Science.gov

Sample records for species eidolon helvum

  1. Seroepidemiological Prevalence of Multiple Species of Filoviruses in Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) Migrating in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hirohito; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Nakayama, Eri; Yoshida, Reiko; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Nakagawa, Emiko; Matsuno, Keita; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Muramatsu, Mieko; Kuroda, Makoto; Simulundu, Edgar; Changula, Katendi; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Boniface; Nambota, Andrew; Katampi, Jackson; Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Feldmann, Heinz; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron; Takada, Ayato

    2015-10-01

    Fruit bats are suspected to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the viral glycoprotein antigens, we detected filovirus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in 71 of 748 serum samples collected from migratory fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Zambia during 2006-2013. Although antibodies to African filoviruses (eg, Zaire ebolavirus) were most prevalent, some serum samples showed distinct specificity for Reston ebolavirus, which that has thus far been found only in Asia. Interestingly, the transition of filovirus species causing outbreaks in Central and West Africa during 2005-2014 seemed to be synchronized with the change of the serologically dominant virus species in these bats. These data suggest the introduction of multiple species of filoviruses in the migratory bat population and point to the need for continued surveillance of filovirus infection of wild animals in sub-Saharan Africa, including hitherto nonendemic countries. PMID:25786916

  2. Lagos bat virus transmission in an Eidolon helvum bat colony, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). PMID:26191622

  3. Bat trait, genetic and pathogen data from large-scale investigations of African fruit bats, Eidolon helvum.

    PubMed

    Peel, Alison J; Baker, Kate S; Hayman, David T S; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breed, Andrew C; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Lembo, Tiziana; Fernández-Loras, Andrés; Sargan, David R; Fooks, Anthony R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N

    2016-01-01

    Bats, including African straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. This common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of Lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and Achimota viruses. Here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year period. Genetic data comprises cytochrome b mitochondrial sequences (n=608) and microsatellite genotypes from 18 loci (n=544). Tooth-cementum analyses (n=316) allowed derivation of rare age-specific serologic data for a lyssavirus, a henipavirus and two rubulaviruses. This dataset contributes a substantial volume of data on the ecology of E. helvum and its viruses and will be valuable for a wide range of studies, including viral transmission dynamic modelling in age-structured populations, investigation of seasonal reproductive asynchrony in wide-ranging species, ecological niche modelling, inference of island colonisation history, exploration of relationships between island and body size, and various spatial analyses of demographic, morphometric or serological data. PMID:27479120

  4. Bat trait, genetic and pathogen data from large-scale investigations of African fruit bats, Eidolon helvum

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Alison J.; Baker, Kate S.; Hayman, David T. S.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breed, Andrew C.; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Lembo, Tiziana; Fernández-Loras, Andrés; Sargan, David R.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Bats, including African straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. This common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of Lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and Achimota viruses. Here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year period. Genetic data comprises cytochrome b mitochondrial sequences (n=608) and microsatellite genotypes from 18 loci (n=544). Tooth-cementum analyses (n=316) allowed derivation of rare age-specific serologic data for a lyssavirus, a henipavirus and two rubulaviruses. This dataset contributes a substantial volume of data on the ecology of E. helvum and its viruses and will be valuable for a wide range of studies, including viral transmission dynamic modelling in age-structured populations, investigation of seasonal reproductive asynchrony in wide-ranging species, ecological niche modelling, inference of island colonisation history, exploration of relationships between island and body size, and various spatial analyses of demographic, morphometric or serological data. PMID:27479120

  5. Novel, Potentially Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses from the African Straw-Colored Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Shawn; Marsh, Glenn A.; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Peel, Alison J.; Yu, Meng; Hayman, David T. S.; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Amos, Benjamin; Reyburn, Hugh; Nyarko, Edward; Suu-Ire, Richard; Murcia, Pablo R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Bats carry a variety of paramyxoviruses that impact human and domestic animal health when spillover occurs. Recent studies have shown a great diversity of paramyxoviruses in an urban-roosting population of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana. Here, we investigate this further through virus isolation and describe two novel rubulaviruses: Achimota virus 1 (AchPV1) and Achimota virus 2 (AchPV2). The viruses form a phylogenetic cluster with each other and other bat-derived rubulaviruses, such as Tuhoko viruses, Menangle virus, and Tioman virus. We developed AchPV1- and AchPV2-specific serological assays and found evidence of infection with both viruses in Eidolon helvum across sub-Saharan Africa and on islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Longitudinal sampling of E. helvum indicates virus persistence within fruit bat populations and suggests spread of AchPVs via horizontal transmission. We also detected possible serological evidence of human infection with AchPV2 in Ghana and Tanzania. It is likely that clinically significant zoonotic spillover of chiropteran paramyxoviruses could be missed throughout much of Africa where health surveillance and diagnostics are poor and comorbidities, such as infection with HIV or Plasmodium sp., are common. PMID:23152534

  6. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum).

    PubMed

    Danmaigoro, A; Onu, J E; Sonfada, M L; Umaru, M A; Hena, S A; Mahmuda, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  7. Reassortant group A rotavirus from straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum).

    PubMed

    Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Conrardy, Christina; Tong, Suxiang; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Banyai, Krisztian; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D

    2010-12-01

    Bats are known reservoirs of viral zoonoses. We report genetic characterization of a bat rotavirus (Bat/KE4852/07) detected in the feces of a straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). Six bat rotavirus genes (viral protein [VP] 2, VP6, VP7, nonstructural protein [NSP] 2, NSP3, and NSP5) shared ancestry with other mammalian rotaviruses but were distantly related. The VP4 gene was nearly identical to that of human P[6] rotavirus strains, and the NSP4 gene was closely related to those of previously described mammalian rotaviruses, including human strains. Analysis of partial sequence of the VP1 gene indicated that it was distinct from cognate genes of other rotaviruses. No sequences were obtained for the VP3 and NSP1 genes of the bat rotavirus. This rotavirus was designated G25-P[6]-I15-R8(provisional)-C8-Mx-Ax-N8-T11-E2-H10. Results suggest that several reassortment events have occurred between human, animal, and bat rotaviruses. Several additional rotavirus strains were detected in bats. PMID:21122212

  8. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum)

    PubMed Central

    Danmaigoro, A.; Onu, J. E.; Sonfada, M. L.; Umaru, M. A.; Hena, S. A.; Mahmuda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  9. ESTABLISHMENT OF REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYTES IN A CAPTIVE COLONY OF STRAW-COLORED FRUIT BATS (EIDOLON HELVUM).

    PubMed

    Selig, Michael; Lewandowski, Albert; Kent, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are an ecologically important species of megachiropteran bat that are common both in captivity and in the wild. This study attempts to determine reference intervals from a group of 45 captive individuals for a variety of hematologic and biochemistry parameters. Most of the values are similar to values previously seen in other pteropodid bat species. Differences included a lower than expected reference interval for the total white blood cell count, a wider reference interval for glucose, and a higher reference interval for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Establishing reference intervals for hematologic and biochemistry analytes for bats that were maintained on the same diet and under the same husbandry parameters for several years will help in the future assessment of other bats maintained in a similar manner. PMID:27010270

  10. A Novel Rhabdovirus Isolated from the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum, with Signs of Antibodies in Swine and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Binger, Tabea; Annan, Augustina; Drexler, Jan Felix; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Kallies, René; Adankwah, Ernest; Wollny, Robert; Kopp, Anne; Heidemann, Hanna; Dei, Dickson; Agya-Yao, Festus Courage; Junglen, Sandra; Feldt, Torsten; Kurth, Andreas; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bats have been implicated as reservoirs of emerging viruses. Bat species forming large social groups and roosting in proximity to human communities are of particular interest. In this study, we sampled a colony of ca. 350,000 individuals of the straw-colored fruit bat Eidolon helvum in Kumasi, the second largest city of Ghana. A novel rhabdovirus (Kumasi rhabdovirus [KRV]) was isolated in E. helvum cell cultures and passaged to Vero cells as well as interferon-competent human and primate cells (A549 and MA104). Genome composition was typical for a rhabdovirus. KRV was detected in 5.1% of 487 animals, showing association with the spleen but not the brain. Antibody prevalence was 11.5% by immunofluorescence and 6.4% by plaque reduction virus neutralization test (PRNT). Detection throughout 3 sampling years was pronounced in both annual wet seasons, of which only one overlaps the postparturition season. Juvenile bats showed increased viral prevalence. No evidence of infection was obtained in 1,240 female mosquitos (6 different genera) trapped in proximity to the colony to investigate potential vector association. Antibodies were found in 28.9% (5.4% by PRNT) of 107 swine sera but not in similarly large collections of sheep, goat, or cattle sera. The antibody detection rate in human subjects with occupational exposure to the bat colony was 11% (5/45 persons), which was significantly higher than in unexposed adults (0.8% [1/118]; chi square, P < 0.001). KRV is a novel bat-associated rhabdovirus potentially transmitted to humans and swine. Disease associations should be investigated. IMPORTANCE Bats are thought to carry a huge number of as-yet-undiscovered viruses that may pose epidemic threats to humans and livestock. Here we describe a novel dimarhabdovirus which we isolated from a large colony of the straw-colored fruit bat Eidolon helvum in Ghana. As these animals are exposed to humans and several livestock species, we looked for antibodies indicating

  11. Gross Morphometric Studies on the Tongue, Buccal Cavity and Hard Palate of the Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum).

    PubMed

    Igado, O O; Omobowale, T O; Ajadi, R A; Nottidge, H O

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the gross morphometric studies of the tongue, hard palate and buccal cavity of the fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). Sixty bats of both sexes were used for this study. The tongue was excised, and the weight and various linear measurements were determined. Linear measurements were also determined on the hard palate. The gross distribution of the lingual papillae was observed to be the same in both sexes; values obtained for the weight and length of the tongue were higher in the females, although no statistically significant differences were observed (P > 0.05). The number of ridges on the hard palate displayed sexual dimorphism. Results obtained from this study may find application in the field of comparative and clinical anatomy of wildlife and also in feeding physiology. PMID:25115593

  12. The Movement Ecology of the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum, in Sub-Saharan Africa Assessed by Stable Isotope Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Ossa, Gonzalo; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Peel, Alison J.; Scharf, Anne K.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Flying foxes (Pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (δ2H) of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n = 191 individuals) records variation in δ2H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n = 88) would come from based on their keratin δ2H. Across non-migratory species, δ2H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin δ2H of extant E. helvum (n = 76) supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago. PMID

  13. The close genetic relationship of lineage D Betacoronavirus from Nigerian and Kenyan straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) is consistent with the existence of a single epidemiological unit across sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Leopardi, Stefania; Oluwayelu, Daniel; Meseko, Clement; Marciano, Sabrina; Tassoni, Luca; Bakarey, Solomon; Monne, Isabella; Cattoli, Giovanni; De Benedictis, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), which have been identified as natural hosts for several zoonotic pathogens, such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, and ebolavirus, are associated with human settlements in Nigeria where they are commonly consumed as a delicacy. However, information on the viruses harbored by these bats is scarce. In this study, coronavirus sequences were detected using a nested RT-PCR targeting 440 bp of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in six of 79 fecal samples collected from an urban colony of E. helvum in Ibadan, Nigeria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six sequences were monophyletic and clustered in lineage D of Betacoronavirus. The extension of two fragments allowed us to classify our sequences within the RdRp Group Unit defined for Kenyan Betacoronavirus from the same host species. These findings are consistent with the previous suggestion on the existence of a single epidemiological unit of E. helvum across sub-Saharan Africa. This theory, which is supported by the genetic structure of continental E. helvum, could facilitate viral mixing between different colonies across the continent. PMID:27059240

  14. Classification of Bartonella strains associated with straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa using a multi-locus sequence typing platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Hayman, David T S; McKee, Clifton D; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) approach based on nucleotide sequences of eight loci (ftsZ, gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, ITS, and 16S rRNA). The analysis of each locus but ribC demonstrated clustering of the isolates into six genogroups (E1 - E5 and Ew), while ribC was absent in the isolates belonging to the genogroup Ew. In general, grouping of all isolates by each locus was mutually supportive; however, nuoG, gltA, and rpoB showed some incongruity with other loci in several strains, suggesting a possibility of recombination events, which were confirmed by network analyses and recombination/mutation rate ratio (r/m) estimations. The MLST scheme revealed 45 unique sequence types (ST1 - 45) among the analyzed bartonella isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences supported the discrimination of six phylogenetic lineages (E1 - E5 and Ew) corresponding to separate and unique Bartonella species. One of the defined lineages, Ew, consisted of only two STs (ST1 and ST2), and comprised more than one-quarter of the analyzed isolates, while other lineages contained higher numbers of STs with a smaller number of isolates belonging to each lineage. The low number of allelic polymorphisms of isolates belonging to Ew suggests a more recent origin for this species. Our findings suggest that at least six Bartonella species are associated with straw-colored fruit bats, and that distinct STs can be found across the distribution of this bat species, including in populations of bats which are

  15. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum)

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Jakob; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Esch, Thomas; Machwitz, Miriam; Suu-Ire, Richard; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats’ impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas. Principal Findings During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals), bats foraged locally (3.5–36.7 km) in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1–87.9 km) during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals), but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees. Conclusions and Significance Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation. PMID:26465139

  16. A comparative study of the lateral geniculate body of rat (Rattus norvegicus), bat (Eidolon helvum) and pangolin (Manis tricuspis).

