components of a neuron-specific JNK signaling complex and functions as a molecular switch that couples the phosphorylation of BIMEL by JNK to apoptosis specifically in neurons. We discuss how these findings relate to our understanding of the development of the nervous system and the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders. PMID:17568190

  15. The ATP Switch in Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. McConkey

    As a result of the work outlined above and other studies, a clear-cut distinction between apoptosis and necrosis no longer\\u000a exists at the biochemical level. The strongest evidence for overlap comes from studies in models of hypoxia showing that over-expression\\u000a of Bcl2 or its homolog Bcl-xL can block necrosis. The effects of Bcl2 appear largely due to direct effects on

  16. Intervention for apoptosis in cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Yaoita; Yukio Maruyama

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in pathogenesis of primary and secondary cardiomyopathies. It is proposed that antiapoptotic\\u000a interventions may constitute an effective strategy for these diseases. Some of the antiapoptotic interventions are “old wine\\u000a in a new bottle” measures already included in the conventional pharmacotherapy. As specific antiapoptotic treatment, caspase\\u000a inhibitors and anti-TNF-? antibody are in early phases of clinical

  17. Cortical Neuronal Apoptosis in CADASIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand Viswanathan; Francoise Gray; Marie-Germaine Bousser; Marielle Baudrimont; Hugues Chabriat

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is caused by mutations of the NOTCH3 gene and is a model of pure vascular dementia. Cortical atrophy has been reported to be associated with cognitive decline in the disease, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. We postulated that apoptosis may be involved in this process. Methods—We report

  18. APOPTOSIS: Life and Death Decisions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donald W. Nicholson (Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, Merck Research Laboratories; )

    2003-01-10

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Screening small molecules for their ability to perturb a cellular pathway, a strategy called forward chemical genetics, can yield unexpected information about other pathway components. This is well illustrated by new work (Jiang et al.), as Nicholson and Thornberry discuss in their Perspective. Discovery of a small-molecule activator of apoptosis implicated a tumor suppressor protein and an oncoprotein in the regulation of the mitochondrial cell death pathway.

  19. Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: Evaluation of C-SPE and Debubbling Methods in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazen-Bosveld, April; Lipert, Robert J.; Nordling, John; Shih, Chien-Ju; Siperko, Lorraine; Porter, Marc D.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Rutz, Jeff A.; Straub, John E.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2007-01-01

    Colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is being developed as a method for in-flight monitoring of spacecraft water quality. C-SPE is based on measuring the change in the diffuse reflectance spectrum of indicator disks following exposure to a water sample. Previous microgravity testing has shown that air bubbles suspended in water samples can cause uncertainty in the volume of liquid passed through the disks, leading to errors in the determination of water quality parameter concentrations. We report here the results of a recent series of C-9 microgravity experiments designed to evaluate manual manipulation as a means to collect bubble-free water samples of specified volumes from water sample bags containing up to 47% air. The effectiveness of manual manipulation was verified by comparing the results from C-SPE analyses of silver(I) and iodine performed in-flight using samples collected and debubbled in microgravity to those performed on-ground using bubble-free samples. The ground and flight results showed excellent agreement, demonstrating that manual manipulation is an effective means for collecting bubble-free water samples in microgravity.

  20. Glycopeptide enrichment for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography solid phase extraction (HILIC SPE).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Mysling, Simon; Højrup, Peter; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Glycoproteins, and in particular glycopeptides, are highly hydrophilic and are often not retained by reversed phase (RP) chromatography. The separation principle of normal phase (NP) is based on hydrophilic interactions, which in many aspects is complementary to RP separations. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a fairly new variation of the NP separations used in the 1970s, the major difference being the use of aqueous solvents. HILIC provides a versatile tool for enrichment of glycopeptides before mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, particularly when used for solid phase extraction (SPE), or in combination with other chromatographic resins or ion-pairing reagents. HILIC SPE can be used for glyco-profiling, i.e., for determining the glycan heterogeneity at one specific glycosylation site, for enrichment of glycopeptides from a complex mixture of peptides, as well as for pre-fractionation of complex samples at the protein or peptide level. In this chapter we present a straightforward HILIC SPE enrichment technique and then combine C18 RP and HILIC enrichment for analysis of glycopeptides. Finally, we demonstrate HILIC enrichment using trifluoroacetic acid as an ion-pairing reagent for the enrichment of glycopeptides prior to mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:23296529

  1. Analysis of drugs of abuse by online SPE-LC high resolution mass spectrometry: communal assessment of consumption.

    PubMed

    Heuett, Nubia V; Ramirez, Cesar E; Fernandez, Adolfo; Gardinali, Piero R

    2015-04-01

    An online SPE-LC-HRMS method was developed to monitor the consumption of 18 drugs of abuse (DOAs) including amphetamines, opioids, cocainics, cannabinoids, lysergics, and their corresponding metabolites in a well characterized college campus setting via wastewater analysis. Filtered and diluted (10×) sewage water samples (5 mL inj.) were automatically pre-concentrated and analyzed in 15 min using a Thermo EQuan MAX online SPE system equipped with a HyperSep™ Retain PEP (20×2.1 mm×12 ?m) SPE column and a Hypersil Gold™ aQ (150×2.1 mm×3 ?m) analytical column. A Q Exactive™ Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap HRMS was used in full scan mode (R=140,000) for positive identification, and quantitation of target compounds. Method detection limits for all analytes ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 ng/L in sewage. A total of 14 DOAs were detected from two different locations (dorms and main college campus) within a one-year period. Most frequently detected drugs throughout the entire study were amphetamine (>96%) and THC's metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-?-9-THC (>100%) with maximum concentrations of 5956 and 2413 ng/L respectively. Daily doses per 1000 people were determined in order to assess consumption of THC, amphetamine, heroin and cocaine, in both dorms and main campus. PMID:25553546

  2. Application of RP-HPLC-diode array detector after SPE to the determination of pesticides in pepper samples.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The application of HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) after SPE for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides in red and green pepper samples is demonstrated. An HPLC procedure on an RP column (C18) was developed for analysis of selected pesticides from different chemical groups: metamitron, metalaxyl, linuron, and prometryn. Average recoveries for C18 Polar Plus cartridges and solvents by the proposed RP-HPLC-DAD method after SPE are presented. Average recoveries from the spiked samples and the SDs were 22.5 +/- 2.2, 138.0 +/- 4.1, 78.6 +/- 2.8, and 109.2 +/- 2.3% for metamitron, metalaxyl, linuron, and prometryn, respectively, at concentrations of 7 microg/g in the plant material. The efficiency of the SPE procedure was evaluated using real food samples. The quantities of prometryn, linuron, metalaxyl, and metamitron determined were in the ranges of 0.02-2.24 microg/g (n = 24), 0.08-1.01 microg/g (n = 9), 1.61-2.28 microg/g (n=4), and 0.05-1.07 microg/g (n = 3), respectively, in plant material sampled in 2011. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy. PMID:23175966

  3. The application of LC-NMR and LC-SPE-NMR to compositional studies of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andre J; Tseng, Li-Hong; Simpson, Myrna J; Spraul, Manfred; Braumann, Ulrich; Kingery, William L; Kelleher, Brian P; Hayes, Michael H B

    2004-12-01

    Non-living natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in the oceans, atmosphere, sediments, and soils, and represents the most abundant organic carbon reserves on earth. However, a large proportion is considered to be "molecularly uncharacterized" because the inherent complexity of NOM is problematic when applying conventional analytical techniques. This manuscript presents initial applications of LC-NMR (1H) and LC-SPE-NMR (1H) to the studies of NOM isolated from water and soil. LC-NMR is applied to dissolved natural organic matter (DNOM) collected from freshwater environments, and both LC-NMR and LC-SPE-NMR are applied to an alkaline soil extract. The polar and complex nature of the DNOM samples limits conventional reversed phase separation, which can be partially overcome with the use of an ion pair reagent, although such an approach further complicates the NMR detection. LC-SPE-NMR of the soil alkaline extract was encouraging, and specific components in the mixture could be assigned. This work demonstrates that it is both possible to separate and concentrate specific components in NOM such that NMR detection is possible. As NMR information will be critical in unraveling the novel and/or complex structures in NOM this represents a key analytical hurdle in this area. PMID:15565221

  4. GSK3? signaling is involved in ultraviolet B-induced activation of autophagy in epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; WANG, HAIPING; WANG, SIYING; XU, MEI; LIU, MEI; LIAO, MINGJUN; FRANK, JACQUELINE A.; ADHIKARI, SABAL; BOWER, KIMBERLY A.; SHI, XIANGLIN; MA, CUILING; LUO, JIA

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure causes damage to skin and represents the primary etiological agent for skin cancer formation. UVB induces DNA damage and apoptosis in epidermal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that UVB activated autophagy in JB6 epidermal cells, which was evident by the formation of LC3 puncta, the induction of LC3 lipidation, the increase in beclin 1 expression, and the decrease in the levels of p62. Autophagy appeared to be a protective response to UVB-induced damage because inhibition of autophagy exacerbated UVB-induced cell death, and stimulation of autophagy offered protection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) was involved in UVB-induced autophagy. UVB inhibited GSK3? activation by simultaneously enhancing phosphorylation at Ser9 and suppressing Tyr216 phosphorylation. GSK3? negatively regulated autophagy; overexpression of wild-type or S9A (constitutive-active) GSK3? mutant inhibited UVB-mediated autophagy, while overexpression of a dominant-negative K85R mutant enhanced UVB-mediated autophagy. Inhibition of GSK3? also offered protection against UVB-mediated damage. UVB activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of autophagy through the inhibition of GSK3?. Taken together, our results suggest that UVB-stimulated autophagy is a protective response for epidermal cells and is mediated by the GSK3?/AMPK pathway. PMID:22961228

  5. Human papillomavirus oncoproteins and apoptosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, PEIYUE; YUE, YING

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature and identify the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins and apoptosis. HPV-associated apoptosis may be primarily blocked by a number of oncoproteins, including E5, E6 and E7. E5 protein protects cells from tumor necrosis factor-associated apoptosis; the oncoprotein E6 predominantly inhibits apoptosis through the p53 pathway; and oncoprotein E7 is involved in apoptosis activation and inhibition. In addition, HPV oncoproteins are involved in activating or repressing the transcription of E6/E7. In conclusion, HPV oncoproteins, including E5, E6 and E7 protein, may interfere with apoptosis via certain regulatory principles. PMID:24348754

  6. Apoptosis in Lung Injury and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan W. Ryter; Hong Pyo Kim; Augustine M. K. Choi

    Pulmonary cell death may contribute significantly to acute and chronic lung injuries caused by various adverse environmental\\u000a agents. Pulmonary cells may die by necrosis, apoptosis, and other forms of regulated cell death. Apoptosis exerts a homeostatic\\u000a function in lung defense and development, through the removal of dysfunctional cells and by regulating cellular proliferation.\\u000a Lung cell apoptosis can occur as a

  7. Death-Defining Immune Responses After Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, L.; Cummings, R. J.; Blander, J. Magarian

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death whereby characteristic internal cellular dismantling is accompanied by the preservation of plasma membrane integrity. Maintaining this order during apoptosis prevents the release of cellular contents and ensures a noninflammatory death. Here, we consider examples of apoptosis in different contexts and discuss how the same form of cell death could have different immunological consequences. Multiple parameters such as cell death as a result of microbial infection, the nature of the inflammatory microenvironment, the type of responding phagocytic cells and the genetic background of the host organism all differentially influence the immunological consequences of apoptosis. PMID:24903539

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control. PMID:25840680

  9. Morphological aspects of apoptosis in heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Genzou; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that apoptosis may be responsible for a significant amount of cardiomyocyte death during acute myocardial infraction as well as for a progressive loss of surviving cells in failing hearts. Typical apoptosis can indeed be induced in cardiomyocytes at the experimental conditions. In actual heart diseases, in contrast, there is very little direct morphological evidence of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes occuring at any stage of myocardial infarction and heart failure, despite the availability of much indirect evidence that includes detection of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis-related factors. For that reason, the potential efficacy of therapeutic intervention to prevent apoptosis remains controversial. This review will survey available data from both animals and humans to critically assess the role of cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial infarction and its relevance to myocardial remodeling and during progression to heart failure. Also considered will be nonmyocyte interstitial cells, which have received less attention than myocytes despite definitive evidence of their apoptosis in the infarcted heart and recent studies suggesting that blockade of apoptosis among these cells mitigates postinfarction cardiac remodeling and heart failure. We conclude from our survey that there are many hurdles to surmount before regulation of apoptosis can be clinically applied in the treatment of myocardial infarction and heart failure. PMID:16563222

  10. miR-125b induces cellular senescence in malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Micro RNAs (miRs) have emerged as key regulators during oncogenesis. They have been found to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mir-125b has been identified as an oncomir in various forms of tumours, but we have previously proposed that miR-125b is a suppressor of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Our goal was therefore to further examine this theory. Methods We used in-situ-hybridization to visualise miR-125b expression in primary tumours and in lymph node metastasis. Then using a miRVector plasmid containing a miR-125b-1 insert we transfected melanoma cell line Mel-Juso and then investigated the effect of the presence of a stable overexpression of miR-125b on growth by western blotting, flow cytometry and ?-galactosidase staining. The tumourogenicity of the transfected cells was tested using a murine model and the tumours were further examined with in-situ-hybridization. Results In primary human tumours and in lymph node metastases increased expression of miR-125b was found in single, large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm. A stable overexpression of miR-125b in human melanoma cell line Mel-Juso resulted in a G0/G1 cell cycle block and emergence of large cells expressing senescence markers: senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p21, p27 and p53. Mel-Juso cells overexpressing miR-125b were tumourigenic in mice, but the tumours exhibited higher level of cell senescence and decreased expression of proliferation markers, cyclin D1 and Ki67 than the control tumours. Conclusions Our results confirm the theory that miR-125b functions as a tumour supressor in cutaneous malignant melanoma by regulating cellular senescence, which is one of the central mechanisms protecting against the development and progression of malignant melanoma. PMID:24762088

  11. Evolutionary conservation of apoptosis mechanisms: Lepidopteran and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Evolutionary conservation of apoptosis mechanisms: Lepidopteran and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis proteins are inhibitors of mammalian caspase-9 Qihong Huang* , Quinn L. Deveraux , Susumu Maeda Institute, Program on Apoptosis and Cell Death Regulation, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037

  12. Optimization of a pre-MEKC separation SPE procedure for steroid molecules in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ol?dzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Dziomba, Szymon; Szmudanowski, Piotr; B?czek, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Many steroid hormones can be considered as potential biomarkers and their determination in body fluids can create opportunities for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases and disorders of the human body. Most existing methods for the determination of steroids are usually time- and labor-consuming and quite costly. Therefore, the aim of analytical laboratories is to develop a new, relatively low-cost and rapid implementation methodology for their determination in biological samples. Due to the fact that there is little literature data on concentrations of steroid hormones in urine samples, we have made attempts at the electrophoretic determination of these compounds. For this purpose, an extraction procedure for the optimized separation and simultaneous determination of seven steroid hormones in urine samples has been investigated. The isolation of analytes from biological samples was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane and compared to solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18 and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) columns. To separate all the analytes a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK) technique was employed. For full separation of all the analytes a running buffer (pH 9.2), composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 10% methanol was selected. The methodology developed in this work for the determination of steroid hormones meets all the requirements of analytical methods. The applicability of the method has been confirmed for the analysis of urine samples collected from volunteers--both men and women (students, amateur bodybuilders, using and not applying steroid doping). The data obtained during this work can be successfully used for further research on the determination of steroid hormones in urine samples. PMID:24232737

  13. Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro

    E-print Network

    You, Lidan

    Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro Wing-Yee Cheung,1: Osteocyte apoptosis, associated with reduced interstitial fluid flow, precedes osteoclast precursor. Totestthe associationbetweenfluidflow andosteocyte apoptosis,osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cellsweresubjectedto

  14. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 ?mol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P < 0.05) and decreased the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Honokiol down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. PMID:21908486

  15. APOPTOSIS: Death by Crowd Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Hengartner (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; )

    1998-08-28

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Cells often die by way of a controlled suicide called apoptosis. The proteins most responsible for the deed are caspases, specific proteases that are carefully regulated in the cell so that they only become activated when absolutely necessary. In his Perspective, Hengartner discusss results reported by Yang et al. in the same issue on how some of the central caspases responsible for cell death, such as CED-3, are activated by oligomerization, a process that is regulated by the anti-death protein CED-9, a member of the large Bcl-2 family.

  16. Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgwardt, Derek S.; Martin, Aaron D.; van Hemert, Jonathan R.; Yang, Jianyi; Fischer, Carol L.; Recker, Erica N.; Nair, Prashant R.; Vidva, Robinson; Chandrashekaraiah, Shwetha; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Drake, David; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Vali, Shireen; Zhang, Yang; Brogden, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9 ?M and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0 ?M. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0 ?M histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02 ?M HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, and TNF? responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation.

  17. Effects of different light conditions on repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and different light conditions on the repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta) in laboratory experiments. Carpospores were treated daily with different doses of UV-B radiation for 48 days, when vertical branches had formed in all treatments; after each daily treatment, the carpospores were subjected to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), darkness, red light, or blue light during a 2-h repair stage. Carpospore diameters were measured every 4 days. We measured the growth and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in carpospores on Day 48. Low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) accelerated the growth of C. ocellatus. However, as the amount of UV-B radiation increased, the growth rate decreased and morphological changes occurred. UV-B radiation significant damaged DNA and photosynthetic pigments and induced three kind of MAAs, palythine, asterina-330, and shinorine. PAR conditions were best for repairing UV-B-induced damage. Darkness promoted the activity of the DNA darkrepair mechanism. Red light enhanced phycoerythrin synthesis but inhibited light repair of DNA. Although blue light, increased the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency, the growth and development of C. ocellatus carpospores were slower than in other light treatments.

  18. CELL BIOLOGY: Apoptosis--the Calcium Connection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicolas Demaurex (University of Geneva Medical Center; Department of Physiology)

    2003-04-04

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Calcium ions are crucial to many cellular processes including apoptosis. In their Perspective, Demaurex and Distelhorst explain new work that shows how calcium ions flowing between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria regulate programmed cell death, highlighting the ER as a new gateway to apoptosis (Scorrano et al.).

  19. Apoptosis in immune-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Sankari, S Leena; Babu, N Aravindha; Rajesh, E; Kasthuri, M

    2015-04-01

    Apoptosis plays a significant role in both the physiological and pathological process. A dysfunctional apoptotic system can lead to either excessive removal or prolonged survival of cells. Therefore, dysregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of immunological diseases. The present review aims to provide an overview regarding role of apoptosis in immune-mediated disease. PMID:26015710

  20. Proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovsky, B; Burgess, D H; Schlegel, J; Pörn, M I; Vanags, D; Orrenius, S

    1997-01-01

    Involvement of a unique family of cysteine proteases in the multistep apoptotic process has been documented. Cloning of several mammalian genes identifies some components of this cellular response. However, it is currently unclear which protease plays a role as a signal and/or effector of apoptosis. We summarize contributions to the data concerning proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis. PMID:9015753

  1. Apoptosis of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Glaucoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W Nickells

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis is a genetically controlled form of cell death that ganglion cells undergo during normal development of the retina and in diseases affecting the optic nerve, such as glaucoma. This mechanism of cell death is controlled by specific genes and their products that are activated in the dying cell. To date, the mechanism of ganglion cell apoptosis is poorly understood,

  2. Serine\\/Threonine Protein Kinases and Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. Cross; Dagmar Scheel-Toellner; Nick V. Henriquez; Elizabeth Deacon; Mike Salmon; Janet M. Lord

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has increased greatly, with the identification of some of the major components of the apoptotic programme and the processes regulating their activation. Although apoptosis is an intrinsic process present in all cells, it can be regulated by extrinsic factors, including hormones, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and cellular

  3. Apoptosis in myocardial ischaemia and infarction

    PubMed Central

    Krijnen, P A J; Nijmeijer, R; Meijer, C J L M; Visser, C A; Hack, C E; Niessen, H W M

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, in addition to necrosis, apoptosis also plays a role in the process of tissue damage after myocardial infarction, which has pathological and therapeutic implications. This review article will discuss studies in which the role and mechanisms of apoptosis in myocardial infarction were analysed in vivo and in vitro in humans and in animals. PMID:12401816

  4. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Reduces Neutrophil Apoptosis In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Scaife; Zerai Woldehiwet; C. Anthony Hart; Steven W. Edwards

    2003-01-01

    Ovine neutrophils spontaneously underwent apoptosis during culture in vitro, as assessed by morphological changes and exposure of annexin V binding sites on their cell surfaces. The addition of conditioned medium from concanavalin A-treated ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could partially protect against this progression into apoptosis, but dexamethasone and sodium butyrate could not. Actinomycin D accelerated the rate at

  5. Apoptosis in mammalian oocytes: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Ali, Irfan; Singh, Arvind K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99 % of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1 % of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals. PMID:25958165

  6. Partial equilibrium approximations in Apoptosis

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ya-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the most basic biological processes. In apoptosis, tens of species are involved in many biochemical reactions with times scales of widely differing orders of magnitude. By the law of mass action, the process is mathematically described with a large and stiff system of ODEs (ordinary differential equations). The goal of this work is to simplify such systems of ODEs with the PEA (partial equilibrium approximation) method. In doing so, we propose a general framework of the PEA method together with some conditions, under which the PEA method can be justified rigorously. The main condition is the principle of detailed balance for fast reactions as a whole. With the justified method as a tool, we made many attempts via numerical tests to simplify the Fas-signaling pathway model due to Hua et al. (2005) and found that nine of reactions therein can be well regarded as relatively fast. This paper reports our simplification of Hua at el.'s model with the PEA method based on the fastness of the nine ...

  7. Regulation of apoptosis by heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Donna; Jäger, Richard; Mosser, Dick D; Samali, Afshin

    2014-05-01

    Thermotolerance, the acquired resistance of cells to stress, is a well-established phenomenon. Studies of the key mediators of this response, the heat shock proteins (HSPs), have led to the discovery of the important roles played by these proteins in the regulation of apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis is critical for normal tissue homeostasis and is involved in diverse processes including development and immune clearance. Apoptosis is tightly regulated by both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors, and dysregulation of apoptosis plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. In the recent years, HSPs have been identified as key determinants of cell survival, which can modulate apoptosis by directly interacting with components of the apoptotic machinery. Therefore, manipulation of the HSPs could represent a viable strategy for the treatment of diseases. Here, we review the current knowledge with regard to the mechanisms of HSP-mediated regulation of apoptosis. PMID:24861574

  8. Discrete and continuum simulations of near-field ground motion from Source Physics Experiments (SPE) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 100 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments in a granitic formation. One of the main goals of these experiments is to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. SPE experiments revealed significant tangential motion (up to 30 % of the magnitude in the radial direction) at many locations. Furthermore, azimuthal variations in radial velocities were also observed which cannot be generated by a spherical source in isotropic materials. Understanding the nature of this non-radial motion is important for discriminating between the natural seismicity and underground explosions signatures. Possible mechanisms leading to such motion include, but not limited to, heterogeneities in the rock such as joints, faults and geologic layers as well as surface topography and vertical motion at the surface caused by material spall and gravity. We have performed a three dimensional computational studies considering all these effects. Both discrete and continuum methods have been employed to model heterogeneities. In the discrete method, the joints and faults were represented by cohesive contact elements. This enables us to examine various friction laws at the joints which include softening, dilatancy, water saturation and rate-dependent friction. Yet this approach requires the mesh to be aligned with joints, which may present technical difficulties in three dimensions when multiple non-persistent joints are present. In addition, the discrete method is more computationally expensive. The continuum approach assumes that the joints are stiff and the dilatancy and shear softening can be neglected. In this approach, the joints are modeled as weakness planes within the material, which are imbedded into and pass through many finite elements. The advantage of this approach is that it requires neither sophisticated meshing algorithms nor contact detection algorithm. It is also suitable for evaluating the bounds of possible shear motion due to uncertainties in the joints distribution. Details of this uncertainty quantification study are presented in a separate abstract (Vorobiev, et.al). In the present work using both the continuum and the discrete approaches we study the effects of the surface spall, in-situ stress and joint orientation on the observed near-field motion. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed for different burial depths and yields to investigate scalability of both radial and shear motions. The motion calculated in the near-field is then propagated into a far field. Results of the far field study are presented in an accompanied work (Pitarka, et al). This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Preparation of malathion MIP-SPE and its application in environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hai Gen; Zhu, Jian Xin; Zhan, Chun Rui; Shi, Lei; Xing, Ming; Guo, Ping; Ding, Yuan; Yang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide for controlling insects on fruits and vegetables, miscellaneous household insects, and animal parasites. It is important to develop highly efficient and selective pre-treatment method for analyzing malathion residues in environment and samples from agricultural products based on the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). In this study, we developed a tailor-made MIP method with highly specific recognization to the template. The MIPs were prepared using malathion as a template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinker, azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator, and the acetonitrile-chloroform (1:1, v/v) as a porogen. The molecular recognization mechanism of malathion and MAA was evaluated by molecular simulation, ultraviolet spectrometry (UV), and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR). MAA interacted specifically with malathion by hydrogen bond with a ratio of 2:1. The MIPs exhibit a high affinity, recognition specificity, and efficient adsorption performance for malathion. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface area and porosimeter analyzer, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer (TG/DTA) were used to characterize the properties of MIP. The malathion residues in soil, tap water, and cabbage were cleaned up by MIP-SPE, detected quantitatively using GC-FPD, and confirmed by GC-MS/MS. The limits of tap water, soil, and cabbage were confined to 0.001 mg L(-1), 0.004 and 0.004 mg kg(-1), respectively. The spiked recoveries of malathion were 96.06-111.49 % (with RSD being 5.7-9.2 %), 98.13-103.83 % (RSD, 3.5-8.7 %), and 84.94-93.69 % (RSD, 4.7-5.8 %) for tap water, soil, and cabbage samples, respectively. Thus, the method developed here can be used effectively in assessing malathion residues in multiple environmental samples. The aim of the study was to provide an efficient, selective, and accurate method for analyzing malathion at trace levels in multiple media. PMID:26038320

  10. Destruxin B Isolated from Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Induces Apoptosis via a Bcl-2 Family-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway in Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun-Chi; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Liu, Bing-Lan; Wu, Li-Chen; Chen, Yung-Ching; Tzeng, Yew-Min; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Destruxin B, isolated from entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, is one of the cyclodepsipeptides with insecticidal and anticancer activities. In this study, destruxin B was extracted and purified by ion-exchange chromatography, silica gel chromatography, and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The potential anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms of destruxin B in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines were characterized. Our results showed that destruxin B induced apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. This event was accompanied by the activation of caspase-2, -3, and -9. Moreover, destruxin B increased the expression level of proapoptotic molecule, PUMA, while decreased antiapoptotic molecule Mcl-1. Additionally, the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondrial membrane was observed upon destruxin B treatment. Knockdown of Bax by shRNA effectively attenuated destruxin-B-triggered apoptosis in A549 cells. Interestingly, similar toxic effects and underlying mechanisms including caspase activation, upregulation of PUMA, and downregulation of Mcl-1 were also observed in a p53-null lung cancer H1299 cell line upon destruxin B treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that destruxin-B-induced apoptosis in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells is via a Bcl-2 family-dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24204395

  11. Development of colorimetric solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) for in-flight Monitoring of spacecraft Water Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Bryan Gazda

    2004-12-19

    Although having recently been extremely successful gathering data on the surface of Mars, robotic missions are not an effective substitute for the insight and knowledge about our solar system that can be gained though first-hand exploration. Earlier this year, President Bush presented a ''new course'' for the U.S. space program that shifts NASA's focus to the development of new manned space vehicles to the return of humans to the moon. Re-establishing the human presence on the moon will eventually lead to humans permanently living and working in space and also serve as a possible launch point for missions into deeper space. There are several obstacles to the realization of these goals, most notably the lack of life support and environmental regeneration and monitoring hardware capable of functioning on long duration spaceflight. In the case of the latter, past experience on the International Space Station (ISS), Mir, and the Space Shuttle has strongly underscored the need to develop broad spectrum in-flight chemical sensors that: (1) meet current environmental monitoring requirements on ISS as well as projected requirements for future missions, and (2) enable the in-situ acquisition and analysis of analytical data in order to further define on-orbit monitoring requirements. Additionally, systems must be designed to account for factors unique to on-orbit deployment such as crew time availability, payload restrictions, material consumption, and effective operation in microgravity. This dissertation focuses on the development, ground testing, and microgravity flight demonstration of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a candidate technology to meet the near- and long-term water quality monitoring needs of NASA. The introduction will elaborate further on the operational and design requirements for on-orbit water quality monitoring systems by discussing some of the characteristics of an ''ideal'' system. A description of C-SPE and how the individual components of the platform are combined to satisfy many of these requirements is then presented, along with a literature review on the applications of C-SPE and similar sorption-spectrophotometric techniques. Finally, a brief overview of diffuse reflection spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function, which are used to quantify analytes via C-SPE, is presented.

  12. DOE/NV/25946--1586 Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, M.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Prothro, L.; Reed, D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE N1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 0.1 ton of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE N2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1.0 ton of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE N3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE N2, and at the same depth as SPE N2, within the damage zone created by the SPE N2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE N2 shot and prior to the SPE N3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE N2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE N2 core hole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories for measurement of physical and mechanical properties. A video was also run in the source hole after it was cleaned out. A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the angle core hole between 5.7 and 7.5 m from the shot point. However, several of the fractures observed in the core hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. The fractures are characterized by a "fresh," mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets; they are common starting at about 5.4 m from the shot point. Within about 3.3 m of the shot point to the end of the recovered core at 1.6 m from the shot point, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. The tumor suppressor DAL-1/4.1B and protein methylation cooperate in inducing apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Newsham, Irene F

    2006-01-01

    Background DAL-1 (Differentially Expressed in Adenocarcinoma of the Lung)/4.1B is a member of the protein 4.1 superfamily that has been shown to suppress growth in lung, breast and brain tumor cells. In the case of the caspase-3 deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells, this growth suppression has been shown to be partially mediated by the induction of apoptosis. However the exact mechanism of action of DAL-1/4.1B is unknown. Recently, protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) was identified as a DAL-1/4.1B interacting protein. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) posttranslationally methylate the arginine residues of proteins, a modification which has been implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular processes including nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, signal transduction, and transcription. Results To investigate the role of protein methylation in cell death induced by DAL-1/4.1B, DAL-1/4.1B-inducible MCF-7 cells were examined for apoptosis and caspase activation in the absence and presence of the protein methylation inhibitor adenosine dialdehyde (AdOX). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that apoptosis was primarily associated with the activation of caspase 8, and inhibition of this activation blocked the ability of DAL-1/4.1B to induce cell death. Conclusion These results suggest that protein methylation cooperates with DAL-1/4.1B-associated caspase 8-specific activation to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. PMID:16420693

  14. Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic or G-CSF as Potential Countermeasures for Impaired Control of Bacterial Infection Associated with an SPE Exposure during Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghong; Holmes, Veronica; Ni, Houping; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew

    2015-01-01

    A major risk for astronauts during prolonged space flight is infection as a result of the combined effects of microgravity, situational and confinement stress, alterations in food intake, altered circadian rhythm, and radiation that can significantly impair the immune system and the body’s defense systems. We previously reported a massive increase in morbidity with a decrease in the ability to control a bacterial challenge when mice were maintained under hindlimb suspension (HS) conditions and exposed to solar particle event (SPE)-like radiation. HS and SPE-like radiation treatment alone resulted in a borderline significant increase in morbidity. Therefore, development and testing of countermeasures that can be used during extended space missions in the setting of exposure to SPE radiation becomes a serious need. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of enrofloxacin (an orally bioavailable antibiotic) and Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (Neulasta) on enhancing resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice subjected to HS and SPE-like radiation. The results revealed that treatment with enrofloxacin or G-CSF enhanced bacterial clearance and significantly decreased morbidity and mortality in challenged mice exposed to suspension and radiation. These results establish that antibiotics, such as enrofloxacin, and G-CSF could be effective countermeasures to decrease the risk of bacterial infections after exposure to SPE radiation during extended space flight, thereby reducing both the risk to the crew and the danger of mission failure. PMID:25793272

  15. Biofilm formation by group A Streptococcus: a role for the streptococcal regulator of virulence (Srv) and streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB).