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Temidayo; Tijani, Ahmad; Adekomi, Damilare; Abayomi, Taiwo

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the lateral geniculate bodies (LGB) of rats, bats and pangolins were compared using histological and quantitative histochemical parameters to observe possible modifications that enable these mammals to cope with their habitation particularly with respect to their diet. The study was conducted using ten adult Wistar rats, ten fruit bats and eight pangolins comprising of both sexes. After being sacrificed by cervical dislocation, their skulls were opened using bone forceps to expose the brains. The lateral geniculate bodies were excised from each brain tissue, homogenized and homogenate studied spectrophotometrically for the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The LGB tissue samples meant for histological studies were fixed in 10% formol calcium and processed for paraffin wax embedding. Serial sections of 3?m thickness were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) and Cresyl fast violet (CFV) stains. The stained tissues were studied under the light microscope. Application of one-way ANOVA statistical method showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the activities of LDH, G-6-PDH, ACP, ALP and AChE of the LGB of the three mammals as revealed in the quantitative histochemistry of these enzymes and markers. Histological observations revealed no observable differences in the relative distribution of neurons and their supporting glial cells within the LGB of the three mammalian species. The comparison of the differences observed in the histological and the quantitative histochemical activities in these mammalian species revealed a variation in the visual perception and their individual peculiarities in relation to their mode and pattern of living. PMID:22980348

  17. Effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats(Eidolon helvum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodst...

  18. Filovirus receptor NPC1 contributes to species-specific patterns of ebolavirus susceptibility in bats.

    PubMed

    Ng, Melinda; Ndungo, Esther; Kaczmarek, Maria E; Herbert, Andrew S; Binger, Tabea; Kuehne, Ana I; Jangra, Rohit K; Hawkins, John A; Gifford, Robert J; Biswas, Rohan; Demogines, Ann; James, Rebekah M; Yu, Meng; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Drosten, Christian; Wang, Lin-Fa; Kuhn, Jens H; Müller, Marcel A; Dye, John M; Sawyer, Sara L; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Biological factors that influence the host range and spillover of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other filoviruses remain enigmatic. While filoviruses infect diverse mammalian cell lines, we report that cells from African straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are refractory to EBOV infection. This could be explained by a single amino acid change in the filovirus receptor, NPC1, which greatly reduces the affinity of EBOV-NPC1 interaction. We found signatures of positive selection in bat NPC1 concentrated at the virus-receptor interface, with the strongest signal at the same residue that controls EBOV infection in Eidolon helvum cells. Our work identifies NPC1 as a genetic determinant of filovirus susceptibility in bats, and suggests that some NPC1 variations reflect host adaptations to reduce filovirus replication and virulence. A single viral mutation afforded escape from receptor control, revealing a pathway for compensatory viral evolution and a potential avenue for expansion of filovirus host range in nature. PMID:26698106

  19. Filovirus receptor NPC1 contributes to species-specific patterns of ebolavirus susceptibility in bats

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Melinda; Ndungo, Esther; Kaczmarek, Maria E; Herbert, Andrew S; Binger, Tabea; Kuehne, Ana I; Jangra, Rohit K; Hawkins, John A; Gifford, Robert J; Biswas, Rohan; Demogines, Ann; James, Rebekah M; Yu, Meng; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Drosten, Christian; Wang, Lin-Fa; Kuhn, Jens H; Müller, Marcel A; Dye, John M; Sawyer, Sara L; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Biological factors that influence the host range and spillover of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other filoviruses remain enigmatic. While filoviruses infect diverse mammalian cell lines, we report that cells from African straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are refractory to EBOV infection. This could be explained by a single amino acid change in the filovirus receptor, NPC1, which greatly reduces the affinity of EBOV-NPC1 interaction. We found signatures of positive selection in bat NPC1 concentrated at the virus-receptor interface, with the strongest signal at the same residue that controls EBOV infection in Eidolon helvum cells. Our work identifies NPC1 as a genetic determinant of filovirus susceptibility in bats, and suggests that some NPC1 variations reflect host adaptations to reduce filovirus replication and virulence. A single viral mutation afforded escape from receptor control, revealing a pathway for compensatory viral evolution and a potential avenue for expansion of filovirus host range in nature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11785.001 PMID:26698106

  20. Bartonella Species in Bats (Chiroptera) and Bat Flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0–45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25229701

  1. Bartonella spp. in bats, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-12-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

  2. Long-Term Survival of an Urban Fruit Bat Seropositive for Ebola and Lagos Bat Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Emmerich, Petra; Yu, Meng; Wang, Lin-Fa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2010-01-01

    Ebolaviruses (EBOV) (family Filoviridae) cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur. PMID:20694141

  3. Continent-wide panmixia of an African fruit bat facilitates transmission of potentially zoonotic viruses

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Alison J.; Sargan, David R.; Baker, Kate S.; Hayman, David T.S.; Barr, Jennifer A.; Crameri, Gary; Suu-Ire, Richard; Broder, Christopher C.; Lembo, Tiziana; Wang, Lin-Fa; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is Africa’s most widely distributed and commonly hunted fruit bat, often living in close proximity to human populations. This species has been identified as a reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses, but uncertainties remain regarding viral transmission dynamics and mechanisms of persistence. Here we combine genetic and serological analyses of populations across Africa, to determine the extent of epidemiological connectivity among E. helvum populations. Multiple markers reveal panmixia across the continental range, at a greater geographical scale than previously recorded for any other mammal, whereas populations on remote islands were genetically distinct. Multiple serological assays reveal antibodies to henipaviruses and Lagos bat virus in all locations, including small isolated island populations, indicating that factors other than population size and connectivity may be responsible for viral persistence. Our findings have potentially important public health implications, and highlight a need to avoid disturbances which may precipitate viral spillover. PMID:24253424

  4. A novel rodent Chapparvovirus in feces of wild rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shixing; Liu, Zhijian; Wang, Yan; Li, Wang; Fu, Xingli; Lin, Yuan; Shen, Quan; Wang, Xiaochun; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Chapparvovirus, a recently determined new genus in the family Parvoviridae, can infect many species of animals including bats, chickens, and pigs. Here, using viral metagenomics method, we identified a novel Chapparvovirus from feces of wild rats and designated it as rat parvovirus 2 (RPV2). The nearly complete genome of RPV2 is 4222-nt long and includes two ORFs encoding a 654-aa nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and a 472-aa capsid protein (VP), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis over the amino acid sequence of the NS1 showed that RPV2 clustered with Eidolon helvum parvovirus 2 (EHPV2), porcine parvovirus 7 (PPV7), and turkey parvovirus 1 (TP1), forming a separate clade. Sequence analysis indicated that the NS1 protein of RPV2 shared the highest amino acid sequence identity (51 %) with that of EHPV2. According to the genetic distance-based criteria, RPV2 identified here belongs to a novel species of Chapparvovirus. PMID:27473724

  5. Lagos bat virus in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C; Urazova, Olga Y; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2008-04-01

    During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

  6. Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358

  7. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior. PMID:26445502

  8. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5–6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1–0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior. PMID:26445502

  9. Bat Airway Epithelial Cells: A Novel Tool for the Study of Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Ehlen, Lukas; Kallies, René; Wollny, Robert; Corman, Victor M.; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. However, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. Further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. The epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. Although several cell lines from bats were established recently, no well-characterized, selectively cultured airway epithelial cells were available so far. Here, primary cells and immortalized cell lines from bats of the two important suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, Carollia perspicillata (Seba's short-tailed bat) and Eidolon helvum (Straw-colored fruit bat), were successfully cultured under standardized conditions from both fresh and frozen organ specimens by cell outgrowth of organ explants and by the use of serum-free primary cell culture medium. Cells were immortalized to generate permanent cell lines. Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:24454736

  10. Bat airway epithelial cells: a novel tool for the study of zoonotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Eckerle, Isabella; Ehlen, Lukas; Kallies, René; Wollny, Robert; Corman, Victor M; Cottontail, Veronika M; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A

    2014-01-01

    Bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. However, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. Further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. The epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. Although several cell lines from bats were established recently, no well-characterized, selectively cultured airway epithelial cells were available so far. Here, primary cells and immortalized cell lines from bats of the two important suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, Carollia perspicillata (Seba's short-tailed bat) and Eidolon helvum (Straw-colored fruit bat), were successfully cultured under standardized conditions from both fresh and frozen organ specimens by cell outgrowth of organ explants and by the use of serum-free primary cell culture medium. Cells were immortalized to generate permanent cell lines. Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:24454736

  11. Discovery of a novel Parvovirinae virus, porcine parvovirus 7, by metagenomic sequencing of porcine rectal swabs.

    PubMed

    Palinski, Rachel M; Mitra, Namita; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. Metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. BLASTP analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (EhPV2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (TuPV) TP1-2012/HUN NS1 proteins. The 469-aa protein had no significant similarity to known proteins. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that PPV7, EhPV2, and TuPV represent a novel genus in the family Parvoviridae. Quantitative PCR screening of 182 porcine diagnostic samples found a total of 16 positives (8.6 %). Together, these data suggest that PPV7 is a highly divergent novel parvovirus prevalent within the US swine. PMID:26995221

  12. Characteristics and Risk Perceptions of Ghanaians Potentially Exposed to Bat-Borne Zoonoses through Bushmeat.

    PubMed

    Kamins, Alexandra O; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N; Restif, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Emerging zoonotic pathogens from wildlife pose increasing public health threats globally. Bats, in particular, host an array of zoonotic pathogens, yet there is little research on how bats and humans interact, how people perceive bats and their accompanying disease risk, or who is most at risk. Eidolon helvum, the largest and most abundant African fruit bat species, is widely hunted and eaten in Ghana and also carries potentially zoonotic pathogens. This combination raises concerns, as hunting and butchering bushmeat are common sources of zoonotic transmission. Through a combination of interviews with 577 Ghanaians across southern Ghana, we identified the characteristics of people involved in the bat-bushmeat trade and we explored their perceptions of risk. Bat hunting, selling and consumption are widely distributed across regional and ethnic lines, with hotspots in certain localities, while butchering is predominantly done by women and active hunters. Interviewees held little belief of disease risk from bats, saw no ecological value in fruit bats and associated the consumption of bats with specific tribes. These data can be used to inform disease and conservation management plans, drawing on social contexts and ensuring that local voices are heard within the larger global effort to study and mitigate outbreaks. PMID:25266774

  13. Distant relatives of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and close relatives of human coronavirus 229E in bats, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Susanne; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Ipsen, Anne; Seebens, Antje; Müller, Marcel A; Annan, Augustina; Vallo, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Kruppa, Thomas F; Drosten, Christian

    2009-09-01

    We tested 12 bat species in Ghana for coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. CoV was not detected in 212 fecal samples from Eidolon helvum fruit bats. Leaf-nosed bats pertaining to Hipposideros ruber by morphology had group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Virus concentrations were < or =45,000 copies/100 mg of bat feces. The diversified group 1 CoV shared a common ancestor with the human common cold virus hCoV-229E but not with hCoV-NL63, disputing hypotheses of common human descent. The most recent common ancestor of hCoV-229E and GhanaBt-CoVGrp1 existed in approximately 1686-1800 ad. The GhanaBt-CoVGrp2 shared an old ancestor (approximately 2,400 years) with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like group of CoV. PMID:19788804

  14. Nitrogen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, J. E.; Brasseur, G.; Coffey, M. T.; Fischer, H.; Gille, J.; Jones, R.; Louisnard, N.; McCormick, M. P.; Noxon, J.; Owens, A. J.

    Total odd nitrogen, NO(y), may be defined as the sum of all active nitrogen species that interchange photochemically with one another on a time scale of the order of weeks or less. As noted, NO + NO2 reactions dominate the processes controlling the ozone balance in the contemporary stratosphere. The observational data from non-satellite platforms are reviewed. The growth in available satellite data in the past four years is considered. Some of the most important scientific issues are discussed, taking into account new results from atmospheric models (mainly 2-D). The model results are compared with the observational data.

  15. Nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, J. E.; Brasseur, G.; Coffey, M. T.; Fischer, H.; Gille, J.; Jones, R.; Louisnard, N.; Mccormick, M. P.; Noxon, J.; Owens, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Total odd nitrogen, NO(y), may be defined as the sum of all active nitrogen species that interchange photochemically with one another on a time scale of the order of weeks or less. As noted, NO + NO2 reactions dominate the processes controlling the ozone balance in the contemporary stratosphere. The observational data from non-satellite platforms are reviewed. The growth in available satellite data in the past four years is considered. Some of the most important scientific issues are discussed, taking into account new results from atmospheric models (mainly 2-D). The model results are compared with the observational data.

  16. LOUISIANA INVASIVE SPECIES PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identify the species, locations, and effects of invasive species within the state and the effects of these invasive species in Louisiana. Also identify how these species are spread, and the authorities that exist to manage and control them. With this information, create a m...

  17. Endangered species: Deciding which species to save

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibodeau, Francis R.

    1983-03-01

    Many species face extinction because preservation organizations do not have the resources to mount all of the interventions that are needed. Decision analysis provides techniques that can help managers of these organizations to make judgments about which species they will attempt to rescue. A formal analysis of the choices available to the US Fish and Wildlife Services' endangered species program with regard to Isotria medeoloides illustrates how the difficulties of making preservation decisions can be lessened. I. medeoloides is perhaps the rarest orchid in the United States. Little is known of the species' biology and less about effective management. Yet unless a preservation effort is mounted, the species will continue to be threatened by habitat destruction and botanical collecting. The analysis employs formal probabalistic techniques to weigh the utility of possible intervention strategies, that is, their likelihood of achieving different amounts of increase in the longevity of the species, and to balance these gains against their costs. If similar decision analyses are performed on other endangered species, the technique can be used to choose among them, as well as among strategies for individual species.

  18. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  19. The Earth's Vanishing Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Elaborates on the problem of expanding human activity to the world's plant and animal species. Concludes that preserving an individual species is largely a waste of time and effort and that the best way to protect the most species of plants and animals is to save their environments over large tracts of land. (DB)

  20. Species, essence and explanation.

    PubMed

    Lewens, Tim

    2012-12-01

    Michael Devitt (2008, 2010) has argued that species have intrinsic essences. This paper rebuts Devitt's arguments, but in so doing it shores up the anti-essentialist consensus in two ways that have more general interest. First, species membership can be explanatory even when species have no essences; that is, Tamsin's membership of the tiger species can explain her stripyness, without this committing us to any further claim about essential properties of tigers. Second, even the views of species that appear most congenial to essentialism-namely phenetic and genotypic cluster accounts-do not entail strong forms of intrinsic essentialism. PMID:23107092

  1. Delimitating species in paleoanthropology.

    PubMed

    White, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists created a large twentieth-century literature about delimiting biological species. Paleontologists contributed the unique complications of deep time. Toward century's end, one participant wrote: "In all probability more paper has been consumed on the questions of the nature and definition of the species than any other subject in evolutionary and systematic biology." PMID:24591140

  2. Splitting of asphaltene species

    SciTech Connect

    Galimov, R.A.; Yusupova, T.N.; Abushaeva, V.V.

    1994-05-10

    The extent of splitting of asphaltene species under the action of solvents correlates with their nature, and primarily with their electron- and proton-donor properties. According to the data of thermal analysis asphaltene species being retained after the action of solvents differ in the weight ratio of peripheral substituents to condensed part and in the fraction of labile bonds. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. How reticulated are species?

    PubMed Central

    Besansky, Nora; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree‐like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and reticulation can thereby affect all parts of the tree of life, not just the recent species at the tips. Our understanding of adaptive evolution, speciation, phylogenetics, and comparative biology must adapt to these mostly recent findings. Introgression has important practical implications as well, not least for the management of genetically modified organisms in pest and disease control. PMID:26709836

  4. How reticulated are species?

    PubMed

    Mallet, James; Besansky, Nora; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree-like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and reticulation can thereby affect all parts of the tree of life, not just the recent species at the tips. Our understanding of adaptive evolution, speciation, phylogenetics, and comparative biology must adapt to these mostly recent findings. Introgression has important practical implications as well, not least for the management of genetically modified organisms in pest and disease control. PMID:26709836

  5. Beyond Single Species Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Species diversity, learning about wildlife in its natural habitats and conservation goals are integral to Watchable Wildlife programs. Examines the role of wildlife observation in spreading the message of biodiversity importance. Twenty-three references cited. (LZ)

  6. USGS invasive species solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  7. Species: beasts of burden.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2014-01-01

    Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) was the twentieth century's most influential writer to wrestle with the species problem. The following draws heavily on his work, albeit without presumptuously claiming to mirror his thinking or present any original ideas. As a personal meditation, I am thinking mostly of platyrrhines. Following Mayr, I adhere to what is commonly called the Biological Species Concept (BSC) as a way of thinking about a species in the real-world biosphere as a taxon. I also hold to the idea that the Linnaean category called species has the same function as other categories: a linguistic tool for organizing and retrieving information about biodiversity while embodying evolutionary hypotheses. In other words, alpha taxonomy, the area of systematics that involves identifying, naming, and classifying species, is not purely an exercise in either biology or inventory because it involves communication as well. The burdensome work of the species category stems partly from tension created by the several purposes associated with the concept: the objective observation and examination of a fundamental biological phenomenon, the collection and interpretation of data in a selective context of relevance, and the intention to deploy scientific decisions as a form of communication within a dynamic but highly structured language system. PMID:24591139

  8. Species integrity in trees.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    From California sequoia, to Australian eucalyptus, to the outstanding diversity of Amazonian forests, trees are fundamental to many processes in ecology and evolution. Trees define the communities that they inhabit, are host to a multiplicity of other organisms and can determine the ecological dynamics of other plants and animals. Trees are also at the heart of major patterns of biodiversity such as the latitudinal gradient of species diversity and thus are important systems for studying the origin of new plant species. Although the role of trees in community assembly and ecological succession is partially understood, the origin of tree diversity remains largely opaque. For instance, the relative importance of differing habitats and phenologies as barriers to hybridization between closely related species is still largely uncharacterized in trees. Consequently, we know very little about the origin of trees species and their integrity. Similarly, studies on the interplay between speciation and tree community assembly are in their infancy and so are studies on how processes like forest maturation modifies the context in which reproductive isolation evolves. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. (2014) and Lagache et al. (2014) overcome some traditional difficulties in studying mating systems and sexual isolation in the iconic oaks and poplars, providing novel insights about the integrity of tree species and on how ecology leads to variation in selection on reproductive isolation over time and space. PMID:25155715

  9. Theoretical ecology without species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    The sequencing-driven revolution in microbial ecology demonstrated that discrete ``species'' are an inadequate description of the vast majority of life on our planet. Developing a novel theoretical language that, unlike classical ecology, would not require postulating the existence of species, is a challenge of tremendous medical and environmental significance, and an exciting direction for theoretical physics. Here, it is proposed that community dynamics can be described in a naturally hierarchical way in terms of population fluctuation eigenmodes. The approach is applied to a simple model of division of labor in a multi-species community. In one regime, effective species with a core and accessory genome are shown to naturally appear as emergent concepts. However, the same model allows a transition into a regime where the species formalism becomes inadequate, but the eigenmode description remains well-defined. Treating a community as a black box that expresses enzymes in response to resources reveals mathematically exact parallels between a community and a single coherent organism with its own fitness function. This coherence is a generic consequence of division of labor, requires no cooperative interactions, and can be expected to be widespread in microbial ecosystems. Harvard Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications;John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  10. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  11. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  12. Genomic definition of species

    SciTech Connect

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  13. Nocturnality and species survival.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1996-01-01

    Surveys of butterfly and moth diversity in tropical forest fragments suggest that nocturnality confers a dispersal, and possibly a survival, advantage. The butterfly faunas of smaller fragments were depauperate; in contrast, the species richness of nocturnal moths was similar in all fragments and even in pasture. The lack of correlation between butterfly and moth species richness among fragments (r2 = 0.005) is best explained by movements of moths at night when ambient conditions in forest and pasture are most similar; butterflies face substantial daytime temperature, humidity, and solar radiation barriers. This interpretation is supported by information on birds, beetles, and bats. PMID:8876201

  14. Lignans from Arnica species.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas J; Stausberg, Sabine; Raison, Jeanette Von; Berner, Matthias; Willuhn, Günter

    2006-05-10

    From four Arnica species (A. angustifolia Vahl ssp. attenuata (Greene) Maguire, A. lonchophylla Greene ssp. lonchophylla Maguire (flowerheads), A. chamissonis Less. ssp. foliosa (Nutt.) Maguire, A. montana L. (roots and rhizomes)) a total of twelve lignans of the furofuran-, dibenzylbutyrolactone- and dibenzylbutyrolactol-type were isolated. No report on lignans as constituents of Arnica species exists so far. Besides the known pinoresinol, epipinoresinol, phillygenin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin and nortracheloside, six dibenzylbutyrolactol derivatives with different stereochemistry and substitution at C-9 were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analysis. PMID:16644542

  15. Dual Species NMR Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Joshua; Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Walker, Thad

    2016-05-01

    We present progress towards a dual species nuclear magnetic oscillator using synchronous spin exchange optical pumping. By applying the bias field as a sequence of alkali 2 π pulses, we generate alkali polarization transverse to the bias field. The alkali polarization is then modulated at the noble gas resonance so that through spin exchange collisions the noble gas becomes polarized. This novel method of NMR suppresses the alkali field frequency shift by at least a factor of 2500 as compared to longitudinal NMR. We will present details of the apparatus and measurements of dual species co-magnetometry using this method. Research supported by the NSF and Northrop-Grumman Corp.

  16. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

  17. INTRODUCED TERRESTRIAL SPECIES RICHNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons. The data are species counts for each spatial unit.

  18. Endangered Species. Issue Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans and student data sheets, and a poster. The overview presents the history, causes, and present state of species endangerment and a review of legislation by Congress designed to protect threatened or…

  19. Man as a Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Alan; And Others

    Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The Species…

  20. Endangered Species. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark; And Others

    This unit is intended to examine the causes of the endangerment of Florida's plant and animal species with a detailed look at varied ecological systems. Individual lessons are designed to be used either by individual students progressing at their own rate or by small groups. Units may be modified for use by large groups. (Author/RE)

  1. Evidence for henipavirus spillover into human populations in Africa.

    PubMed

    Pernet, Olivier; Schneider, Bradley S; Beaty, Shannon M; LeBreton, Matthew; Yun, Tatyana E; Park, Arnold; Zachariah, Trevor T; Bowden, Thomas A; Hitchens, Peta; Ramirez, Christina M; Daszak, Peter; Mazet, Jonna; Freiberg, Alexander N; Wolfe, Nathan D; Lee, Benhur

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of lethal henipaviruses (HNVs) from their natural fruit bat reservoirs to humans has only been reported in Australia and South/Southeast Asia. However, a recent study discovered numerous HNV clades in African bat samples. To determine the potential for HNV spillover events among humans in Africa, here we examine well-curated sets of bat (Eidolon helvum, n = 44) and human (n = 497) serum samples from Cameroon for Nipah virus (NiV) cross-neutralizing antibodies (NiV-X-Nabs). Using a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudoparticle seroneutralization assay, we detect NiV-X-Nabs in 48% and 3-4% of the bat and human samples, respectively. Seropositive human samples are found almost exclusively in individuals who reported butchering bats for bushmeat. Seropositive human sera also neutralize Hendra virus and Gh-M74a (an African HNV) pseudoparticles, as well as live NiV. Butchering bat meat and living in areas undergoing deforestation are the most significant risk factors associated with seropositivity. Evidence for HNV spillover events warrants increased surveillance efforts. PMID:25405640

  2. Evidence for henipavirus spillover into human populations in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Olivier; Schneider, Bradley S.; Beaty, Shannon M.; LeBreton, Matthew; Yun, Tatyana E.; Park, Arnold; Zachariah, Trevor T.; Bowden, Thomas A.; Hitchens, Peta; Ramirez, Christina M.; Daszak, Peter; Mazet, Jonna; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Lee, Benhur

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of lethal henipaviruses (HNVs) from their natural fruit bat reservoirs to humans has only been reported in Australia and South/Southeast Asia. However, a recent study discovered numerous HNV clades in African bat samples. To determine the potential for HNV spillover events among humans in Africa, here we examine well-curated sets of bat (Eidolon helvum, n=44) and human (n=497) serum samples from Cameroon for Nipah virus (NiV) cross-neutralizing antibodies (NiV-X-Nabs). Using a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudoparticle seroneutralization assay, we detect NiV-X-Nabs in 48% and 3–4% of the bat and human samples, respectively. Seropositive human samples are found almost exclusively in individuals who reported butchering bats for bushmeat. Seropositive human sera also neutralize Hendra virus and Gh-M74a (an African HNV) pseudoparticles, as well as live NiV. Butchering bat meat and living in areas undergoing deforestation are the most significant risk factors associated with seropositivity. Evidence for HNV spillover events warrants increased surveillance efforts. PMID:25405640