    PubMed

    Doern, Christopher D; Roberts, Amity L; Hong, Wenzhou; Nelson, Jessica; Lukomski, Slawomir; Swords, William E; Reid, Sean D

    2009-01-01

    Recently, biofilms have become a topic of interest in the study of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). In this study, we sought to learn more about the make-up of these structures and gain insight into biofilm regulation. Enzymic studies indicated that biofilm formation by GAS strain MGAS5005 required an extracellular protein and DNA component(s). Previous results indicated that inactivation of the transcriptional regulator Srv in MGAS5005 resulted in a significant decrease in virulence. Here, inactivation of Srv also resulted in a significant decrease in biofilm formation under both static and flow conditions. Given that production of the extracellular cysteine protease SpeB is increased in the srv mutant, we tested the hypothesis that increased levels of active SpeB may be responsible for the reduction in biofilm formation. Western immunoblot analysis indicated that SpeB was absent from MGAS5005 biofilms. Complementation of MGAS5005Deltasrv restored the biofilm phenotype and eliminated the overproduction of active SpeB. Inhibition of SpeB with E64 also restored the MGAS5005Deltasrv biofilm to wild-type levels. PMID:19118345

  16. Posttraumatic Chondrocyte Apoptosis in the Murine Xiphoid

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Christopher G.; Eisner, Eric; McGlynn, Margaret; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate posttraumatic chondrocyte apoptosis in the murine xiphoid after a crush-type injury and to ultimately determine the pathway (i.e., intrinsic or extrinsic) by which chondrocytes undergo apoptosis in response to mechanical injury. Design: The xiphoids of adult female wild-type mice were injured with the use of a modified Kelly clamp. Postinjury xiphoid cartilage was analyzed via 3 well-described independent means of assessing apoptosis in chondrocytes: hematoxylin and eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and activated caspase-3 staining. Results: Injured specimens contained many chondrocytes with evidence of apoptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and the liberation of apoptotic bodies. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of chondrocytes undergoing apoptosis in the injured specimens as compared with the uninjured specimens. Conclusions: Chondrocytes can be stimulated to undergo apoptosis as a result of mechanical injury. These experiments involving predominantly cartilaginous murine xiphoid in vivo establish a baseline for future investigations that employ the genetic and therapeutic modulation of chondrocyte apoptosis in response to mechanical injury.

  17. Asymmetric Divisions, Aggresomes and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Singhvi, Aakanksha; Garriga, Gian

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a fundamental process used to generate cell diversity during metazoan development and occurs when a cell divides to generate daughter cells that adopt distinct fates(Horvitz and Herskowitz, 1992; Knoblich, 2001). Stem cell division is also a type of ACD and provides a source of new cells during development and in adult animals. Some ACDs produce a daughter cell that dies. The logic of why a cell divides to generate a dying daughter remains elusive. Recently it was shown that denatured proteins are segregated asymmetrically during cell division, We review recent data that provides interesting insights into how apoptosis is regulated during ACD and speculate on potential connections between ACD-induced cell death and partitioning of denatured proteins. We discuss potential mechanisms for this link and what it may imply for development and disease in metazoans. PMID:19091567

  18. Asymmetric divisions, aggresomes and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Aakanksha; Garriga, Gian

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a fundamental process used to generate cell diversity during metazoan development that occurs when a cell divides to generate daughter cells adopting distinct fates. Stem cell divisions, for example, are a type of ACD and provide a source of new cells during development and in adult animals. Some ACDs produce a daughter cell that dies. In many cases, the reason why a cell divides to generate a dying daughter remains elusive. It was shown recently that denatured proteins are segregated asymmetrically during cell division. Here, we review data that provide interesting insights into how apoptosis is regulated during ACD and speculate on potential connections between ACD-induced cell death and partitioning of denatured proteins. PMID:19091567

  19. APOPTOSIS: Death of a Monopoly?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stéphane Hunot (Yale University School of Medicine; Section of Immunobiology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

    2001-05-04

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Hunot and Flavell discuss recent findings in Nature by Joza et al. that point to the existence of a new sort of cell death. Cell death is required during the development of an organism to remove portions of the body that will not be needed; this cell death usually requires destructive enzymes called caspases to perform the final demolition of the cell. But cavitation, an early developmental process in the mouse embryo that requires cell death, has now been suggested to occur through a caspase-independent pathway that instead uses a mitochondrial protein called AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor).

  20. Assessment of constituents in Allium by multivariate data analysis, high-resolution ?-glucosidase inhibition assay and HPLC-SPE-NMR.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jeppe S; Nyberg, Nils T; Staerk, Dan

    2014-10-15

    Bulbs and leaves of 35 Allium species and cultivars bought or collected in 2010-2012 were investigated with multivariate data analysis, high-resolution ?-glucosidase inhibition assays and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR with the aim of exploring the potential of Allium as a future functional food for management of type 2 diabetes. It was found that 30 out of 106 crude extracts showed more than 80% inhibition of the ?-glucosidase enzyme at a concentration of 40mg/mL (dry sample) or 0.4g/mL (fresh sample). High-resolution ?-glucosidase biochromatograms of these extracts allowed fast identification of three analytes with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR experiments allowed identification of these as N-p-coumaroyloctopamine, N-p-coumaroyltyramine, and quercetin. The distribution of these three compounds was mapped for all samples by HPLC-ESI-HRMS. Unsupervised principal component analysis of samples from 2012 indicated that a major difference between fresh material and dried material is the increased amount of quercetin, a known ?-glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:24837940

  1. A Caspase-Related Protease Regulates Apoptosis in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Madeo; Eva Herker; Corinna Maldener; Silke Wissing; Stephan Lächelt; Mark Herlan; Markus Fehr; Kirsten Lauber; Stephan J Sigrist; Sebastian Wesselborg; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

    2002-01-01

    Yeast can undergo cell death accompanied by cellular markers of apoptosis. However, orthologs of classical mammalian apoptosis regulators appeared to be missing from the yeast genome, challenging a common mechanism of yeast and mammalian apoptosis. Here we investigate Yor197w, a yeast protein with structural homology to mammalian caspases, and demonstrate caspase-like processing of the protein. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces apoptosis

  2. Global Sequencing of Proteolytic Cleavage Sites in Apoptosis by

    E-print Network

    Sali, Andrej

    Resource Global Sequencing of Proteolytic Cleavage Sites in Apoptosis by Specific Labeling this method to study apoptosis, we have sequenced 333 caspase-like cleavage sites distributed among 292 to elicit apoptosis. INTRODUCTION Apoptosis is a noninflammatory form of cell death that regulates tissue

  3. Apoptosis in the repair process of experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Shimizu; Hiroshi Kitamura; Yukinari Masuda; Masamichi Ishizaki; Yuichi Sugisaki; Nobuaki Yamanaka

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis in the repair process of experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis. The recovery from the proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) with reduction of hypercellularity is known in various experimental and human GN. To elucidate the participation of apoptosis in GN, we studied the experimental Thy-1.1 GN for six weeks. Apoptosis was recognized by both light and electron microscopy, and the biochemical expression of apoptosis

  4. Induction of germline apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lant, Benjamin; Derry, W Brent

    2014-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an incredibly powerful tool for rapid and efficient knockdown of gene expression. This technology can be used to induce apoptosis in the germline of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genotoxic stressors such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light, chemical mutagens (e.g., N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea [ENU]), and DNA cross-linking reagents can also be used to stimulate apoptosis. These approaches, described here, combined with the powers of in vivo imaging methods, should keep C. elegans apoptosis researchers busy for several years, sorting out how various signaling pathways influence life and death decisions in this organism. PMID:24591690

  5. Drug Resistance and Molecular Cancer Therapy: Apoptosis Versus Autophagy

    E-print Network

    Marquez, Rebecca T.; Tsao, Bryan W.; Faust, Nicholas F.; Xu, Liang

    2013-04-15

    2. Apoptosis pathways Cancer cells can acquire apoptosis-resistance during treatment by up-regulating multiple pro-survival factors, such as inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), nuclear factor-?B (NF- ?B), and the B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2... and proliferation by inhibiting caspase activation, IAP-antagonist binding, or by acting as critical mediators of the NF-?B pathway. Figure 1. Extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. The extrinsic (death receptor) apoptosis pathway is induced...

  6. Autophagy and apoptosis in liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kewei

    2015-06-01

    Apoptosis is a primary characteristic in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Hepatic apoptosis is regulated by autophagic activity. However, mechanisms mediating their interaction remain to be determined. Basal level of autophagy ensures the physiological turnover of old and damaged organelles. Autophagy also is an adaptive response under stressful conditions. Autophagy can control cell fate through different cross-talk signals. A complex interplay between hepatic autophagy and apoptosis determines the degree of hepatic apoptosis and the progression of liver disease as demonstrated by pre-clinical models and clinical trials. This review summarizes recent advances on roles of autophagy that plays in pathophysiology of liver. The autophagic pathway can be a novel therapeutic target for liver disease. PMID:25927598

  7. Regulation of apoptosis by peroxisome proliferators.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ruth A; Michel, Cecile; Coyle, Beth; Freathy, Caroline; Cain, Kelvin; Boitier, Eric

    2004-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) constitute a large and chemically diverse family of non-genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogens that activate the PP-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). In order to investigate the hypothesis that PPs elicit their carcinogenic effects through the suppression of apoptosis, we established an in vitro assay for apoptosis using both primary rat hepatocytes and the FaO rat hepatoma cell line. Apoptosis was induced by transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), the physiological negative regulator of liver growth. In this system, PPs could suppress both spontaneous and TGFbeta1-induced apoptosis. In order to understand the mechanisms of this regulation of apoptosis, we conducted microarray analysis followed by pathway-specific gene clustering in TGFbeta1-treated cells. After treatment, 76 genes were up-regulated and 185 were down-regulated more than 1.5-fold. Cluster analysis of up-regulated genes revealed three clusters, A-C. Cluster A (4h) was associated with 12% apoptosis and consisted of genes mainly of the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix such as troponin and the proteoglycan SDC4. In cluster B (8h; 25% apoptosis), there were many pro- and anti-apoptotic genes such as XIAP, BAK1 and BAD, whereas at 16h (40% apoptosis) the regulated genes were mainly those of the cellular stress pathways such as the genes implicated in the activation of the transcription factor NFkappab. Genes found down-regulated in response to TGFbeta1 were mainly those associated with oxidative stress and several genes implicated in glutathione production and maintenance. Thus, TGFbeta1 may induce apoptosis via a down regulation of oxidant defence leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The ability of PPs to impact on these apoptosis pathways remains to be determined. To approach this question, we have developed a technique using laser capture microdissection of livers treated with the PP, clofibric acid coupled with gene expression array analysis. Results show that some of the key steps of the LCM process had an impact on the gene profiles generated. However, this did not preclude accurate determination of a PP-specific molecular signature. Thus, the choice of appropriate controls will ensure that meaningful gene expression analyses can be performed on tissue microdissected from the foci generated in clofibric acid treated livers. These data will allow the identification of specific genes that are regulated by PPs leading to changes in apoptosis and ultimately to tumours. PMID:15093246

  8. Regulating apoptosis in mammalian cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilou Arden; M. J. Betenbaugh

    2006-01-01

    Cell culture technology has become a widely accepted method used to derive therapeutic and diagnostic protein products. Mammalian\\u000a cells adapted to grow in bioreactors now play an integral role in the development of these biologicals. A major limiting factor\\u000a determining the output efficiency of mammalian cell cultures however, is apoptosis or programmed cell death. Methods to delay\\u000a apoptosis and increase

  9. Apoptosis in Cancer Biology and Cancer Therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Fulda

    Most anticancer therapies commonly used in the treatment of human cancer, e.g., chemotherapy, ?-irradiation, immunotherapy,\\u000a or suicide gene therapy, kill tumor cells by triggering cell death pathways including apoptosis in cancer cells. Hence, the\\u000a failure to activate such pathways may lead to the resistance of cancers to current treatment approaches. A better understanding\\u000a of the molecular events that regulate apoptosis

  10. The Role of Cytokines in Monocyte Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-D. Flad; E. Grage-Griebenow; F. Petersen; B. Scheuerer; E. Brandt; J. Baran; J. Pryjma; M. Ernst

    1999-01-01

    Survival or apoptosis, activation and differentiation, phagocytosis and antigen presentation, migration or participation in granuloma formation are features of freshly recruited blood-borne monocytes in the local environment. In this presentation we describe that human monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis in vitro which involves Fas\\/FasL interactions, and that proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-1? and granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factor prevent spontaneous

  11. Activation of Human Herpesvirus Replication by Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Alka; Remick, Jill

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of herpesvirus biology is the ability of herpesviruses to remain latent within host cells. Classically, exposure to inducing agents, like activating cytokines or phorbol esters that stimulate host cell signal transduction events, and epigenetic agents (e.g., butyrate) was thought to end latency. We recently showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]) has another, alternative emergency escape replication pathway that is triggered when KSHV's host cell undergoes apoptosis, characterized by the lack of a requirement for the replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein, accelerated late gene kinetics, and production of virus with decreased infectivity. Caspase-3 is necessary and sufficient to initiate the alternative replication program. HSV-1 was also recently shown to initiate replication in response to host cell apoptosis. These observations suggested that an alternative apoptosis-triggered replication program might be a general feature of herpesvirus biology and that apoptosis-initiated herpesvirus replication may have clinical implications, particularly for herpesviruses that almost universally infect humans. To explore whether an alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program is a common feature of herpesvirus biology, we studied cell lines latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, and KSHV. We found that apoptosis triggers replication for each HHV studied, with caspase-3 being necessary and sufficient for HHV replication. An alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program appears to be a common feature of HHV biology. We also found that commonly used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents activate HHV replication, which suggests that treatments that promote apoptosis may lead to activation of latent herpesviruses, with potential clinical significance. PMID:23885073

  12. Magnolol induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiun-Han Chen; Chin-Chen Wu; George Hsiao; Mao-Hsiung Yen

    2003-01-01

    Magnolol, an active component extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has various pharmacological effects, including potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of magnolol on apoptosis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), using terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL) and flow cytometric analysis. Magnolol (5–20 µM) concentration-dependently induced significant VSMC apoptosis, this effect being blocked by the

  13. Experimental design for TBT quantification by isotope dilution SPE-GC-ICP-MS under the European water framework directive.

    PubMed

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fabbri, Barbara; Fettig, Ina; Yardin, Catherine; Del Castillo Busto, Maria Estela; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Fisicaro, Paola

    2015-03-01

    In Europe the maximum allowable concentration for tributyltin (TBT) compounds in surface water has been regulated by the water framework directive (WFD) and daughter directive that impose a limit of 0.2 ng L(-1) in whole water (as tributyltin cation). Despite the large number of different methodologies for the quantification of organotin species developed in the last two decades, standardised analytical methods at required concentration level do not exist. TBT quantification at picogram level requires efficient and accurate sample preparation and preconcentration, and maximum care to avoid blank contamination. To meet the WFD requirement, a method for the quantification of TBT in mineral water at environmental quality standard (EQS) level, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), was developed and optimised. The quantification was done using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) followed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical process was optimised using a design of experiment (DOE) based on a factorial fractionary plan. The DOE allowed to evaluate 3 qualitative factors (type of stationary phase and eluent, phase mass and eluent volume, pH and analyte ethylation procedure) for a total of 13 levels studied, and a sample volume in the range of 250-1000 mL. Four different models fitting the results were defined and evaluated with statistic tools: one of them was selected and optimised to find the best procedural conditions. C18 phase was found to be the best stationary phase for SPE experiments. The 4 solvents tested with C18, the pH and ethylation conditions, the mass of the phases, the volume of the eluents and the sample volume can all be optimal, but depending on their respective combination. For that reason, the equation of the model conceived in this work is a useful decisional tool for the planning of experiments, because it can be applied to predict the TBT mass fraction recovery when the experimental conditions are drawn. This work shows that SPE is a convenient technique for TBT pre-concentration at pico-trace levels and a robust approach: in fact (i) number of different experimental conditions led to satisfactory results and (ii) the participation of two institutes to the experimental work did not impact the developed model. PMID:25618710

  14. Response surface methodology applied to SPE for the determination of ibuprofen in various types of water samples.

    PubMed

    Paíga, Paula; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a growing concern about the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The main objective of this study was to develop and validate an SPE method using surface response methodology for the determination of ibuprofen in different types of water samples. The influence of sample pH and sample volume on the ibuprofen recovery was studied. The effect of each studied independent variable is pronounced on the dependent variable (ibuprofen recovery). Good selectivity, extraction efficiency, and precision were achieved using 600 mL of sample volume with the pH adjusted to 2.2. LC with fluorescence detection was employed. The optimized method was applied to 20 water samples from the North and South of Portugal. PMID:23907765

  15. Advantages of on-line SPE coupled with UPLC/MS/MS1 for determining the fate of pesticides and2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Advantages of on-line SPE coupled with UPLC/MS/MS1 for determining the fate of pesticides and2 techniques were validated for both 18 pesticides22 and their degradates and 17 pharmaceuticals for pesticides and24 metabolites have been obtained, with linearity range up to 1 µg.L-1.The limits of25

  16. Effect of SPE-like proton or photon radiation on the kinetics of mouse peripheral blood cells and radiation biological effectiveness determinations.

    PubMed

    Romero-Weaver, A L; Wan, X S; Diffenderfer, E S; Lin, L; Kennedy, A R

    2013-06-01

    Exploration missions outside low-Earth orbit are being planned; therefore, it is critical to understand the risk astronauts would be exposed to in the space environment, especially during extravehicular activities (EVAs). Reductions in white blood cell (WBC) numbers can occur as a result of exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the duration of the effects on blood cell numbers from exposure to a single whole-body dose of SPE-like proton radiation or photon radiation as well as to determine the radiation biological effectiveness (RBE) values at those times when radiation exposure causes blood cell numbers to experience the most critical effects when using mice as a model. Our results indicate that both types of radiation cause significant reductions in the numbers of all blood cell types at different times post-irradiation. The RBE values were not significantly different from 1.0. These results indicate that the risk estimations for astronauts from exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation are comparable to those previously made for doses of standard reference radiations, suggesting that countermeasures should be developed for the decreases in blood cell counts observed following the exposure of mice to SPE radiation. PMID:23980767

  17. Physics-based Reconstruction of Sedimentary Rocks Guodong Jin, UC Berkeley; Tad W. Patzek, SPE, UC Berkeley / Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and Dmitry B. Silin,

    E-print Network

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    SPE 83587 Physics-based Reconstruction of Sedimentary Rocks Guodong Jin, UC Berkeley; Tad W. Patzek that reconstructs nu- merically the geometrical structure and mechanical prop- erties of natural sedimentary rocks and compaction, and the diagenetic rock transformations; and (2) it reproduces the mechani- cal rock properties

  18. Structural features of a zinc binding site in the superantigen strepococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1): implications for MHC class II recognition.

    PubMed

    Baker, M; Gutman, D M; Papageorgiou, A C; Collins, C M; Acharya, K R

    2001-06-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) is produced by Streptococcus pyogenes, and has been associated with severe infections such as scarlet fever and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS). In this study, the crystal structure of SpeA1 (the product of speA allele 1) in the presence of 2.5 mM zinc was determined at 2.8 A resolution. The protein crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with four molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The final structure has a crystallographic R-factor of 21.4% for 7,031 protein atoms, 143 water molecules, and 4 zinc atoms (one zinc atom per molecule). Four protein ligands-Glu 33, Asp 77, His 106, and His 110-form a zinc binding site that is similar to the one observed in a related superantigen, staphylococcoal enterotoxin C2. Mutant toxin forms substituting Ala for each of the zinc binding residues were generated. The affinity of these mutants for zinc ion confirms the composition of this metal binding site. The implications of zinc binding to SpeA1 for MHC class II recognition are explored using a molecular modeling approach. The results indicate that, despite their common overall architecture, superantigens appear to have multiple ways of complex formation with MHC class II molecules. PMID:11369867

  19. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    SciTech Connect

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W. (Scripps)

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  20. Modeling Leakage through Faults of CO2 Stored in an Aquifer Kyung Won Chang,* Susan E. Minkoff,** and Steven L. Bryant,* SPE

    E-print Network

    Minkoff, Susan E.

    SPE 115929 Modeling Leakage through Faults of CO2 Stored in an Aquifer Kyung Won Chang,* Susan E ­ overlying strata that are impervious to CO2 ­ is an important factor. Geologic structures, notably faults and the damage zones surrounding them may provide a conduit for CO2 to escape through a cap. If the fault

  1. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    PubMed Central

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 ? resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC50 values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products. PMID:22645124

  2. Development of an ultra fast online-solid phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS)

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Development of an ultra fast online-solid phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) based approach for the determination of drugs in pharmacokinetic number of samples for pharmacokinetic (PK) studies are essential in drug development. Analysis of drug

  3. Seismic source functions from free-field ground motions recorded on SPE: Implications for source models of small, shallow explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougier, Esteban; Patton, Howard J.

    2015-05-01

    Reduced displacement potentials (RDPs) for chemical explosions of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) in granite at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site are estimated from free-field ground motion recordings. Far-field P wave source functions are proportional to the time derivative of RDPs. Frequency domain comparisons between measured source functions and model predictions show that high-frequency amplitudes roll off as ?- 2, but models fail to predict the observed seismic moment, corner frequency, and spectral overshoot. All three features are fit satisfactorily for the SPE-2 test after cavity radius Rc is reduced by 12%, elastic radius is reduced by 58%, and peak-to-static pressure ratio on the elastic radius is increased by 100%, all with respect to the Mueller-Murphy model modified with the Denny-Johnson Rc scaling law. A large discrepancy is found between the cavity volume inferred from RDPs and the volume estimated from laser scans of the emplacement hole. The measurements imply a scaled Rc of ~5 m/kt1/3, more than a factor of 2 smaller than nuclear explosions. Less than 25% of the seismic moment can be attributed to cavity formation. A breakdown of the incompressibility assumption due to shear dilatancy of the source medium around the cavity is the likely explanation. New formulas are developed for volume changes due to medium bulking (or compaction). A 0.04% decrease of average density inside the elastic radius accounts for the missing volumetric moment. Assuming incompressibility, established Rc scaling laws predicted the moment reasonable well, but it was only fortuitous because dilation of the source medium compensated for the small cavity volume.

  4. Solamargine triggers hepatoma cell death through apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    XIE, XIAODONG; ZHU, HAITAO; YANG, HUIJIAN; HUANG, WENSI; WU, YINGYING; WANG, YING; LUO, YANLING; WANG, DONGQING; SHAO, GENBAO

    2015-01-01

    Solamargine (SM), a steroidal alkaloid glycoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Solanum incanum, has been evidenced to inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis in a number of human cancer cell lines. In the present study, the anticancer effect of SM and underlying molecular mechanism of SM-induced apoptosis were investigated on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, SMMC7721 and HepG2. The proliferation effects of SM on the SMMC7721 and HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using MTT and colony formation assays. In addition, the percentage of apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V/propidium iodide staining method and the cell cycle distribution mediated by SM was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, caspase-9, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and Ki67 proteins were examined to further demonstrate the proliferate and apoptosis effects of SM on the hepatoma cells. The results indicated that SM effectively inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. SM resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the two cell lines. In addition, SM downregulated the levels of proliferation-associated (Ki67 and pcna) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, and promoted the activity of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9). Therefore, the activation of the Bcl-2/Bax and caspase signaling pathways may be involved in the SM-induced apoptosis of hepatoma cells. PMID:26170994

  5. Dichloroacetate Induces Apoptosis in Endometrial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason Y.Y.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Debidda, Marcella; Munshi, Nikhil C.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A recent landmark study demonstrated that Dichloroacetate (DCA) treatment promoted apoptosis in lung, breast, and glioblastoma cancer cell lines by shifting metabolism from aerobic glycolysis to glucose oxidation coupled with NFAT-Kv1.5 axis remodeling. The objective of this study was to determine whether DCA induces apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells and to assess apoptotic mechanism. Methods A panel of endometrial cancer cell lines with varying degrees of differentiation was treated with DCA and analyzed for apoptosis via flow cytometry. Biological correlates such as gene expression, intracellular Ca2+, and mitochondrial membrane potential were examined to assess apoptotic mechanism. Results Initiation of apoptosis was observed in five low to moderately invasive cancer cell lines including Ishikawa, RL95-2, KLE, AN3CA, and SKUT1B while treatment had no effect on non-cancerous 293T cells. Two highly invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines, HEC1A and HEC1B, were found to be resistant to DCA induced apoptosis. Apoptotic responding cell lines had a significant increase in early and late apoptotis, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased Survivin transcript abundance, which are consistent with a mitochondrial-regulated mechanism. DCA treatment decreased intracellular calcium levels in most apoptotic responding cell lines which suggests a contribution from the NFAT-Kv1.5-mediated pathway. DCA treatment increased p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) transcripts in cell lines with an apoptotic response, suggesting involvement of a p53-PUMA-mediated mechanism. Conclusions Dichloroacetate effectively sensitizes most endometrial cancer cell lines to apoptosis via mitochondrial, NFAT-Kv1.5, and PUMA mediated mechanisms. Further investigation of the cancer therapeutic potential of DCA is warranted. PMID:18423823

  6. An adaptationist view of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    LeGrand, E K

    1997-06-01

    A cell's decision whether to undergo apoptosis (cell suicide) is examined here from an adaptationist perspective, rather than a mechanistic one. External and internal inputs to the cell's protein-based information processing network are used in making this decision, with the cell factoring in its replaceability. A system in which each cell takes primary responsibility for deciding its own fate has great adaptive value because it harnesses each cell's self-knowledge rather than waiting for external cues to be recognized by other cells. Cell self-destruction can be an important selective mechanism, potentially leading to better performance of tissues over time. However, reliance on cells to monitor themselves has a flaw, since cells may incur selfish mutations that impair their apoptotic responsibility. The tight control exerted over somatic cells serves to check selfish genes involved in neoplasia and viral infections. Germ cells appear to be similarly monitored, both by other germ cells and by supporting follicular or Sertoli cells, thus maintaining the advantages offered by an apoptotic system. The adaptationist approach views the limited replacement of neurons and cardiac myocytes as likely to have net survival value. The linkage of these cells into a network with their neighbors throughout a lifetime allows for a precisely functioning team of cells expected to compensate for gradual declines in individual cell functionality. Replacement of apoptotic cells with naive cells might decrease brain functionality and might risk upsetting the conduction of cardiac impulses. The evolutionary viewpoint lends itself to new hypotheses, but only the boldest speculator would have predicted a system in which cells are given primary responsibility for deciding whether to kill themselves when they deem it beneficial to the organism. PMID:9178547

  7. NF-?B-induced microRNA-31 promotes epidermal hyperplasia by repressing protein phosphatase 6 in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Lou, Fangzhou; Zhang, Lingyun; Ke, Fang; Bai, Jing; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Liu, Jinlin; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Huiyuan; Sun, Yang; Cai, Wei; Gao, Yuanyuan; Su, Bing; Li, Qun; Yang, Xiao; Yu, Jianxiu; Lai, Yuping; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Zheng, Yan; Shen, Nan; Chin, Y Eugene; Wang, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    NF-?B is constitutively activated in psoriatic epidermis. However, how activated NF-?B promotes keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriasis is largely unknown. Here we report that the NF-?B activation triggered by inflammatory cytokines induces the transcription of microRNA (miRNA) miR-31, one of the most dynamic miRNAs identified in the skin of psoriatic patients and mouse models. The genetic deficiency of miR-31 in keratinocytes inhibits their hyperproliferation, decreases acanthosis and reduces the disease severity in psoriasis mouse models. Furthermore, protein phosphatase 6 (ppp6c), a negative regulator that restricts the G1 to S phase progression, is diminished in human psoriatic epidermis and is directly targeted by miR-31. The inhibition of ppp6c is functionally important for miR-31-mediated biological effects. Moreover, NF-?B activation inhibits ppp6c expression directly through the induction of miR-31, and enhances keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, our data identify NF-?B-induced miR-31 and its target, ppp6c, as critical factors for the hyperproliferation of epidermis in psoriasis. PMID:26138368

  8. Antiviral signaling protein MITA acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by regulating NF-?B induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Bhatelia, Khyati; Singh, Aru; Tomar, Dhanendra; Singh, Kritarth; Sripada, Lakshmi; Chagtoo, Megha; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Godbole, Madan M; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    Emerging evidences suggest that chronic inflammation is one of the major causes of tumorigenesis. The role of inflammation in regulation of breast cancer progression is not well established. Recently Mediator of IRF3 Activation (MITA) protein has been identified that regulates NF-?B and IFN pathways. Role of MITA in the context of inflammation and cancer progression has not been investigated. In the current report, we studied the role of MITA in the regulation of cross talk between cell death and inflammation in breast cancer cells. The expression of MITA was significantly lower on in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cells than ER negative cells. Similarly, it was significantly down regulated in tumor tissue as compared to the normal tissue. The overexpression of MITA in MCF-7 and T47D decreases the cell proliferation and increases the cell death by activation of caspases. MITA positively regulates NF-?B transcription factor, which is essential for MITA induced cell death. The activation of NF-?B induces TNF-? production which further sensitizes MITA induced cell death by activation of death receptor pathway through capsase-8. MITA expression decreases the colony forming units and migration ability of MCF-7 cells. Thus, our finding suggests that MITA acts as a tumor suppressor which is down regulated during tumorigenesis providing survival advantage to tumor cell. PMID:24239807

  9. NF-?B-inducing kinase is a key regulator of inflammation-induced and tumour-associated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Noort, Ae R; van Zoest, Katinka PM; Weijers, Ester M; Koolwijk, Pieter; Maracle, Chrissta X; Novack, Deborah V; Siemerink, Martin J; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Tak, Paul P; Tas, Sander W

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential during development and in pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Inhibition of angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blocks disease progression, but most patients eventually develop resistance which may result from compensatory signalling pathways. In endothelial cells (ECs), expression of the pro-angiogenic chemokine CXCL12 is regulated by non-canonical nuclear factor (NF)-?B signalling. Here, we report that NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) and subsequent non-canonical NF-?B signalling regulate both inflammation-induced and tumour-associated angiogenesis. NIK is highly expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) in tumour tissues and inflamed rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Furthermore, non-canonical NF-?B signalling in human microvascular ECs significantly enhanced vascular tube formation, which was completely blocked by siRNA targeting NIK. Interestingly, Nik?/? mice exhibited normal angiogenesis during development and unaltered TNF?- or VEGF-induced angiogenic responses, whereas angiogenesis induced by non-canonical NF-?B stimuli was significantly reduced. In addition, angiogenesis in experimental arthritis and a murine tumour model was severely impaired in these mice. These studies provide evidence for a role of non-canonical NF-?B signalling in pathological angiogenesis, and identify NIK as a potential therapeutic target in chronic inflammatory diseases and tumour neoangiogenesis. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25043127

  10. Nitric Oxide Functions as a Signal in Ultraviolet-B-Induced Baicalin Accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Jie; Li, Xue-Qin; Sun, Jun-Wei; Jin, Song-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation stimulates the accumulation of various secondary metabolites in plants. Nitric oxide (NO) serves as an important secondary messenger in UV-B stress-induced signal transduction pathways. NO can be synthesized in plants by either enzymatic catalysis or an inorganic nitrogen pathway. The effects of UV-B irradiation on the production of baicalin and the associated molecular pathways in plant cells are poorly understood. In this study, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, NO release and the generation of baicalin were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis exposed to UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation significantly increased NOS activity, NO release and baicalin biosynthesis in S. baicalensis cells. Additionally, exogenous NO supplied by the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), led to a similar increase in the baicalin content as the UV-B treatment. The NOS inhibitor, N?-nitro-l-arginine (LNNA), and NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) partially inhibited UV-B-induced NO release and baicalin accumulation. These results suggest that NO is generated by NOS or NOS-like enzymes and plays an important role in baicalin biosynthesis as part of the defense response of S. baicalensis cells to UV-B irradiation. PMID:24646913

  11. NF-?B-induced microRNA-31 promotes epidermal hyperplasia by repressing protein phosphatase 6 in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Lou, Fangzhou; Zhang, Lingyun; Ke, Fang; Bai, Jing; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Liu, Jinlin; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Huiyuan; Sun, Yang; Cai, Wei; Gao, Yuanyuan; Su, Bing; Li, Qun; Yang, Xiao; Yu, Jianxiu; Lai, Yuping; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Zheng, Yan; Shen, Nan; Chin, Y. Eugene; Wang, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    NF-?B is constitutively activated in psoriatic epidermis. However, how activated NF-?B promotes keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriasis is largely unknown. Here we report that the NF-?B activation triggered by inflammatory cytokines induces the transcription of microRNA (miRNA) miR-31, one of the most dynamic miRNAs identified in the skin of psoriatic patients and mouse models. The genetic deficiency of miR-31 in keratinocytes inhibits their hyperproliferation, decreases acanthosis and reduces the disease severity in psoriasis mouse models. Furthermore, protein phosphatase 6 (ppp6c), a negative regulator that restricts the G1 to S phase progression, is diminished in human psoriatic epidermis and is directly targeted by miR-31. The inhibition of ppp6c is functionally important for miR-31-mediated biological effects. Moreover, NF-?B activation inhibits ppp6c expression directly through the induction of miR-31, and enhances keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, our data identify NF-?B-induced miR-31 and its target, ppp6c, as critical factors for the hyperproliferation of epidermis in psoriasis. PMID:26138368

  12. Liquid Metering Centrifuge Sticks (LMCS): A Centrifugal Approach to Metering Known Sample Volumes for Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Clarke, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Phase separation is one of the most significant obstacles encountered during the development of analytical methods for water quality monitoring in spacecraft environments. Removing air bubbles from water samples prior to analysis is a routine task on earth; however, in the absence of gravity, this routine task becomes extremely difficult. This paper details the development and initial ground testing of liquid metering centrifuge sticks (LMCS), devices designed to collect and meter a known volume of bubble-free water in microgravity. The LMCS uses centrifugal force to eliminate entrapped air and reproducibly meter liquid sample volumes for analysis with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE). C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform that is being developed as a potential spacecraft water quality monitoring system. C-SPE utilizes solid phase extraction membranes impregnated with analyte-specific colorimetric reagents to concentrate and complex target analytes in spacecraft water samples. The mass of analyte extracted from the water sample is determined using diffuse reflectance (DR) data collected from the membrane surface and an analyte-specific calibration curve. The analyte concentration can then be calculated from the mass of extracted analyte and the volume of the sample analyzed. Previous flight experiments conducted in microgravity conditions aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft demonstrated that the inability to collect and meter a known volume of water using a syringe was a limiting factor in the accuracy of C-SPE measurements. Herein, results obtained from ground based C-SPE experiments using ionic silver as a test analyte and either the LMCS or syringes for sample metering are compared to evaluate the performance of the LMCS. These results indicate very good agreement between the two sample metering methods and clearly illustrate the potential of utilizing centrifugal forces to achieve phase separation and metering of water samples in microgravity.

  13. Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A J; Wagoner, J; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2010-11-07

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published material properties for the major lithologic units of the NNSS and surrounding region were used to build three-dimensional models for seismic wave propagation simulations. The geologic structure near the SPE shot point is quite varied including granitic, carbonate, tuff and alluvium lithologies. We performed preliminary ground motion simulations for a near-source domain covering 8 km x 8 km at the surface centered on the shot point to investigate various source and propagation effects using WPP, LLNL's anelastic seismic wave finite difference code. Simulations indicate that variations in wave propagation properties of the sub-surface will generate strongly path-dependent response once the energy has left the relatively small granitic geology of the near-surface Climax Stock near the SPE shot point. Rough topography to the north and west of SPE shot point causes additional complexity in the signals including energy on the transverse components. Waves propagate much faster through the granitic and carbonate formations and slower through the tuff and alluvium. Synthetic seismograms for a pure explosion source in a 3D geologic structure show large amplitudes on transverse component. For paths to the south sampling the granite, tuff and alluvium lithologies transverse component amplitudes are as high as 50% of that on the vertical and radial components.

  14. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ??m. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  15. Cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy induced by iminosugars on K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingjing; Zhou, Yifa; Wang, Guan-Nan; Tai, Guihua; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2014-05-15

    Iminosugars have gained a remarkable importance as new therapeutic agents since 1966. In this study, compounds A and B, two iminosugar analogs synthesized previously, showed an inhibition of the growth of K562 cells. They allowed cell cycle arrested at the G0/G1 phase, promoted apoptotic activities and also lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further exploration of the apoptosis mechanism revealed that compound B significantly suppressed the expression of Hsp70, which is a major anti-apoptotic molecular chaperone. Significant decrease was also found in the expression of Akt, a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with anti-apoptosis activities also known as protein kinase B (PKB). At mitochondria level in comparison with compound A, compound B brought a better promotion in the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bad in Bcl-2 family. As a result of the promotion, the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL was down-regulated. Cytochrome c was released, activating the intrinsic signaling pathways of caspase and resulting in the occurrence of cascade reaction. In addition, compound B stimulated autophagy effectively by up-regulating Beclin 1, thus causing the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II through Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In summary, these results indicated that compounds A and B induced cell death through multiple pathways. The disclosed results not only provide an evidence of antitumor activity of iminosugars as a foundation for further studies, but also may find potential applications in chronic myeloid leukemia therapy as new heat shock protein inhibitors and autophagy inducer. PMID:24657462

  16. Apoptosis: role in myeloid cell development

    PubMed Central

    Sarvothaman, Shilpa; Undi, Ram Babu; Pasupuleti, Satya Ratan; Gutti, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is the process that generates blood cells in an organism from the pluripotent stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are characterized by their ability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation. The self-renewing ability ensures that these pluripotent cells are not depleted from the bone marrow niche. A proper balance between cell death and cell survival is necessary to maintain a homeostatic condition, hence, apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential step in hematopoiesis. Recent studies, however, have introduced a new aspect to this process, citing the significance of the apoptosis mediator, caspase, in cell development and differentiation. Extensive research has been carried out to study the possible role of caspases and other apoptosis related factors in the developmental processes. This review focuses on the various apoptotic factors involved in the development and differentiation of myeloid lineage cells: erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and macrophages. PMID:26157776

  17. Lipid Metabolism, Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunfa; Freter, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:25561239

  18. The role of testicular germ cell apoptosis during equine spermatogenesis 

    E-print Network

    Heninger, Noah Leland, III

    2007-04-25

    Apoptosis in testicular germ cells has been demonstrated in many species. Features of apoptosis reported in other species were used to confirm use of the TUNEL assay in stallion testes. Eight stallions with normal testicular size and semen quality...

  19. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  20. T Cell Apoptosis in Human Heart Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoffen, Els; Van Wichen, Dick F.; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Broekhuizen, Richard A.J.F.; Bruggink, Annette H.; De Boer, Mark; De Jonge, Nicolaas; Kirkels, Hans; Slootweg, Piet J.; Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H.J.; De Weger, Roel A.

    1998-01-01

    It is unclear whether the intracardial immune reactivity after heart transplantation influences the peripheral immunological status (activation or nonresponsiveness) of the patient. Co-stimulation and activation-induced cell death (AICD) or apoptosis play an important role in determining the balance between lymphocyte reactivity and nonreactivity. Therefore, we studied the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and the process of apoptosis in biopsies of human heart allografts, using immunohistochemistry. Although a normal expression of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells was observed, the expression of their counter-structures on T cells was absent. This may be due to chronic T cell activation, which can lead to the induction of apoptosis via the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. In the infiltrates, a considerable percentage of the lymphocytes, but not the macrophages, were apoptotic. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis. Increased numbers of Bax-expressing versus decreased numbers of Bcl2-expressing lymphocytes in comparison with normal lymphoid tissue confirmed a imbalance in favor of apoptosis. Apoptosis was biased towards CD4+ T cells (65.7% versus 26.6% in CD8+ T cells). Fas was expressed on most of the infiltrating cells. Fas ligand expression was also observed, not only on most of the T cells but also on all macrophages. Because macrophages were often detected in close contact with T cells, they may play a role in T cell regulation via the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. This study indicates that, during rejection, not only is tissue damage induced by infiltrating T cells, but also the infiltrating lymphocytes themselves are actively down-regulated (eg, AICD) by one another and by macrophages in the infiltrate. This regulatory process may affect the immunological status of the patient after heart transplantation. PMID:9846972

  1. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lyssavirus-Induced Apoptosis? †

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Alireza; Kassis, Raïd; Real, Eléonore; Delmas, Olivier; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Larrous, Florence; Obach, Dorothée; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Jacob, Yves; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Lyssaviruses are highly neurotropic viruses associated with neuronal apoptosis. Previous observations have indicated that the matrix proteins (M) of some lyssaviruses induce strong neuronal apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this phenomenon is still unknown. We show that for Mokola virus (MOK), a lyssavirus of low pathogenicity, the M (M-MOK) targets mitochondria, disrupts the mitochondrial morphology, and induces apoptosis. Our analysis of truncated M-MOK mutants suggests that the information required for efficient mitochondrial targeting and dysfunction, as well as caspase-9 activation and apoptosis, is held between residues 46 and 110 of M-MOK. We used a yeast two-hybrid approach, a coimmunoprecipitation assay, and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that M-MOK physically associates with the subunit I of the cytochrome c (cyt-c) oxidase (CcO) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; this is in contrast to the M of the highly pathogenic Thailand lyssavirus (M-THA). M-MOK expression induces a significant decrease in CcO activity, which is not the case with M-THA. M-MOK mutations (K77R and N81E) resulting in a similar sequence to M-THA at positions 77 and 81 annul cyt-c release and apoptosis and restore CcO activity. As expected, the reverse mutations, R77K and E81N, introduced in M-THA induce a phenotype similar to that due to M-MOK. These features indicate a novel mechanism for energy depletion during lyssavirus-induced apoptosis. PMID:18321977

  2. Apoptosis Gene Information System--AGIS.

    PubMed

    Sakharkar, Kishore R; Clement, Marie V; Chow, Vincent T K; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2006-01-01

    Genes implicated in apoptosis have great relevance to biology, medicine and oncology. Here, we describe a unique resource, Apoptosis Gene Information System (AGIS) that provides data for over 2400 genes involved directly or indirectly, in apoptotic pathways of more than 350 different organisms. The organization of this information system is based on the principle of one-gene, one record. AGIS will be updated on a six monthly basis as new information becomes available. AGIS can be accessed at: http://www.cellfate.org/AGIS/. PMID:16368558

  3. APOPTOSIS: Mitochondria--the Death Signal Integrators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Brenner (Institut Gustave Roussy; Université de Technologie de Compiègne; Apoptosis, Cancer and Immunity Laboratory associated with the National League Against Cancer)

    2000-08-18

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Many of the intricate pathways of apoptosis that instruct a cell to kill itself involve the convergence of key proteins on the membranes of mitochondria. Such proteins induce the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes and the release of caspase enzymes and nuclease activators that set in motion the final stages of programmed cell death. Now, as Brenner and Kroemer discuss in their Perspective, a proapoptotic transcription factor called TR3 has been found to move from its normal location in the nucleus to the mitochondria and to promote release of cytochrome c, a key event in apoptosis (Li et al.)

  4. Apoptosis in animal models of virus-induced disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. Tyler; Penny Clarke

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is associated with virus-induced human diseases of the central nervous system, heart and liver, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although virus-induced apoptosis is well characterized in individual cells in cell culture, virus-induced apoptosis in vivo and the role of apoptosis in virus-induced disease is not well established. This Review focuses on animal models of virus-induced diseases of the

  5. Costimulatory Pathways Mediate Monocyte-Dependent Lymphocyte Apoptosis in HIV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy E. Lewis; Derek S. Ng Tang; Xiaoping Wang; Claudia Kozinetz

    1999-01-01

    Examination of annexin V binding, an indicator of early apoptosis, on lymphocytes from HIV+people immediately after isolation showed that both CD4+and CD8+T cells were apoptotic, whereas B cell apoptosis was induced mainly after incubation. CD8+T cell apoptosis correlated with fewer CD4+T cells, but not the level of viremia. To determine potential mechanisms for apoptosis, we examined FasL expression, which was

  6. DDM1 and ROS1 have a role in UV-B induced- and oxidative DNA damage in A. thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Qüesta, Julia I.; Fina, Julieta P.; Casati, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of UV-B by DNA induces the formation of covalent bonds between adjacent pyrimidines. In maize and arabidopsis, plants deficient in chromatin remodeling show increased DNA damage compared to WT plants after a UV-B treatment. However, the role of enzymes that participate in DNA methylation in DNA repair after UV-B damage was not previously investigated. In this work, we analyzed how chromatin remodeling activities that have an effect on DNA methylation affects the repair of UV-B damaged DNA using plants deficient in the expression of DDM1 and ROS1. First, we analyzed their regulation by UV-B radiation in arabidopsis plants. Then, we demonstrated that ddm1 mutants accumulated more DNA damage after UV-B exposure compared to Col0 plants. Surprisingly, ros1 mutants show less CPDs and 6-4PPs than WT plants after the treatment under light conditions, while the repair under dark conditions is impaired. Transcripts for two photolyases are highly induced by UV-B in ros1 mutants, suggesting that the lower accumulation of photoproducts by UV-B is due to increased photorepair in these mutants. Finally, we demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage does not occur after UV-B exposure in arabidopsis plants; however, ros1 plants accumulate high levels of oxoproducts, while ddm1 mutants have less oxoproducts than Col0 plants, suggesting that both ROS1 and DDM1 have a role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Together, our data provide evidence that both DDM1 and ROS1, directly or indirectly, participate in UV-B induced- and oxidative DNA damage repair. PMID:24155752

  7. Zinc pyrithione induces apoptosis and increases expression of Bim

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Mann; P. J. Fraker

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that zinc pyrithione can induce apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations. Zinc pyrithione was a potent inducer of cell death causing greater than 40–60% apoptosis among murine thymocytes, murine splenic lymphocytes and human Ramos B and human Jurkat T cells. Conversely, the addition of a zinc chelator protected thymocytes against zinc pyrithione induced apoptosis indicating these responses were specific

  8. Caspases in apoptosis and beyond J Li and J Yuan

    E-print Network

    REVIEW Caspases in apoptosis and beyond J Li and J Yuan Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical an explosion of research activities toward the understanding of molecular mechanisms of apoptosis. During of human diseases. Oncogene (2008) 27, 6194­6206; doi:10.1038/onc.2008.297 Keywords: caspase; apoptosis

  9. Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is ancestral in metazoans

    E-print Network

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is ancestral in metazoans Cheryl E. Bendera,b , Patrick Pellettierif , Alejandro Sánchez Alvaradog,h , Guy S. Salvesena , and Douglas R. Greenc,1 a Apoptosis and Cell 16, 2011) The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is the major mechanism of physiological cell death

  10. Apoptosis 2001; 6: 453462 C 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ziwei

    Apoptosis 2001; 6: 453­462 C 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers Synthetic peptides and non-peptidic molecules as probes of structure and function of Bcl-2 family proteins and modulators of apoptosis D. Liu of proteins that play an essential role in regulating apoptosis or pro- grammed cell death. Members

  11. Plasmin on adherent cells: from microvesiculation to apoptosis Loc Doeuvre*,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Plasmin on adherent cells: from microvesiculation to apoptosis Loïc Doeuvre*, , Laurent Plawinski@cyceron.fr Heading title: Cell activation by plasmin: microvesiculation, apoptosis inserm-00524993,version1-19Mar2011, microparticles, apoptosis, electron microscopy Abbreviations used: Microparticles: MPs Urokinase type plasminogen

  12. Gonadal cell apoptosis: hormone-regulated cell demise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Håkan Billig; Sang-Young Chun; Karen Eisenhauer; Aaron J. W. Hsueh

    1996-01-01

    It has become evident that apoptosis, an active form of cell 'suicide', plays an important role in the normal function of all tissues. A balance of cell proliferation and apoptosis is maintained in a healthy individual and any imbalance of the two processes could lead to pathological changes. In both sexes, massive apoptosis accounts for the demise of a majority

  13. Multiple anti-inflammatory pathways triggered by resveratrol lead to amelioration of staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inhalation of the superantigen,staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), leads to the activation of the host T and invariant natural killer (iNK) T cells, thereby resulting in acute lung inflammation and respiratory failure but the underlying mechanism(s) of disease remain elusive, with limited treatment options. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol, during SEB-induced lung inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SEB (50 µg·per mouse), administered intranasally, and were treated with resveratrol (100 mg·kg?1) before or after SEB exposure. Lung injury was studied by measuring vascular permeability, histopathological examination, nature of infiltrating cells, inflammatory cytokine induction in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), apoptosis in SEB-activated T cells and regulation of SIRT1 and NF-?B signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS Pretreatment and post-treatment with resveratrol significantly reduced SEB-induced pulmonary vascular permeability, and inflammation. Resveratrol significantly reduced lung infiltrating cells and attenuated the cytokine storm in SEB-exposed mice, which correlated with increased caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in SEB-activated T cells. Resveratrol treatment also markedly up-regulated Cd11b+ and Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that inhibited SEB-mediated T cell activation in vitro. In addition, resveratrol treatment was accompanied by up-regulation of SIRT1 and down-regulation of NF-?B in the inflammatory cells of the lungs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The current study demonstrates that resveratrol may constitute a novel therapeutic modality to prevent and treat SEB-induced lung inflammation inasmuch because it acts through several pathways to reduce pulmonary inflammation. PMID:22646800

  14. Simultaneous online SPE-LC-MS/MS quantification of six widely used synthetic progestins in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Moser, Christina; Zoderer, Daniela; Luef, Gerhard; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Wildt, Ludwig; Griesmacher, Andrea; Seger, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Co-administration of synthetic progestin containing hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a common clinical situation which needs specific considerations due to drug interactions. Several studies have demonstrated that lamotrigine plasma levels are significantly decreased during co-medication with HCs, and that this interaction is associated with increased seizure frequency in most of the cases. Additionally, an increase in contraceptive failure and unintended pregnancy could be observed during co-medication. Hence, monitoring of progestin plasma levels in patients with AED co-medication is of interest. A rapid and reliable online solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-MS/MS) method using gradient elution in the LC domain was established and validated for the simultaneous quantitative determination of gestodene, dienogest, drospirenone, etonogestrel, cyproterone acetate, and levonorgestrel in human plasma. The online SPE-LC-MS/MS method covered a quantification concentration range of 5-100 ng/ml for dienogest, 1-100 ng/ml for etonogestrel and 2-100 ng/ml for all other analytes. Stable isotope-labeled internal standards were used for analyte quantification based on selected reaction monitoring experiments. Inter- and intra-assay precision and accuracy were determined from quality control (QC) samples at the lower limits of quantification and at low, medium, and high concentration levels within the calibration range. Inter-assay reproducibility at the QC levels was better than 10% (relative standard deviation, RSD), accuracy at these levels ranged from -3.7% to 11.3%. Total extraction efficiency, tested at three concentrations, ranged from 92.5% to 106.4%. Matrix interferences were excluded by post-column infusion experiments. To prove the applicability of the assay in clinical cohorts, a sample set (n = 298) stemming from study patients under AED/oral HC co-medication was screened for progestin plasma levels. This method has to be considered a research-use-only assay and must not be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, since it did not undergo formal performance evaluation in the sense of the IVD directive (98/79/EG) of the European Community. PMID:22160205

  15. VASP Activation via the G?13/RhoA/PKA Pathway Mediates Cucurbitacin-B-Induced Actin Aggregation and Cofilin-Actin Rod Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Ting; Xu, Li-Hui; Lu, Qun; Liu, Kun-Peng; Liu, Pei-Yan; Ji, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a potent antineoplastic agent of cucurbitacin triterpenoids, induces rapid disruption of actin cytoskeleton and aberrant cell cycle inhibiting carcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of such anticancer effects remains incompletely understood. In this study, we showed that CuB treatment rapidly induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation (i.e. activation) at the Ser157 residue and generated VASP clumps which were co-localized with amorphous actin aggregates prior to the formation of highly-ordered cofilin-actin rods in melanoma cells. Knockdown of VASP or inhibition of VASP activation using PKA-specific inhibitor H89 suppressed CuB-induced VASP activation, actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation. The VASP activation was mediated by cAMP-independent PKA activation as CuB decreased the levels of cAMP while MDL12330A, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, had weak effect on VASP activation. Knockdown of either G?13 or RhoA not only suppressed VASP activation, but also ameliorated CuB-induced actin aggregation and abrogated cofilin-actin rod formation. Collectively, our studies highlighted that the CuB-induced actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation was mediated via the G?13/RhoA/PKA/VASP pathway. PMID:24691407

  16. VASP activation via the G?13/RhoA/PKA pathway mediates cucurbitacin-B-induced actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ting; Xu, Li-Hui; Lu, Qun; Liu, Kun-Peng; Liu, Pei-Yan; Ji, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a potent antineoplastic agent of cucurbitacin triterpenoids, induces rapid disruption of actin cytoskeleton and aberrant cell cycle inhibiting carcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of such anticancer effects remains incompletely understood. In this study, we showed that CuB treatment rapidly induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation (i.e. activation) at the Ser157 residue and generated VASP clumps which were co-localized with amorphous actin aggregates prior to the formation of highly-ordered cofilin-actin rods in melanoma cells. Knockdown of VASP or inhibition of VASP activation using PKA-specific inhibitor H89 suppressed CuB-induced VASP activation, actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation. The VASP activation was mediated by cAMP-independent PKA activation as CuB decreased the levels of cAMP while MDL12330A, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, had weak effect on VASP activation. Knockdown of either G?13 or RhoA not only suppressed VASP activation, but also ameliorated CuB-induced actin aggregation and abrogated cofilin-actin rod formation. Collectively, our studies highlighted that the CuB-induced actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation was mediated via the G?13/RhoA/PKA/VASP pathway. PMID:24691407

  17. Formation of cofilin-actin rods following cucurbitacin-B-induced actin aggregation depends on Slingshot homolog 1-mediated cofilin hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ting; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; Xu, Li-Hui; Zha, Qing-Bing; He, Xian-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cucurbitacin B (CuB), as well as other cucurbitacins, damages the actin cytoskeleton in a variety of cell types. However, the underlying mechanism of such an effect is not well understood. In this study, we showed that CuB rapidly induced actin aggregation followed by actin rod formation in melanoma cells. Cofilin, a critical regulator of actin dynamics, was dramatically dephosphorylated (i.e., activated) upon CuB treatment. Notably, the activated cofilin subsequently formed rod-like aggregates, which were highly colocalized with actin rods, indicating the formation of cofilin-actin rods. Cofilin knockdown significantly suppressed rod formation but did not prevent actin aggregation. Furthermore, knockdown of the cofilin phosphatase Slingshot homolog 1 (SSH1), but not chronophin (CIN), alleviated CuB-induced cofilin hyperactivation and cofilin-actin rod formation. The activity of Rho kinase and LIM kinase, two upstream regulators of cofilin activation, was downregulated after cofilin hyperactivation. Pretreatment with a thiol-containing reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, but not other ROS inhibitors without thiol groups, suppressed CuB-induced actin aggregation, cofilin hyperactivation and cofilin-actin rod formation, suggesting that thiol oxidation might be involved in these processes. Taken together, our results demonstrated that CuB-induced formation of cofilin-actin rods was mediated by SSH1-dependent but CIN-independent cofilin hyperactivation. PMID:23695982

  18. Curcumin enhances the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells: molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, migration and angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharmila Shankar; Qinghe Chen; Krishna Sarva; Imtiaz Siddiqui; Rakesh K Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that curcumin (a diferuloylmethane) inhibits growth and induces apoptosis, and also demonstrated that TRAIL induces apoptosis by binding to specific cell surface death receptors in prostate cancer cells. The objectives of this paper were to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin enhanced the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells. RESULTS: Curcumin enhanced

  19. Inhibition of apoptosis by intracellular protozoan parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker T. Heussler; Peter Küenzi; Sven Rottenberg

    2001-01-01

    Protozoan parasites which reside inside a host cell avoid direct destruction by the immune system of the host. The infected cell, however, still has the capacity to counteract the invasive pathogen by initiating its own death, a process which is called programmed cell death or apoptosis. Apoptotic cells are recognised and phagocytosed by macrophages and the parasite is potentially eliminated

  20. Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

    2004-01-01

    uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

  1. Induction of Apoptosis by Cancer Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Kaufmann; William C. Earnshaw

    2000-01-01

    Studies performed over the past five years have demonstrated that there are two major cell-intrinsic pathways for inducing apoptosis, one that begins with ligation of cell surface death receptors and another that involves mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. Several reports have suggested that anticancer drugs kill susceptible cells by inducing expression of death receptor ligands, especially Fas ligand (FasL). Other

  2. THE ROLE OF APOPTOSIS IN NEUROTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, occurs in the nervous system throughout development, but with a preponderance of cell death occurring during the prenatal and perinatal periods. Aberrant periods of increased or decreased cell death, induced by toxicants in air, water,...

  3. A novel method for detection of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zagariya, Alexander M

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use. PMID:22348877

  4. Microtubule-targeted anticancer agents and apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapil N Bhalla

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of microtubule (MT) assembly into the mitotic spindle during mitosis and the molecular signaling and execution of the various pathways to apoptosis. In the same period, the microtubule-targeted tubulin-polymerizing agents (MTPAs), notably paclitaxel and taxotere, have come to occupy a central role in the treatment

  5. Farnesol-Induced Apoptosis in Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Shirtliff; Bastiaan P. Krom; Roelien A. M. Meijering; Brian M. Peters; Jingsong Zhu; Mark A. Scheper; Megan L. Harris; Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

    2009-01-01

    Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid\\/sterol pathway, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Farnesol is involved in the inhibition of germination and biofilm formation by C. albicans and can be cytotoxic at certain concentrations. In addition, we have shown that farnesol can trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells via the classical apoptotic pathways.

  6. Increased placental apoptosis in intrauterine growth restriction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Smith; Philip N. Baker; E. Malcolm Symonds

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to investigate a possible role for apoptosis in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of intrauterine growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Placental samples were obtained from 43 uncomplicated third-trimester pregnancies and from 26 pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. The definition used to identify cases of intrauterine growth restriction depended on three criteria: clinical evidence of suboptimal growth, ultrasonographic evidence

  7. The Interferon Stimulated Gene 54 Promotes Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Stawowczyk, Marcin; Van Scoy, Sarah; Kumar, K. Prasanna; Reich, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of interferons (IFNs) to inhibit viral replication and cellular proliferation is well established, but the specific contribution of each IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) to these biological responses remains to be completely understood. In this report we demonstrate that ISG54, also known as IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (IFIT2), is a mediator of apoptosis. Expression of ISG54, independent of IFN stimulation, elicits apoptotic cell death. Cell death and apoptosis were quantified by propidium iodide uptake and annexin-V staining, respectively. The activation of caspase-3, a key mediator of the execution phase of apoptosis, was clearly apparent in cells expressing ISG54. The anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-xl (Bcl-xl) protein inhibited the apoptotic effects of ISG54 as did the anti-apoptotic adenoviral E1B-19K protein. In addition, ISG54 was not able to promote cell death in the absence of pro-apoptotic Bcl family members, Bax and Bak. Analyses of binding partners of ISG54 revealed association with two homologous proteins, ISG56/IFIT1 and ISG60/IFIT3. In addition, ISG60 binding negatively regulates the apoptotic effects of ISG54. The results reveal a previously unidentified role of ISG54 in the induction of apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and shed new light on the mechanism by which IFN elicits anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. PMID:21190939

  8. Calcium Signalling and the Regulation of Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Pörn-Ares; M. P. S. Ares; S. Orrenius

    1998-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies and phagocytosis (Kerr et al., 1972). At the molecular level, activation of a family of cysteine proteases, caspases, related to interleukin-1?-converting enzyme is believed to be a crucial event in apoptosis. This is associated with the proteolysis of nuclear and cytoskeletal proteins, cell shrinkage,

  9. Mitochondrial mechanisms of neural cell apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Polster; Gary Fiskum

    2004-01-01

    The importance of calcium overload, mitochondrial dysfunc- tion, and free radical generation to neuropathological pro- cesses has been recognized for many years. Only more recently has evidence accumulated that the programmed cell death process of apoptosis plays an integral role not only in the development of the nervous system, but in the loss of cells following acute neurological insults and

  10. Apoptosis and the yeast actin cytoskeleton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Leadsham; V N Kotiadis; D J Tarrant; C W Gourlay

    2010-01-01

    Actin represents one of the most abundant and extensively studied proteins found in eukaryotic cells. It has been identified as a major target for destruction during the process of apoptosis. Recent research has also highlighted a role for cytoskeletal components in the initiation and inhibition of apoptotic processes. The high degree of conservation that exists between actins from divergent eukaryotes,

  11. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  12. Apoptosis-based therapies and drug targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Fischer; K Schulze-Osthoff

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of many diseases is most closely connected with aberrantly regulated apoptotic cell death. The past 15 years have witnessed an explosion in the basic knowledge of mechanisms that regulate apoptosis and the mediators that either trigger or inhibit cell death. Consequently, great interest has emerged in devising therapeutic strategies for modulating the key molecules of life-and-death decisions. Numerous

  13. Apoptosis in caspase-inhibited neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Volbracht, C.; Leist, M.; Kolb, S. A.; Nicotera, P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of apoptosis in neurodegenerative disease. However, it is still unclear whether the pathological manifestations observed in slow neurodegenerative diseases are due to neuronal loss or whether they are related to independent degenerative events in the axodendritic network. It also remains elusive whether a single, caspase-based executing system involving caspases is responsible for neuronal loss by apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Long-term exposure to the microtubule-disassembling agent, colchicine, was used to disrupt the axodendritic network and eventually trigger caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in cultures of cerebellar granule cells. For this model, we investigated the role of Bcl-2 and caspases in neurite degeneration and death of neuronal somata. RESULTS: Early degeneration of the axodendritic network occurred by a Bcl-2 and caspase-independent mechanism. Conversely, apoptosis of the cell body was delayed by Bcl-2 and initially blocked by caspase inhibition. However, when caspase activity was entirely blocked by zVAD-fmk, colchicine-exposed neurons still underwent delayed cell death characterized by cytochrome c release, chromatin condensation to irregularly shaped clumps, DNA-fragmentation, and exposure of phosphatidylserine. Inhibitors of the proteasome reduced these caspase-independent apoptotic-like features of the neuronal soma. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that Bcl-2-dependent and caspase-mediated death programs account only partially for neurodegenerative changes in injured neurons. Blockage of the caspase execution machinery may only temporarily rescue damaged neurons and classical apoptotic features can still appear in caspase-inhibited neurons. PMID:11474126

  14. Delayed Neutrophil Apoptosis in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Boutet; D. Boulanger; L. Gillet; A. Vanderplasschen; R. Closset; F. Bureau; P. Lekeux

    2004-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis can be defined as a mod- eratedinflammatorydiseasecharacterizedbyapersis- tent accumulation of neutrophils in milk. As GMCSF- mediated delay of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of inflammation in many human diseases, we sought to determine whether subclinical mastitis in cows is also associated with a GMCSF-dependent increase in milk- neutrophil survival. We

  15. Male germ cell apoptosis: regulation and biology

    PubMed Central

    Shaha, Chandrima; Tripathi, Rakshamani; Mishra, Durga Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Cellular apoptosis appears to be a constant feature in the adult testis and during early development. This is essential because mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex process that requires precise homeostasis of different cell types. This review discusses the latest information available on male germ cell apoptosis induced by hormones, toxins and temperature in the context of the type of apoptotic pathway either the intrinsic or the extrinsic that may be used under a variety of stimuli. The review also discusses the importance of mechanisms pertaining to cellular apoptosis during testicular development, which is independent of exogenous stimuli. Since instances of germ cell carcinoma have increased over the past few decades, the current status of research on apoptotic pathways in teratocarcinoma cells is included. One other important aspect that is covered in this review is microRNA-mediated control of germ cell apoptosis, a field of research that is going to see intense activity in near future. Since knockout models of various kinds have been used to study many aspects of germ cell development, a comprehensive summary of literature on knockout mice used in reproduction studies is also provided. PMID:20403866

  16. Apoptosis: a different type of cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. GERSCHENSON; R. J. ROTELLO; MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Apoptosis is a type of cell death that plays an important role in early development and growth of normal adult tissues. It is regulated by physiological stimuli and is present in many species and tissues. The main morphological characteristics are nuclear fragmen- tation and cellular breakdown in apoptotic vesicles. In- ternucleosomal DNA fragmentation is an important bi- ochemical feature that

  17. Streptococcus pyogenes c-di-AMP Phosphodiesterase, GdpP, Influences SpeB Processing and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyu Hong; Kang, Song Ok

    2013-01-01

    Small cyclic nucleotide derivatives are employed as second messengers by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to regulate diverse cellular processes responding to various signals. In bacteria, c-di-AMP has been discovered most recently, and some Gram-positive pathogens including S. pyogenes use this cyclic nucleotide derivative as a second messenger instead of c-di-GMP, a well-studied important bacterial second messenger. GdpP, c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase, is responsible for degrading c-di-AMP inside cells, and the cellular role of GdpP in S. pyogenes has not been examined yet. To test the cellular role of GdpP, we created a strain with a nonpolar inframe deletion of the gdpP gene, and examined the properties of the strain including virulence. From this study, we demonstrated that GdpP influences the biogenesis of SpeB, the major secreted cysteine protease, at a post-translational level, susceptibility to the beta lactam antibiotic ampicillin, and is necessary for full virulence in a murine subcutaneous infection model. PMID:23869242

  18. Selective preconcentration of volatile mercaptans in small SPE cartridges: quantitative determination of trace odor-active polyfunctional mercaptans in wine.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2009-11-01

    A general procedure for the selective preconcentration and purification of mercaptans has been developed. Mercaptans are strongly retained in a small (20 mg) SPE cartridge containing p-hydroxymercurybenzoate. The cartridge can then be rinsed with relatively high volumes of polar (water/methanol mixtures) and non-polar (pentane or pentane/ether mixtures) rinsing solutions to remove nearly all volatile compounds lacking a thiol functionality. Retained analytes are further eluted with a small volume of an organic solvent containing 1,4-dithioerythritol. Some basic aspects of the strategy, such as the retention of p-hydroxymercurybenzoate in the sorbent and its stability versus different rinsing and eluting systems, have been studied in depth. Light sulfur compounds contained in water or wine, including mercaptans such as methanethiol or thioethers, such as diethyl sulfide, can be quantitatively extracted, although only mercaptans can be quantitatively recovered if a polar rinsing is applied. The strategy has been applied to the GC-MS quantitative determination of some trace polyfunctional mercaptans that are key aromas in wine, such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate or 3-mercaptohexanol. The developed method reaches detection limits in the ng/L range and has a satisfactory analytical behavior, being quite simple and fast. PMID:19813224

  19. SpeX: A Medium-Resolution 0.8-5.5 Micron Spectrograph and Imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Rayner; D. W. Toomey; P. M. Onaka; A. J. Denault; W. E. Stahlberger; W. D. Vacca; M. C. Cushing; S. Wang

    2003-01-01

    We present the design, construction, and performance of SpeX, a medium-resolution 0.8-5.5 mum cryogenic spectrograph and imager, now in operation at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. The design uses prism cross-dispersers and gratings to provide resolving powers up to R~2000 simultaneously across 0.8-2.4, 1.9-4.2, or 2.4-5.5 mum, with a 15\\

  20. Analysis of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, stimulant and antidepressant drugs in purified water from wastewater treatment plants using SPE-LC tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Afonso-Olivares; Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera; José J. Santana-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an effective sample preparation method for the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different therapeutic classes in purified water from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The target compounds include caffeine (stimulant), nicotine (stimulant), atenolol (beta blocker), metamizole (anti-inflammatory and analgesic), fluoxetine (antidepressant), paraxanthine (stimulant) and clofibric acid (lipid regulator). Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)

  1. Simultaneous Analysis of Hexaconazole, Myclobutanil, and Tebuconazole Residues in Apples and Soil by SPE Clean-Up and GC with Nitrogen–Phosphorus Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhubo Deng; Jiye Hu; Dongmei Qin; Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    A facile and sensitive method utilizing capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC–NPD) has been\\u000a developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of hexaconazole, myclobutanil, and tebuconazole, three broad-spectrum systemic\\u000a fungicides, in apples and soil. Two samples were fortified with the three pesticides and subjected to ultrasonic extraction,\\u000a followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) to remove coextractives, before analysis by GC–NPD.