  3. Commuting fruit bats beneficially modulate their flight in relation to wind

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Fahr, Jakob; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When animals move, their tracks may be strongly influenced by the motion of air or water, and this may affect the speed, energetics and prospects of the journey. Flying organisms, such as bats, may thus benefit from modifying their flight in response to the wind vector. Yet, practical difficulties have so far limited the understanding of this response for free-ranging bats. We tracked nine straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) that flew 42.5 ± 17.5 km (mean ± s.d.) to and from their roost near Accra, Ghana. Following detailed atmospheric simulations, we found that bats compensated for wind drift, as predicted under constant winds, and decreased their airspeed in response to tailwind assistance such that their groundspeed remained nearly constant. In addition, bats increased their airspeed with increasing crosswind speed. Overall, bats modulated their airspeed in relation to wind speed at different wind directions in a manner predicted by a two-dimensional optimal movement model. We conclude that sophisticated behavioural mechanisms to minimize the cost of transport under various wind conditions have evolved in bats. The bats’ response to the wind is similar to that reported for migratory birds and insects, suggesting convergent evolution of flight behaviours in volant organisms. PMID:24648227

  4. Estimating Effects of Species Interactions on Populations of Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Roth, Tobias; Bühler, Christoph; Amrhein, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    Global change causes community composition to change considerably through time, with ever-new combinations of interacting species. To study the consequences of newly established species interactions, one available source of data could be observational surveys from biodiversity monitoring. However, approaches using observational data would need to account for niche differences between species and for imperfect detection of individuals. To estimate population sizes of interacting species, we extended N-mixture models that were developed to estimate true population sizes in single species. Simulations revealed that our model is able to disentangle direct effects of dominant on subordinate species from indirect effects of dominant species on detection probability of subordinate species. For illustration, we applied our model to data from a Swiss amphibian monitoring program and showed that sizes of expanding water frog populations were negatively related to population sizes of endangered yellow-bellied toads and common midwife toads and partly of natterjack toads. Unlike other studies that analyzed presence and absence of species, our model suggests that the spread of water frogs in Central Europe is one of the reasons for the decline of endangered toad species. Thus, studying population impacts of dominant species on population sizes of endangered species using data from biodiversity monitoring programs should help to inform conservation policy and to decide whether competing species should be subject to population management. PMID:27028074

  5. Estimating species richness: The importance of heterogeneity in species detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimating species richness (i.e. the actual number of species present in a given area) is a basic objective of many field studies carried out in community ecology and is also of crucial concern when dealing with the conservation and management of biodiversity. In most studies, the total number of species recorded in an area at a given time is taken as a measure of species richness. Here we use a capture-recapture approach to species richness estimation with North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data in order to estimate species detectability and thus gain insight about its importance. We carried out analyses on all survey routes of four states, Arizona, Maryland, North Dakota, and Wisconsin, in two years, 1970 and 1990. These states were chosen to provide contrasting habitats, bird species composition and survey quality. We investigated the effect of state, year and observer ability on the proportions of different models selected, and on estimates of detectability and species richness. Our results indicate that model Mh, which assumes heterogeneous detection probability among species, is frequently appropriate for estimating species richness from BBS data. Species detectability varied among states and was higher for the more skilled observers. These results emphasize the need to take into account potential heterogeneities in detectability among species in studies of factors affecting species richness.

  6. Flavonoids in Sophora Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Motohashi, Noboru

    Sophora species of Leguminosae are abundantly present in the natural kingdom. Today, among Sophora plants, the flavonoids of the plant phenols occupy a remarkable position. For a very long time flavonoids have been used as natural pigments and dyes. Some of the colorful anthocyanins of the glucosides are used for color and flavor in foodstuffs. Therefore, these flavonoids are beneficial to daily human life. Herein we concentrate on flavonoids in Sophora plants, and the relationship between their chemical structures and nutraceutical effect. For this purpose, soy-based infant formulas, osteoporosis, antitumor activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-HIV activity, radical generation and O2 - scavenging activity, and enzyme inhibitory activity have been described.

  7. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  8. Aeromonas species in foods.

    PubMed

    Isonhood, Jamie H; Drake, Maryanne

    2002-03-01

    Aeromonas species have been recognized as potential or emerging foodborne pathogens for more than 20 years. Aeromonads are estuarine bacteria and are ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables. Actual sourced foodborne outbreaks are few, but epidemiological evidence suggests that the bacterium can cause self-limiting diarrhea, with children being the most susceptible population. Most aeromonads are psychrotrophic and can grow in foods during cold storage. Aeromonads are not resistant to food processing regimes and are readily killed by heat treatment. A host of virulence factors are present, but the exact role of each in human disease has not been fully elucidated. PMID:11899061

  9. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  10. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  11. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community about the…

  12. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  13. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA087 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and... Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page,...

  14. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA086 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine.... 10022-01 is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C... threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit 10022-01, issued on May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26715) authorizes...

  15. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  16. The Species Delimitation Uncertainty Principle

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.

    2001-01-01

    If, as Einstein said, "it is the theory which decides what we can observe," then "the species problem" could be solved by simply improving our theoretical definition of what a species is. However, because delimiting species entails predicting the historical fate of evolutionary lineages, species appear to behave according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which states that the most philosophically satisfying definitions of species are the least operational, and as species concepts are modified to become more operational they tend to lose their philosophical integrity. Can species be delimited operationally without losing their philosophical rigor? To mitigate the contingent properties of species that tend to make them difficult for us to delimit, I advocate a set of operations that takes into account the prospective nature of delimiting species. Given the fundamental role of species in studies of evolution and biodiversity, I also suggest that species delimitation proceed within the context of explicit hypothesis testing, like other scientific endeavors. The real challenge is not so much the inherent fallibility of predicting the future but rather adequately sampling and interpreting the evidence available to us in the present. PMID:19265874

  17. Eighteen new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Chandra, Idelia; Shi, Sandy; Lin, Ting; German, J Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2016-07-01

    Of 1600 known species of yeasts, about 70 are known to be oleaginous, defined as being able to accumulate over 20 % intracellular lipids. These yeasts have value for fundamental and applied research. A survey of yeasts from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, University of California Davis was performed to identify additional oleaginous species within the Basidiomycota phylum. Fifty-nine strains belonging to 34 species were grown in lipid inducing media, and total cell mass, lipid yield and triacylglycerol profiles were determined. Thirty-two species accumulated at least 20 % lipid and 25 species accumulated over 40 % lipid by dry weight. Eighteen of these species were not previously reported to be oleaginous. Triacylglycerol profiles were suitable for biodiesel production. These results greatly expand the number of known oleaginous yeast species, and reveal the wealth of natural diversity of triacylglycerol profiles within wild-type oleaginous Basidiomycetes. PMID:27072563

  18. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    PubMed Central

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  19. Management of marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korringa, P.

    1980-03-01

    Marine fish and shellfish constitute important natural resources. Provided they are wisely exploited, they are not liable to exhaustion but continue to renew themselves. Wise exploitation requires sound management, and for such management one should be well informed about the factors governing the fluctuations in the stocks and about the costs of exploitation. A century of scientific fisheries research provided a wealth of information on reproduction, migration and growth of commercially important species of fish and shellfish and about the losses the stocks suffer through natural causes such as predation, diseases and parasites, and through the fishery itself. Such information is available for areas which are intensively fished. In fertile waters, the approximate growth increase of fish stocks is some 15 % by weight year-1. If one were to harvest this 15 % only, to be considered as interest on this natural capital, and to leave the capital itself untouched, one could go on fishing for ever. There would be no overfishing or stock depletion. For sound management we need not only ecological data but also information on economic fishery aspects, e. g. on size and power of the fleet, type of fish-finding apparatus installed, costs of netting and wages, fuel required per fishing trip, and on the capital invested. Further we need statistical information on the landings and on the proceeds. Such information is available in countries which participate intensively in fishing. Therefore, one would assume that governments which are well informed by their fishery biologists about fluctuations in stocks of fish and shellfish and by their economists on various aspects of the exploitation would apply sound management to ensure that fishing may continue for many years to come without depletion. A number of examples related to the North East Atlantic area, where intensive fishing is carried out and from where a wealth of scientific information is available, makes clear that cases

  20. Species complexes in the Simuliidae*

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The recent discovery that Simulium damnosum in Africa is not a single species but a complex of sibling species has important implications for the epidemiology and control of onchocerciasis. This paper sets out the current situation with regard to classification within the S. damnosum complex and the smaller S. neavei group. The nomenclature of the S. damnosum complex and current morphological and enzyme electrophoretic methods of differentiating among sibling species are discussed. Finally, recommendations are made on priorities for future research. PMID:307447

  1. Multi-species integrative biclustering

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm, multi-species cMonkey, for the simultaneous biclustering of heterogeneous multiple-species data collections and apply the algorithm to a group of bacteria containing Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes. The algorithm reveals evolutionary insights into the surprisingly high degree of conservation of regulatory modules across these three species and allows data and insights from well-studied organisms to complement the analysis of related but less well studied organisms. PMID:20920250

  2. The Politics of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Fran

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information and teaching suggestions about endangered species for social studies teachers. Discusses political processes, economics, current events, and ethics. Lists resource information. (DC)

  3. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  4. Ring species as demonstrations of the continuum of species formation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Wake, David B

    2015-11-01

    In the mid-20th century, Ernst Mayr (1942) and Theodosius Dobzhansky (1958) championed the significance of 'circular overlaps' or 'ring species' as the perfect demonstration of the gradual nature of species formation. As an ancestral species expands its range, wrapping around a geographic barrier, derived taxa within the ring display interactions typical of populations, such as genetic and morphological intergradation, while overlapping taxa at the terminus of the ring behave largely as sympatric, reproductively isolated species. Are ring species extremely rare or are they just difficult to detect? What conditions favour their formation? Modelling studies have attempted to address these knowledge gaps by estimating the biological parameters that result in stable ring species (Martins et al. 2013), and determining the necessary topographic parameters of the barriers encircled (Monahan et al. 2012). However, any generalization is undermined by a major limitation: only a handful of ring species are known to exist in nature. In addition, many of them have been broken into multiple species presumed to be evolving independently, usually obscuring the evolutionary dynamics that generate diversity. A paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology by Fuchs et al. (2015), focused on the entire genealogy of a bulbul (Alophoixus) species complex, offers key insights into the evolutionary processes underlying diversification of this Indo-Malayan bird. Their findings fulfil most of the criteria that can be expected for ring species (Fig. ): an ancestor has colonized the mainland from Sundaland, expanded along the forested habitat wrapping around Thailand's lowlands, adjacent taxa intergrade around the ring distribution, and terminal taxa overlap at the ring closure. Although it remains unclear whether ring divergence has resulted in restrictive gene flow relative to that observed around the ring, their results suggest that circular overlaps might be more common in nature than

  5. 50 CFR Table 2c to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Species Codes: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families) 2c Table 2c to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families) Species Description Code...

  6. 50 CFR Table 2c to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Species Codes: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families) 2c Table 2c to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families) Species Description Code...

  7. Managing the invasive species risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not mea...

  8. Teaching an Endangered Species Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Joan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a student speech activity can serve as a culminating exercise in a unit on endangered species. Offers suggestions and guidelines for researching, formatting, and delivering the speech. A table is also included explaining the causes and prevention of species endangerment. (ML)

  9. Antifungal compounds from Piper species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...

  10. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  11. 76 FR 1405 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA128 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 16482) that a request for a scientific research permit...

  12. 76 FR 74778 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA850 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C..., notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 33703) that a request for a scientific...

  13. 76 FR 2348 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA140 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... Fort Fisher. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... INFORMATION: On October 5, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 61424) that a request...

  14. Managing the invasive species risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not me...

  15. Conservation of tropical plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

  16. Chironomids' Relationship with Aeromonas Species.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects' egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects' endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect's egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  17. A NEW SPECIES OF MEMNONIELLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new species, Stachybotrys longistipitata sp. nov is described and illustrated. This fungus was originally isolated from forest soil in Japan and deposited as Memnoniella subsimplex.

    Introduction

    Four species have been described in the mitosporic genus Memnoniella ...