  2. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in small volumes of human blood by high-throughput on-line SPE-LVI-GC-HRMS.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Nestola, Marco; Kohne, Matthias; Zinn, Peter; Wilhelm, Michael

    2014-01-15

    A fully automated and robust method featuring on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) and large volume injection (LVI) gas chromatographic (GC) high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, such as penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCBz, HxCBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)), with only 200?l of human blood, serum or plasma. After spiking the sample with (13)C-labeled internal standards and precipitating the proteins, the sample is passed through a 10mm×2.0mm ID SPE cartridge filled with C18 material that adsorbs the analytes. After washing and drying, the cartridge is extracted with hexane/dodecane (99/1, v/v); the extract is directly injected into a LVI where GC/HRMS analysis follows. The fully automated system utilizes a robotic autosampler and a modular SPE system including two high-pressure syringe pumps, an automatic SPE cartridge exchanger unit and 6 switchable valves. All sample preparation steps are performed within 20min during the GC run of a previous sample, limiting the throughput with only the GC runtime. The contents are quantified using the isotope dilution method. Due to laboratory air contamination problems, we achieved LOQs of 0.017 (PeCBz), 0.009 (HxCBz), 0.007 (HCH), 0.016 (DDE), while for the six indicator PCBs, we achieved values of 0.030 (PCB-28), 0.044 (PCB-52), 0.024 (PCB-101), 0.009 (PCB-138), 0.015 (PCB-153) and 0.008 (PCB-180)?g/l serum. Under clean laboratory air conditions, these values may be improved. This method is recommended when high throughput is desirable and/or only small amounts of material are available, such as during studies involving children. PMID:24361859

  3. Molecular mechanisms of liver injury: apoptosis or necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kewei

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic apoptosis is thought of as a prevalent mechanism in most forms of liver injury. However, the role of hepatic apoptosis is often intermixed with the cellular necrosis. It remains unknown how apoptosis is relevant to the progression of the liver injury. This review summarizes the characteristics of both hepatic apoptosis and necrosis in pathogenesis of liver diseases. Apoptosis and necrosis represent alternative outcomes of different etiology during liver injury. Apoptosis is a main mode of cell death in chronic viral hepatitis, but is intermingled with necrosis in cholestatic livers. Necrosis is the principal type of liver cell killing in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Anti-apoptosis as a strategy is beneficial to liver repair response. Therapeutic options of liver disease depend on the understanding toward pathogenic mechanisms of different etiology. PMID:24867271

  4. Direct rapid analysis of multiple PPCPs in municipal wastewater using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without SPE pre-concentration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2012-08-13

    Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to develop a rapid, sensitive and reliable method without solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration for trace analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in in?uent and ef?uent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This method not only shortened the analysis time but also reduced analysis cost significantly by omitting SPE process and avoiding the consumption of SPE cartridge. Detection parameters for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis were optimized, including sample pH, eluent, mobile phase (solvent and additive), column temperature, and ?ow rate. Under the optimal conditions, all analytes were well separated and detected within 8.0min by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method quantification limits (MQLs) for the 11 PPCPs ranged from 0.040 to 88ngL(-1) and from 0.030 to 90ngL(-1) for influent and effluent, respectively. The matrix effect was systematically investigated and quantified for different types of samples. The analysis of in?uent and ef?uent samples of two WWTPs in Hong Kong revealed the presence of 11 PPCPs, including acyclovir, benzophenone-3, benzylparaben, carbamazepine, ethylparaben, fluconazole, fluoxetine, methylparaben, metronidazole, propylparaben, and ranitidine. Their concentrations ranged from 9.1 to 1810ngL(-1) in influent and from 6.5 to 823ngL(-1) in effluent samples collected from Hong Kong WWTPs. PMID:22790701

  5. Development of a bioassay-coupled HPLC-SPE-ttNMR platform for identification of ?-glucosidase inhibitors in apple peel (Malus ×domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jeppe S; Lauridsen, Michael B; Dragsted, Lars O; Nielsen, John; Staerk, Dan

    2012-12-01

    This work describes an analytical platform based on a high-resolution ?-glucosidase inhibition assay in combination with hyphenation of high-performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction, and tube-transfer nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR/high-resolution ?-glucosidase assay. The platform enables fast screening for individual ?-glucosidase inhibitory analytes in complex matrices, followed by structural identification targeted these ?-glucosidase inhibitors, as demonstrated by a proof-of-concept study with extract of 'Pink Lady' apple peel. A scout-separation produced a high-resolution biochromatogram and a HPLC chromatogram, which were used for pinpointing HPLC peaks displaying ?-glucosidase inhibition. Active analytes were cumulatively trapped on SPE cartridges and the structures identified by (1)H NMR experiments obtained in the HPLC-SPE-ttNMR mode. (-)-Epicatechin (1), reynoutrin (3) and avicularin (4) were identified as active compounds. IC(50) of the active compounds were determined along with six structurally related compounds. Quercetin was the most potent inhibitor with an IC(50) of 8.1±0.4?M. The platform proved to be an efficient method for the identification of ?-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:22953911

  6. Combining HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR with circular dichroism for complete natural product characterization in crude extracts: levorotatory gossypol in Thespesia danis.

    PubMed

    Sprogøe, Kennett; Staek, Dan; Ziegler, Hanne L; Jensen, Thomas Høgh; Holm-Møller, Søren B; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2008-04-01

    Despite recent demonstration of the power of HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR (high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode-array detection-mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance) in structure determination of natural products directly from minute amounts of crude extracts, this technique leaves chirality of the compounds uncharacterized. In this work we demonstrate that postcolumn SPE is a useful method of analyte concentration and accumulation not only for NMR but also for CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy. Thus, use of HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR in combination with CD allowed rapid detection of ( R)-(-)-gossypol [( R)- 1] in Thespesia danis, providing a very rare example of the predominance of the levorotatory enantiomer of gossypol. Enantioselectivity of the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of gossypol was also demonstrated; the IC50 value of ( R)- 1 was 4.5 +/- 0.2 microM, with the eudismic ratio of about 2.5. No gossypol was detected in Gossypioides kirkii. PMID:18290629

  7. Simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs, and artificial sweeteners in environmental water samples using a single-step SPE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2013-09-15

    A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 24 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) was developed. The method was based on a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution. In this study, a single-step SPE procedure was optimized for simultaneous extraction of all target analytes. Good recoveries (? 70%) were observed for all target analytes when extraction was performed using Chromabond(®) HR-X (500 mg, 6 mL) cartridges under acidic condition (pH 2). HPLC-MS/MS parameters were optimized for the simultaneous analysis of 24 PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in a single injection. Quantification was performed by using 13 isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS), which allows correcting efficiently the loss of the analytes during SPE procedure, matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. Method quantification limit (MQL) for most of the target analytes was below 10 ng/L in all water samples. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater samples collected in a local catchment area in Singapore. In conclusion, the developed method provided a valuable tool for investigating the occurrence, behavior, transport, and the fate of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in the aquatic environment. PMID:23708627

  8. Application of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) to Monitoring Nickel(II) and Lead(II) in Spacecraft Water Supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Neil C.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.; Rutz, Jeff; Mudgett, Paul; Schultz, John

    2004-01-01

    Archived water samples collected on the International Space Station (ISS) and returned to Earth for analysis have, in a few instances, contained trace levels of heavy metals. Building on our previous advances using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a biocide monitoring technique, we are devising methods for the low level monitoring of nickel(II), lead(II) and other heavy metals. C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform based on the extraction of analytes onto a membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent that are then quantified on the surface of the membrane using a diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Along these lines, we have determined nickel(II) via complexation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and begun to examine the analysis of lead(II) by its reaction with 2,5- dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD) and 4-(2- pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR). These developments are also extending a new variant of C-SPE in which immobilized reagents are being incorporated into this methodology in order to optimize sample reaction conditions and to introduce the colorimetric reagent. This paper describes the status of our development of these two new methods.

  9. Improved methods for urinary atrazine mercapturate analysis—Assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) method utilizing online solid phase extraction (SPE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja E. Koivunen; Katja Dettmer; Roel Vermeulen; Berit Bakke; Shirley J. Gee; Bruce D. Hammock

    2006-01-01

    Elimination of interfering substances in urine by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis resulted in 10-fold improvement in the sensitivity of atrazine mercapturate (AM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared to previous reports. Of the two tested SPE systems, Oasis® HLB and MCX, the mixed-mode MCX gave good recoveries (82%) of AM in spiked samples measured by ELISA, whereas the

  10. Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 355Sonoma State University 2011-2012 Catalog nurS 312 bACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS i (4)

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 355Sonoma State University 2011-2012 Catalog nurS 312 bACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS i (4) Explore contemporary perspectives in baccalaureate nursing with emphasis, leadership and professional development. nurS 313 bACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS ii (4) Seminar, 4 hours

  11. An update to DNA ladder assay for apoptosis detection

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar Saadat, Yalda; Saeidi, Nazli; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Barar, Jaleh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A growing interest in apoptosis, programmed cell death, in the last years is observed and leads to better understanding of molecular mechanisms during cell–cell signaling, cell-environment interaction and screening of drugs. This in turn results in emerging of new assays and development of more accurate kits for fast and early detection of apoptosis. However, their sensitivity and reliability have often been scrutinized. Here we introduce a rapid and improved method of DNA ladder apoptosis assay for evaluating apoptosis in mammalian cells. Methods: NIH-3T3 cell line was used in this study. After treatment of cells with apoptotic agent, 500 ?M H2O2 at 48 hours, DNA was extracted. Then an update protocol of DNA ladder assay was applied for detection of apoptosis. Flow cytometry and DAPI staining were performed to verify apoptosis. Results: Primary and late apoptosis in the H2O2-treated cells was determined by flow cytometry analysis. DAPI Staining used to show DNA damage and DNA ladder assay using 1.5% gel electrophoresis showed fragmentation in the DNA of treated cells. Conclusion: In this research we aimed to improve DNA ladder assay to the high quality detection of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In our strategy, employing a practical DNA extraction protocol, DNA ladder assay could be applied as an easy/fast method for apoptosis detection. This improved method is able to detect apoptosis in a cost effective/timely manner without need for commercial kits and special equipment. PMID:25901294

  12. Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andreas Bergmann (MD Anderson Cancer Center; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV)

    2010-10-26

    Tissue regeneration after wounding or amputation generally requires cell proliferation. Work in several model organisms, including Drosophila, Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, revealed a surprising function for caspases in cell proliferation after tissue damage, in addition to their known role in a form of cell death called apoptosis. In apoptotic cells, caspases can stimulate the production of secreted cytokines, such as Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), transforming growth factor–? (TGF-?), Hedgehog family members, and prostaglandins, which in turn induce proliferation of neighboring cells, thus promoting tissue regeneration and homeostasis. These pathways can also contribute to tumorigenesis. This Review summarizes findings on this phenomenon, termed “apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation,” and contains three figures and 110 references.

  13. Late type apoptosis and apoptosis free lethal effect of quercetin in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Karli; Röpke, Carsten; Pless, Vibeke; Skovgaard, Gunhild Lange

    2006-09-01

    No satisfactory treatment is currently available for metastatic malignant melanoma. Recently, the flavonoid quercetin was suggested as a potential treatment due to its anti-tumorogenic properties. Some of these properties appeared to correspond to those published for UVB irradiation. To determine quercetin's long-term effects, type of apoptosis, and shared properties with UVB, we exposed Mel-Juso, M14, and G361 human melanoma cell-lines to a large range of quercetin or UVB doses, 20-400 microm and 25-1000 mJ/cm2 respectively. Apoptosis was measured for 4 consecutive d by flow cytometry and cell viability was studied by colony-forming assay. Quercetin decreased cell viability level in a dose-dependent manner to almost zero at 100 microm. Up to this concentration, it did not induce significant apoptosis nor did it decrease the survival-fractions below 90% during a 4 d follow-up. The data suggest that Quercetin is lethal to melanoma cells at concentrations that do not activate apoptosis during the first 4 d post-exposure and that quercetin's effects extend beyond the period of direct contact. Both quercetin and UVB induced late-type apoptosis at the upper range of the tested doses, but they do not appear to share all the pathways that they activate. Finally, this paper provides novel data showing that quercetin causes two different lethal effects on human melanoma cells, suggesting the activation of at least two different dose-depended mechanisms. PMID:16960382

  14. Signalling mechanisms and oxidative stress in apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew F. G. Slater; C. Stefan; I. Nobel; Diels J. Van Den Dobbelsteen; sten Orrenius

    1995-01-01

    A variety of stimuli can induce cells to undergo apoptotic death. One of the most reproducible inducers is mild oxidative stress, be it via exposure to hydrogen peroxide, redox-cycling quinones or thiol-alkylating agents. Oxidative modifications of proteins and lipids have also been observed in cells undergoing apoptosis in response to non-oxidative stimuli such as glucocorticoids or topoisomerase II inhibitors. This

  15. Noninvasive imaging of apoptosis in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan Chauncey Korngold; Farouc Amin Jaffer; Ralph Weissleder; David Edwin Sosnovik

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular imaging have permitted the noninvasive imaging of apoptosis, a critical process underlying the\\u000a pathogenesis of many diseases of the cardiovascular system including atherosclerotic vascular disease, myocardial ischemia\\u000a and reperfusion injury, chronic heart failure, myocarditis, and cardiac allograft rejection. Multiple molecular targets including\\u000a phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and caspases have been targeted by a variety of imaging agents

  16. The actin cytoskeleton as a sensor and mediator of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Desouza, Melissa; Gunning, Peter W.; Stehn, Justine R.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important biological process required for the removal of unwanted or damaged cells. Mounting evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton as both a sensor and mediator of apoptosis. Studies also suggest that actin binding proteins (ABPs) significantly contribute to apoptosis and that actin dynamics play a key role in regulating apoptosis signaling. Changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton has been attributed to the process of malignant transformation and it is hypothesized that remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton may enable tumor cells to evade normal apoptotic signaling. This review aims to illuminate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in apoptosis by systematically analyzing how actin and ABPs regulate different apoptosis pathways and to also highlight the potential for developing novel compounds that target tumor-specific actin filaments. PMID:22880146

  17. CD45 regulates apoptosis in peripheral T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Dawes, Ritu; Petrova, Svetla; Beverley, Peter C L; Tchilian, Elma Z

    2006-06-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key mechanism for regulating lymphocyte numbers. Murine lymph node lymphocytes cultured in vitro without added stimuli show significant levels of apoptosis over 24 h, detectable by staining with Annexin V. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes from transgenic (Tg) mice expressing single CD45RABC or CD45RO isoforms show increased apoptosis and the extent of apoptosis is inversely correlated with the level of CD45 expression. CD45 Tg cells exhibit phosphatidyl serine translocation and DNA oligonucleosome formation, and can be partially rescued from apoptosis by culture in caspase inhibitors or common gamma-chain-binding cytokines. We conclude that CD45 is an important regulator of spontaneous apoptosis in T lymphocytes and this mechanism may contribute to the disease associations reported for individuals expressing CD45 variant alleles. PMID:16621865

  18. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

  19. Preferential induction of apoptosis of leukaemic cells by farnesol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alphonso Rioja; Arnold R Pizzey; Charles M Marson; N. Shaun B Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Farnesol preferentially inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of tumour-derived but not non-transformed cell lines. We investigated whether farnesol induces apoptosis of blasts from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and leukaemic cell lines, as compared with normal, human primary haemopoietic cells. We show that 30 ?M farnesol causes apoptosis of leukaemic cell lines of T- and B-lymphocyte, myeloid or erythroid

  20. Control of apoptosis of cardiovascular fibroblasts: A novel drug target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Rupp; Bernhard Maisch I

    1999-01-01

    Adequate control of survival or programmed cell death (apoptosis) of cardiovascular cells appears as an important drug target.\\u000a While prevention of apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes has been assessed in detail, selective induction of apoptosis of vascular\\u000a smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts could also be of relevance. Thus, induction of apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells\\u000a by p65 NF-?B and Bcl-xL

  1. Rybp interacts with Hippi and enhances Hippi-mediated apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasha E. Stanton; Jennifer K. Blanck; Joseph Locker; Nicole Schreiber-Agus

    2007-01-01

    Rybp (DEDAF) has been shown to interact with DED-containing proteins and to encode pro-apoptotic functions. Here we characterize\\u000a a novel interaction between Rybp and Hippi, a protein implicated in neuronal apoptosis as well as in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s\\u000a disease. Rybp can synergize with Hippi to enhance Caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and also appears to be essential for Hippi-mediated\\u000a apoptosis. Moreover,

  2. CD69Induced Monocyte Apoptosis Involves Multiple Nonredundant Signaling Pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Ram??rez; Julia Carracedo; Maria Castedo; Naoufal Zamzami; Guido Kroemer

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous stimulation of human monocytes\\/macrophages or THP1 cells with LPS and an antibody specific for the activation marker CD69 induces apoptosis. Here we demonstrate the involvement of multiple independent signals that are necessary for apoptosis induction. Thus, inhibitors of phospholipase A2and lipoxygenase prevent apoptosis induction. Similarly, the ADP-ribosylating G-protein-reactive pertussis toxin (PTX) but not a mutant toxin lacking the ADP-ribosylating

  3. Induction of gastric epithelial apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S F Moss; J Calam; B Agarwal; S Wang; P R Holt

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Helicobacter pylori may promote gastric carcinogenesis through increasing gastric epithelial cell proliferation. How H pylori does so is unknown. Programmed, non-necrotic, cell death (apoptosis) occurs throughout the gut and is linked to proliferation. It was hypothesised that H pylori may induce hyper-proliferation through increasing apoptosis. AIM--To measure the effect of H pylori infection on gastric epithelial apoptosis in situ. PATIENTS--Patients

  4. Apoptosis is present in the primate macula at all ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoinette C. Lambooij; Mike Kliffen; Robert W. A. M. Kuijpers; Adriaan B. Houtsmuller; Johan J. Broerse; Cornelia M. Mooy

    2000-01-01

    Background: It has become increasingly clear that apoptosis is a main event in photoreceptor cell death in a variety of retinal degenerations.\\u000a We investigated the role of apoptosis in the physiologically aging primate macula.Methods: Twenty maculae of rhesus monkeys, aged 6–34 years, were investigated. Apoptosis was determined in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded\\u000a eyes using the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) method

  5. PRECLINICAL STUDIES Cluvenone induces apoptosis via a direct target

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    2011 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 Summary The synthetic caged Garcinia xanthone, cluve in the treatment of refractory cancers. Keywords Cluvenone . Mitocan . Mitochondria . Apoptosis . Garcinia

  6. Apoptosis Induced by Metal Complexes and Interaction with Dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Sun; Barros, José Carlos Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis induced by rhodium II amidate, rhodium II propionate, cisplatin and interactions with dexamethaxone were studied on some human leukemia cell lines Raji, Jurkat and U937. Apoptosis was studied by flow cytometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and morphological analysis. Rhodium II propionate induced apoptosis in all the three cell lines, Rhodium II amidate, in the lymphoid cell lines Jurkat and Raji, and cisplatin, only in the Jurkat, a T lymphoid cell line. It has also been observed that the addition of dexamethasone enhances the apoptosis index only in U937, a monocytic line with a glucocorticoid receptor bearing. PMID:18476001

  7. Down-regulation of SNAIL suppresses MIN mouse tumorigenesis: Modulation of apoptosis,

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Down-regulation of SNAIL suppresses MIN mouse tumorigenesis: Modulation of apoptosis, proliferation of apoptosis and proliferation. Furthermore, microarchitec- tural alterations were determined through apoptosis rate (2-fold), decreased

  8. CHEMOSENSITIZATION BY A NON-APOPTOGENIC HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70-BINDING APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR MUTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemosensitization by a non-apoptogenic heat shock protein 70-binding apoptosis inducing factor mutant Abstract HSP70 inhibits apoptosis by neutralizing the caspase activator Apaf-1 and by interacting with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial flavoprotein wh...

  9. Orally Administered Fructose Increases the Numbers of Peripheral Lymphocytes Reduced by Exposure of Mice to Gamma or SPE-like Proton Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, A.L.; Ni, J.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of the whole body or a major portion of the body to ionizing radiation can result in Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS), which can cause symptoms that range from mild to severe, and include death. One of the syndromes that can occur during ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in bone marrow cells as well as the number of circulating blood cells. Doses capable of causing this syndrome can result from conventional radiation therapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is of concern that this syndrome could also occur during space exploration class missions in which astronauts could be exposed to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Of particular concern is the reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes, which are major components of the immune system. A significant reduction in their numbers can compromise the immune system, causing a higher risk for the development of infections which could jeopardize the success of the mission. Although there are no specific countermeasures utilized for the ARS resulting from exposure to space radiation(s), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proposed as a countermeasure for the low number of neutrophils caused by SPE radiation, but so far no countermeasure exists for a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes. The present study demonstrates that orally administered fructose significantly increases the number of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to 2 Gy of gamma- or SPE-like proton radiation, making it a potential countermeasure for this biological end-point. PMID:25360417

  10. Orally Administered Fructose Increases the Numbers of Peripheral Lymphocytes Reduced by Exposure of Mice to Gamma or SPE-like Proton Radiation.

    PubMed

    Romero-Weaver, A L; Ni, J; Lin, L; Kennedy, A R

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of the whole body or a major portion of the body to ionizing radiation can result in Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS), which can cause symptoms that range from mild to severe, and include death. One of the syndromes that can occur during ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in bone marrow cells as well as the number of circulating blood cells. Doses capable of causing this syndrome can result from conventional radiation therapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is of concern that this syndrome could also occur during space exploration class missions in which astronauts could be exposed to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Of particular concern is the reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes, which are major components of the immune system. A significant reduction in their numbers can compromise the immune system, causing a higher risk for the development of infections which could jeopardize the success of the mission. Although there are no specific countermeasures utilized for the ARS resulting from exposure to space radiation(s), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proposed as a countermeasure for the low number of neutrophils caused by SPE radiation, but so far no countermeasure exists for a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes. The present study demonstrates that orally administered fructose significantly increases the number of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to 2 Gy of gamma- or SPE-like proton radiation, making it a potential countermeasure for this biological end-point. PMID:25360417

  11. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Biliouris, Dimitrios; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Dutré, Phillip; van Aardt, Jan A.N.; Muys, Bart; Coppin, Pol

    2007-01-01

    The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectional reflectance Factor (BRF) of a sample, using a halogen light source and an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance data readings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of the sensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and 15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) data of non-isotropic vegetation elements such as bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of the apparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometric stability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectional reflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximately two and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cm radius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leaf collection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extract BRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leaf effects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratory illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light source. BRF results of measured leaves are presented.

  12. Fully automated trace level determination of parent and alkylated PAHs in environmental waters by online SPE-LC-APPI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Cesar E; Wang, Chengtao; Gardinali, Piero R

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds that enter the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources, often used as markers to determine the extent, fate, and potential effects on natural resources after a crude oil accidental release. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE+GC-MS) has been extensively used to isolate and quantify both parent and alkylated PAHs. However, it requires labor-intensive extraction and cleanup steps and generates large amounts of toxic solvent waste. Therefore, there is a clear need for greener, faster techniques with enough reproducibility and sensitivity to quantify many PAHs in large numbers of water samples in a short period of time. This study combines online solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) separation with dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and tandem MS detection, to provide a one-step protocol that detects PAHs at low nanograms per liter with almost no sample preparation and with a significantly lower consumption of toxic halogenated solvents. Water samples were amended with methanol, fortified with isotopically labeled PAHs, and loaded onto an online SPE column, using a large-volume sample loop with an auxiliary LC pump for sample preconcentration and salt removal. The loaded SPE column was connected to an UPLC pump and analytes were backflushed to a Thermo Hypersil Green PAH analytical column where a 20-min gradient separation was performed at a variable flow rate. Detection was performed by a triple-quadrupole MS equipped with a gas-phase dopant delivery system, using 1.50 mL of chlorobenzene dopant per run. In contrast, LLE+GC-MS typically use 150 mL of organic solvents per sample, and methylene chloride is preferred because of its low boiling point. However, this solvent has a higher environmental persistence than chlorobenzene and is considered a carcinogen. The automated system is capable of performing injection, online SPE, inorganic species removal, LC separation, and MS/MS detection in 28 min. Selective reaction monitoring was used to detect 28 parent PAHs and 15 families of alkylated PAHs. The methodology is comparable to traditional GC-MS and was tested with surface seawater, rainwater runoff, and a wastewater treatment plant effluent. Positive detections above reporting limits are described. The virtual absence of sample preparation could be particularly advantageous for real-time monitoring of discharge events that introduce PAHs into environmental compartments, such as accidental releases of petroleum derivates and other human-related events. This work covers optimization of APPI detection and SPE extraction efficiency, a comparison with LLE+GC-MS in terms of sensitivity and chromatographic resolution, and examples of environmental applications. PMID:24217946

  13. RTF+SpeX Near-IR Images and Spectra of the Moon Pre-impact and at Impact of SMART-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Ennico, Kimberly A.; Colaprete, Anthony; Lucey, Paul G.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Rayner, John T.; Meech, Karen J.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present SpeX 0.8-2.5 micron spectra and Br-gamma or J H or K-band images of the Moon on 2006 July 10 UT, 2006 Sep 1 UT, and 2006 Sep 3 UT. The first two dates are data taken in preparation (near Full Moon and 1 st quarter Moon) for observing the impact of ESA's SMART-1 Lunar satellite on 2006 Sep 3 UT. We hope to be presenting images (about 1 arc minute by 1 arc minute), and low resolution (Prism mode) spectra of the SMART-1 impact to be taken with the 60 arc second long slit.

  14. FAT10 Protects Cardiac Myocytes Against Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaogang; Shao, Jianghua; Shen, Yang; Zhou, Yunguo; Cao, Qing; Hu, Jinzhu; He, Wenfeng; Yu, Xin; Liu, Xiuxia; Marian, Ali J.; Hong, Kui

    2013-01-01

    FAT10 is a new member of the ubiquitin-like protein family with yet-to-be defined biological functions in the heart. Our objective was to determine the role of FAT10 in the heart. FAT10 is expressed in the normal human and murine hearts, as detected by qPCR and Western blotting. Expression of FAT10 is increased in the heart at the border zone of myocardial infarction and in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCM) subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) stress. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of FAT10 in NRCM reduced p53 (TP53) and its target miR-34a levels, while BCL2 level, a target of miR-34a, was increased and BAX level, a pro-apoptotic protein, was reduced. These changes were associated with reduced apoptosis, detected by FACS analysis of annexin-V expression and TUNEL assay, in response to H/R injury. Knock down of FAT10 by shRNA targeting had the opposite effects. Likewise, lentiviral mediated expression of miR-34a was associated with reduced BCL2 and increased BAX levels in NRCM and also reversed changes in BCL-2 and BAX levels observed upon over-expression of FAT10. Treatment of NRCM with proteasome inhibitor MG132 increased p53 and miR-34a levels and reduced BLC2/BAX ratio. These changes were not reversed upon over-expression of FAT10. Thus, FAT10 is upregulated in the heart and NRCM in response to H/R stress, which protects cardiac myocytes against apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of FAT10 are associated with suppression of p53, probably through fatylation and proteasomal degradation, reduced miR-34a expression, and a shift in the BCL2/BAX proteins against apoptosis. Thus, FAT10 is a cardioprotective protein. PMID:23416168

  15. Apoptosis in cultured hNT neurons.

    PubMed

    Zigova, T; Willing, A E; Saporta, S; Daadi, M M; McGrogan, M P; Randall, T S; Freeman, T B; Sanchez-Ramos, J; Sanberg, P R

    2001-03-29

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important mechanism shaping the size of different cell populations within the developing nervous system. In our study we used the NT2/D1 clone originally established from the Ntera 2 cell line to investigate the baseline levels of apoptosis in cultured postmitotic hNT (NT2-N) neurons previously treated for 3, 4 or 5 weeks with retinoic acid (RA) and compared it with apoptosis in NT2 precursors unexposed to RA. First, we examined whether different lengths of exposure to RA might affect baseline apoptotic rate in differentiating hNT neurons. Second, we investigated whether cultured hNT neurons, previously shown to possess dopaminergic characteristics, would be preferentially affected by apoptosis. Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (tdt)-labeling technique we found that the postmitotic hNT neuronal cells exposed to RA demonstrated significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells (12.5-15.8%) in comparison to rapidly dividing NT2 precursor cell line (3.6-4.4%) at both studied (1 and 5 days in vitro, DIV) time points. Similar apoptotic nuclear morphology, including a variable extent of nuclear fragmentation was observed in all examined hNT cultures. On the other hand, the incidence of apoptotic nuclei was rare in cultures of NT2 precursors not subjected to RA treatment. Combined immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Hoechst staining revealed dopaminergic hNT neurons destined to die. Our double-labeling studies have demonstrated that only a subset of TH-positive hNT cells had condensed chromatin after 1 (approx. 15%) and 5 (approx. 20%) DIV. NT2 precursors were not TH-positive. Collectively, our results demonstrated that exposure to differentiating agent RA triggers an apoptotic commitment in a subset of postmitotic hNT neurons. These results suggest that this cell line may serve as a model of neuronal development to test various pathogenic factors implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as to screen numerous pharmacological treatments that may slow or prevent dopaminergic deterioration. PMID:11287065

  16. Detecting apoptosis in Drosophila tissues and cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkissian, Tatevik; Timmons, Allison; Arya, Richa; Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; White, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss methods that can be used to study apoptotic cell death in the Drosophila embryo, ovary, as well as in cultured cell lines. These methods assay various aspects of the cell death process, from mitochondrial changes to caspase activation and DNA cleavage. The assays are useful for examining apoptosis in normal development and in response to developmental perturbations and external stresses. These techniques include Acridine Orange staining, TUNEL, cleaved caspase staining, caspase activity assays and assays for mitochondrial fission and permeabilization. PMID:24613678

  17. FAS Expression and Apoptosis in the Fish Parasite Ichthyophthirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish that survive an infection by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) develop antibodies that immobilize and kill Ich theronts. Apoptosis of I. multifiliis theronts was caused by cutaneous antibody from channel catfish immune to Ich. The mechanism for cutaneous antibody to induce apoptosis of theron...

  18. Epithelial cell apoptosis facilitates Entamoeba histolytica infection in the gut.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen M; Cho, Kyou-Nam; Guo, Xiaoti; Fendig, Kirsten; Oosman, Mohammed N; Whitehead, Robert; Cohn, Steven M; Houpt, Eric R

    2010-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes amebic colitis. The parasite triggers apoptosis on contact with host cells; however, the biological significance of this event during intestinal infection is unclear. We examined the role of apoptosis in a mouse model of intestinal amebiasis. Histopathology revealed that abundant epithelial cell apoptosis occurred in the vicinity of amoeba in histological specimens. Epithelial cell apoptosis occurred rapidly on co-culture with amoeba in vitro as measured by annexin positivity, DNA degradation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Administration of the pan caspase inhibitor ZVAD decreased the rate and severity of amebic infection in CBA mice by all measures (cecal culture positivity, parasite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and histological scores). Similarly, caspase 3 knockout mice on the resistant C57BL/6 background exhibited even lower cecal parasite antigen burden and culture positive rates than wild type mice. The permissive effect of apoptosis on infection could be tracked to the epithelium, in that transgenic mice that overexpressed Bcl-2 in epithelial cells were more resistant to infection as measured by cecal parasite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histological scores. We concluded that epithelial cell apoptosis in the intestine facilitates amebic infection in this mouse model. The parasite's strategy for inducing apoptosis may point to key virulence factors, and therapeutic maneuvers to diminish epithelial apoptosis may be useful in amebic colitis. PMID:20093500

  19. Differential patterns of apoptosis in response to aging in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Seroude, Laurent

    in the potential role of apoptosis in aging and age-related diseases, the precise relationships among of the apoptotic response in mitotic tissues may decrease longevity as a consequence of a higher incidence and apoptosis presents an attractive hypothesis, a mechanistic relationship between these processes remains

  20. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Timothy J; Dixon, Padraic M; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36?h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor ? and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone. PMID:25239298

  1. Apoptosis in Feline Panleukopenia Virus-Infected Lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASUHIRO IKEDA; JUNKO SHINOZUKA; TAKAYUKI MIYAZAWA; KYOKO KUROSAWA; YOSHIHIRO IZUMIYA; YORIHIRO NISHIMURA; KAZUYA NAKAMURA; JINSHUN CAI; KENTARO FUJITA; KUNIO DOI; TAKESHI MIKAMI

    1998-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) was shown to induce apoptosis to feline lymphoid cells and to reduce the expression of interleukin-2 receptor a on the cells. FPLV-induced apoptosis might be a key element in the pathophysiology of atrophy of lymphoid tissues associated with feline panleukopenia caused by FPLV. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) are classified as host range

  2. Retinal ganglion cell line apoptosis induced by hydrostatic pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Agar; Shaojuan Li; Neeraj Agarwal; Minas T. Coroneo; Mark A. Hill

    2006-01-01

    Cellular responses to changes in pressure are implicated in numerous disease processes. In glaucoma apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is associated with elevated intra-ocular pressure, however, the exact cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously shown that pressure can induce apoptosis in B35 and PC12 neuronal cell lines, using an in vitro model for pressure elevation. A novel RGC

  3. Role of the Crosstalk between Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are catabolic pathways essential for organismal homeostasis. Autophagy is normally a cell-survival pathway involving the degradation and recycling of obsolete, damaged, or harmful macromolecular assemblies; however, excess autophagy has been implicated in type II cell death. Apoptosis is the canonical programmed cell death pathway. Autophagy and apoptosis have now been shown to be interconnected by several molecular nodes of crosstalk, enabling the coordinate regulation of degradation by these pathways. Normally, autophagy and apoptosis are both tumor suppressor pathways. Autophagy fulfils this role as it facilitates the degradation of oncogenic molecules, preventing development of cancers, while apoptosis prevents the survival of cancer cells. Consequently, defective or inadequate levels of either autophagy or apoptosis can lead to cancer. However, autophagy appears to have a dual role in cancer, as it has now been shown that autophagy also facilitates the survival of tumor cells in stress conditions such as hypoxic or low-nutrition environments. Here we review the multiple molecular mechanisms of coordination of autophagy and apoptosis and the role of the proteins involved in this crosstalk in cancer. A comprehensive understanding of the interconnectivity of autophagy and apoptosis is essential for the development of effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:23840208

  4. Monocytes are resistant to apoptosis in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivani Srivastava; Claudia Macaubas; Chetan Deshpande; Heather C. Alexander; Sheng-Yung Chang; Yue Sun; Jane L. Park; Tzielan Lee; Ann Begovich; Elizabeth D. Mellins

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether circulating monocytes from patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) are resistant to apoptosis and which apoptotic pathway(s) may mediate this resistance. A microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of SJIA samples and RT-PCR analysis of isolated monocytes showed that monocytes from active SJIA patients express transcripts that imply resistance to apoptosis. SJIA monocytes incubated

  5. Apoptosis of monocytes cultured from long-term hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Heidenreich; Michael Schmidt; Jürgen Bachmann; Bärbel Harrach

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis of monocytes cultured from long-term hemodialysis patients. Monocyte apoptosis in vitro was studied in patients on long-term hemodialysis, CAPD, and in predialytic uremia to gain insight into the high susceptibility of these patients to infections. Monocytes from dialysis and control subjects were cultured for 24 to 120 hours in vitro to analyze the level and progression of DNA fragmentation

  6. Mechanisms of HIV-associated lymphocyte apoptosis: 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N W Cummins; A D Badley

    2010-01-01

    The inevitable decline of CD4T cells in untreated infection with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is due in large part to apoptosis, one type of programmed cell death. There is accumulating evidence that the accelerated apoptosis of CD4T cells in HIV infection is multifactorial, with direct viral cytotoxicity, signaling events triggered by viral proteins and aberrant immune activation adding to

  7. Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    Osteocyte Apoptosis Is Mechanically Regulated and Induces Angiogenesis In Vitro Wing-Yee Cheung,1 online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/jor.21283 ABSTRACT: Osteocyte associationbetweenfluidflow andosteocyte apoptosis,osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cellsweresubjectedto either oscillatoryfluidflow (10

  8. Apoptosis: Calling Time on Apoptosome Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Colin Adrain (Cambridge; Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology REV)

    2009-10-06

    Apoptosis is a controlled form of cellular demolition, catalyzed by a family of cysteine proteases called caspases. In response to diverse proapoptotic stimuli, caspase-9 is recruited and activated within an oligomeric complex called the apoptosome. The apoptosome drives autocatalytic processing of caspase-9, triggering a proteolytic caspase cascade that results in the biochemical and morphological changes characteristic of cell death. It is unclear why caspase-9 undergoes autocatalytic processing following apoptosome recruitment, because interdomain processing is dispensable for caspase-9 activity. A study has shed light on this issue by demonstrating that caspase-9 processing within the apoptosome promotes its displacement from the complex, leading to inactivation of this protease. Thus, autoprocessing of caspase-9 within the apoptosome serves as a “molecular timer” that limits the proteolytic activity of this complex through displacement of bound caspase-9 molecules. This timer mechanism may enable cells to prevent low amounts of apoptosome activation from spiraling out of control unless sufficient numbers of apoptosomes are assembled within a particular time window, which would drive full-blown caspase activation and apoptosis.

  9. Ochratoxin A induces apoptosis in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangnan; Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine; Lou, Yijia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Huebbe, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), which is produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium subspecies, is a frequently present contaminant of food and feedstuffs. OTA exhibits a wide range of toxic activities including nephro- and hepatotoxicity. However, little is known regarding potential neurotoxic effects of OTA. In the present study primary neurons as well as SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of OTA (0.1–2.5 ?mol/L). OTA treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity in both neuronal cell types. Caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated in response to OTA treatment. Furthermore, caspase inhibitors were effective in partly counteracting OTA induced neurocytotoxicity. OTA induced apoptosis was accompanied by a loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Overall, present data indicated that OTA is neurotoxic at relatively low concentrations. OTA induced neurotoxicity seems to be, at least party, mediated by apoptosis. OTA may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease) in which apoptotic processes are centrally involved. PMID:19148691

  10. Lobaplatin inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chu-Yang; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Tian, Lei; Ye, Ming; Yang, Xin-Ying; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the anti-cancer effect of lobaplatin on human gastric cancer cells, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The human gastric cancer cell lines MKN-28, AGS and MKN-45 were used. The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin was detected using an MTS cell proliferation assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. The expression of apoptosis-regulated genes was examined at the protein level using Western blot. RESULTS: Lobaplatin inhibited the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells and induced apoptosis, which may be associated with the up-regulation of Bax expression, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, p53 expression and the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. CONCLUSION: The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin may be due to its ability of inducing apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, which would support the potential use of lobaplatin for the therapy of gastric cancer. PMID:25516654

  11. Regulation of Neutrophil Survival/Apoptosis by Mcl-1

    PubMed Central

    Milot, Eric; Filep, János G.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes have the shortest lifespan among leukocytes in the circulation and die via apoptosis. At sites of infection or tissue injury, prolongation of neutrophil lifespan is critical for effective host defense. Apoptosis of inflammatory neutrophils and their clearance are critical control points for termination of the inflammatory response. Evasion of neutrophil apoptosis aggravates local injury and leads to persistent tissue damage. The short-lived prosurvival Bcl-2 family protein, Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1), is instrumental in controlling apoptosis and consequently neutrophil lifespan in response to rapidly changing environmental cues during inflammation. This paper will focus on multiple levels of control of Mcl-1 expression and function and will discuss targeting Mcl-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the resolution of inflammation through accelerating neutrophil apoptosis. PMID:22125448

  12. Monocytes are resistant to apoptosis in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Macaubas, Claudia; Deshpande, Chetan; Alexander, Heather C; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Sun, Yue; Park, Jane L; Lee, Tzielan; Begovich, Ann; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether circulating monocytes from patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) are resistant to apoptosis and which apoptotic pathway(s) may mediate this resistance. A microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of SJIA samples and RT-PCR analysis of isolated monocytes showed that monocytes from active SJIA patients express transcripts that imply resistance to apoptosis. SJIA monocytes incubated in low serum show reduced annexin binding and diminished FasL up-regulation compared to controls. SJIA monocytes are less susceptible to anti-Fas-induced apoptosis and, upon activation of the mitochondrial pathway with staurosporine, show diminished Bid cleavage and Bcl-w down-regulation compared to controls. Exposure to SJIA plasma reduces responses to apoptotic triggers in normal monocytes. Thus, SJIA monocytes are resistant to apoptosis due to alterations in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, and circulating factors associated with active SJIA may confer this phenotype. PMID:20462799

  13. microRNA-29b prevents liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation and inducing apoptosis through targeting PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Chu, Eagle S.H.; Chen, Hai-Yong; Man, Kwan; Go, Minnie Y.Y.; Huang, Xiao Ru; Lan, Hui Yao; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    microRNA-29b (miR-29b) is known to be associated with TGF-?-mediated fibrosis, but the mechanistic action of miR-29b in liver fibrosis remains unclear and is warranted for investigation. We found that miR-29b was significantly downregulated in human and mice fibrotic liver tissues and in primary activated HSCs. miR-29b downregulation was directly mediated by Smad3 through binding to the promoter of miR-29b in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX1, whilst miR-29b could in turn suppress Smad3 expression. miR-29b transduction in the liver of mice prevented CCl4 induced-fibrogenesis, concomitant with decreased expression of ?-SMA, collagen I and TIMP-1. Ectopic expression of miR-29b in activated HSCs (LX-1, HSC-T6) inhibited cell viability and colony formation, and caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase by downregulating cyclin D1 and p21cip1. Further, miR-29b induced apoptosis in HSCs mediated by caspase-9 and PARP. miR-29b inhibited its downstream effectors of PIK3R1 and AKT3 through direct targeting their 3?UTR regions. Moreover, knockdown of PIK3R1 or AKT3 suppressed ?-SMA and collagen I and induced apoptosis in both HSCs and in mice. In conclusion, miR-29b prevents liver fibrogenesis by inhibiting HSC activation and inducing HSC apoptosis through inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathway. These results provide novel mechanistic insights for the anti-fibrotic effect of miR-29b. PMID:25356754

  14. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9?gkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9?gkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0?gkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0?gkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

  15. On-line SPE-UHPLC method using fused core columns for extraction and separation of nine illegal dyes in chilli-containing spices.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Satínský, Dalibor; Smidrkalová, Tereza; Solich, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The presented work describes the development of a simple, fast and effective on-line SPE-UHPLC-UV/vis method using fused core particle columns for extraction, separation and quantitative analysis of the nine illegal dyes, most frequently found in chilli-containing spices. The red dyes Sudan I-IV, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Para Red, and Methyl Red were separated and analyzed in less than 9 min without labor-consuming pretreatment procedure. The chromatographic separation was performed on Ascentis Express RP-Amide column with gradient elution using mixture of acetonitrile and water, as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and 55°C of temperature. As SPE sorbent for cleanup and pre-concentration of illegal dyes short guard fused core column Ascentis Express F5 was used. The applicability of proposed method was proven for three different chilli-containing commercial samples. Recoveries for all compounds were between 90% and 108% and relative standard deviation ranged from 1% to 4% for within- and from 2% to 6% for between-day. Limits of detection showed lower values than required by European Union regulations and were in the range of 3.3-10.3 µg L(-1) for standard solutions, 5.6-235.6 µg kg(-1) for chilli-containing spices. PMID:25159432

  16. Rapid determination of memantine in human plasma by using nanoring carboxyl-functionalized paramagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer d-?-SPE and UFLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hai-Wen; Xia, Lei; Gong, Li-Min; Ruan, Lie-Min; Zhao, Yong-Gang

    2015-06-01

    A novel, simple, and sensitive method based on the use of dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (d-?-SPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the determination of memantine (ME) was developed and validated over the linearity range 0.05-10.0?µg/L with 100??L of human plasma using memantine-D6 (ME-D6) as the internal standard. The novel nanoring carboxyl-functionalized paramagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (NR-CF-Mag-MIP) was synthesized by ultrasound-assisted suspension polymerization, using ME as a template molecule, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and divinylbenzene as a cross-linking agent. The NR-CF-Mag-MIP was used as the d-?-SPE sorbent to extract ME from human plasma samples. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of NR-CF-Mag-MIP with recoveries between 97.6 and 101%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for ME was 0.015?µg/L. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, and stability, as well as on application to the analysis of samples taken up to 480?h after oral administration of 20?mg (two 10?mg capsules) of ME in healthy volunteers demonstrated the applicability to bioequivalence studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25209851

  17. Performances of a multidimensional on-line SPE-LC-ECD method for the determination of three major catecholamines in native human urine: validation, risk and uncertainty assessments.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Morello, R; Lecomte, F; Martin, G B; Chiap, P; Crommen, J; Boos, K S; Hubert, Ph

    2006-12-01

    A novel, multidimensional on-line SPE-LC method with electrochemical detection is described for the fully automated and direct analysis of the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine in urine. The integrated extractive clean-up of the raw biofluid is based on a SPE-column packed with restricted access material (RAM) which is modified with the affinity ligand nitrophenylboronic acid. The method was fully validated according to a recent approach based on an accuracy profile. The acceptance limits were set at +/-15% of the nominal concentration values. The method was found accurate over a concentration range from 15 to 500 microg/l for norepinephrine, from 5 to 500 microg/l for epinephrine and from 50 to 500 microg/l for dopamine. The relative risk for the use of the validated method in routine analysis was also assessed based on this validation strategy. It was found that at most 3.5% of future sample measurements will fall outside the acceptance limits. This demonstrates the high reliability of the analytical method described. Moreover, the measurements uncertainties were deduced from the validation experiments without any additional effort. PMID:16935036

  18. SPE coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC with flame ionization detection for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Masoomeh; Yamini, Yadollah; Ebrahimpour, Behnam

    2014-02-01

    SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextration was used for the extraction of ultra-trace amounts of benzodiazepines (BZPs) including, diazepam, midazolam, and alprazolam, from ultra-pure water, tap water, fruit juices, and urine samples. The analytes were adsorbed from large volume samples (60 mL) onto octadecyl silica SPE columns. After the elution of the desired compounds from sorbents with 2.0 mL acetone, 0.5 mL of eluent containing 40.0 ?L chloroform was injected rapidly into 4.5 mL pure water. After extraction and centrifugation, 2 ?L of the sedimented phase was injected into a GC equipped with a flame ionization detector. Several parameters affecting this process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, LODs ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ?g/L, a linear dynamic range of 0.1-100 ?g/L and relative SDs in the range of 4.4-10.7% were attained. Very high preconcentration factors ranging from 3895-7222 were achieved. The applicability of the method for the extraction of BZPs from different types of complicated matrices, such as tap water, fruit juices, and urine samples, was studied. The obtained results reveal that the proposed method is a good technique for the extraction and determination of BZPs in complex matrices. PMID:24243833

  19. Production of unusual dispiro metabolites in Pestalotiopsis virgatula endophyte cultures: HPLC-SPE-NMR, electronic circular dichroism, and time-dependent density-functional computation study.

    PubMed

    Kesting, Julie R; Olsen, Lars; Staerk, Dan; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2011-10-28

    The endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula, derived from the plant Terminalia chebula and previously found to produce a large excess of a single metabolite when grown in the minimal M1D medium, was induced to produce a variety of unusual metabolites by growing in potato dextrose broth medium. Analysis of the fermentation medium extract was performed using an HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR hyphenated system, which led to the identification of a total of eight metabolites (1-8), six of which are new. Most of the metabolites are structurally related and are derivatives of benzo[c]oxepin, rare among natural products. This includes dispiro derivatives 7 and 8 (pestalospiranes A and B), having a novel 1,9,11,18-tetraoxadispiro[6.2.6.2]octadecane skeleton. Relative and absolute configurations of the latter were determined by a combination of NOESY spectroscopy and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy supported by time-dependent density-functional theory calculations (B3LYP/TZVP level). This work demonstrates that a largely complete structure elucidation of numerous metabolites present in a raw fermentation medium extract can be performed by the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique using only a small amount of the extract, even with unstable metabolites that are difficult to isolate by traditional methods. PMID:21942847

  20. Determination of pesticide residues in fish tissues by modified QuEChERS method and dual-d-SPE clean-up coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Cieslik, Ewa; Cieslik, Iwona; Walkowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to modify the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method for the determination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in fatty animal matrices such as fish muscle tissues of carp and sturgeon collected from Carp Valley, Lesser Poland. Pesticides extraction effectiveness was evaluated at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level and efficiency of the dispersive-solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step was evaluated by comparison testing two different d-SPE clean-up stages, first the addition of the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA?+?SAX?+?NH2), and secondly the addition of C18 after extracts enrichment with the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA?+?SAX?+?NH2), introducing a novel concept of clean-up named dual-d-SPE clean-up. Analysis of pesticide residues was performed by Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS) working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Linear relation was observed from 0 to 200 ng mL(-1) and determination coefficient R(2)?>?0.997 in all instances for all target analytes. Better recoveries and cleanliness of extracts in both samples, carp and sturgeon tissues, were obtained after C18 addition during the dual-d-SPE clean-up step. Recoveries were in the range 70-120%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10% at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level for most pesticides. LODs ranged 0.001-0.003 mg kg(-1), while LOQs ranged 0.004-0.009 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied analyzing pesticide residues in real carp and sturgeon muscle samples; detectable pesticide residues were observed, but in all of the cases contamination level was lower than the default maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union (EU), Regulation (EC) N 396/2005. PMID:25074831

  1. Severe cell fragmentation in the endothelial cell apoptosis induced by snake apoptosis toxin VAP1 is an apoptotic characteristic controlled by caspases.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jiro; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Miao, Junying; Sawada, Hitoshi; Araki, Satohiko

    2005-07-01

    Hemorrhagic snake venom induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells (VEC). Vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1), which is identified as an apoptosis toxin against vascular endothelial cells, induces apoptosis accompanied by severe cell fragmentation compared with that of apoptosis due to other inducers. The mechanism of this morphologic feature is not known. In this report, we examine the roles of the caspases in the apoptosis induced by VAP1. Measurement of the caspase activities shows that activation of caspases occurred in this type of cell death. In the presence of certain caspase inhibitors, the severe cell fragmentation was strongly inhibited. The other hand, cell death induced by VAP1 was not affected by caspase inhibitors. These data suggest that the severe cell fragmentation induced by the snake toxin is a special characteristic of this apoptosis. Apoptosis with severe cell fragmentation may be regarded as a new category of endothelial cell apoptosis. PMID:15922392

  2. Ultraviolet-B-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis is regulated by the UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 photoreceptor in a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tossi, Vanesa; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Jenkins, Gareth I; Cassia, Raúl O

    2014-04-01

    UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) signaling involves CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, the ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) transcription factor, and the closely related HY5 HOMOLOG. Some UV-B responses mediated by UVR8 are also regulated by nitric oxide (NO), a bioactive molecule that orchestrates a wide range of processes in plants. In this study, we investigated the participation of the UVR8 pathway and its interaction with NO in UV-B-induced stomatal movements in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Stomata in abaxial epidermal strips of Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg erecta closed in response to increasing UV-B fluence rates, with maximal closure after 3-h exposure to 5.46 ?mol m?² s?¹ UV-B. Both hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and NO increased in response to UV-B, and stomatal closure was maintained by NO up to 24 h after the beginning of exposure. Stomata of plants expressing bacterial NO dioxygenase, which prevents NO accumulation, did not close in response to UV-B, although H?O? still increased. When the uvr8-1 null mutant was exposed to UV-B, stomata remained open, irrespective of the fluence rate. Neither NO nor H?O? increased in stomata of the uvr8-1 mutant. However, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione induced closure of uvr8-1 stomata to the same extent as in the wild type. Experiments with mutants in UVR8 signaling components implicated CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, HY5, and HY5 HOMOLOG in UV-B-induced stomatal closure. This research provides evidence that the UVR8 pathway regulates stomatal closure by a mechanism involving both H?O? and NO generation in response to UV-B exposure. PMID:24586043

  3. Apoptosis in health and disease and modulation of apoptosis for therapy: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeta Singh

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis a physiological mechanism that eliminates excessive, damaged or unwanted cells, is a highly regulated pathway important\\u000a for maintaining homeostasis in multicellular organisms. It can be initiated through various signals via the extrinsic pathway\\u000a which involves death receptors, or via the intrinsic pathway which is initiated by intracellular damage and involves the mitochondria\\u000a and release of cytochrome c from it

  4. Inhibition of apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion prevents inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Daemen, Marc A.R.C.; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis; Denecker, Geertrui; Heemskerk, Vincent H.; Wolfs, Tim G.A.M.; Clauss, Matthias; Vandenabeele, Peter; Buurman, Wim A.

    1999-01-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion leads to severe organ injury and dysfunction. Inflammation is considered to be the most important cause of tissue injury in organs subjected to ischemia. The mechanism that triggers inflammation and organ injury after ischemia remains to be elucidated, although different causes have been postulated. We investigated the role of apoptosis in the induction of inflammation and organ damage after renal ischemia. Using a murine model, we demonstrate a relationship between apoptosis and subsequent inflammation. At the time of reperfusion, administration of the antiapoptotic agents IGF-1 and ZVAD-fmk (a caspase inactivator) prevented the early onset of not only renal apoptosis, but also inflammation and tissue injury. Conversely, when the antiapoptotic agents were administered after onset of apoptosis, these protective effects were completely abrogated. The presence of apoptosis was directly correlated with posttranslational processing of the endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP-II), which may explain apoptosis-induced influx and sequestration of leukocytes in the reperfused kidney. These results strongly suggest that apoptosis is a crucial event that can initiate reperfusion-induced inflammation and subsequent tissue injury. The newly described pathophysiological insights provide important opportunities to effectively prevent clinical manifestations of reperfusion injury in the kidney, and potentially in other organs. PMID:10487768

  5. Identification of apoptosis-related PLZF target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardo, Maria Victoria [Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Yelo, Estefania [Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Gimeno, Lourdes [Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Campillo, Jose Antonio [Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Parrado, Antonio [Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.parrado@carm.es

    2007-07-27

    The PLZF gene encodes a BTB/POZ-zinc finger-type transcription factor, involved in physiological development, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this paper, we investigate proliferation, survival, and gene expression regulation in stable clones from the human haematopoietic K562, DG75, and Jurkat cell lines with inducible expression of PLZF. In Jurkat cells, but not in K562 and DG75 cells, PLZF induced growth suppression and apoptosis in a cell density-dependent manner. Deletion of the BTB/POZ domain of PLZF abrogated growth suppression and apoptosis. PLZF was expressed with a nuclear speckled pattern distinctively in the full-length PLZF-expressing Jurkat clones, suggesting that the nuclear speckled localization is required for PLZF-induced apoptosis. By microarray analysis, we identified that the apoptosis-inducer TP53INP1, ID1, and ID3 genes were upregulated, and the apoptosis-inhibitor TERT gene was downregulated. The identification of apoptosis-related PLZF target genes may have biological and clinical relevance in cancer typified by altered PLZF expression.

  6. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  7. Role of Siglec-7 in Apoptosis in Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Palle, Sabine; Anselme-Bertrand, Isabelle; Arthaud, Charles-Antoine; Chavarin, Patricia; Pozzetto, Bruno; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelets participate in tissue repair and innate immune responses. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are well-characterized I-type lectins, which control apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the expression of Siglec-7 in human platelets isolated from healthy volunteers using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Siglec-7 is primarily expressed on ? granular membranes and colocalized with CD62P. Siglec-7 expression was increased upon platelet activation and correlated closely with CD62P expression. Cross-linking Siglec-7 with its ligand, ganglioside, resulted in platelet apoptosis without any significant effects on activation, aggregation, cell morphology by electron microscopy analysis or secretion. We show that ganglioside triggered four key pathways leading to apoptosis in human platelets: (i) mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (??m) depolarization; (ii) elevated expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak proteins with reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein; (iii) phosphatidylserine exposure and (iv), microparticle formation. Inhibition of NAPDH oxidase, PI3K, or PKC rescued platelets from apoptosis induced by Siglec-7 recruitment, suggesting that the platelet receptors P2Y1 and GPIIbIIIa are essential for ganglioside-induced platelet apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance The present work characterizes the role of Siglec-7 and platelet receptors in regulating apoptosis and death. Because some platelet pathology involves apoptosis (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and possibly storage lesions), Siglec-7 might be a molecular target for therapeutic intervention/prevention. PMID:25230315

  8. Fluorescent visualization of germline apoptosis in living Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lant, Benjamin; Derry, W Brent

    2014-04-01

    Visualization of apoptosis using fluorescent tools is quite straightforward in living Caenorhabditis elegans. Several transgenic lines are available that mark dying cells with fluorescent proteins, making it possible to quantify kinetics at various stages of the apoptotic process. Proteins required for the engulfment of cell corpses are particularly useful for detecting early apoptotic stages using this approach. For example, expression of the engulfment protein CED-1 fused to green fluorescent protein (CED-1::GFP) creates a halo around cells during early apoptosis, before their refractile morphology can be detected by differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. In addition, vital dyes such as acridine orange (AO) and SYTO-12 are selectively retained in apoptotic cells and can be used to visualize apoptosis in the germlines of living animals. It is also possible to use vital dyes in combination with transgenic strains expressing fluorescent markers of cell corpses to examine, in detail, multiple stages of apoptosis in vivo. Because of the high optical contrast of fluorescent reagents, apoptosis can be visualized even at low magnification, facilitating the use of screening platforms to identify apoptosis regulators. This protocol describes multiple uses of fluorescent reagents for visualization of germline apoptosis in living C. elegans, including AO staining, time-course studies using fluorescent proteins, and low-throughput screening of cell death genes using RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:24692492

  9. Lysine methyltransferase Smyd2 suppresses p53-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Amna; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Vergarajauregui, Silvia; Troidl, Christian; Schermuly, Ralph T; Tucker, Haley O; Engel, Felix B

    2014-11-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential physiological process for proper embryogenesis as well as for homeostasis during aging. In addition, apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms causing cell loss in pathophysiological conditions such as heart failure. Thus, inhibition of apoptosis is an important approach for preventive and therapeutic strategies. Here we show that the histone 3 lysine 4- and lysine 36-specific methyltransferase Smyd2 acts as an endogenous antagonistic player of p53-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Smyd2 protein levels were significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes upon cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis or myocardial infarction, while p53 expression was enhanced. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smyd2 in cultured cardiomyocytes further enhanced cobalt chloride-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In contrast, Smyd2 overexpression resulted in marked methylation of p53 and prevented its accumulation as well as apoptotic cell death in an Hsp90-independent manner. Moreover, overexpression, of Smyd2, but not Smyd2Y240F lacking a methyl transferase activity, significantly rescued CoCl2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardioblasts. Finally, Smyd2 cardiomyocyte-specific deletion in vivo promoted apoptotic cell death upon myocardial infarction, which correlated with enhanced expression of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax. Collectively, our data indicate Smyd2 as a cardioprotective protein by methylating p53. PMID:25014164

  10. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-05-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma. PMID:26059439

  11. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma. PMID:26059439

  12. Genetic signatures of HIV-1 envelope-mediated bystander apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anjali; Lee, Raphael T C; Mohl, Jonathan; Sedano, Melina; Khong, Wei Xin; Ng, Oon Tek; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Garg, Himanshu

    2014-01-31

    The envelope (Env) glycoprotein of HIV is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence support the role of HIV-1 Env in inducing bystander apoptosis that may be a contributing factor in CD4(+) T cell loss. However, most of the studies testing this phenomenon have been conducted with laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates. This raises the question of whether primary Envs derived from HIV-infected patients are capable of inducing bystander apoptosis and whether specific Env signatures are associated with this phenomenon. We developed a high throughput assay to determine the bystander apoptosis inducing activity of a panel of primary Envs. We tested 38 different Envs for bystander apoptosis, virion infectivity, neutralizing antibody sensitivity, and putative N-linked glycosylation sites along with a comprehensive sequence analysis to determine if specific sequence signatures within the viral Env are associated with bystander apoptosis. Our studies show that primary Envs vary considerably in their bystander apoptosis-inducing potential, a phenomenon that correlates inversely with putative N-linked glycosylation sites and positively with virion infectivity. By use of a novel phylogenetic analysis that avoids subtype bias coupled with structural considerations, we found specific residues like Arg-476 and Asn-425 that were associated with differences in bystander apoptosis induction. A specific role of these residues was also confirmed experimentally. These data demonstrate for the first time the potential of primary R5 Envs to mediate bystander apoptosis in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we identify specific genetic signatures within the Env that may be associated with the bystander apoptosis-inducing phenotype. PMID:24265318

  13. Genetic Signatures of HIV-1 Envelope-mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anjali; Lee, Raphael T. C.; Mohl, Jonathan; Sedano, Melina; Khong, Wei Xin; Ng, Oon Tek; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Garg, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    The envelope (Env) glycoprotein of HIV is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence support the role of HIV-1 Env in inducing bystander apoptosis that may be a contributing factor in CD4+ T cell loss. However, most of the studies testing this phenomenon have been conducted with laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates. This raises the question of whether primary Envs derived from HIV-infected patients are capable of inducing bystander apoptosis and whether specific Env signatures are associated with this phenomenon. We developed a high throughput assay to determine the bystander apoptosis inducing activity of a panel of primary Envs. We tested 38 different Envs for bystander apoptosis, virion infectivity, neutralizing antibody sensitivity, and putative N-linked glycosylation sites along with a comprehensive sequence analysis to determine if specific sequence signatures within the viral Env are associated with bystander apoptosis. Our studies show that primary Envs vary considerably in their bystander apoptosis-inducing potential, a phenomenon that correlates inversely with putative N-linked glycosylation sites and positively with virion infectivity. By use of a novel phylogenetic analysis that avoids subtype bias coupled with structural considerations, we found specific residues like Arg-476 and Asn-425 that were associated with differences in bystander apoptosis induction. A specific role of these residues was also confirmed experimentally. These data demonstrate for the first time the potential of primary R5 Envs to mediate bystander apoptosis in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we identify specific genetic signatures within the Env that may be associated with the bystander apoptosis-inducing phenotype. PMID:24265318

  14. Microvesicular Caspase-1 Mediates Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Exline, Matthew C.; Justiniano, Steven; Hollyfield, Jennifer L.; Berhe, Freweine; Besecker, Beth Y.; Das, Srabani; Wewers, Mark D.; Sarkar, Anasuya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immune dysregulation during sepsis is poorly understood, however, lymphocyte apoptosis has been shown to correlate with poor outcomes in septic patients. The inflammasome, a molecular complex which includes caspase-1, is essential to the innate immune response to infection and also important in sepsis induced apoptosis. Our group has recently demonstrated that endotoxin-stimulated monocytes release microvesicles (MVs) containing caspase-1 that are capable of inducing apoptosis. We sought to determine if MVs containing caspase-1 are being released into the blood during human sepsis and induce apoptosis.. Design Single-center cohort study Measurements 50 critically ill patients were screened within 24 hours of admission to the intensive care unit and classified as either a septic or a critically ill control. Circulatory MVs were isolated and analyzed for the presence of caspase-1 and the ability to induce lymphocyte apoptosis. Patients remaining in the ICU for 48 hours had repeated measurement of caspase-1 activity on ICU day 3. Main Results Septic patients had higher microvesicular caspase-1 activity 0.05 (0.04, 0.07) AFU versus 0.0 AFU (0, 0.02) (p<0.001) on day 1 and this persisted on day 3, 0.12 (0.1, 0.2) versus 0.02 (0, 0.1) (p<0.001). MVs isolated from septic patients on day 1 were able to induce apoptosis in healthy donor lymphocytes compared with critically ill control patients (17.8±9.2% versus 4.3±2.6% apoptotic cells, p<0.001) and depletion of MVs greatly diminished this apoptotic signal. Inhibition of caspase-1 or the disruption of MV integrity abolished the ability to induce apoptosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that microvesicular caspase-1 is important in the host response to sepsis, at least in part, via its ability to induce lymphocyte apoptosis. The ability of microvesicles to induce apoptosis requires active caspase-1 and intact microvesicles. PMID:24643116

  15. Apoptosis and redox homostasis: On a possible mechanism of action of Bcl2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lawen; M. A. Baker; S. Malik

    1998-01-01

    Summary We discuss the involvement of several mammalian redox systems in the regulation of apoptosis. We focus especially on the role that mitochondria and the still ill-characterized plasma membrane NADH-oxidoreductase system play in apoptosis. The latter system was shown to respond to downregulation of mitochondrial function; inhibition of either system induces apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by inhibitors of the oxidase involves

  16. Cathepsin D: newly discovered functions of a long-standing aspartic protease in cancer and apoptosis.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and apoptosis. Emmanuelle Liaudet-Coopman*, Mélanie Beaujouin, Danielle Derocq, Marcel Garcia, Murielle Glondu apoptosis. A mutated cath-D devoid of catalytic activity still proved mitogenic for cancer, endothelial of induced-apoptosis and its proteolytic activity has been involved generally in this event. During apoptosis

  17. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in

    E-print Network

    Bigio, Irving J.

    Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis, Massachusetts 02215 Abstract. Apoptosis--programmed cell death--is a cellular process exhibiting distinct undergoes during apoptosis can provide the opportunity to monitor apoptosis in tissue, yielding diagnostic

  18. Nat Cell Biol . Author manuscript The Patched dependence receptor triggers apoptosis through a

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nat Cell Biol . Author manuscript Page /1 11 The Patched dependence receptor triggers apoptosis this line, Ptc has been shown to function as a3 4 dependence receptor, inducing apoptosis in the absence Transducing ; genetics ; metabolism ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; physiology ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins

  19. Hsp90Akt phosphorylates ASK1 and inhibits ASK1-mediated apoptosis Rong Zhang1

    E-print Network

    Sessa, William C.

    Hsp90­Akt phosphorylates ASK1 and inhibits ASK1-mediated apoptosis Rong Zhang1 , Dianhong Luo1 apoptosis in part by inhibiting proapoptotic kinase ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) activity1 activa- tion and ASK1-mediated EC apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that in resting EC Hsp90, Akt

  20. Classification: Biological Sciences, Medical Sciences The Patched dependence receptor triggers apoptosis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    triggers apoptosis through ubiquitination of caspase-9 Joanna Fombonne1* , Pierre-Antoine Bissey1* , Chantal Thibert2 , Catherine Guix1 , Remy Sadoul2 , and Patrick Mehlen1$ 1 Apoptosis, Cancer to be a dependence receptor, and as such triggers apoptosis in the absence of its ligand. This apoptosis induction

  1. THE PUTATIVE TUMOUR SUPPRESSOR GENE PTPN13/PTPL1 INDUCES APOPTOSIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 THE PUTATIVE TUMOUR SUPPRESSOR GENE PTPN13/PTPL1 INDUCES APOPTOSIS THROUGH IRS-1 dephosphorylates IRS-1 and induces apoptosis Keywords Tumour suppressor gene; Apoptosis; Protein tyrosine that its expression was necessary for inhibition of Akt activation and induction of apoptosis

  2. MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 60:553561 (2001) Apoptosis in Sea Urchin Oocytes, Eggs, and

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    2001-01-01

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 60:553±561 (2001) Apoptosis in Sea Urchin Oocytes, Eggs of apoptosis assays in sea urchin oocytes, eggs, and early embryos experimentally induced to apoptose: apoptosis; sea urchin; oocyte; egg; staurosporine INTRODUCTION Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays

  3. Apoptosis and T-cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Haagmans, B L; Egberink, H F; Horzinek, M C

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune-mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in activated T cells. Since feline infectious peritonitis virus does not infect T cells, and viral proteins did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, we postulate that soluble mediators released during the infection cause apoptosis and T-cell depletion. PMID:8971027

  4. Morphological and cytochemical determination of cell death by apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Burton E.; Budd, Ralph C.

    2007-01-01

    Several modes of cell death are now recognized, including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Oftentimes the distinctions between these various modes may not be apparent, although the precise mode may be physiologically important. Accordingly, it is often desirable to be able to classify the mode of cell death. Apoptosis was originally defined by structural alterations in cells observable by transmitted light and electron microscopy. Today, a wide variety of imaging and cytochemical techniques are available for the investigation of apoptosis. This review will highlight many of these methods, and provide a critique on the advantages and disadvantages associated with them for the specific identification of apoptotic cells in culture and tissues. PMID:18000678

  5. Caspase 8-dependent sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis following reovirus-infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny Clarke; Suzanne M Meintzer; Aaron C Spalding; Gary L Johnson; Kenneth L Tyler

    2001-01-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces apoptosis in susceptible cells by binding to death receptors 4 (DR4) and 5 (DR5). TRAIL preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells and the identification of mechanisms by which TRAIL-induced apoptosis can be enhanced may lead to novel cancer chemotherapeutic strategies. Here we show that reovirus infection induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines derived from human

  6. Development of a SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS methodology for the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmaceuticals in seawater.

    PubMed

    Paíga, Paula; Loli?, Aleksandar; Hellebuyck, Floris; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Correia, Manuela; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2015-03-15

    An analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of seven pharmaceuticals and two metabolites belonging to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics therapeutic groups was developed based on off-line solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). Extraction conditions were optimized taking into account parameters like sorbent material, sample volume and sample pH. Method detection limits (MDLs) ranging from 0.02 to 8.18 ng/L were obtained. This methodology was successfully applied to the determination of the selected pharmaceuticals in seawater samples of Atlantic Ocean in the Northern Portuguese coast. All the pharmaceuticals have been detected in the seawater samples, with pharmaceuticals like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, ketoprofen and the metabolite hydroxyibuprofen being the most frequently detected at concentrations that can reach some hundreds of ng/L. PMID:25002040

  7. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus induced apoptosis in swine testes cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sirinarumitr, T; Kluge, J P; Paul, P S

    1998-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus which causes severe gastroenteritis and atrophy of intestinal villous epithelial cells in piglets. However, the mechanism of cell death caused by TGEV is not known. In this study, we report that TGEV induces cell death by apoptosis. TGEV-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and terminal deoxytransferase digoxigenin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Double labeling experiment confirmed the result from electron microscopy and showed that most of the apoptotic cells were bystander cells as they were negative for TGEV nucleic acids. Results of this study indicate that TGEV induces apoptosis in vitro and that most of the cells undergoing apoptosis are bystander cells, thus amplifying the cytopathic effect of TGEV. PMID:9930203

  8. Apoptosis in the Medaka Embryo in the Early Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Norio; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important event of the development of various organs. In this study, we used in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) to visualize the temporal and spatial distribution of apoptosis in the developing medaka embryo, which is a useful model for developmental biology and genetics. Most of the apoptotic cells were distributed in the central nervous system and tailbud. In the brain and retina, most of the apoptosis occurred in the restricted period. In situ hybridization against caspase 3A and caspase 3B showed that these were distributed in the tailbud and the head, respectively. These results suggested that two types of caspase 3 were involved in apoptosis in different areas. PMID:17375203

  9. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  10. Induction of apoptosis by c-Fos protein.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, G A; Lyon, T T; Yin, Y; Lang, J E; Solomon, G; Annab, L; Srinivasan, D G; Alcorta, D A; Barrett, J C

    1996-01-01

    The role of c-Fos in apoptosis was examined in two Syrian hamster embryo cell lines (sup+I and sup-II) and a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (RKO), using the chimeric Fos-estrogen receptor fusion protein c-FosER. As previously reported, contrasting responses were observed when these two cell lines were placed under growth factor deprivation conditions; sup+I cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis, whereas sup-II cells were resistant. In this report, we show that the activated c-FosER protein induces apoptosis in sup-II preneoplastic cells in serum-free medium, indicating that c-Fos protein can induce apoptotic cell death in these cells. c-Fos-induced apoptosis was not blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that the c-Fos transcriptional activation activity is not involved. This conclusion was further supported by the observation that overexpression of v-Fos, which is highly proficient in transcriptional activation but deficient in the transcriptional repression activity associated with c-Fos, did not induce apoptosis. Constitutively expressed Bcl-2 delayed the onset of low-serum-induced apoptosis in sup+I cells and enhanced survival in sup-II cells. Further, coexpression of Bcl-2 and c-FosER in sup+I or sup-II cells protected the cells from c-FosER-induced apoptosis. The possibility that c-FosER-induced apoptosis requires a p53 function was examined. Colorectal carcinoma RKOp53+/+ cells, which do not normally undergo apoptosis in serum-free medium, showed apoptotic DNA fragmentation upon expression and activation of c-FosER. Further, when the wild-type p53 protein was diminished in the RKO cells by infection with the papillomavirus E6 gene, subsequent c-FosER-induced apoptosis was blocked. The data suggest that c-Fos protein plays a causal role in the activation of apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. This activity does not require new protein synthesis and is blocked by overexpression of Bcl-2 protein. PMID:8524298

  11. Determination of analytes in medical herbs extracts by SPE coupled with two-dimensional planar chromatography in combination with diode array scanning densitometry and HPLC-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an application of 2-D high-performance planar chromatography-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-DAD after solid-phase extraction (SPE) for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides (isoproturon, aziprotryne, hexazinone, flufenoxuron, methabenzthiazuron, procymidone, and ?-cypermethrin) in Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) samples. The procedure described for the determination of compounds is inexpensive and can be applied to routine analysis of analytes in medical herbs' samples after preliminary cleanup and concentration by SPE. Average recoveries on C18 SPE cartridges of pesticides eluted with 5 mL tetrahydrofuran by the proposed HPLC-DAD method, before and after 2-D-high-performance planar chromatography separation of analytes from M. officinalis L. samples spiked with pesticide at a concentration level of 10 ?g/g in plant material are presented. Method validation parameters for the quantification of pesticides by the proposed HPLC-DAD after SPE method are also presented. PMID:21171173

  12. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric bioanalysis using normal-phase columns with aqueous/organic mobile phases - a novel approach of eliminating evaporation and reconstitution steps in 96-well SPE.

    PubMed

    Naidong, Weng; Shou, Wilson Z; Addison, Thomas; Maleki, Saber; Jiang, Xiangyu

    2002-01-01

    Bioanalytical methods using automated 96-well solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. SPE methods typically require manual steps of drying of the eluates and reconstituting of the analytes with a suitable injection solvent possessing elution strength weaker than the mobile phase. In this study, we demonstrated a novel approach of eliminating these two steps in 96-well SPE by using normal-phase LC/MS/MS methods with low aqueous/high organic mobile phases, which consisted of 70-95% organic solvent, 5-30% water, and small amount of volatile acid or buffer. While the commonly used SPE elution solvents (i.e. acetonitrile and methanol) have stronger elution strength than a mobile phase on reversed-phase chromatography, they are weaker elution solvents than a mobile phase for normal-phase LC/MS/MS and therefore can be injected directly. Analytical methods for a range of polar pharmaceutical compounds, namely, omeprazole, metoprolol, fexofenadine, pseudoephedrine as well as rifampin and its metabolite 25-desacetyl-rifampin, in biological fluids, were developed and optimized based on the foregoing principles. As a result of the time saving, a batch of 96 samples could be processed in one hour. These bioanalytical LC/MS/MS methods were validated according to "Guidance for Industry - Bioanalytical Method Validation" recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States. PMID:12362389

  13. 1 S.R. REEVES, D.G. HILL, R.L. TINER, P.A. BASTIAN, M.W. CONWAY & S. MOHAGHEGH SPE 55627 Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented

  14. spe433-02 page 27 Ernst, W.G., Hacker, B.R., and Liou, J.G., 2007, Petrotectonics of ultrahigh-pressure crustal and upper-mantle rocks--Implications for Phanerozoic collisional

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    spe433-02 page 27 27 Ernst, W.G., Hacker, B.R., and Liou, J.G., 2007, Petrotectonics of ultrahigh of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-2115, USA B.R. Hacker

  15. SPE Combined with HPLC-APCI-MS Analysis of Pesticides in Water: Method Performance and Application in a Reconnaissance Survey of Residues in Drinking Water in Greater Cairo (Egypt)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The portability, ease of use, and potential to enhance analyte stability makes solid-phase extraction (SPE) an attractive technique for extracting water samples collected for pesticide residue analysis prior to their shipment to analytical laboratories. The technique is especially valuable when samp...

  16. Page 352 Courses: Nursing (NURS) Sonoma State University 2010-2011 Catalog nurS 313 BACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS ii (4)

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Page 352 Courses: Nursing (NURS) Sonoma State University 2010-2011 Catalog nurS 313 BACCAlAureAte nurSinG perSpeCtiVeS ii (4) Seminar, 4 hours. Application of baccalaureate nursing perspectives in childbearing and child-rearing families. Preventive and therapeutic aspects of nursing care for the pregnant

  17. Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 367Sonoma State University 2013-2014 Catalog nurS 313 BACCALAureAte nurSing perSpeCtiVeS ii (4)

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 367Sonoma State University 2013-2014 Catalog nurS 313 BACCALAureAte nurSing perSpeCtiVeS ii (4) This course expands knowledge about the role of the professional nurse in society by exploring leadership and advocacy as integral components of professional nursing. It examines

  18. GCR and SPE organ doses in deep space with different shielding: Monte Carlo simulations based on the FLUKA code coupled to anthropomorphic phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Cerutti, F.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Mairani, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Parini, V.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Zankl, M.

    Astronauts' exposure to space radiation is of high concern for long-term missions, especially for those in deep space such as possible travels to Mars. In these cases shielding optimization is a crucial issue, and simulations based on radiation transport codes and anthropomorphic model phantoms can be of great help. In this work the FLUKA Monte Carlo code was coupled with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a "voxel" model) to calculate organ-averaged dose, dose equivalent and "biological dose" in the various tissues and organs following exposure to the August 1972 Solar Particle Event and to Galactic Cosmic Rays under different shielding conditions. The "biological dose" was characterized by the average number of induced "Complex Lesions" (CLs) per cell in a given organ or tissue, where CLs are clustered DNA breaks which can play an important role in chromosome aberration induction. Separate calculation of the contributions from secondary hadrons - in particular neutrons - with respect to primary particles allowed us to quantify the role played by nuclear interactions occurring in the shield and in the human body. Specifically for GCR, the contributions from the different components of the incident primary spectra were calculated separately as well. As expected, the SPE doses showed a dramatic decrease with increasing Al shielding. Furthermore, for SPEs internal organs received much lower doses with respect to skin, and nuclear interactions were found to be of minor importance. A 10 g/cm 2 Al storm shelter turned out to be sufficient to respect the NCRP limits for 30-days LEO missions in case of a SPE similar to the August 1972 event. In contrast with SPEs, GCR absorbed doses remained roughly constant with increasing Al shielding. The organ-averaged dose equivalent and biological dose showed a (slight) decrease starting from a shield thickness of 2 g/cm 2, probably due the lower LET of projectile fragments.

  19. Induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts by c-myc protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard I. Evan; Andrew H. Wyllie; Christopher S. Gilbert; Trevor D. Littlewood; Mary Brooks; Catherine M. Waters; David C. Hancock

    1992-01-01

    Summary Although Rat-l fibroblasts expressing c-myc constitu- tively are unable to arrest growth in low serum, their numbers do not increase in culture because of sub- stantial cell death. We show this cell death to be depen- dent upon expression of c-myc protein and to occur by apoptosis. Regions of the c-myc protein required for induction of apoptosis overlap with

  20. Maternal Smoking, Intrauterine Growth Restriction, and Placental Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Vogt Isaksen; Rigmor Austgulen; Lisa Chedwick; Pal Romundstad; Lars Vatten

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant women who smoke are at greater risk of delivering a growth-restricted infant than nonsmoking mothers. We wanted to see if apoptosis could be involved in the mechanisms behind smoke-induced growth restriction, and our aim was to compare apoptosis in the placenta of smoking mothers giving birth to growth-restricted infants and nonsmoking mothers with infants of appropriate weight. The project

  1. Mediation of c-Myc-Induced Apoptosis by p53

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Hermeking; Dirk Eick

    1994-01-01

    The cellular proto-oncogene c-myc is involved in cell proliferation and transformation but is also implicated in the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). The same characteristics have been described for the tumor suppressor gene p53, the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer. In quiescent mouse fibroblasts expressing wildtype p53 protein, activation of c-Myc was found to induce apoptosis and

  2. Endothelial Dysfunction, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    van den Oever, Inge A. M.; Raterman, Hennie G.; Nurmohamed, Mike T.; Simsek, Suat

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in obesity-related type 2 diabetes. The imbalance in repair and injury (hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia) results in microvascular changes, including apoptosis of microvascular cells, ultimately leading to diabetes related complications. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which the interplay between endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and apoptosis may cause (micro)vascular damage in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:20634940

  3. Geranylgeranylacetone suppresses hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Yoda; Tadahiro Sakai; Hirohito Mitsuyama; Hideki Hiraiwa; Naoki Ishiguro

    Background  Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease, afflicting many sufferers with both pain and functional disorders. Various therapies\\u000a have been attempted for OA, but no fully effective treatment has been established yet. Apoptosis of chondrocytes caused by\\u000a reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered important in the pathogenesis of OA. The progression of OA may be prevented\\u000a by suppressing apoptosis of

  4. PUMA Induces the Rapid Apoptosis of Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Yu; Lin Zhang; Paul M. Hwang; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein

    2001-01-01

    Through global profiling of genes that were expressed soon after p53 expression, we identified a novel gene termed PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). The protein encoded by PUMA was found to be exclusively mitochondrial and to bind to Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL through a BH3 domain. Exogenous expression of PUMA resulted in an extremely rapid and profound apoptosis that occurred

  5. Dietary bioflavonoids induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Matsui; Nobutaka Kiyokawa; Hisami Takenouchi; Tomoko Taguchi; Kyoko Suzuki; Yusuke Shiozawa; Masahiro Saito; Wei-ran Tang; Yohko U. Katagiri; Hajime Okita; Junichiro Fujimoto

    2005-01-01

    Dietary bioflavonoids are secondary metabolites of plants that are known to have a variety of bio-effects, including anti-cancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects of flavonoids on the growth of human leukemia cells and found that certain flavonoids induce apoptosis in a variety of human leukemia cells. The apoptosis induced by bioflavonoids was dose-dependent and was accompanied by

  6. Dietary bioflavonoids induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Matsui; Nobutaka Kiyokawa; Hisami Takenouchi; Tomoko Taguchi; Kyoko Suzuki; Yusuke Shiozawa; Masahiro Saito; Wei-ran Tang; Yohko U. Katagiri; Hajime Okita; Junichiro Fujimoto

    Dietary bioflavonoids are secondary metabolites of plants that are known to have a variety of bio-effects, including anti-cancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects of flavonoids on the growth of human leukemia cells and found that certain flavonoids induce apoptosis in a variety of human leukemia cells. The apoptosis induced by bioflavonoids was dose-dependent and was accompanied by

  7. MBP1 mediated apoptosis involves cytochrome c release from mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asish K Ghosh; Mainak Majumder; Robert Steele; Ta-Jen Liu; Ratna B Ray

    2002-01-01

    MBP-1, a cellular factor, appears to be involved in multiple functions, including transcriptional modulation, apoptosis and cell growth regulation. In this study, we have investigated the signaling pathway involved in MBP-1 mediated apoptotic cell death. Human carcinoma cells infected with a replication deficient adenovirus expressing MBP-1 (AdMBP-1) induced apoptosis, when compared with cells infected by replication-defective adenovirus (dl312) as a

  8. Research progress on Livin protein: an inhibitor of apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biao Yan

    Livin is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family, which plays crucial roles in apoptosis, cell proliferation,\\u000a and cell cycle control. Abnormal Livin expression is sometimes detected during the process of cancer formation and\\/or progression.\\u000a Thus, Livin research may provide an opportunity for the development of potential therapy for Livin-relevant cancers. In this\\u000a review, we introduce Livin structure,

  9. Endothelial Cell Apoptosis during Glomerular Capillary Lumen Formation In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WOLFGANG FIERLBECK; AILIAN LIU; RALUCA COYLE; BARBARA J. BALLERMANN

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor- (TGF-) stimulates endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro, and inhibition of TGF-1 leads to retention of undifferentiated endothelial cells in de- veloping glomerular capillaries and reduced lumen formation in vivo. This study explored the question whether glomerular capillary lumen formation in vivo may involve TGF-1- de- pendent endothelial cell apoptosis. Neutralizing anti-TGF-1 or non-immune IgY were infused into

  10. Apoptosis of Ocular Surface Cells in Experimentally Induced Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Yeh; Xiu Jun Song; William Farley; De-Quan Li; Michael E. Stern; Stephen C. Pflugfelder

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate to effect of experimental dry eye on ocular surface apoptosis. METHODS. Aqueous tear production and clearance were inhib- ited by systemic administration of scopolamine and exposure to an air draft for 12 days in 4- to 6-week-old 129SvEv\\/CD-1 mixed white mice. Eyes and ocular adnexa were excised, cryosectioned, and evaluated for apoptosis by terminal deoxy- nucleotidyl transferase-mediated

  11. Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Thomas; Takeshi F. Andoh; Raimund H. Pichler; Stuart J. Shankland; William G. Couser; William M. Bennett; Richard J. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis. Recently we developed a model of cyclosporine nephropathy in rats characterized by tubulointerstitial (TI) injury, macrophage infiltration, and progressive interstitial fibrosis1,2. To determine if the TI injury accompanying cyclosporine A (CsA) nephropathy was associated with accelerated apoptosis and ischemia, we treated rats for five weeks with CsA with or without losartan (to block angiotensin

  12. The inhibitors of apoptosis of Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Maguire, T; Harrison, P; Hyink, O; Kalmakoff, J; Ward, V K

    2000-11-01

    In this study, four inhibitor of apoptosis genes (iaps) in the genome of Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus (EppoMNPV) that are homologous to iap-1, iap-2, iap-3 and iap-4 genes of other baculoviruses have been identified. All four iap genes were sequenced and the iap-1 and iap-2 genes were shown to be functional inhibitors of apoptosis. The iap-1, iap-2 and iap-3 genes contain two baculovirus apoptosis inhibitor repeat motifs and a C(3)HC(4) RING finger-like motif. The activity of the iap genes was tested by transient expression in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-21) cells treated with the apoptosis-inducing agents actinomycin D, cycloheximide, anisomycin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and UV light. The iap-2 gene prevented apoptosis induced by all agents tested, indicating activity towards a conserved component(s) of multiple apoptotic pathways. However, the iap-2 gene was unable to function in the absence of a gene immediately upstream of iap-2 that has homology to the orf69 gene of Autographa californica MNPV. The use of a CMV promoter rescued the apoptosis inhibition activity of the iap-2 gene, indicating that the upstream orf69 homologue is associated with expression of iap-2. The iap-1 gene was able to delay the onset of apoptosis caused by all of the induction agents tested but, unlike iap-2, was unable to prevent the development of an apoptotic response upon prolonged exposure of cells to the apoptosis induction agents. No anti-apoptotic activity was observed for the iap-3 and iap-4 genes of EppoMNPV. PMID:11038395

  13. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Thiolamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, R. L.; Roberts, J. C.; Wilmore, B. H.; Kelley, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8-3 hybridoma after 60-minute (LD(sub50) = 4.5mM) or during a 20-hour (LD(sub50) = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-hour exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50 percent apoptosis within 20 hours. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-minute or 20-hour exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidime prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4mM for 15 minutes) or cysteine (10mM for 60 minutes) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 hours) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 minutes beginning 60 minutes after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 hours beginning 60 minutes after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations.

  14. High-throughput analytical techniques for multiresidue, multiclass determination of 653 pesticides and chemical pollutants in tea--Part III: Evaluation of the cleanup efficiency of an SPE cartridge newly developed for multiresidues in tea.

    PubMed

    Pang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Chun-Lin; Chang, Qiao-Ying; Li, Yan; Kang, Jian; Wang, Wen-Wen; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Yan-Bing; Li, Nan; Li, Zeng-Yin; Chen, Zong-Mao; Luo, Feng-Jian; Lou, Zheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted over three stages on the cleanup efficiency of SPE cartridge Cleanert TPT, newly developed for multigroups of pesticide residues in tea. In Stage I, different SPE cartridges C18, graphite carbon black (GCB), primary secondary amine (PSA), and amino (NH2) were purchased and combined into 12 different sequences. Through the comparative test on cleanup efficiency of 84 representative pesticides in tea, Envi-Carb GCB + PSA with a good cleanup effect was selected. In Stage II, GC/MS test results from the comparative study of the extraction efficiency of 201 pesticides spiked into green tea and Woolong tea with Cleanert TPT and Envi-Carb + PSA SPE showed that average recoveries fell within 70-110% and RSD <20% for 193 and 184 pesticides, respectively, for green tea, accounting for 96.0 and 91.0% of the total number, respectively. GC/MS/MS test results also found 193 and 184 pesticides, respectively, meeting the recovery and RSD conditions, accounting for 96.0 and 91.5%, respectively, of the total number. For Woolong tea samples, GC/MS results showed that with Cleanert TPT and Envi-Carb + PSA SPE for cleanup, there were 192 and 177 pesticides, respectively, meeting the conditions, accounting for 95.5 and 88.1% of the total number, respectively. GC/MS/MS results demonstrated that there were 195 and 184 pesticides, respectively, meeting the conditions, accounting for 97.0 and 91.5% of the total number, respectively. It was seen that Cleanert TPT was superior to Envi-Carb + PSA in cleanup efficiency, whether for green or Woolong tea samples, or GC/MS or GC/MS/MS determination. In Stage III, 61104 results of the average content value of pesticides and RSD (two teas xtwo Youden pair concentrations x two kinds of SPE cartridges x two instruments x 19 tests x 201 pesticides) were derived from the 19 times stability tests over 3 months by paralleling three samples every 5 days via two instruments with two kinds of SPE cartridges for cleanup, respectively, against Youden Pair samples of the 201 incurred pesticides from green and Woolong teas. The statistical analysis found that detected values from the target pesticides of the incurred Youden pair samples showed no marked differences with cleanup by either Cleanert TPT or Envi-Carb + PSA, whether for green or Woolong tea, or G/IMS or G/IM/IMS. The test results using the two aforementioned kinds of SPE cleanup for above 93% pesticides had a tolerance less than 15%, which testifies that both cartridge cleanups met the requirement for pesticide residue analysis. PMID:24000765

  15. Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Cai-ping; Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    The degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis (OA) is closely associated with the death of chondrocytes in apoptosis fashion. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), higher expression following acute damage in OA patients, has been shown to be up-regulated during apoptosis in a bulk of experimental models. This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of H2O2-induced rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. Articular cartilage was biopsied from the joints of 6 weeks old New Zealand rabbits. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability. We used flow cytometry to assess the form of cell death with Annexin-V/PI double staining, and found that H2O2 treatment induced apoptosis in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Exposure of chondrocytes to 1.5 mM of H2O2 for 2 h induced a burst apoptosis that can be alleviated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) pretreatment, an anti-oxidant amino-acid derivative. Loss of mitochondria membrane potential (??m) was evaluated using confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry (FCM). H2O2 treatment induced a marked reduction of ??m, and the abrupt disappearance of ??m occurred within 5 minutes. These results indicate that H2O2 induces a rapid apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in rabbit chondrocytes.

  16. Fluidization of tissues by cell division and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ranft, Jonas; Basan, Markus; Elgeti, Jens; Joanny, Jean-François; Prost, Jacques; Jülicher, Frank

    2010-12-01

    During the formation of tissues, cells organize collectively by cell division and apoptosis. The multicellular dynamics of such systems is influenced by mechanical conditions and can give rise to cell rearrangements and movements. We develop a continuum description of tissue dynamics, which describes the stress distribution and the cell flow field on large scales. In the absence of division and apoptosis, we consider the tissue to behave as an elastic solid. Cell division and apoptosis introduce stress sources that, in general, are anisotropic. By combining cell number balance with dynamic equations for the stress source, we show that the tissue effectively behaves as a viscoelastic fluid with a relaxation time set by the rates of division and apoptosis. If the system is confined in a fixed volume, it reaches a homeostatic state in which division and apoptosis balance. In this state, cells undergo a diffusive random motion driven by the stochasticity of division and apoptosis. We calculate the expression for the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the tissue parameters and compare our results concerning both diffusion and viscosity to simulations of multicellular systems using dissipative particle dynamics. PMID:21078958

  17. Spaceflight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Reynolds, J. L.; Cubano, L. A.; Hatton, J. P.; Lawless, B. D.; Piepmeier, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    Alteration in cytoskeletal organization appears to underlie mechanisms of gravity sensitivity in space-flown cells. Human T lymphoblastoid cells (Jurkat) were flown on the Space Shuttle to test the hypothesis that growth responsiveness is associated with microtubule anomalies and mediated by apoptosis. Cell growth was stimulated in microgravity by increasing serum concentration. After 4 and 48 h, cells filtered from medium were fixed with formalin. Post-flight, confocal microscopy revealed diffuse, shortened microtubules extending from poorly defined microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). In comparable ground controls, discrete microtubule filaments radiated from organized MTOCs and branched toward the cell membrane. At 4 h, 30% of flown, compared to 17% of ground, cells showed DNA condensation characteristic of apoptosis. Time-dependent increase of the apoptosis-associated Fas/ APO-1 protein in static flown, but not the in-flight 1 g centrifuged or ground controls, confirmed microgravity-associated apoptosis. By 48 h, ground cultures had increased by 40%. Flown populations did not increase, though some cells were cycling and actively metabolizing glucose. We conclude that cytoskeletal alteration, growth retardation, and metabolic changes in space-flown lymphocytes are concomitant with increased apoptosis and time-dependent elevation of Fas/APO-1 protein. We suggest that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight is linked to apoptosis.