  18. Humans as a Hyperkeystone Species.

    PubMed

    Worm, Boris; Paine, Robert T

    2016-08-01

    Ecologists have identified numerous keystone species, defined as organisms that have outsized ecological impacts relative to their biomass. Here we identify human beings as a higher-order or 'hyperkeystone' species that drives complex interaction chains by affecting other keystone actors across different habitats. Strong indirect effects and a global reach further characterize these interactions and amplify the impacts of human activities on diverse ecosystems, from oceans to forests. We require better understanding of hyperkeystone interaction chains most urgently, especially for marine species and terrestrial large carnivores, which experience relatively higher exploitation rates than other species. This requires innovative approaches that integrate the study of human behavior with food-web theory, and which might provide surprising new insights into the complex ecology of our own species. PMID:27312777

  19. Interference competition and species coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2002-01-01

    Interference competition is ubiquitous in nature. Yet its effects on resource exploitation remain largely unexplored for species that compete for dynamic resources. Here, I present a model of exploitative and interference competition with explicit resource dynamics. The model incorporates both biotic and abiotic resources. It considers interference competition both in the classical sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, and interference on, the other species) and in the broad sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, but can experience an increase in growth rate via interference on, the other species). Coexistence cannot occur under classical interference competition even when the species inferior at resource exploitation is superior at interference. Such a trade-off can, however, change the mechanism of competitive exclusion from dominance by the superior resource exploiter to a priority effect. Now the inferior resource exploiter can exclude the superior resource exploiter provided it has a higher initial abundance. By contrast, when interference is beneficial to the interacting species, coexistence is possible via a trade-off between exploitation and interference. These results hold regardless of whether the resource is biotic or abiotic, indicating that the outcome of exploitative and interference competition does not depend on the exact nature of resource dynamics. The model makes two key predictions. First, species that engage in costly interference mechanisms (e.g. territoriality, overgrowth or undercutting, allelopathy and other forms of chemical competition) should not be able to coexist unless they also engage in beneficial interference mechanisms (e.g. predation or parasitism). Second, exotic invasive species that displace native biota should be superior resource exploiters that have strong interference effects on native species with little

  20. The Trichoderma koningii aggregate species

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Gary J.; Dodd, Sarah L.; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Petrini, Orlando; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2006-01-01

    The morphological concept of Trichoderma koningii is found to include several species that differ from each other in details of phenotype (including conidium morphology, growth rate) and biogeography. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing partial sequences of the translation-elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), as well as fragments of actin and calmodulin genes, indicate that phenotypic characters typical of T. koningii evolved independently in three well-separated main lineages. Combined molecular and phenotype data lead to the development of a taxonomy with the recognition of twelve taxonomic species and one variety within the three lineages. These lineages include: (1) T. koningii and T. ovalisporum and the new species T. caribbaeum var. caribbaeum, T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. dorotheae, T. dingleyae, T. intricatum, T. koningiopsis, T. petersenii and T. taiwanense; (2) the new species T. rogersonii and T. austrokoningii, and (3) the new anamorph T. stilbohypoxyli. Trichoderma koningii s. str. is an uncommon species restricted to Europe and eastern North America; T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. koningiopsis, and T. ovalisporum were isolated as endophytes of trunks of Theobroma species in tropical America, and T. ovalisporum from the woody liana Banisteropsis caapi in Ecuador; T. koningiopsis is common in tropical America but was isolated also from natural substrata in East Africa, Europe and Canada, and from ascospores in eastern North America, and as an endophyte in Theobroma species; T. stilbohypoxyli, originally described as a parasite of Stilbohypoxylon species in Puerto Rico, is found to be more common in the tropics, besides an endophytic isolate from Fagus in U.K. The additional new species are known almost exclusively from their teleomorphs. Isolates of T. ovalisporum and T. koningiopsis may have biological control potential. A morphophenetic key and a set of tools for molecular species identification were developed. PMID:18490990

  1. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    PubMed

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  2. Species delimitation and global biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Boykin, Laura M; Armstrong, Karen F; Kubatko, Laura; De Barro, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Species delimitation directly impacts on global biosecurity. It is a critical element in the decisions made by national governments in regard to the flow of trade and to the biosecurity measures imposed to protect countries from the threat of invasive species. Here we outline a novel approach to species delimitation, "tip to root", for two highly invasive insect pests, Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) and Lymantria dispar (Asian gypsy moth). Both species are of concern to biosecurity, but illustrate the extremes of phylogenetic resolution that present the most complex delimitation issues for biosecurity; B. tabaci having extremely high intra-specific genetic variability and L. dispar composed of relatively indistinct subspecies. This study tests a series of analytical options to determine their applicability as tools to provide more rigorous species delimitation measures and consequently more defensible species assignments and identification of unknowns for biosecurity. Data from established DNA barcode datasets (COI), which are becoming increasingly considered for adoption in biosecurity, were used here as an example. The analytical approaches included the commonly used Kimura two-parameter (K2P) inter-species distance plus four more stringent measures of taxon distinctiveness, (1) Rosenberg's reciprocal monophyly, (P(AB)),1 (2) Rodrigo's (P(randomly distinct)),2 (3) genealogical sorting index, (gsi),3 and (4) General mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC).4,5 For both insect datasets, a comparative analysis of the methods revealed that the K2P distance method does not capture the same level of species distinctiveness revealed by the other three measures; in B. tabaci there are more distinct groups than previously identified using the K2P distances and for L. dipsar far less variation is apparent within the predefined subspecies. A consensus for the results from P(AB), P(randomly distinct) and gsi offers greater statistical confidence as to where genetic limits might

  3. Species Delimitation and Global Biosecurity

    PubMed Central

    Boykin, Laura M.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Kubatko, Laura; De Barro, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Species delimitation directly impacts on global biosecurity. It is a critical element in the decisions made by national governments in regard to the flow of trade and to the biosecurity measures imposed to protect countries from the threat of invasive species. Here we outline a novel approach to species delimitation, “tip to root”, for two highly invasive insect pests, Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) and Lymantria dispar (Asian gypsy moth). Both species are of concern to biosecurity, but illustrate the extremes of phylogenetic resolution that present the most complex delimitation issues for biosecurity; B. tabaci having extremely high intra-specific genetic variability and L. dispar composed of relatively indistinct subspecies. This study tests a series of analytical options to determine their applicability as tools to provide more rigorous species delimitation measures and consequently more defensible species assignments and identification of unknowns for biosecurity. Data from established DNA barcode datasets (COI), which are becoming increasingly considered for adoption in biosecurity, were used here as an example. The analytical approaches included the commonly used Kimura two-parameter (K2P) inter-species distance plus four more stringent measures of taxon distinctiveness, (1) Rosenberg’s reciprocal monophyly, (P(AB)),1 (2) Rodrigo’s (P(randomly distinct)),2 (3) genealogical sorting index, (gsi),3 and (4) General mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC).4,5 For both insect datasets, a comparative analysis of the methods revealed that the K2P distance method does not capture the same level of species distinctiveness revealed by the other three measures; in B. tabaci there are more distinct groups than previously identified using the K2P distances and for L. dipsar far less variation is apparent within the predefined subspecies. A consensus for the results from P(AB), P(randomly distinct) and gsi offers greater statistical confidence as to where genetic limits

  4. Revision of the Palearctic Chaetocnema species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Palearctic Chaetocnema species are revised. Seven species are described as new: Chaetocnema belka new species; Chaetocnema bergeali new species; Chaetocnema eastafghanica new species; Chaetocnema franzi new species; Chaetocnema igori new species; Chaetocnema lubischevi new species; Chaetocnema t...

  5. Species Recognition and Cryptic Species in the Tuber indicum Complex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Guo, Shun-Xing; Liu, Pei-Gui

    2011-01-01

    Morphological delimitation of Asian black truffles, including Tuber himalayense, T. indicum, T. sinense, T. pseudohimalayense, T. formosanum and T. pseudoexcavatum, has remained problematic and even phylogenetic analyses have been controversial. In this study, we combined five years of field investigation in China with morphological study and DNA sequences analyses (ITS, LSU and β-tubulin) of 131 Tuber specimens to show that T. pseudohimalayense and T. pseudoexcavatum are the same species. T. formosanum is a separate species based on its host plants and geographic distribution, combined with minor morphological difference from T. indicum. T. sinense should be treated as a synonym of T. indicum. Our results demonstrate that the present T. indicum, a single described morphological species, should include at least two separate phylogenetic species. These findings are of high importance for truffle taxonomy and reveal and preserve the richness of truffle diversity. PMID:21297969

  6. Species-barrier-independent prion replication in apparently resistant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew F.; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jackie; Desbruslais, Melanie; Lantos, Peter L.; Collinge, John

    2000-08-01

    Transmission of prions between mammalian species is thought to be limited by a "species barrier," which depends on differences in the primary structure of prion proteins in the infecting inoculum and the host. Here we demonstrate that a strain of hamster prions thought to be nonpathogenic for conventional mice leads to prion replication to high levels in such mice but without causing clinical disease. Prions pathogenic in both mice and hamsters are produced. These results demonstrate the existence of subclinical forms of prion infection with important public health implications, both with respect to iatrogenic transmission from apparently healthy humans and dietary exposure to cattle and other species exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. Current definitions of the species barrier, which have been based on clinical end-points, need to be fundamentally reassessed.

  7. Are most species small? Not within species-level phylogenies.

    PubMed Central

    Orme, C David L; Isaac, Nick J B; Purvis, Andy

    2002-01-01

    The robust macro-ecological observation that there are more small-bodied species implies that small-bodied organisms have experienced elevated net rates of diversification. We investigate the role of body size in creating non-random differences in rates of cladogenesis using a set of 38 species-level phylogenies drawn from a range of animal groups. We use independent contrasts to explore the relationship between body size and species richness within individual phylogenies and across related sets of phylogenies. We also carry out a meta-analysis looking for associations between body size and species richness across the taxa. We find little evidence for increased cladogenesis among small-bodied organisms within taxa, and no evidence for any consistent differences between taxa. We explore possible explanations for the inconsistency of our findings with macro-ecological patterns. PMID:12065045

  8. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. PMID:27370313

  9. Species-Area Relationships Are Controlled by Species Traits

    PubMed Central

    Franzén, Markus; Schweiger, Oliver; Betzholtz, Per-Eric

    2012-01-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope  = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope  = 0.59), low abundance (slope  = 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope  = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions. PMID:22629384

  10. Written Research: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bonnie Campbell

    1989-01-01

    Describes how an integrated unit on endangered species brings research alive for second through sixth graders. Presents lessons involving pre-writing, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, revision, and publication of student papers. (KEH)

  11. Western Shield Threatened Species Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Outlines strategies used to involve the teaching community in a program of native wildlife recovery. Through involvement, teachers and students learn how to contribute to protecting threatened species and maintaining biodiversity. (DDR)

  12. Evolution of mutualism between species

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  13. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  14. [Phylogenetic analysis of Pleurotus species].

    PubMed

    Shnyreva, A A; Shnyreva, A V

    2015-02-01

    We performed phylogenetic analysis for ten Pleurotus species, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rDNA. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of 31 oyster fungi strains of different origin and 10 reference sequences from GenBank. Our analysis demonstrates that the tested Pleurotus species are of monophyletic origin. We evaluated the evolutionary distances between these species. Classic genetic analysis of sexual compatibility based on monocaryon (mon)-mon crosses showed no reproductive barriers within the P. cornucopiae-P. euosmus species complex. Thus, despite the divergence (subclustering) between commercial strains and natural isolates of P. ostreatus revealed by phylogenetic analysis, there is no reproductive isolation between these groups. A common allele of the matB locus was identified for the commercial strains Sommer and L/4, supporting the common origin of these strains. PMID:25966583

  15. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  16. Tuberculosis in domestic animal species.

    PubMed

    Pesciaroli, M; Alvarez, J; Boniotti, M B; Cagiola, M; Di Marco, V; Marianelli, C; Pacciarini, M; Pasquali, P

    2014-10-01

    M. bovis and M. caprae, members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), are the major causative agents of tuberculosis in domestic animals. Notably, M. bovis exhibits a wide host range; the infection has been reported in many domesticated animals and free or captive wildlife. Despite most of them acting as spill-over hosts in particular epidemiological scenarios, some domesticated species as pigs, camelids and goats may display high rates of infection and possibly play a role in the inter-species transmission of the disease. The aim of this review is to make an updated overview of the susceptibility and the role in the transmission of the disease of the most common domesticated animals species such as small ruminants, pigs, horses, camelids, dogs and cats. An overview of the diagnostic approaches to detect the infection in each of the species included in the review is also presented. PMID:25151859

  17. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  18. Species doubling and effective Lagrangians

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.; Tytgat, M.

    1996-09-01

    Coupling gauge fields to the chiral currents from an effective Lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons naturally gives rise to a species doubling phenomenon similar to that seen with fermionic fields in lattice gauge theory. 17 refs.

  19. Earth Day: All Species Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Marty

    1994-01-01

    Describes the All Species Project, an interdisciplinary program that attempts to build a sense of community and understanding of the natural world by integrating ideas from art, science, anthropology, counseling, theater, and any other area deemed applicable. (MDH)

  20. Chironomids’ Relationship with Aeromonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  1. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  2. Olfactory sensitivity in mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Wackermannová, M; Pinc, L; Jebavý, L

    2016-07-18

    Olfaction enables most mammalian species to detect and discriminate vast numbers of chemical structures called odorants and pheromones. The perception of such chemical compounds is mediated via two major olfactory systems, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system, as well as minor systems, such as the septal organ and the Grueneberg ganglion. Distinct differences exist not only among species but also among individuals in terms of their olfactory sensitivity; however, little is known about the mechanisms that determine these differences. In research on the olfactory sensitivity of mammals, scientists thus depend in most cases on behavioral testing. In this article, we reviewed scientific studies performed on various mammalian species using different methodologies and target chemical substances. Human and non-human primates as well as rodents and dogs are the most frequently studied species. Olfactory threshold studies on other species do not exist with the exception of domestic pigs. Olfactory testing performed on seals, elephants, and bats focused more on discriminative abilities than on sensitivity. An overview of olfactory sensitivity studies as well as olfactory detection ability in most studied mammalian species is presented here, focusing on comparable olfactory detection thresholds. The basics of olfactory perception and olfactory sensitivity factors are also described. PMID:27070753

  3. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  4. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex

    PubMed Central

    Weir, B.S.; Johnston, P.R.; Damm, U.