  18. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  19. Requirement for shrimp caspase in apoptosis against virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhi, Bin; Wu, Wenlin; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2008-01-01

    Caspases are central effectors in apoptosis. In this investigation, a novel caspase gene (designated as PjCaspase) obtained from the marine shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was found to be significantly upregulated in survivors of WSSV-challenged shrimp, suggesting that it might be involved in shrimp antiviral immunity. As revealed by RNAi assays, when the PjCaspase gene was silenced by gene-specific siRNA, the WSSV-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited. The results showed that the PjCaspase gene was essential in the virus-induced apoptosis of shrimp. Based on the quantitative PCR detection, it was shown that the PjCaspase gene silencing resulted in the increase of virus copies, indicating that apoptosis played a key role in antiviral process of shrimp. As well known, caspase-3 and -8 are crucial caspases in apoptosis. The discovery of PjCaspase in this study would contribute another essential caspase involved in apoptosis against virus infection, which might reveal an ancient mechanism of caspase activation in invertebrate immunity against viruses. PMID:18068223

  20. Accelerated Apoptosis of Neutrophils in Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Manukyan, Gayane; Aminov, Rustam; Hakobyan, Gagik; Davtyan, Tigran

    2015-01-01

    The causative mutations for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) are located in the MEFV gene, which encodes pyrin. Pyrin modulates the susceptibility to apoptosis via its PYD domain, but how the mutated versions of pyrin affect apoptotic processes are poorly understood. Spontaneous and induced rates of systemic neutrophil apoptosis as well as the levels of proteins involved in apoptosis were investigated ex vivo in patients with FMF using flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. The freshly collected neutrophils from the patients in FMF remission displayed a significantly larger number of cells spontaneously entering apoptosis compared to control (6.27?±?2.14 vs. 1.69?±?0.18%). This elevated ratio was retained after 24?h incubation of neutrophils in the growth medium (32.4?±?7.41 vs. 7.65?±?1.32%). Correspondingly, the mRNA level for caspase-3 was also significantly increased under these conditions. In response to the inducing agents, the neutrophils from FMF patients also displayed significantly elevated apoptotic rates compared to control. The elevated rates, however, can be largely explained by the higher basal ratio of apoptotic cells in the former group. Monitoring of several proteins involved in apoptosis has not revealed any conventional mechanisms contributing to the enhanced apoptotic rate of neutrophils in FMF. Although the exact molecular mechanisms of accelerated neutrophil apoptosis in FMF remain unknown, it may provide a protection against excessive inflammation and tissue damage due to a massive infiltration of neutrophils in the acute period of the disease.

  1. Pathways Involved in Interleukin-1?–Mediated Murine Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Qin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of heart failure by inducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis, but the mechanisms of this process are poorly defined. We further explored these molecular pathways. We isolated cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice and then cultured and stimulated them with murine IL-1? in vitro. Cell apoptotic ratios were measured by means of flow cytometry. Expression of effector molecules was analyzed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-1? induced murine cardiomyocyte apoptosis through a release of cytochrome c into cytoplasm and through caspase 3 activation. Simultaneously, IL-1? signaling promoted expression of endonuclease G and high-temperature requirement protein A2 messenger RNA. Survivin and X-linked inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP), members of the IAP family, were inhibited on the messenger RNA level during IL-1?–mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We found that IL-1? signaling during cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro induced the activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways, and inhibited IAPs. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in IL-1?–mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis might assist in the design of therapeutic approaches to protect cardiomyocyte function and prevent heart failure. PMID:25873819

  2. Rabies virus infects mouse and human lymphocytes and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Thoulouze, M I; Lafage, M; Montano-Hirose, J A; Lafon, M

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated and highly neurovirulent rabies virus strains have distinct cellular tropisms. Highly neurovirulent strains such as the challenge virus standard (CVS) are highly neurotropic, whereas the attenuated strain ERA also infects nonneuronal cells. We report that both rabies virus strains infect activated murine lymphocytes and the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line in vitro. The lymphocytes are more permissive to the attenuated ERA rabies virus strain than to the CVS strain in both cases. We also report that in contrast to that of the CVS strain, ERA viral replication induces apoptosis of infected Jurkat T cells, and cell death is concomitant with viral glycoprotein expression, suggesting that this protein has a role in the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that (i) rabies virus infects lymphocytes, (ii) lymphocyte infection with the attenuated rabies virus strain causes apoptosis, and (iii) apoptosis does not hinder rabies virus production. In contrast to CVS, ERA rabies virus and other attenuated rabies virus vaccines stimulate a strong immune response and are efficient live vaccines. The paradoxical finding that a rabies virus triggers a strong immune response despite the fact that it infects lymphocytes and induces apoptosis is discussed in terms of the function of apoptosis in the immune response. PMID:9311815

  3. Mathematical modeling reveals threshold mechanism in CD95-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bentele, M; Lavrik, I; Ulrich, M; Stösser, S; Heermann, D W; Kalthoff, H; Krammer, P H; Eils, R

    2004-09-13

    Mathematical modeling is required for understanding the complex behavior of large signal transduction networks. Previous attempts to model signal transduction pathways were often limited to small systems or based on qualitative data only. Here, we developed a mathematical modeling framework for understanding the complex signaling behavior of CD95(APO-1/Fas)-mediated apoptosis. Defects in the regulation of apoptosis result in serious diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and neurodegeneration. During the last decade many of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis signaling have been examined and elucidated. A systemic understanding of apoptosis is, however, still missing. To address the complexity of apoptotic signaling we subdivided this system into subsystems of different information qualities. A new approach for sensitivity analysis within the mathematical model was key for the identification of critical system parameters and two essential system properties: modularity and robustness. Our model describes the regulation of apoptosis on a systems level and resolves the important question of a threshold mechanism for the regulation of apoptosis. PMID:15364960

  4. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a modulator of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Jennifer Q.; Henning, Matthew S.; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of apoptosis are implicated in many diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. We investigate here the role of respiratory chain (RC) dysfunction in apoptosis, using mitochondrial DNA mutations as genetic models. Although some mutations eliminate the entire RC, others target specific complexes, resulting in either decreased or complete loss of electron flux, which leads to impaired respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Despite these similarities, significant differences in responses to apoptotic stimuli emerge. Cells lacking RC are protected against both mitochondrial- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress–induced apoptosis. Cells with RC, but unable to generate electron flux, are protected against mitochondrial apoptosis, although they have increased sensitivity to ER stress. Finally, cells with a partial reduction in electron flux have increased apoptosis under both conditions. Our results show that the RC modulates apoptosis in a context-dependent manner independent of ATP production and that apoptotic responses are the result of the interplay between mitochondrial functional state and environmental cues. PMID:18086914

  5. Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Al-Samadi, A; Drozd, A; Salem, A; Hietanen, J; Häyrinen-Immonen, R; Konttinen, Y T

    2015-07-01

    A recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is a common inflammatory ulcerative lesion affecting oral mucosa. We studied the eventual apoptosis of epithelial cells from the point of view of ulcer and inflammation. RAU lesions and healthy mucosa samples were immunostained for caspase-3 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). DNA nicks were identified using TUNEL staining. We studied the effects of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and interferon ? (IFN?) on the toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) expression of human oral SCC-25 keratinocytes. We also studied the effects of self-DNA, all-thiol-HMGB1, and disulfide-HMGB1 on epithelial cells, with or without IFN?. At the edge of RAU lesions, all epithelial cell layers were caspase-3(+), TUNEL(+), and HMGB-1(+) and had widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, healthy epithelial cells were negative for caspase-3 and TUNEL staining. HMGB1 was seen in only the basal cell layers, and the cells retained close cell-to-cell contacts. Self-DNA increased TNF-? mRNA (P = 0.02) in SCC-25 cells. Both TNF? and IFN? (P = 0.01) increased TLR2. Upon TNF? stimulation, SCC-25 cells lost their nuclear HMGB1 staining. HMGB1 did not increase IL-8, IL-6, or TNF-? mRNA in SCC-25 cells, which was unaffected by the presence of IFN?. We conclude that in healthy epithelium, the most superficial cells at the end of their life cycle are simply desquamated. In contrast, RAU is characterized by top-to-bottom apoptosis such that dead cells may slough off, leading to an ulcer. Because of a lack of scavenging anti-inflammatory macrophages, apoptotic cells probably undergo secondary necrosis releasing proinflammatory danger signals, which may contribute to the peripheral inflammatory halo. This is supported by self-DNA-induced TNF? synthesis. In contrast to TLR4- and TLR2-binding lipopolysaccharide used as a positive control, disulfide-HMGB1 did not stimulate proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25861801

  6. Improved methods for urinary atrazine mercapturate analysis--assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method utilizing online solid phase extraction (SPE).

    PubMed

    Koivunen, Marja E; Dettmer, Katja; Vermeulen, Roel; Bakke, Berit; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2006-07-21

    Elimination of interfering substances in urine by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis resulted in 10-fold improvement in the sensitivity of atrazine mercapturate (AM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared to previous reports. Of the two tested SPE systems, Oasis HLB and MCX, the mixed-mode MCX gave good recoveries (82%) of AM in spiked samples measured by ELISA, whereas the reverse-phase HLB phase was not compatible with the immunochemical method. At relatively high concentrations of urinary AM (>20 ng mL(-1)), sample dilution was effective enough for the elimination of interfering substances. The new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method developed for AM utilizes online-SPE with Oasis HLB, column switching and a stable-isotope internal standard. The limit of quantification (0.05 ng mL(-1)) indicates improved sensitivity compared with most previously published LC-MS methods for AM. Validation of all three methods, LC-MS, ELISA+SPE and ELISA+dilution with spiked urine samples showed good correlation between the known and measured concentrations with R2 values of 0.996, 0.957 and 0.961, respectively. When a set (n=70 plus 12 blind duplicates) of urine samples from farmers exposed to atrazine was analyzed, there was a good agreement (R2=0.917) between the log normalized data obtained by ELISA+SPE and LC-MS. High correlation among the data obtained by the two tested methods and the LC-MS method by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), together with low variability among the blind duplicates, suggests that both methods reported here would be suitable for the analysis of urinary AM as a biomarker for human exposure of atrazine. PMID:17723476

  7. A Protective Role of PKC? against TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)Induced Apoptosis in Glioma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisaaki Shinohara; Nobuhiko Kayagaki; Hideo Yagita; Naoki Oyaizu; Motoi Ohba; Toshio Kuroki; Yoji Ikawa

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the TRAIL-induced apoptosis sensitivity, we conducted the following experiments utilizing TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant glioma cells. We examined the expression of TRAIL receptors mRNA, but no significant differences were detected in those cells. TRAIL-resistant cells were sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by staurosporine pretreatment and preferentially expressed PKC?. Since several lines of evidence suggest that

  8. Role of apoptosis and apoptosis-related proteins in the cisplatin-resistant phenotype of human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Perego, P; Righetti, S C; Supino, R; Delia, D; Caserini, C; Carenini, N; Bedogné, B; Broome, E; Krajewski, S; Reed, J C; Zunino, F

    1997-01-01

    Since apoptosis is the primary mode of cell death induced by cisplatin, the role of apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene products in cisplatin resistance was investigated in four human cisplatin-resistant cell lines of different tumour type. A common feature of the resistant sublines was a reduced susceptibility to drug-induced apoptosis compared to parental sensitive lines. Loss of wild-type p53 function was not a general event associated with the development of drug resistance. An increased bcl-2 expression was found in resistant cells characterized by mutant p53 (A431/Pt and IGROV-1/Pt), whereas in osteosarcoma (U2-OS/Pt) and in ovarian carcinoma (A2780/CP) cells with wild-type p53, bcl-2 levels were markedly reduced. U2-OS/Pt cells had a 16-fold increase in the level of Bcl-xL protein. Stable transfection of U2-OS cells with bcl-xL cDNA conferred a low level of drug resistance to cisplatin, suggesting that overexpression of this gene contributes to the cisplatin-resistant phenotype of this osteosarcoma cell system. In conclusion, these observations suggest a variable contribution of apoptosis-related genes to cisplatin resistance depending on the biological background of the cell system and presumably reflecting different pathways of apoptosis. PMID:14646525

  9. Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

  10. Natural Killer Cells Induce Eosinophil Activation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Ali; Yassine, Hanane; Barrier, Mathieu; Vorng, Han; Marquillies, Philippe; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Duez, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are potent inflammatory cells with numerous immune functions, including antigen presentation and exacerbation of inflammatory responses through their capacity to release a range of largely preformed cytokines and lipid mediators. Thus, timely regulation of eosinophil activation and apoptosis is crucial to develop beneficial immune response and to avoid tissue damage and induce resolution of inflammation. Natural Killer (NK) cells have been reported to influence innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple mechanisms including cytotoxicity against other immune cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the interaction between NK cells and eosinophils. Co-culture experiments revealed that human NK cells could trigger autologous eosinophil activation, as shown by up-regulation of CD69 and down-regulation of CD62L, as well as degranulation, evidenced by increased CD63 surface expression, secretion of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN). Moreover, NK cells significantly and dose dependently increased eosinophil apoptosis as shown by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Direct contact was necessary for eosinophil degranulation and apoptosis. Increased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cocultured eosinophils and inhibition of eosinophil CD63 expression by pharmacologic inhibitors suggest that MAPK and PI3K pathways are involved in NK cell-induced eosinophil degranulation. Finally, we showed that NK cells increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression by eosinophils in co-culture and that mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and antimycin) partially diminished NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting the implication of mitochondrial ROS in NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVAD-FMK) only slightly decreased eosinophil apoptosis in coculture. Altogether, our results suggest that NK cells regulate eosinophil functions by inducing their activation and their apoptosis. PMID:24727794

  11. [Progress in research on apoptosis in filamentous fungi--a review].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiang; Lin, Lin; Tianhong, Wang

    2008-04-01

    Apoptosis is a conserved mechanism that plays an essential role in eukaryotes. Malfunction of apoptosis contributes to many human diseases including cancer and AIDS. Compared with yeast, a monocellular eukaryote, which is the model organism for apoptosis research, investigation on filamentous fungi apoptosis has particular advantages, which remained unrecognized until recent years. Filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus Fumigatus, are expected to become new model species. Research on filamentous fungi apoptosis also has important value in agriculture and medical care, providing new ideas for the biocontrol and therapies of human mycosis. This review describes progress regarding the phenotypes, exogenous/endogenous inducers and signal pathways of apoptosis in filamentous fungi. PMID:18590245

  12. Induction of yeast apoptosis by an antimicrobial peptide, Papiliocin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bomi; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Seong Ryul; Kim, Yangmee; Lee, Dong Gun

    2011-04-29

    Papiliocin is a 37-residue peptide isolated from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus. In this study, we found that Papiliocin induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl radicals known to be important regulators of apoptosis in Candida albicans. To examine the relationship between the accumulation of ROS and the induction of apoptosis, we investigated the apoptotic effects of Papiliocin using apoptotic markers. Cells treated with Papiliocin showed a series of cellular changes normally seen in cells undergoing apoptosis: plasma membrane translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer membrane leaflet, measured by Annexin V staining, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, observed by DiOC(6)(3) staining; and the presence of active metacaspases, measured using the CaspACE FITC-VAD-FMK, as early apoptotic events. In addition, DNA condensation and fragmentation, which is important marker of late stage apoptosis, was seen by DAPI and TUNEL assay. Therefore, these results suggest that Papiliocin leads to apoptosis in C. albicans via ROS accumulation. PMID:21458420

  13. Alpha particles induce apoptosis through the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed

    Seideman, Jonathan H; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A; McDevitt, Michael R; Howell, Roger W; Kolesnick, Richard N; Scheinberg, David A

    2011-10-01

    The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) ? radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET ? particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with ? particles emitted by the ²²?Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on ?-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated ? particles using a planar ²?¹Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five ?-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that ? particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:21631289

  14. HSP70 inhibits Bax translocation during Photofrin-PDT apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Song, Sheng

    2009-02-01

    Apoptosis is an important cellular event that plays a key role in therapy of many diseases. The mechanisms of the initiation and regulation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) -induced apoptosis is complex. Some PDT-associated apoptosis pathways involved plasma membrane death receptors, mitochondria, lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our previous study found that Photofrin were localized primarily in mitochondria, the primary targets of Photofrin-PDT. The key role of Bax in the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis has been demonstrated in many systems. In order to determine the role of Bax in the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis induced by Photofrin-PDT, we used the CFP/GFP-Bax plasmid to monitor the dynamics of Bax activation and translocation after PDT treatment. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we found that PDT induced Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria; however, with cells over-expressing YFP-HSP70 plasmids, Bax translocation was not detected. Thus, for Photofrin-PDT, Bax activation and translocation were inhibited by HSP70, not influence the cell death.

  15. MAVS-Mediated Apoptosis and Its Inhibition by Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liesman, Rachael M.; O'Connor, Brian P.; Bergstralh, Daniel T.; Chen, Zhijian J.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Host responses to viral infection include both immune activation and programmed cell death. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor, MAVS (IPS-1, VISA or Cardif) is critical for host defenses to viral infection by inducing type-1 interferons (IFN-I), however its role in virus-induced apoptotic responses has not been elucidated. Principal Findings We show that MAVS causes apoptosis independent of its function in initiating IFN-I production. MAVS-induced cell death requires mitochondrial localization, is caspase dependent, and displays hallmarks of apoptosis. Furthermore, MAVS?/? fibroblasts are resistant to Sendai virus-induced apoptosis. A functional screen identifies the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nonstructural protein (NSP15) as inhibitors of MAVS-induced apoptosis, possibly as a method of immune evasion. Significance This study describes a novel role for MAVS in controlling viral infections through the induction of apoptosis, and identifies viral proteins which inhibit this host response. PMID:19404494

  16. Apoptosis: its role in pituitary development and neoplastic pituitary tissue.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, M F; Carvalho, L R S; Bronstein, M D

    2014-04-01

    Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a phenomenon in which different stimuli trigger cellular mechanisms that culminate in death, in the absence of inflammatory cell response. Two different activation pathways are known, the intrinsic pathway (or mitochondrial) and extrinsic (or death-receptor pathway), both pathways trigger enzymatic reactions that lead cells to break up and be phagocytized by neighboring cells. This process is a common occurrence in physiological and pathological states, participating in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and remodeling of organs. In the early steps of pituitary gland formation, numerous apoptotic cells are detected in the separation of Rathke's pouch from the roof of oral ectoderm. In the distal part of the gland, which will form the adenohypophysis, the ratio of apoptosis was significantly lower. However, there is evidence that neoplastic pituitary cells undergo unbalance in genes that control apoptosis leading to uncontrolled cell growth. No direct evidence of apoptosis was found in the drugs used for tumors producing prolactin and growth hormone. In conclusion, an unbalancing in the apoptosis process is the boundary between development and tumor growth. PMID:23512699

  17. Cationic surfactants induce apoptosis in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Riyo; Suzuki, Chie; Ohno, Masataka; Ohasi, Toshinori; Futagami, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Keiko; Komae, Mika; Nishino, Takayuki; Konishi, Yasuo; Lee, Eibai

    2007-01-01

    Cationic surfactants, such as benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride, possess quaternary ammonium salt. These surfactants have antimicrobial action and are used as a preservative and an antiseptic. The positively charged polar head of cationic surfactants seems to play a role in the antimicrobial action of these compounds. Recently, benzalkonium chloride in eye drops has been reported to induce apoptosis in conjunctival cells. Here, we examined whether various types of surfactants including anionic and amphoteric surfactants induce apoptosis or not in mammalian cells. Antimicrobial cationic surfactants induced apoptosis at lower concentration than its critical micelle concentration (CMC) in rat thymocytes. Other quaternary ammonium surfactants, such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, similarly increased biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis, whereas both anionic and amphoteric surfactants had no significant effect on these apoptotic features. These results suggest that the positive charge of quaternary ammonium surfactants is involved with onset of the apoptotic process. The treatment of benzethonium chloride also led to apoptotic cell death in Jurkat cells. These results indicate that cationic surfactants induce apoptosis in the normal and cancer cells. PMID:17404011

  18. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Joana D.; Viana, Ricardo J. S.; Ramalho, Rita M.; Steer, Clifford J.; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.

    2009-01-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases. PMID:19417220

  19. An on-line SPE-HPLC method for effective sample preconcentration and determination of fenoxycarb and cis, trans-permethrin in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Naibrtová, Linda; Fernández-Ramos, Carolina; Solich, Petr

    2015-09-01

    A new on-line SPE-HPLC method using fused-core columns for on-line solid phase extraction and large volume sample injection for increasing the sensitivity of detection was developed for the determination of insecticides fenoxycarb and cis-, trans-permethrin in surface waters. The separation was carried out on fused-core column Phenyl-Hexyl (100×4.6mm), particle size 2.7µm with mobile phase acetonitrile:water in gradient mode at flow rate 1.0mLmin(-1), column temperature 45°C. Large volume sample injection (1500µL) to the extraction dimension using short precolumn Ascentis Express RP C-18 (5×4.6mm); fused-core particle size 2.7µm allowed effective sample preconcentration and efficient ballast sample matrix removal. The washing mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile:water; 30:70, (v/v) was pumped at flow rate of 0.5mLmin(-1) through the extraction precolumn to the waste. Time of the valve switch for transferring the preconcentrated sample zone from the extraction to the separation column was set at 3rd min. Elution of preconcentrated insecticides from the extraction precolumn and separation on the analytical column was performed in gradient mode. Linear gradient elution started from 40% of acetonitrile at time of valve switch from SPE column (3rd min) to 95% of acetonitrile at 7th min. Synthetic dye sudan I was chosen as an internal standard. UV detection at wavelength 225nm was used and the method reached the limits of detection (LOD) at ngmL(-1) levels for both insecticides. The method showing on-line sample pretreatment and preconcentration with highly sensitive determination of insecticides was applied for monitoring of fenoxycarb and both permethrin isomers in different surface water samples in Czech Republic. The time of whole analysis including on-line extraction, interferences removal, chromatography separation and system equilibration was less than 8min. PMID:26003701

  20. Yield and depth Estimation of Selected NTS Nuclear and SPE Chemical Explosions Using Source Equalization by modeling Local and Regional Seismograms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, C. K.; Roman-nieves, J. I.; Woods, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Source parameters of nuclear and chemical explosions are often estimated by matching either the corner frequency and spectral level of a single event or the spectral ratio when spectra from two events are available with known source parameters for one. In this study, we propose an alternative method in which waveforms from two or more events can be simultaneously equalized by setting the differential of the processed seismograms at one station from any two individual events to zero. The method involves convolving the equivalent Mueller-Murphy displacement source time function (MMDSTF) of one event with the seismogram of the second event and vice-versa, and then computing their difference seismogram. MMDSTF is computed at the elastic radius including both near and far-field terms. For this method to yield accurate source parameters, an inherent assumption is that green's functions for the any paired events from the source to a receiver are same. In the frequency limit of the seismic data, this is a reasonable assumption and is concluded based on the comparison of green's functions computed for flat-earth models at various source depths ranging from 100m to 1Km. Frequency domain analysis of the initial P wave is, however, sensitive to the depth phase interaction, and if tracked meticulously can help estimating the event depth. We applied this method to the local waveforms recorded from the three SPE shots and precisely determined their yields. These high-frequency seismograms exhibit significant lateral path effects in spectrogram analysis and 3D numerical computations, but the source equalization technique is independent of any variation as long as their instrument characteristics are well preserved. We are currently estimating the uncertainty in the derived source parameters assuming the yields of the SPE shots as unknown. We also collected regional waveforms from 95 NTS explosions at regional stations ALQ, ANMO, CMB, COR, JAS LON, PAS, PFO and RSSD. We are currently employing a station based analysis using the equalization technique to estimate depth and yields of many relative to those of the announced explosions; and to develop their relationship with the Mw and Mo for the NTS explosions.

  1. Infrasound exposure induces apoptosis of rat cardiac myocytes by regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Bao-Ying; Tie, Ru; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Ge; Qu, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Xing; Zhu, Miao-Zhang; Yu, Jun

    2011-12-01

    It has been reported that exposure to infrasound causes cardiac dysfunction. Allowing for the key role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, the objective of this study was to investigate the apoptotic effects of infrasound. Cardiac myocytes cultured from neonatal rats were exposed to infrasound of 5 Hz at 130 dB. The apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Also, the expression levels of a series of apoptosis-related proteins were detected. As a result, infrasound induced apoptosis of cultured rat cardiac myocytes in a time-dependant manner. The expression of proapoptotic proteins such as Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and FAS was significantly up-regulated, with concomitant down-regulated expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-x, and the inhibitory apoptosis proteins family proteins including XIAP, cIAP-1, and cIAP-2. The expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and ?-catenin, which are the substrate proteins of caspase-3, was significantly decreased. In conclusion, infrasound is an apoptotic inducer of cardiac myocytes. PMID:21773807

  2. Matrine induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through downregulation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huiyan; Zhang, Yifei; Wu, Baogang; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Hongfang; He, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer?related mortality in humans. The prognosis for advanced lung cancer patients is extremely poor. Current standard care is rather ineffective for prolonging patient life while preserving satisfactory quality of life due to adverse side-effects. Matrine extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal plant Sophora flavescens was shown to induce cancer cell death in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on the proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and the molecular basis of matrine-induced apoptosis. The results showed that matrine inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer A549 and 95D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptotic effects of matrine on lung cancer cells appeared to act via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathway and downregulation of the expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins. Matrine exerts its cancer-killing effect via promoting apoptosis in lung cancer cells and may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic scheme for treating advanced lung cancer patients. PMID:24969052

  3. Mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Badley, Andrew D; Roumier, Thomas; Lum, Julian J; Kroemer, Guido

    2003-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), involves the apoptotic destruction of lymphocytes and, in the context of AIDS-associated pathologies, of neurons and myocytes. Several proteins encoded by HIV-1 trigger apoptosis by inducing permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Several nucleoside analogs used clinically in the treatment of HIV-1 inhibit the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and/or increase the frequency of mtDNA mutations. These cause severe mitochondriopathy and might contribute to lipodystrophy, the complication associated with HIV-1 therapy. HIV-1 protease inhibitors can inhibit apoptosis at the mitochondrial level, which might help to alleviate lymphopenia. Thus, it appears that the pathogenesis of AIDS, and the pharmacological interventions and complications associated with this disease, affect the mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis, which, therefore, largely determines the outcome of HIV-1 infection. PMID:12823956

  4. Plasma-activated medium induced apoptosis on tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kano, Hiroyuki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2013-09-01

    The non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) has attracted attention in cancer therapy. In this study, the fresh medium was treated with our developed NEAPP, ultra-high electron density (approximately 2 × 1016 cm-3). The medium called the plasma-activated medium (PAM) killed not normal cells but tumor cells through induction of apoptosis. Cell proliferation assays showed that the tumor cells were selectively killed by the PAM. Those cells induced apoptosis using an apoptotic molecular marker, cleaved Caspase3/7. The molecular mechanisms of PAM-mediated apoptosis in the tumor cells were also found that the PAM downregulated the expression of AKT kinase, a marker molecule in a survival signal transduction pathway. These results suggest that PAM may be a promising tool for tumor therapy by downregulating the survival signals in cancers.

  5. ATM promotes apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenesis in response to Myc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusapati, Raju V.; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Hong, Sungki; Powers, John T.; Yan, Mingshan; Kiguchi, Kaoru; McArthur, Mark J.; Wong, Paul K.; Johnson, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the c-myc oncogene contributes to the development of a significant number of human cancers. In response to deregulated Myc activity, the p53 tumor suppressor is activated to promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor formation. Here we demonstrate that p53 induction in response to Myc overexpression requires the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a major regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. In a transgenic mouse model overexpressing Myc in squamous epithelial tissues, inactivation of Atm suppresses apoptosis and accelerates tumorigenesis. Deregulated Myc expression induces DNA damage in primary transgenic keratinocytes and the formation of H2AX and phospho-SMC1 foci in transgenic tissue. These findings suggest that Myc overexpression causes DNA damage in vivo and that the ATM-dependent response to this damage is critical for p53 activation, apoptosis, and the suppression of tumor development. p53 | DNA damage

  6. Pseudomonas syringae Effector AvrPphB Suppresses AvrB-Induced Activation of RPM1 but Not AvrRpm1-Induced Activation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew R; Ashfield, Tom; Innes, Roger W

    2015-06-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB triggers a hypersensitive resistance response in Arabidopsis and soybean plants expressing the disease resistance (R) proteins RPM1 and Rpg1b, respectively. In Arabidopsis, AvrB induces RPM1-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) to phosphorylate a disease regulator known as RIN4, which subsequently activates RPM1-mediated defenses. Here, we show that AvrPphB can suppress activation of RPM1 by AvrB and this suppression is correlated with the cleavage of RIPK by AvrPphB. Significantly, AvrPphB does not suppress activation of RPM1 by AvrRpm1, suggesting that RIPK is not required for AvrRpm1-induced modification of RIN4. This observation indicates that AvrB and AvrRpm1 recognition is mediated by different mechanisms in Arabidopsis, despite their recognition being determined by a single R protein. Moreover, AvrB recognition but not AvrRpm1 recognition is suppressed by AvrPphB in soybean, suggesting that AvrB recognition requires a similar molecular mechanism in soybean and Arabidopsis. In support of this, we found that phosphodeficient mutations in the soybean GmRIN4a and GmRIN4b proteins are sufficient to block Rpg1b-mediated hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana glutinosa. Taken together, our results indicate that AvrB and AvrPphB target a conserved defense signaling pathway in Arabidopsis and soybean that includes RIPK and RIN4. PMID:25625821

  7. A cell-intrinsic requirement for NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) in CD4 and CD8 T cell memory1

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Murray, Susan E.; Raué, Hans-Peter; Koguchi, Yoshinobu; Slifka, Mark K.; Parker, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK, MAP3K14) is an essential kinase linking a subset of TNF receptor family members to the noncanonical NF-?B pathway. In order to assess the cell-intrinsic role of NIK in murine T cell function, we generated mixed bone marrow chimeras using bone marrow from NIK knockout (NIK KO) and wild type (WT) donor mice and infected the chimeras with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The chimeras possess an apparently normal immune system including a mixture of NIK KO and WT T cells, and the virus was cleared normally. Comparison of the NIK KO and WT CD4 and CD8 T cell responses at 8 days post-infection revealed modest but significant differences in the acute response. In both CD4 and CD8 compartments, there were relatively fewer activated (CD44hi) NIK KO T cells, but within the CD44hi population, a comparable percentage of the activated cells produced IFN-? in response to ex vivo stimulation with antigenic LCMV peptides, although IL-7R expression was reduced in the NIK KO CD8 T cells. Assessment of the LCMV-specific memory at 65 days postinfection revealed many more LCMV-specific WT memory T cells than NIK KO memory T cells in both the CD4 and CD8 compartments, although the small number of surviving NIK KO memory T cells responded to secondary challenge with virus. These results demonstrate a cell-intrinsic requirement for NIK in the generation and/or maintenance of memory T cells in response to acute viral infection. PMID:24006459

  8. The effects of growth factors on testicular germ cell apoptosis in the stallion 

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, Casey Leanne

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis is necessary for both initiation and control of spermatogenesis; however, an increase in apoptosis can lead to subfertility/infertility in stallions causing substantial financial loss in the equine industry. The ability of three...