    2012-01-01

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  5. 50 CFR 600.509 - Prohibited species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited species. 600.509 Section 600... species. (a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species... its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts...

  6. 50 CFR 600.509 - Prohibited species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited species. 600.509 Section 600... species. (a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species... its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts...

  7. 50 CFR 600.509 - Prohibited species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibited species. 600.509 Section 600... species. (a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species... its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts...

  8. 50 CFR 600.509 - Prohibited species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibited species. 600.509 Section 600... species. (a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species... its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts...

  9. 50 CFR 600.509 - Prohibited species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibited species. 600.509 Section 600... species. (a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species... its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts...

  10. Xiphinema krugi, Species Complex or Complex of Cryptic Species?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Claudio M. G.; Ferraz, Luiz C. C. B.; Neilson, Roy

    2006-01-01

    Fourteen morphologically putative populations of X. krugi were clearly separated into four different profiles by RFLP analysis (Alu I and Hinf I), sequencing of the ITS-1 region, and subsequent Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses. These four profiles were further supported by a principal component analysis of morphometric characters that yielded four taxonomic clusters matching those produced by the molecular data. Sequence homology was greater amongst populations that represented the same RFLP profile than between profiles and similar both between representative populations of the RFLP profiles and putative closely related Xiphinema species. This study suggests that X. krugi is a potential species complex comprised of at least four distinct genotypes. PMID:19259458

  11. Genome Size and Species Diversification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, there are reasons to believe that large genome size should favour speciation. Several major factors contributing to genome size, such as duplications and transposable element activity have been proposed to facilitate the formation of new species. However, it is also possible that small genome size promotes speciation. For example, selection for genome reduction may be resolved in different ways in incipient species, leading to incompatibilities. Mutations and chromosomal rearrangements may also be more stably inherited in smaller genomes. Here I review the following lines of empirical evidence bearing on this question: (i) Correlations between genome size and species richness of taxa are often negative. (ii) Fossil evidence in lungfish shows that the accumulation of DNA in the genomes of this group coincided with a reduction in species diversity. (iii) Estimates of speciation interval in mammals correlate positively with genome size. (iv) Genome reductions are inferred at the base of particular species radiations and genome expansions at the base of others. (v) Insect clades that have been increasing in diversity up to the present have smaller genomes than clades that have remained stable or have decreased in diversity. The general pattern emerging from these observations is that higher diversification rates are generally found in small-genome taxa. Since diversification rates are the net effect of speciation and extinction, large genomes may thus either constrain speciation rate, increase extinction rate, or both. I argue that some of the cited examples are unlikely to be explained by extinction alone. PMID:22140283

  12. Tripartite genome of all species.

    PubMed

    Long, MengPing; Hu, TaoBo

    2016-01-01

    Neutral theory has dominated the molecular evolution field for more than half a century, but it has been severely challenged by the recently emerged Maximum Genetic Diversity (MGD) theory. However, based on our recent work of tripartite human genome architecture, we found that MGD theory may have overlooked the regulatory but variable genomic regions that increase with species complexity. Here we propose a new molecular evolution theory named Increasing Functional Variation (IFV) hypothesis. According to the IFV hypothesis, the genome of all species is divided into three regions that are 'functional and invariable', 'functional and variable' and 'non-functional and variable'. While the 'non-functional and variable' region decreases as species become more complex, the other two regions increase. PMID:27366319

  13. Tripartite genome of all species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neutral theory has dominated the molecular evolution field for more than half a century, but it has been severely challenged by the recently emerged Maximum Genetic Diversity (MGD) theory. However, based on our recent work of tripartite human genome architecture, we found that MGD theory may have overlooked the regulatory but variable genomic regions that increase with species complexity. Here we propose a new molecular evolution theory named Increasing Functional Variation (IFV) hypothesis. According to the IFV hypothesis, the genome of all species is divided into three regions that are ‘functional and invariable’, ‘functional and variable’ and ‘non-functional and variable’. While the ‘non-functional and variable’ region decreases as species become more complex, the other two regions increase. PMID:27366319

  14. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...

  15. Evolution: a new cat species emerges.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter

    2013-12-16

    The complex ongoing process of species development is highlighted by the description of a new felid species, Leopardus guttulus, from Brazil. Broad molecular genetic assessments affirm reproductive isolation and separation in nature, the hallmark of species recognition. PMID:24355788

  16. Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous plant species worldwide including some Palicourea (Rubiaceae), Tanaecium (Bignoniaceae), and Amorimia (Malpighiaceae) species in Brazil cause sudden death and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Two species of Palicourea, P. aenofusca and P. marcgravii, cause sudden death and are...

  17. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex

    PubMed Central

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously identified as C. acutatum and other related taxa, including strains from numerous hosts with wide geographic distributions, confirmed the molecular groups previously recognised and identified a series of novel taxa. Thirty-one species are accepted, of which 21 have not previously been recognised. Colletotrichum orchidophilum clusters basal to the C. acutatum species complex. There is a high phenotypic diversity within this complex, and some of the species appear to have preferences to specific hosts or geographical regions. Others appear to be plurivorous and are present in multiple regions. In this study, only C. salicis and C. rhombiforme formed sexual morphs in culture, although sexual morphs have been described from other taxa (especially as laboratory crosses), and there is evidence of hybridisation between different species. One species with similar morphology to C. acutatum but not belonging to this species complex was also described here as new, namely C. pseudoacutatum. Taxonomic novelties: New combinations - Colletotrichum limetticola (R.E. Clausen) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. lupini (Bondar) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. salicis (Fuckel) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. acerbum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. australe Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brisbanense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cosmi Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. costaricense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cuscutae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. guajavae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. indonesiense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. johnstonii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. kinghornii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. laticiphilum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. melonis Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C

  18. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  19. The Colletotrichum boninense species complex

    PubMed Central

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Shivas, R.G.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture. Taxonomic novelties: New combination - Colletotrichum phyllanthi (H. Surendranath Pai) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. Name replacement - C. petchii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. annellatum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. beeveri Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. brassicicola Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brasiliense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous & Massola, C. colombiense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, C. constrictum Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. cymbidiicola Damm, P.F. Cannon

  20. Genomics of Pathogenic Vibrio Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziejman, Michelle; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    Members of the heterotrophic bacterial family Vibrionaceae are native inhabitants of aquatic environments worldwide, constituting a diverse and abundant component of marine microbial organisms. Over 60 species of the genus Vibrio have been identified (Thompson et al., 2004) and their phenotypic heterogeneity is well documented. The ecology of the genus remains less well understood, however, despite reports that vibrios are the dominant microorganisms inhabiting the superficial water layer and colonizing the chitinous exoskeleton of zooplankton (e.g., copepods, Thompson et al., 2004). Although some species were originally isolated from seawater as free living organisms, most were isolated in association with marine life such as bivalves, fish, eels, or shrimp.

  1. Would species richness estimators change the observed species area relationship?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hortal, Joaquín; Gabriel, Rosalina; Homem, Nídia

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate whether the description of the species area relationship (SAR) can be improved by using richness estimates instead of observed richness values. To do this, we use three independent datasets gathered with standardized survey methods from the native laurisilva forest of the Azorean archipelago, encompassing different distributional extent and biological groups: soil epigean arthropods at eight forest fragments in Terceira Island, canopy arthropods inhabiting Juniperus brevifolia at 16 forest fragments of six different islands, and bryophytes of seven forest fragments from Terceira and Pico islands. Species richness values were estimated for each forest fragment using seven non-parametric estimators (ACE, ICE, Chao1, Chao2, Jackknife1, Jackknife2 and Bootstrap; five in the case of bryophytes). These estimates were fitted to classical log-log species-area curves and the intercept, slope and goodness of fit of these curves were compared with those obtained from the observed species richness values to determine if significant differences appear in these parameters. We hypothesized that the intercepts would be higher in the estimated data sets compared with the observed data, as estimated richness values are typically higher than observed values. We found partial support for the hypothesis - intercepts of the SAR obtained from estimated richness values were significantly higher in the case of epigean arthropods and bryophyte datasets. In contrast, the slope and goodness of fit obtained with estimated values were not significantly different from those obtained from observed species richness in all groups, although a few small differences appeared. We conclude that, although little is gained using these estimators if data come from standardized surveys, their estimations could be used to analyze macroecological relationships with non-standardized observed data, provided that survey incompleteness and/or unevenness are also taken into account.

  2. Antifungal susceptibilities of Paecilomyces species.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C; Pujol, I; Sala, J; Guarro, J

    1998-07-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  3. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Paecilomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, C.; Pujol, I.; Sala, J.; Guarro, J.

    1998-01-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  4. Chromosome synteny in cucumis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2x = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2x = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Two inter-fertile botanical varieties with 14 chromosomes, the cultivated C. sativus var. sativus L. and the wild C. sativus var. hardwick...

  5. Endangered Species: An Educator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jean, M., Comp.

    Presented are two articles, an annotated bibliography, and other information useful in teaching about endangered species, especially those found in Florida. The articles provide an ethical rationale, teaching suggestions, and a discussion of the value of wildlife. Descriptions of over 100 pertinent books, periodicals, movies, and filmstrips are in…

  6. Endangered Species and Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenstein, Lewis

    1984-01-01

    In wiping out the natural heritage over which we were given dominion and stewardship responsibilities, we are sowing the seeds of our own destruction. With the advent of the Reagan administration, the government's endangered species program has all but ceased to function. (RM)

  7. NATIVE TERRESTRIAL ANIMAL SPECIES RICHNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit.

  8. Human Infections with Sarcocystis Species

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Douglas H.; Dubey, Jitender P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed. PMID:25715644

  9. Antifungal Compounds from Piper Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xing-Cong

    2013-01-01

    This review documents chemical structures and antifungal activities of 68 compounds isolated from 22 Piper species of the plant family Piperaceae. These compounds include amides, flavonoids, prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, lignans, phenylpropanoids, butenolides, and cyclopentendiones. Some of them may serve as leads for potential pharmaceutical or agricultural fungicide development. PMID:24307889

  10. Quaternary alkaloids of tinospora species.

    PubMed

    Bisset, N G; Nwaiwu, J

    1983-08-01

    The occurrence of quaternary alkaloids in TINOSPORA (and PARABAENA) species (Menispermaceae) has been studied. The main components were generally the protoberberine bases berberine and palmatine, with jatrorrhizine an occasional minor constituent, and the aporphine base magnoflorine. Choline was also often present. Only magnoflorine was detected in the PARABAENA material examined. PMID:17404996

  11. Taxonomy, Identification and Principal Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) can reduce crop yield worldwide, methods for their identification are often difficult to implement. This review summarizes the diagnostic morphological and molecular features for distinguishing the twelve major previously described root-knot nemato...

  12. Man...An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  13. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  14. Human infections with Sarcocystis species.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Esposito, Douglas H; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed. PMID:25715644

  15. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  16. Calonectria species and their Cylindrocladium anamorphs: species with clavate vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Risède, Jean-Michel; Simoneau, Philippe; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The present study compares all known species of Cylindrocladium that have clavate vesicles. Several isolates were obtained from baited soils collected in various parts of the world, while others were associated with leaf litter or symptomatic plant hosts. Isolates were compared based on morphology, as well as DNA sequence data from their β-tubulin and histone gene H3 regions. Cylindrocladium australiense and Cy. ecuadoriae, are described as new species, a decision based on morphology and molecular data. A group of isolates associated with toppling disease of banana in the West Indies is identified as Cy. flexuosum. An epitype is designated for Cy. ilicicola, and a new name, Curvicladiella, proposed to replace the anamorphic genus Curvicladium, which is a homonym. PMID:18490981

  17. Modeling species-abundance relationships in multi-species collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, S.; Yin, Z.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.

    2003-01-01

    Species-abundance relationship is one of the most fundamental aspects of community ecology. Since Motomura first developed the geometric series model to describe the feature of community structure, ecologists have developed many other models to fit the species-abundance data in communities. These models can be classified into empirical and theoretical ones, including (1) statistical models, i.e., negative binomial distribution (and its extension), log-series distribution (and its extension), geometric distribution, lognormal distribution, Poisson-lognormal distribution, (2) niche models, i.e., geometric series, broken stick, overlapping niche, particulate niche, random assortment, dominance pre-emption, dominance decay, random fraction, weighted random fraction, composite niche, Zipf or Zipf-Mandelbrot model, and (3) dynamic models describing community dynamics and restrictive function of environment on community. These models have different characteristics and fit species-abundance data in various communities or collections. Among them, log-series distribution, lognormal distribution, geometric series, and broken stick model have been most widely used.

  18. Ranking species in mutualistic networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made. PMID:25640575

  19. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

  20. Protein secretion in Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Simonen, M; Palva, I

    1993-01-01

    Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them. PMID:8464403

  1. Fifteen new species of Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Renaud, J B; Burgess, K M N; Malloch, D W; Clark, D; Ketch, L; Urb, M; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; Sumarah, M W; Seifert, K A

    2016-06-01

    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1). Each is characterised and described using classical morphology, LC-MS based extrolite analyses and multigene phylogenies based on ITS, BenA and CaM. Significant extrolites detected include andrastin, pulvilloric acid, penitrem A and citrinin amongst many others. PMID:27616792

  2. Searching for species in haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Papke, R. Thane; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Feil, Edward J.; Sommerfeld, Katrin; Muise, Denise; Doolittle, W. Ford

    2007-01-01

    Prokaryotic (bacterial and archaeal) species definitions and the biological concepts that underpin them entail clustering (cohesion) among individuals, in terms of genome content and gene sequence similarity. Homologous recombination can maintain gene sequence similarity within, while permitting divergence between, clusters and is thus the basis for recent efforts to apply the Biological Species Concept in prokaryote systematics and ecology. In this study, we examine isolates of the haloarchaeal genus Halorubrum from two adjacent ponds of different salinities at a Spanish saltern and a natural saline lake in Algeria by using multilocus sequence analysis. We show that, although clusters can be defined by concatenation of multiple marker sequences, barriers to exchange between them are leaky. We suggest that no nonarbitrary way to circumscribe “species” is likely to emerge for this group, or by extension, to apply generally across prokaryotes. Arbitrary criteria might have limited practical use, but still must be agreed upon by the community. PMID:17715057

  3. Ranking species in mutualistic networks

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic “nested” structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm –similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity– here we propose a method which –by exploiting their nested architecture– allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made. PMID:25640575

  4. Allopatric origins of microbial species

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Rachel J

    2006-01-01

    Although allopatric divergence is a well-accepted mechanism of speciation for eukaryotic macro-organisms, the importance of geographical barriers to divergence in microbial populations is a subject of great debate. Do geographically separated populations of micro-organisms diverge independently, or does their structure fit the often quoted Bass-Becking description ‘everything is everywhere; the environment selects’? Aided by high-resolution genetic and genomic tools, the search for ‘microbial marsupials’ has revealed that in fact both are true; some species of micro-organisms demonstrate allopatric divergence, while others do not. This discovery opens the door for comparative analyses, where questions about the differences in evolutionary and ecological mechanisms that drive divergence and speciation in different microbial species can begin to be explored. Investigating these differences in evolutionary mechanisms will greatly enhance interest in, and understanding of, the dynamic processes that create and maintain the vast diversity of the microbial world. PMID:17062415

  5. Ranking species in mutualistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic ``nested'' structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm -similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity- here we propose a method which -by exploiting their nested architecture- allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  6. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  7. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of the Amiota taurusata Species Group within the Chinese Species, with Descriptions of Two New Species

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhen-fang; Li, Tong; Jiang, Jian-jun; Lu, Jin-ming; Chen, Hong-wei

    2014-01-01

    The relationships among six species of the Amiota taurusata Takada, Beppu, & Toda (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species group were investigated based on DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene, using three species of the genus Amiota as outgroups. A mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), can be used to discriminate between species of the taurusata group. Two new species are described from South China: A. protuberantis Shao et Chen, sp. nov. and A. shennongi Shao et Chen, sp. nov. A key to all the species of the taurusata group based on morphological characters is provided. PMID:25373180

  8. A New Species from Athous (Orthathous) acutangulus Species Group from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2012-01-01

    A new Elateridae species, Athous (Orthathous) cagatayae n. sp., is presented from Ankara, Turkey. The morphology of the new species is described. Photographs of imago and aedeagus, aedeagi drawings of the new species, and identification key are given. The new species is discussed with species of acutangulus group, with a differential diagnosis. PMID:23448209

  9. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  10. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  11. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    PubMed

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  12. Serological Evidence of Influenza A Viruses in Frugivorous Bats from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marcel Alexander; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Janko; Corman, Victor Max; Rasche, Andrea; Drexler, Jan Felix; Sylverken, Augustina; Oppong, Samuel K.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tschapka, Marco; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Drosten, Christian; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes – H17N10 and H18N11 – in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum) sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated. PMID:25965069

  13. Serological evidence of influenza A viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa.

    PubMed

    Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; Binger, Tabea; Müller, Marcel Alexander; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Janko; Corman, Victor Max; Rasche, Andrea; Drexler, Jan Felix; Sylverken, Augustina; Oppong, Samuel K; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tschapka, Marco; Cottontail, Veronika M; Drosten, Christian; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes--H17N10 and H18N11--in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum) sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5 μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated. PMID:25965069

  14. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. PMID:27155775

  15. Clinical hematology of rodent species.

    PubMed

    Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-09-01

    Pet rodents, such as rats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas, differ from more traditional companion animal species in many aspects of their hematologic parameters. Animals within this order have much diversity in size, anatomy, methods of restraint, and blood collection technique. Appropriate sample collection is often the most challenging aspect of the diagnostic protocol, and inappropriate restraint may cause a stress response that interferes with blood test results. For many of these patients, sedation is required and can also affect results as well. In most cases, however, obtaining a standard database is necessary and very possible when providing medical care for this popular group of pets. PMID:18675732

  16. Primate taxonomy: species and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rylands, Anthony B; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Primatology as a discrete branch of science involving the study of primate behavior and ecology took off in the 1960s after discovery of the importance of primates as models for biomedical research and the realization that primates provide insights into the evolutionary history of humans. Osman Hill's unfortunately incomplete monograph series on the comparative anatomy and taxonomy of the primates(1) and the Napiers' 1967 A Handbook of Living Primates(2) recorded the world's view of primate diversity at this time. This taxonomy remained the baseline for nearly three decades, with the diversity of each genus being represented by some species, but extensively as subspecies. PMID:24591133

  17. Bacillus species infections in neonates.

    PubMed

    Patrick, C C; Langston, C; Baker, C J

    1989-01-01

    A case of neonatal meningitis due to Bacillus cereus is presented. Postmortem histopathologic examination revealed an invasive disease involving the brain parenchyma, with a cellular composition consistent with an indolent process indicative of possible perinatally acquired infection. One other neonate from our institution with systemic disease due to a nonanthrax bacillus is described, and a review of the English-language literature since 1900 reveals four additional neonates infected with these unusual pathogens. Such Bacillus species infections are rare but should be suspected when gram-positive bacilli are noted on gram stain, especially in an immunocompromised host. PMID:2505353

  18. The eclipse of species ranges.

    PubMed

    Hemerik, Lia; Hengeveld, Rob; Lippe, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    This paper distinguishes four recognisably different geographical processes in principle causing species to die out. One of these processes, the one we dub "range eclipse", holds that one range expands at the expense of another one, thereby usurping it. Channell and Lomolino (2000a, Journal of Biogeography 27: 169-179; 2000b, Nature 403: 84-87; see also Lomolino and Channell, 1995, Journal of Mammalogy 76: 335-347) measured the course of this process in terms of the proportion of the total range remaining in its original centre, thereby essentially assuming a homogeneous distribution of animals over the range. However, part of their measure seems mistaken. By giving a general, analytical formulation of eclipsing ranges, we estimate the exact course of this process. Also, our formulation does not partition a range into two spatially equal parts, its core and its edge, but it assumes continuity. For applying this model to data on the time evolution of species, individual time series should be available for each of them. For practical purposes we give an alternative way of plotting and interpreting such time series. Our approach, being more sensitive than Channell and Lomolino's, gives a less optimistic indication of range eclipses than theirs once these have started. PMID:17318329

  19. Renal biomarkers in domestic species.

    PubMed

    Hokamp, Jessica A; Nabity, Mary B

    2016-03-01

    Current conventional tests of kidney damage and function in blood (serum creatinine and urea nitrogen) and urine (urine protein creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of kidney disease. However, they all have important limitations, and additional markers of glomerular filtration rate and glomerular and tubular damage are desirable, particularly for earlier detection of renal disease when therapy is most effective. Additionally, urinary markers of kidney damage and function may help localize damage to the affected portion of the kidney. In general, the presence of high- and intermediate-molecular weight proteins in the urine are indicative of glomerular damage, while low-molecular weight proteins and enzymes in the urine suggest tubular damage due to decreased reabsorption of proteins, direct tubular damage, or both. This review aims to discuss many of these new blood and urinary biomarkers in domestic veterinary species, focusing primarily on dogs and cats, how they may be used for diagnosis of renal disease, and their limitations. Additionally, a brief discussion of serum creatinine is presented, highlighting its limitations and important considerations for its improved interpretation in domestic species based on past literature and recent studies. PMID:26918420

  20. The Neotropical species of Atractodes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae), II: the A. pleuripunctatus species-group.

    PubMed

    Bordera, Santiago; Mazón, Marina; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2016-01-01

    We describe three new species of parasitoid wasps of the genus Atractodes (Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae) from South America: A. colchaguensis sp. nov. from Chile, and A. pleuripunctatus sp. nov. and A. saragurensis sp. nov. from Ecuador. These species are all characterized by a densely and strongly punctate mesopleuron. The Atractodes pleuripunctatus species-group is defined to accommodate the new species. In addition, the second part of the key to species of the Neotropical Atractodes including this species-group is given. PMID:27615943

  1. Species richness changes lag behind climate change.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Rosa; Megías, Adela González; Hill, Jane K; Braschler, Brigitte; Willis, Stephen G; Collingham, Yvonne; Fox, Richard; Roy, David B; Thomas, Chris D

    2006-06-22

    Species-energy theory indicates that recent climate warming should have driven increases in species richness in cool and species-poor parts of the Northern Hemisphere. We confirm that the average species richness of British butterflies has increased since 1970-82, but much more slowly than predicted from changes of climate: on average, only one-third of the predicted increase has taken place. The resultant species assemblages are increasingly dominated by generalist species that were able to respond quickly. The time lag is confirmed by the successful introduction of many species to climatically suitable areas beyond their ranges. Our results imply that it may be decades or centuries before the species richness and composition of biological communities adjusts to the current climate. PMID:16777739

  2. LOUISIANA EXOTIC INVASIVE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM MX964256

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Louisiana Exotic Invasive Species Symposium will provide a multi-state collaboration among agency representatives, scientists, and the affected public to address the problem of exotic invasive species and to improve coastal environmental conditions in Louisiana.

  3. Genome size differences in Hyalella cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Vergilino, Roland; Dionne, Kaven; Nozais, Christian; Dufresne, France; Belzile, Claude

    2012-02-01

    The Hyalella azteca (Saussure) complex includes numerous amphipod cryptic species in freshwater habitats in America as revealed by DNA barcoding surveys. Two ecomorphs (small and large) have evolved numerous times in this complex. Few phenotypic criteria have been found to differentiate between the numerous species of this complex. The present study aims to explore genome size differences between some species of the H. azteca complex co-occurring in a Canadian boreal lake using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content was estimated for 50 individuals belonging to six COI haplotypes corresponding to four provisional species of the H. azteca complex. Species from the large ecomorph had C-values significantly larger than species from the small ecomorph, whereas slight differences were found among species of the small ecomorph. These differences in genome sizes might be linked to ecological and physiological differences among species of the H. azteca complex. PMID:22263854

  4. New enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Dózsa-Farkas, Klára; Felföldi, Tamás; Hong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We give descriptions of five new enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea: Henlea magnaampullacea sp. n., Fridericia sphaerica sp. n., F. cusanicaformis sp. n., F. granulocyta sp. n. and Mesenchytraeus calyx sp. n., with morphological and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, nuclear histone 3 genes and nuclear ribosomal ITS region sequences) data. In total, 19 enchytraeid species belonging to seven genera have been found in the studied woodland and agronomical soil samples. Apart from the five new species, three further species are new for the Korean enchytraeid fauna, Enchytraeus christenseni, E. dichaetus, and Achaeta cf. brevivasa. Molecular taxonomical analyses show that the Korean species resembling H. ventriculosa is not identical with the European species, furthermore sequence analysis of individuals morphologically identified as F. seoraksani indicate the possibility of species-complexity and the presence of cryptic species. PMID:26623764

  5. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  6. Tetrameranthus (Annonaceae) revisited including a new species

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Lubbert Y.T.; Maas, Paul J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic revision of the infrequently collected genus Tetrameranthus by Westra (1985) is updated. A new species is described from French Guiana and Amapá, Brazil, increasing the number of species in this genus to seven. PMID:22645410

  7. NOAA Lists 20 Coral Species as Threatened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    Twenty coral species have been listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 27 August. This is NOAA's largest ESA rule making. The coral species include 15 found in the Indo-Pacific region and 5 that are located in the Caribbean. They join two other Caribbean coral species that NOAA listed as threatened in 2006.