  9. The Role of Apoptosis Associated Markers in Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-08-28

    To Compare the Serum Apoptosis-associated Markers Between Patients With Active TB and Patients With LTBI; To Evaluate the Efficiency of Apoptosis-associated Markers to Differentiate Potential of Active TB From LTBI

  10. Thyroid hormone and anti-apoptosis in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Mousa, Shaker A; Davis, Paul J

    2015-06-20

    The principal secretory product of the thyroid gland, L-thyroxine (T4), is anti-apoptotic at physiological concentrations in a number of cancer cell lines. Among the mechanisms of anti-apoptosis activated by the hormone are interference with the Ser-15 phosphorylation (activation) of p53 and with TNF?/Fas-induced apoptosis. The hormone also decreases cellular abundance and activation of proteolytic caspases and of BAX and causes increased expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). The anti-apoptotic effects of thyroid hormone largely are initiated at a cell surface thyroid hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin ?v?3 that is amply expressed and activated in cancer cells. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) is a T4 derivative that, in a model of resveratrol-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in glioma cells, blocks the anti-apoptotic action of thyroid hormone, permitting specific serine phosphorylation of p53 and apoptosis to proceed. In a nanoparticulate formulation limiting its action to ?v?3, tetrac modulates integrin-dependent effects on gene expression in human cancer cell lines that include increased expression of a panel of pro-apoptotic genes and decreased transcription of defensive anti-apoptotic XIAP and MCL1 genes. By a variety of mechanisms, thyroid hormone (T4) is an endogenous anti-apoptotic factor that may oppose chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in ?v?3-expressing cancer cells. It is possible to decrease this anti-apoptotic activity pharmacologically by reducing circulating levels of T4 or by blocking effects of T4 that are initiated at ?v?3. PMID:26041883

  11. Indoxyl sulfate promotes apoptosis in cultured osteoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indoxyl sulfate (IS), an organic anion uremic toxin, promotes the progression of renal dysfunction. Some studies have suggested that IS inhibits osteoclast differentiation and suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated intracellular cAMP production, decreases PTH receptor expression, and induces oxidative stress in primary mouse calvaria osteoblast cell culture. However, the direct effects of IS on osteoblast apoptosis have not been fully evaluated. Hence, we investigated whether IS acts as a bone toxin by studying whether IS induces apoptosis and inhibits differentiation in the cultured osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Methods We assessed the direct effect of IS on osteoblast differentiation and apoptosis in the MC3T3-E1 cell line. We examined caspase-3/7 activity, apoptosis-related proteins, free radical production, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mRNA expression of type 1 collagen and osteonectin. Furthermore, we investigated the uptake of IS via organic anion transport (OAT). Results We found that IS increased caspase activity and induced apoptosis. Production of free radicals increased depending on the concentration of IS. Furthermore, IS inhibited the expression of mRNA type 1 collagen and osteonectin and alkaline phosphatase activity. The expression of OAT, which is known to mediate the cellular uptake of IS, was detected in in the MC3T3-E1 cell line. The inhibition of OAT improved cell viability and suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that IS is transported in MC3T3-E1 cells via OAT, which causes oxidative stress to inhibit osteoblast differentiation. Conclusions IS acts as a bone toxin by inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and inducing apoptosis. PMID:24289746

  12. Podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis under experimental diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Ha; Moon, Sung Jin; Paeng, Jisun; Kang, Hye-Young; Nam, Bo Young; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis. PMID:25953318

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 activity regulates neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keqing; Hampson, Peter; Hazeldine, Jon; Krystof, Vladimir; Strnad, Miroslav; Pechan, Paul; M, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte and play a central role in the immune defense against rapidly dividing bacteria. However, they are also the shortest lived cell in the blood with a lifespan in the circulation of 5.4 days. The mechanisms underlying their short lifespan and spontaneous entry into apoptosis are poorly understood. Recently, the broad range cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to increase neutrophil apoptosis, implicating CDKs in the regulation of neutrophil lifespan. To determine which CDKs were involved in regulating neutrophil lifespan we first examined CDK expression in human neutrophils and found that only three CDKs: CDK5, CDK7 and CDK9 were expressed in these cells. The use of CDK inhibitors with differing selectivity towards the various CDKs suggested that CDK9 activity regulates neutrophil lifespan. Furthermore CDK9 activity and the expression of its activating partner cyclin T1 both declined as neutrophils aged and entered apoptosis spontaneously. CDK9 is a component of the P-TEFb complex involved in transcriptional regulation and its inhibition will preferentially affect proteins with short half-lives. Treatment of neutrophils with flavopiridol, a potent CDK9 inhibitor, increased apoptosis and caused a rapid decline in the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, whilst Bcl2A was unaffected. We propose that CDK9 activity is a key regulator of neutrophil lifespan, preventing apoptosis by maintaining levels of short lived anti-apoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1. Furthermore, as inappropriate inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, CDK9 represents a novel therapeutic target in such diseases. PMID:22276149

  14. Transcriptional modulation of apoptosis regulators by roscovitine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Garrofé-Ochoa, Xènia; Cosialls, Ana M; Ribas, Judit; Gil, Joan; Boix, Jacint

    2011-07-01

    Chemical inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), like roscovitine, are promising drugs in the context of new cancer therapies. Roscovitine and related compounds, like seliciclib and olomoucine, are effective inducers of apoptosis in many proliferating cells in culture. These compounds are known to activate the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In order to better characterize this intrinsic pathway, a transcriptional analysis was performed using the reverse transcriptase-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification procedure (RT-MLPA). In five cell lines, we detected an early and marked reduction of most transcripts, which is consistent with the disruption of transcription that results from the inhibition of CDK7 and CDK9. However, the mRNA of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) gene escaped from this transcription inhibition in neuroblastoma cells with a functional p53 protein. The increase of PUMA mRNA was not found in roscovitine-treated cell lines defective in p53, which underwent apoptosis like their p53 proficient counterparts. In addition, in SH-SY5Y cells, sublethal and lethal concentrations of roscovitine produced equivalent increases of PUMA mRNA and protein. In conclusion, the increased expression of PUMA was not associated with apoptosis induction. On the contrary, mRNA and protein depletion of MCL-1 gene correlated the best with cell demise. Moreover, NOXA protein suffered a far minor decrease than MCL-1. Because of the selective neutralization of NOXA by MCL-1, we hypothesize that the disruption of this balance is a critical event in apoptosis induction by roscovitine and related compounds. PMID:21505869

  15. Monitoring cell growth, viability, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael; Spearman, Maureen; Braasch, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume sample can be taken from a suspension culture. Manual microscopic counting is laborious but affords the advantage of allowing cell viability to be determined if a suitable dye is included. Electronic particle counting is a rapid total cell count method for replicate samples, but some data distortion may occur if the sample has significant cell debris or cell aggregates. Image analysis based on the use of digital camera images acquired through a microscope has advanced rapidly with the availability of several commercially available software packages replacing manual microscopic counting and viability determination. Biomass probes detect cells by their dielectric properties or their internal concentration of NADH and can be used as a continuous monitor of the progress of a culture. While the monitoring of cell growth and viability is an integral part of a bioprocess, the monitoring of apoptosis induction is also becoming more and more important in bioprocess control to increase volumetric productivity by extending bioprocess duration. Different fluorescent assays allow for the detection of apoptotic characteristics in a cell sample.Indirect methods of cell determination involve the chemical analysis of a culture component or a measure of metabolic activity. These methods are most useful when it is difficult to obtain intact cell samples. However, the relationship between these parameters and the cell number may not be linear through the phases of a cell culture. The determination of nucleic acid (DNA) or total protein can be used as an estimate of biomass, while the depletion of glucose from the media can be used as an estimate of cellular activity. The state of cellular viability may be measured by the release of an enzyme such as lactate dehydrogenase or more directly from the intracellular adenylate energy charge from cell lysates. Alternatively, radioactive techniques may be used for an accurate determination of cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24297416

  16. Note on the origin and history of the term "apoptosis".

    PubMed

    Duque-Parra, Jorge Eduardo

    2005-03-01

    This brief essay offers a perspective concerning the etymon of the term "apoptosis," a term that is currently and widely recognized as a synonym for programmed cell death. The origin of the term from the Greek and a historical perspective of how the concept of cell death was viewed in the 1950s to the 1970s are discussed. Studies in such diverse systems as cork oak bark, embryonic neuronal development, hepatology, and insect metamorphosis ultimately described processes similar to what we now call apoptosis. PMID:15761829

  17. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  18. Histamine influence on apoptosis in trophoblast cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pyzlak; G. Szewczyk; D. Szukiewicz; A. Szczesniak

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  It has been demonstrated that histamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Histamine regulates the\\u000a process of differentiation of trophoblast cells; it also acts as a growth factor in malignant melanoma cells, and prevents\\u000a monocytic apoptosis. Trophoblast research has shown that in preeclampsia placentas, trophoblast apoptosis is significantly\\u000a increased.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  The aim of our study

  19. Distinctive inhibitory activity of docosahexaenoic acid against sphingosine-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etsu Kishida; Midori Yano; Megumi Kasahara; Yasuo Masuzawa

    1998-01-01

    The effect of supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the apoptosis of HL60 cells was examined using N-acetyl sphingosine (C2-ceramide) and sphingosine as apoptosis-inducing agents. Although C2-ceramide-induced apoptosis was not affected by DHA supplementation, sphingosine-induced apoptosis was reduced almost to the background level by preincubation with 10 ?M DHA for 24 h. Among the fatty acids, only DHA appeared to

  20. Self-eating and self-killing: crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chiara Maiuri; Einat Zalckvar; Adi Kimchi; Guido Kroemer

    2007-01-01

    The functional relationship between apoptosis ('self-killing') and autophagy ('self-eating') is complex in the sense that, under certain circumstances, autophagy constitutes a stress adaptation that avoids cell death (and suppresses apoptosis), whereas in other cellular settings, it constitutes an alternative cell-death pathway. Autophagy and apoptosis may be triggered by common upstream signals, and sometimes this results in combined autophagy and apoptosis;

  1. IL4 and IL10 Inhibition of Spontaneous Monocyte Apoptosis Is Associated with Flip Upregulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy Eslick; John C. Scatizzi; Lee Albee; Emily Bickel; Kathleen Bradley; Harris Perlman

    2004-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis in culture. Spontaneous monocyte apoptosis is regulated by the death ligand, Fas Ligand (FasL) binding to its receptor Fas. The pro-inflammatory molecules, LPS and IL-1ß, prevent spontaneous monocyte apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 inhibit spontaneous monocyte apoptosis compared to control-treated cells. IL-4- or IL-10-mediated suppression of spontaneous

  2. Prepubertal male rats with high rates of germ-cell apoptosis present exacerbated rates of germ-cell apoptosis after serotonin depletion.

    PubMed

    Méndez Palacios, Néstor; Escobar, María Elena Ayala; Mendoza, Maximino Méndez; Crispín, Rubén Huerta; Andrade, Octavio Guerrero; Melández, Javier Hernández; Martínez, Andrés Aragón

    2014-11-20

    Male germ-cell apoptosis occurs naturally and can be increased by exposure to drugs and toxic chemicals. Individuals may have different rates of apoptosis and are likely to also exhibit differential sensitivity to outside influences. Previously, we reported that p-chloroamphetamine (pCA), a substance that inhibits serotonin synthesis, induced germ-cell apoptosis in prepubertal male rats. Here, we identified prepubertal rats with naturally high or low rates of germ-cell apoptosis and evaluated gene expression in both groups. Bax and Shbg mRNA levels were higher in rats with high rates of germ-cell apoptosis. Rats were then treated with pCA and the neuro-hormonal response and gene expression were evaluated. Treatment with pCA induced a reduction in serotonin concentrations but levels of sex hormones and gonadotrophins were not changed. Rats with initially high rates of germ-cell apoptosis had even higher rates of germ-cell apoptosis after treatment with pCA. In rats with high rates of germ-cell apoptosis Bax mRNA expression remained high after treatment with pCA. On the basis of category, an inverse relationship between mRNA expression of Bax and Bcl2, Bax and AR and Bax and Hsd3b2 was found. Here we provide evidence that innate levels of germ-cell apoptosis could be explained by the level of mRNA expression of genes involved with apoptosis and spermatogenesis. PMID:25486044

  3. Determination of parent and substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-fat salmon using a modified QuEChERS extraction, dispersive SPE and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Norman D.; Wilson, Glenn R.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2011-01-01

    A fast and easy modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, rugged and safe) extraction method has been developed and validated for determination of 33 parent and substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in high-fat smoked salmon that greatly enhances analyte recovery compared to traditional QuEChERS procedures. Sample processing includes extraction of PAHs into a solution of ethyl acetate, acetone and iso-octane followed by cleanup with dispersive SPE and analysis by GC-MS in SIM mode. Method performance was assessed in spike recovery experiments (500 ng/g wet weight) in three commercially available smoked salmon with 3 – 11% fat. Recoveries of some 2, 3 and 5-ring PAHs were improved 50 – 200% over traditional methods, while average recovery across all PAHs was improved 67%. Method precision was good with replicate extractions typically yielding relative standard deviations < 10% and detection limits were in the low ng/g range. With this method, a single analyst could extract and cleanup ? 60 samples for PAH analysis in an 8 hour work day. PMID:21732651

  4. Novel magnetic SPE method based on carbon nanotubes filled with cobalt ferrite for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in honey and tea.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhuo; Liu, Miao; Li, Gongke

    2013-10-01

    A novel magnetic SPE method based on magnetic cobalt ferrite filled carbon nanotubes (MFCNTs) coupled with GC with electron capture detection was developed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tea and honey samples. The MFCNTs were prepared through the capillarity of carbon nanotubes for drawing mixed cobalt and iron nitrates solution into their inner cavity followed by heating to 550°C under Ar to form the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. SEM images provided visible evidence of the filled cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in the multiwalled nanotubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated no adhesion of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and metal salts on the outer surface of the MFCNTs. Eight OCPs were extracted with the MFCNTs. The enrichment factors were in the range of 52-68 for eight OCPs. The LODs for the eight OCPs were in the range of 1.3-3.6 ng/L. The recoveries of the OCPs for honey and tea samples were 83.2-128.7 and 72.6-111.0%, respectively. The RSDs for these samples were below 6.8%. The new method is particularly suited to extract nonpolar and weakly polar analytes from a complex matrix and could potentially be extended to other target analytes. PMID:23926126

  5. Distributions of H2O and CO2 ices on Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon from IRTF/SpeX observations

    E-print Network

    W. M. Grundy; L. A. Young; J. R. Spencer; R. E. Johnson; E. F. Young; M. W. Buie

    2007-04-12

    We present 0.8 to 2.4 micron spectral observations of uranian satellites, obtained at IRTF/SpeX on 17 nights during 2001-2005. The spectra reveal for the first time the presence of CO2 ice on the surfaces of Umbriel and Titania, by means of 3 narrow absorption bands near 2 microns. Several additional, weaker CO2 ice absorptions have also been detected. No CO2 absorption is seen in Oberon spectra, and the strengths of the CO2 ice bands decline with planetocentric distance from Ariel through Titania. We use the CO2 absorptions to map the longitudinal distribution of CO2 ice on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, showing that it is most abundant on their trailing hemispheres. We also examine H2O ice absorptions in the spectra, finding deeper H2O bands on the leading hemispheres of Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, but the opposite pattern on Oberon. Potential mechanisms to produce the observed longitudinal and planetocentric distributions of the two ices are considered.

  6. High-resolution bioactivity profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: ?-Glucosidase inhibitors and acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides from Myrcia palustris DC. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Moresco, Henrique H; Tahtah, Yousof; Brighente, Inês M C; Staerk, Dan

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an endocrine metabolic disease with a worldwide prevalence of more than 8%, and an expected increase close to 50% in the next 15-20years. T2D is associated with severe and life-threatening complications like retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular diseases, and therefore improved drug leads or functional foods containing ?-glucosidase inhibitors are needed for management of blood glucose. In this study, leaves of Myrcia palustris were investigated by high-resolution ?-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of casuarinin, myricetin 3-O-?-d-(6?-galloyl)galactopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranoside, myricetin, and quercetin as ?-glucosidase inhibitors. In addition, four acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides, i.e., 4-O-(2?,4?-O-diacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(2?,3?-O-diacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(3?,4?-O-diacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 4-O-(2?,3?,4?-O-triacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid were identified. PMID:25935545

  7. Determination of parent and substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-fat salmon using a modified QuEChERS extraction, dispersive SPE and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Norman D; Wilson, Glenn R; Anderson, Kim A

    2011-08-10

    A fast and easy modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, rugged and safe) extraction method has been developed and validated for determination of 33 parent and substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in high-fat smoked salmon that greatly enhances analyte recovery compared to traditional QuEChERS procedures. Sample processing includes extraction of PAHs into a solution of ethyl acetate, acetone and isooctane followed by cleanup with dispersive SPE and analysis by GC-MS in SIM mode. Method performance was assessed in spike recovery experiments (500 ?g/g wet weight) in three commercially available smoked salmon with 3-11% fat. Recoveries of some 2-, 3- and 5-ring PAHs were improved 50-200% over traditional methods, while average recovery across all PAHs was improved 67%. Method precision was good with replicate extractions typically yielding relative standard deviations <10%, and detection limits were in the low ng/g range. With this method, a single analyst could extract and clean up ?60 samples for PAH analysis in an 8 h work day. PMID:21732651

  8. Determination of perfluorinated sulfonate and perfluorinated acids in tissues of free-living European beaver (castor fiber L.) by d-SPE/ micro-UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Surma, Magdalena; Gi?ejewski, Zygmunt; Zieli?ski, Henryk

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the main representatives of an rising class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs). In this study, determination of selected PFCs concentration in liver, brain, tail, adipose and peritoneum tissues of free-living European beaver (Castor fiber L.) was addressed. Tissue samples, collected from beavers living in Masurian Lakeland (NE Poland), were analyzed by dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE) with micro-UHPLC-MS/MS system. In a group of ten selected pefrluorinated compounds only two perfluorinated acids (PFOA and PFNA) and one perfluorinated sulfonate (PFOS) were quantified. PFOA was detected in all analysed tissue samples in both female and male beavers in a range from 0.55 to 0.98ngg(-1) ww whereas PFOS was identified in all analyzed female beaver tissues and only in liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum tissues of male beavers at the concentration level from 0.86 to 5.08ngg(-1) ww. PFNA was only identified in female beaver tissues (liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum) in a range from 1.50 to 6.61ngg(-1) ww. This study demonstrated the bioaccumulation of PFCs in tissue samples collected from beavers living in area known as green lungs of Poland. The results provided in this study indicate for the increasing risk of PFCs occurrence in the environment and the level of PFCs in tissue of free-living European beavers may serve as bioindicator of environmental pollution by these compounds. PMID:26143169

  9. Flow injection analysis-solid phase extraction (FIA-SPE) method for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of penicillins using methylene blue grafted polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Burham, N; Azeem, S M Abdel

    2010-05-15

    A simple, fast, and fully automated FIA-SPE method with UV detection for the preconcentration and determination of the investigated penicillins has been developed. This paper provides adequate procedure for the preconcentration and determination of the studied compounds in pharmaceuticals and milk samples. Penicillins (penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin) are extracted in a mincolumn packed with methylene blue grafted polyurethane foam (MBGPUF) material. The antibiotics are eluted by hydrochloric acid solution to the flow cell of UV-vis spectrophotometer at 230 nm. The analytes are preconcentrated on the sorbent at pH 8.0-9.5 and sample flow rate 3.0 mL/min. Elution was performed with 200 microL 0.2 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid at 2 mL min(-1). Sample throughput is 12h(-1) at 120 s preconcentration time. High selectivity of the sorbent for the analytes was achieved at the specified pH range. The enrichment factors achieved are 14, 16, and 11 with 3 sigma detection limits of 12, 15, and 19 ng mL(-1) for penicillin G, amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these antibiotics in pharmaceutical control and contaminated milk samples with RSD

  10. 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root characterised using LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P; McLoughlin, P

    2014-02-01

    The combination of hyphenated techniques, LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS, to isolate and identify minor isomeric compounds from an ethyl acetate fraction of Taraxacum officinale root was employed in this study. Two distinct fractions of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol were isolated and characterised by spectroscopic methods. The (1)H NMR spectra and MS data revealed two groups of compounds, one of which were derivatives of the di-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative of the inositol compound tetrahydroxy-5-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl] oxycyclohexyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate, while the other group consisted of similar tri-substituted inositol derivatives. For both fractions the derivatives of inositols vary in the number of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid groups present and their position and geometry on the inositol ring. In total, three di-substituted and three tri-substituted 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid inositol derivates were identified for the first time along with a further two previously reported di-substituted inositol derivatives. PMID:24359632

  11. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetics of five bufadienolides in rat plasma after oral administration of Chansu extract by SPE-HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Liu, Ai-hua; Qin, Song; Sun, Jiang-hao; Yang, Min; Li, Ping; Guo, De-an

    2008-02-13

    A sensitive and rapid solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of five bufadienolides, arenobufagin, teliocinobufagin, cinobufotalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin in rat plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral administration of Chansu extract (Venenum Bufonis). Plasma samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction using Extract-Clean cartridges, and the extracts were analyzed by a reversed-phase C(18) column on a HPLC system with photodiode array detection (DAD). The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.10-1.66 microg/ml for arenobufagin, 0.03-1.20 microg/ml for telocinobufagin, 0.01-0.62 microg/ml for cinobufotalin, 0.03-0.70 microg/ml for cinobufagin and 0.02-2.57 microg/ml for resibufogenin, respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.1 ng/ml for arenobufagin, 0.3 ng/ml for telocinobufagin, 9.7 ng/ml for cinobufotalin, 8.8 ng/ml for cinobufagin, 7.7 ng/ml for resibufogenin, respectively. The established method could be easily applied to the determination and pharmacokinetic studies of five bufadienolides in rat plasma after oral administration of Chansu extract. PMID:18093784

  12. Development of a targeted method for twenty-three metabolites related to polyphenol gut microbial metabolism in biological samples, using SPE and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Guella, Graziano; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2014-10-01

    An increasing number of studies have concerned the profiling of polyphenol microbial metabolites, especially in urine or plasma, but only a few have regarded their accurate quantification. This study reports on a new ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with electrospray ionisation (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) using a simple clean-up step with solid phase extraction (SPE) and validation on different biological matrices. The method was tested with spiked samples of liver, heart, kidneys, brain, blood and urine. The purification procedure, after the evaluation of three different cartridges, makes it possible to obtain cleaner samples and better quantification of putative trace metabolites, especially related to dietary studies, with concentrations below ng/g in tissue and for urine and blood, starting from ng/ml. Limits of detection and linear range were also assessed using mixed polyphenol metabolite standards. Short chromatographic separation was carried out for 23 target compounds related to the polyphenol microbial metabolism, coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for their accurate quantification. By analysing different spiked biological samples we were able to test metabolite detection in the matrix and validate the overall recovery of the method, from purification to quantification. The method developed can be successfully applied and is suitable for high-throughput targeted metabolomics analysis related to nutritional intervention, or the study of the metabolic mechanism in response to a polyphenol-rich diet. PMID:25059152

  13. DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction in cell apoptosis induced by nonthermal air plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Kim; W. Kim; K. T. Kim; J. K. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma is known to induce animal cell death but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here, cellular and biochemical regulation of cell apoptosis is demonstrated for plasma treated cells. Surface type nonthermal air plasma triggered apoptosis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells causing DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. Plasma treatment activated caspase-3, apoptosis executioner. The plasma treated cells also

  14. Cyclophosphamide-Induced Apoptosis in COV434 Human Granulosa Cells Involves Oxidative Stress and Glutathione Depletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miyun Tsai-Turton; Brian T. Luong; Youming Tan; Ulrike Luderer

    2007-01-01

    The anticancer drug cyclophosphamide induces granulosa cell apoptosis and is detoxified by glutathione (GSH) conjugation. We previously showed that both cyclophosphamide treatment and GSH depletion induced granulosa cell apoptosis in rats, but the role of GSH in apoptosis in human ovarian cells has not been studied. Using the COV434 human granulosa cell line, we tested the hypotheses that (1) GSH

  15. Modulation of apoptosis in intestinal lymphocytes by a probiotic bacteria in Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Carol; Natalia Borruel; Maria Antolin; Marta Llopis; Francesc Casellas; Francisco Guarner

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis of active T lymphocytes con- stitutes a major control mechanism of immune ho- meostasis and tolerance. In Crohn's disease, ab- normal activation of mucosal T lymphocytes against enteric bacteria is the key event triggering intestinal inflammation. Resistance of lymphocytes to apoptosis has been proposed as the pathogenetic defect. We examined the influence of bacteria- mucosa interactions on apoptosis of

  16. Biochem J . Author manuscript Plasmin on adherent cells: from microvesiculation to apoptosis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to apoptosis Lo c Doeuvreï 1 , Laurent Plawinski 1 2 , Didier Goux 3 , Denis Vivien 1 , Eduardo Angl s-Canoé 1-induced apoptosis. In this study, plasminogen incubated onto adherent cells is activated into plasmin. MESH Keywords Animals ; Apoptosis ; Blood Platelets ; cytology ; physiology ; Blotting, Western ; CHO

  17. Original article Apoptosis induction in BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Apoptosis induction in BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK cells through Src-dependent JNK ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)-infected cultured cells could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. This study and induced apoptosis in Vero and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, and a kinetic study showed a higher

  18. Data-Driven Modeling of Src Control on the Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis: Implication for

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Data-Driven Modeling of Src Control on the Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis: Implication cell resistance to apoptosis. Indeed, Src was found to accelerate the degradation of the pro that Bik protein might undergo activation to induce apoptosis. Then, a mathematical model

  19. The conformational modification of serpins transforms Leukocyte Elastase Inhibitor into an endonuclease involved in apoptosis.

    E-print Network

    into an endonuclease involved in apoptosis. Padron-Barthe, Laura; Leprêtre, Chloé; Martin, Elisabeth; Counis, Marie characterized biochemical feature of apoptosis is degradation of genomic DNA into oligonucleosomes. The endonuclease responsible for DNA degradation in caspase- dependent apoptosis is Caspase Activated DNase (CAD

  20. The Translational Regulators GCN-1 and ABCF-3 Act Together to Promote Apoptosis in C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    The Translational Regulators GCN-1 and ABCF-3 Act Together to Promote Apoptosis in C. elegans of apoptosis requires precise spatial and temporal control of gene expression. While the transcriptional and translational activation of pro-apoptotic genes is known to be crucial to triggering apoptosis, how different

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 impairs plasminogen activation-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    cell apoptosis Patrick Rossignol1-2-3 , Eduardo Anglès-Cano4 , and Henri Roger Lijnen1 1 Center-induced VSMC apoptosis Corresponding author : H. R. Lijnen Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, K) in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis mediated by plasminogen activation was studied with the use

  2. Apoptosis (2007) 12:10611068 DOI 10.1007/s10495-006-0031-y

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis (2007) 12:1061­1068 DOI 10.1007/s10495-006-0031-y A label-free photonic crystal biosensor of assays for measuring necrosis, apoptosis, and cell prolif- eration are currently in widespread usage of apoptosis do not affect membrane permeability or alter mi- tochondrial activity, necrosis assays

  3. Mechanisms of Hypoxia-induced Endothelial Cell Death ROLE OF p53 IN APOPTOSIS*

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    Mechanisms of Hypoxia-induced Endothelial Cell Death ROLE OF p53 IN APOPTOSIS* (Received. Overexpression of p53 by adeno- viral transduction was sufficient to initiate apoptosis of normoxic endothelial studies suggest a role for apoptosis induced by the tumor suppressor gene p53 in hy- poxia-induced cell

  4. Molecular crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy induced by a novel 2-methoxyestradiol

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Molecular crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy induced by a novel 2-methoxyestradiol analogue://www.cancerci.com/content/13/1/87 #12;PRIMARY RESEARCH Open Access Molecular crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy induced both autophagy and apoptosis in various carcinogenic cell lines. Although a promising anti-cancer agent

  5. Apoptosis during Sexual Differentiation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in the Rat Brain

    E-print Network

    de Vries, Geert J.

    Apoptosis during Sexual Differentiation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in the Rat Brain) in the rat forebrain differs between males and females. To test whether apoptosis may contribute to the development of sex differences in the BST, the incidence of apoptosis was determined in sham-treated males

  6. The Identification of Apoptosis-related Residues in Human Thymosin -10 by Mutational Analysis and

    E-print Network

    Lee, Keun Woo

    The Identification of Apoptosis-related Residues in Human Thymosin -10 by Mutational Analysis the frequency of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. To identify the critical residues responsible for TB10-mediated apoptosis, we used a series of computational meth- ods. First, a three-dimensional structure

  7. Stress-Induced Sphingolipid Signaling: Role of Type-2 Neutral Sphingomyelinase in Murine Cell Apoptosis and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Apoptosis and Proliferation Raphael Devillard1,3 , Sylvain Galvani1,2 , Jean-Claude Thiers1,2 , Jean, and subsequent ceramide generation, are implicated in various cellular responses, including apoptosis and Significance: nSMase2 activation is not involved in apoptosis mediated by TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs in murine

  8. Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes Joseph analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of wild-type p53-induced apoptosis by the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6 and inhibit apoptosis. IL-6 and TG activated different p53-independent pathways of gene expression

  9. (PTR)) on apoptosis and bcl-2 expression in prolactin-dependent HC Imouse mam-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (PTR)) on apoptosis and bcl-2 expression in prolactin-dependent HC Imouse mam- mary epithelial protein in these cells (FITC- conjugated monoclonal anti-Bcl-2 antibody). DFMO induced apoptosis of HC 11 to prevent DFMO-induced apoptosis, thus suggesting involvement of ODC in the antiapoptogenic signal

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Apoptosis and the Development of Severe Late Adverse Effects Following

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Apoptosis and the Development of Severe Late Adverse Effects both a low capacity of radiation-induced CD8 lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) in vitro and possess certain). lymphocyte apoptosis in vitro. Results: Overall, 13 and 21 patients were found to possess a total of

  11. Apoptosis (2006) 11:16611675 DOI 10.1007/s10495-006-9402-7

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis (2006) 11:1661­1675 DOI 10.1007/s10495-006-9402-7 Bcl-2 protein family: Implications in vascular apoptosis and atherosclerosis Ozgur Kutuk · Huveyda Basaga Published online: 24 August 2006 C Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006 Abstract Apoptosis has been recognized as a central com- ponent

  12. Novel dimerization mode of the human Bcl-2 family protein Bak, a mitochondrial apoptosis regulator

    E-print Network

    Zhijie, Liu

    Novel dimerization mode of the human Bcl-2 family protein Bak, a mitochondrial apoptosis regulator Keywords: Bcl-2 family protein Bak Apoptosis regulator Crystal structure Disulfide bridge Homodimer a b s t r a c t Interactions of Bcl-2 family proteins play a regulatory role in mitochondrial apoptosis

  13. Both methods made the cells sensitive to drug-induced apoptosis (Fig. 1b, c). Con-

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Clark R.

    Both methods made the cells sensitive to drug-induced apoptosis (Fig. 1b, c). Con- versely a partial reversion to normal glandular structures, which then were resistant to apoptosis (Fig. 1a, b with abnormal anchorage to the basement membrane did not protect against apoptosis. Interestingly, however

  14. Maspin sensitizes breast carcinoma cells to induced apoptosis Ning Jiang1

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    Maspin sensitizes breast carcinoma cells to induced apoptosis Ning Jiang1 , Yonghong Meng1 maspin expression in mammary carci- noma cells MDA-MB-435 enhanced staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis-induced apoptosis as compared to breast carcinoma cells. Interestingly, maspin transfectant cells did not undergo

  15. Differential Induction of Apoptosis by Fas-Fas Ligand Interactions in Human Monocytes and Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Kiener; Patricia M. Davis; Gary C. Starling; Christopher Mehlin; Seymour J. Klebanoff; Jeffrey A. Ledbetter; W. Conrad Liles

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis upon culture in vitro; removal of serum from the media dramatically increases the rate of this process. Monocyte apoptosis can be sig- nificantly abrogated by the addition of growth factors or proinflammatory mediators. We have evaluated the role of the endogenous Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) interaction in the induction of this spontaneous apoptosis and found

  16. Leishmania mexicana: Inhibition of camptothecin-induced apoptosis of monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Valdés-Reyes; Jesús Argueta; Julio Morán; Norma Salaiza; Joselín Hernández; Miriam Berzunza; Magdalena Aguirre-García; Ingeborg Becker; Laila Gutiérrez-Kobeh

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DC) are the major target cell populations of the obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania. Inhibition of host cell apoptosis is a method employed by multiple pathogens to ensure their survival in the infected cell. Leishmania has been shown to protect M? and neutrophils from both natural and induced apoptosis. As shown in this study, apoptosis in

  17. Inverse Effects of Interleukin6 on Apoptosis of Fibroblasts from Pulmonary Fibrosis and Normal Lungs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuben P. Moodley; Neil L. A. Misso; Amelia K. Scaffidi; Mirjana Fogel-Petrovic; Robin J. McAnulty; Geoffrey J. Laurent; Philip J. Thompson; Darryl A. Knight

    2003-01-01

    Fibroblast apoptosis is crucial to the resolution of fibrosis. How- ever, the mechanisms by which these cells undergo apoptosis are not well known. Because interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 may alter repair and remodeling processes, we hypothesized that they may play a role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated the effects of these cytokines on Fas-induced apoptosis using primary lung

  18. Downregulation of XIAP expression induces apoptosis and enhances chemotherapeutic sensitivity in human gastric cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang-Song Tong; Li-Duan Zheng; Liang Wang; Fu-Qing Zeng; Fang-Min Chen; Ji-Hua Dong; Gong-Cheng Lu

    2005-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is the most potent member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) gene family in terms of its ability to inhibit caspases and suppress apoptosis. Recent evidence has suggested that XIAP is a key determinant in chemoresistance of cancer cells. To explore a novel approach for ameliorating chemotherapy of gastric cancer, the antisense expression vector

  19. Apoptosis in Dab ( Limanda limanda) as Possible New Biomarker for Anthropogenic Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gundula Piechotta; Markus Lacorn; Thomas Lang; Ulrike Kammann; Thomas Simat; Hans-Stephan Jenke; Hans Steinhart

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a physiological and irreversible process in tissue homeostasis that leads to DNA fragmentation of multiples of 180–200 bp. Because apoptosis can be initiated not only by physiological stimuli but also by various chemical substances, the present paper investigates the suitability of apoptosis as a biomarker for biological effect monitoring in the marine

  20. The Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein Is a Direct Inhibitor of Caspases 3 and 7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes K. X. Maier; Zahia Lahoua; Nathalie H. Gendron; Raouf Fetni; Anne Johnston; Jamshid Davoodi; Dita Rasper; Sophie Roy; Ruth S. Slack; Donald W. Nicholson; Alex E. MacKenzie

    2002-01-01

    The neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) was identified as a candidate gene for the inherited neurodegenerative disor- der spinal muscular atrophy. NAIP is the founding member of a human protein family that is characterized by highly conserved N-terminal motifs called baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeats (BIR). Five members of the human family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins including NAIP have