  8. SNP Arrays for Species Identification in Salmonids.

    PubMed

    Wenne, Roman; Drywa, Agata; Kent, Matthew; Sundsaasen, Kristil Kindem; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2016-01-01

    The use of SNP genotyping microarrays, developed in one species to analyze a closely related species for which genomic sequence information is scarce, enables the rapid development of a genomic resource (SNP information) without the need to develop new species-specific markers. Using large numbers of microarray SNPs offers the best chance to detect informative markers in nontarget species, markers that can very often be assayed using a lower throughput platform as is described in this paper. PMID:27460372

  9. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  10. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  11. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  12. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March...

  13. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting (via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to...

  14. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  15. Control Effort Exacerbates Invasive Species Problem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic invasive species are depleting the World’s native biota. Managers face a difficult dilemma after exotic species invade. They can use aggressive practices to reduce invader abundances, thereby reducing invaders’ competitive impacts on native species. But it is often difficult or impossible ...

  16. Biology, speciation, and utilization of peanut species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis has a large number of highly diverse species. Large collections of cultivated peanut exist at multiple locations and several hundreds of wild species are maintained in germplasm banks. Many of the species have been characterized for agronomic traits, but much of the germplasm colle...

  17. 50 CFR 622.434 - Prohibited species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibited species. 622.434 Section 622... Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.434 Prohibited species. (a) General. The harvest and possession restrictions of this section apply without regard to whether the species is...

  18. 50 CFR 622.434 - Prohibited species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited species. 622.434 Section 622... Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.434 Prohibited species. (a) General. The harvest and possession restrictions of this section apply without regard to whether the species is...

  19. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  20. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  1. Multiplex PCR for four Sclerotinia species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia homeocarpa, S. minor, S. sclerotiorum, and S. trifoliorum are common species within the genus Sclerotinia, where the morphological identification is challenging, especially when one crop hosts multiple species. The objective of this study was to design species specific primers compatibl...

  2. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  3. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  4. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  5. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A.I.D. policy to conduct its assistance programs in a manner that is sensitive to the protection of endangered or threatened species and...

  6. 3 CFR - The Endangered Species Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  7. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  8. Cross-species transmission of TSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents or prions induce fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and in other mammalian species. They are transmissible among their species of origin, but they can also cross the species barrier and induce infection and/or disease in other...

  9. Diversity, Pathogenicity And Control of Verticillium Species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Verticillium is a cosmopolitan group of ascomycetous fungi, encompassing phytopathogenic species that cause vascular wilts of plants. Two of these species, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum, cause billions of dollars in annual crop losses worldwide. The soil habitat of these species, the exte...

  10. Eight new species in the genus Alphabaculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...

  11. Listeria species in domestic environments.

    PubMed Central

    Beumer, R. R.; te Giffel, M. C.; Spoorenberg, E.; Rombouts, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Using a direct isolation method Listeria spp. were detected in 101 (47.4%) of 213 houses investigated. L. monocytogenes was present in 45 houses (21.1%). Listeria spp. occurred at all sampling sites. Dish-cloths (37%) and surface samples round the drain in the bathroom (27.2%) were most frequently contaminated. Highest numbers (c. 10(4) c.f.u./object) were found in dish-cloths and washing-up brushes. Lower levels (up to 10(3) c.f.u./object) were obtained from kitchen sinks, refrigerator vegetable compartment samples and tooth brushes. In total, 132 isolations of Listeria spp. were made from 871 samples. L. innocua (53%) and L. monocytogenes (41%) were the predominant species in the positive samples. Other Listeria spp. were found in only 6% of the positive samples. PMID:8972667

  12. Listeria species in domestic environments.

    PubMed

    Beumer, R R; te Giffel, M C; Spoorenberg, E; Rombouts, F M

    1996-12-01

    Using a direct isolation method Listeria spp. were detected in 101 (47.4%) of 213 houses investigated. L. monocytogenes was present in 45 houses (21.1%). Listeria spp. occurred at all sampling sites. Dish-cloths (37%) and surface samples round the drain in the bathroom (27.2%) were most frequently contaminated. Highest numbers (c. 10(4) c.f.u./object) were found in dish-cloths and washing-up brushes. Lower levels (up to 10(3) c.f.u./object) were obtained from kitchen sinks, refrigerator vegetable compartment samples and tooth brushes. In total, 132 isolations of Listeria spp. were made from 871 samples. L. innocua (53%) and L. monocytogenes (41%) were the predominant species in the positive samples. Other Listeria spp. were found in only 6% of the positive samples. PMID:8972667

  13. Genetic Manipulation of Nocardia Species.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Dipesh; Kumar Jha, Amit; Pokhrel, Anaya; Shrestha, Anil; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase positive, and non-motile actinomycetes. They are associated with human infections. However, some species produce important natural products, degrade toxic chemicals, and are involved in biotransformation of valuable products. The lack of robust genetic tools has hindered detailed studies and advanced research. This unit describes the major genetic engineering approaches using Nocardia sp. CS682 as a prototype. These methods will certainly help in understanding the basis of their pathogenicity as well as biosynthetic and biotransforming abilities. It can be expected that knowledge of the biochemistry behind their pathogenicity will be crucial in developing effective treatment strategies. These genetic tools can be utilized to develop rational metabolic engineering approaches for crafting host strains with higher production or biotransformation ability. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26855280

  14. Core-satellite species hypothesis and native versus exotic species in secondary succession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinez, Kelsey A.; Gibson, David J.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of hypotheses exist to explain species’ distributions in a landscape, but these hypotheses are not frequently utilized to explain the differences in native and exotic species distributions. The core-satellite species (CSS) hypothesis predicts species occupancy will be bimodally distributed, i.e., many species will be common and many species will be rare, but does not explicitly consider exotic species distributions. The parallel dynamics (PD) hypothesis predicts that regional occurrence patterns of exotic species will be similar to native species. Together, the CSS and PD hypotheses may increase our understanding of exotic species’ distribution relative to natives. We selected an old field undergoing secondary succession to study the CSS and PD hypotheses in conjunction with each other. The ratio of exotic to native species (richness and abundance) was observed through 17 years of secondary succession. We predicted species would be bimodally distributed and that exotic:native species ratios would remain steady or decrease through time under frequent disturbance. In contrast to the CSS and PD hypotheses, native species occupancies were not bimodally distributed at the site, but exotic species were. The exotic:native species ratios for both richness (E:Nrichness) and abundance (E:Ncover) generally decreased or remained constant throughout supporting the PD hypothesis. Our results suggest exotic species exhibit metapopulation structure in old field landscapes, but that metapopulation structures of native species are disrupted, perhaps because these species are dispersal limited in the fragmented landscape.

  15. The nuclear question: rethinking species importance in multi-species animal groups.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Umesh; Raza, Rashid Hasnain; Quader, Suhel

    2010-09-01

    1. Animals group for various benefits, and may form either simple single-species groups, or more complex multi-species associations. Multi-species groups are thought to provide anti-predator and foraging benefits to participant individuals. 2. Despite detailed studies on multi-species animal groups, the importance of species in group initiation and maintenance is still rated qualitatively as 'nuclear' (maintaining groups) or 'attendant' (species following nuclear species) based on species-specific traits. This overly simplifies and limits understanding of inherently complex associations, and is biologically unrealistic, because species roles in multi-species groups are: (i) likely to be context-specific and not simply a fixed species property, and (ii) much more variable than this dichotomy indicates. 3. We propose a new view of species importance (measured as number of inter-species associations), along a continuum from 'most nuclear' to 'least nuclear'. Using mixed-species bird flocks from a tropical rainforest in India as an example, we derive inter-species association measures from randomizations on bird species abundance data (which takes into account species 'availability') and data on 86 mixed-species flocks from two different flock types. Our results show that the number and average strength of inter-species associations covary positively, and we argue that species with many, strong associations are the most nuclear. 4. From our data, group size and foraging method are ecological and behavioural traits of species that best explain nuclearity in mixed-species bird flocks. Parallels have been observed in multi-species fish shoals, in which group size and foraging method, as well as diet, have been shown to correlate with nuclearity. Further, the context in which multi-species groups occur, in conjunction with species-specific traits, influences the role played by a species in a multi-species group, and this highlights the importance of extrinsic factors in

  16. Barcoding markers for Pneumocystis species in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Danesi, Patrizia; da Rold, Graziana; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marangon, Stefano; Samerpitak, Kittipan; Demanche, Cristine; Guillot, Jacques; Capelli, Gioia; de Hoog, Sybren G

    2016-02-01

    Lung specimens (n = 216) from six wildlife species were examined for occurrence of Pneumocystis species in pulmonary tissues. Among small mammals the shrew Sorex antinorii (80 %) were most frequently colonized. In contrast, foxes and badgers did not yield positive amplification. Host-specificity was noted, at least at the level of the host genus. Phylogenetic trees based on partial mtLSU and mtSSU showed high diversity of species corresponding to animal host diversity. Nuclear rDNA ITS data confirmed unambiguous separation of species. In conclusion, ITS is an excellent marker to distinguish species of the genus Pneumocystis. PMID:26781376

  17. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  18. Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akcakaya, H.R.; Burgman, M.A.; Kindvall, O.; Wood, C.C.; Sjogren-Gulve, P.; Hatfield, J.S.; McCarthy, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This edited volume is a collection of population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, including plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Each chapter of the book describes the application of RAMAS GIS 4.0 to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in conservation and management of the species. The book comes with a CD that includes a demo version of the program, and the data files for each species.

  19. Microbial species delineation using whole genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Neha J.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Pati, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Increased sequencing of microbial genomes has revealed that prevailing prokaryotic species assignments can be inconsistent with whole genome information for a significant number of species. The long-standing need for a systematic and scalable species assignment technique can be met by the genome-wide Average Nucleotide Identity (gANI) metric, which is widely acknowledged as a robust measure of genomic relatedness. In this work, we demonstrate that the combination of gANI and the alignment fraction (AF) between two genomes accurately reflects their genomic relatedness. We introduce an efficient implementation of AF,gANI and discuss its successful application to 86.5M genome pairs between 13,151 prokaryotic genomes assigned to 3032 species. Subsequently, by comparing the genome clusters obtained from complete linkage clustering of these pairs to existing taxonomy, we observed that nearly 18% of all prokaryotic species suffer from anomalies in species definition. Our results can be used to explore central questions such as whether microorganisms form a continuum of genetic diversity or distinct species represented by distinct genetic signatures. We propose that this precise and objective AF,gANI-based species definition: the MiSI (Microbial Species Identifier) method, be used to address previous inconsistencies in species classification and as the primary guide for new taxonomic species assignment, supplemented by the traditional polyphasic approach, as required. PMID:26150420

  20. Locally rare species influence grassland ecosystem multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Soliveres, Santiago; Manning, Peter; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Alt, Fabian; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Binkenstein, Julia; Birkhofer, Klaus; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Heinze, Johannes; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klaus, Valentin H; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleinebecker, Till; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, H Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Sikorski, Johannes; Socher, Stephanie A; Solly, Emily F; Sonnemann, Ilja; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Fischer, Markus; Allan, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Species diversity promotes the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). However, the relative functional importance of rare and common species in driving the biodiversity-multifunctionality relationship remains unknown. We studied the relationship between the diversity of rare and common species (according to their local abundances and across nine different trophic groups), and multifunctionality indices derived from 14 ecosystem functions on 150 grasslands across a land-use intensity (LUI) gradient. The diversity of above- and below-ground rare species had opposite effects, with rare above-ground species being associated with high levels of multifunctionality, probably because their effects on different functions did not trade off against each other. Conversely, common species were only related to average, not high, levels of multifunctionality, and their functional effects declined with LUI. Apart from the community-level effects of diversity, we found significant positive associations between the abundance of individual species and multifunctionality in 6% of the species tested. Species-specific functional effects were best predicted by their response to LUI: species that declined in abundance with land use intensification were those associated with higher levels of multifunctionality. Our results highlight the importance of rare species for ecosystem multifunctionality and help guiding future conservation priorities. PMID:27114572

  1. Microbial species delineation using whole genome sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatics, Kostas; Pati, Amrita; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos

    2014-10-20

    Species assignments in prokaryotes use a manual, poly-phasic approach utilizing both phenotypic traits and sequence information of phylogenetic marker genes. With thousands of genomes being sequenced every year, an automated, uniform and scalable approach exploiting the rich genomic information in whole genome sequences is desired, at least for the initial assignment of species to an organism. We have evaluated pairwise genome-wide Average Nucleotide Identity (gANI) values and alignment fractions (AFs) for nearly 13,000 genomes using our fast implementation of the computation, identifying robust and widely applicable hard cut-offs for species assignments based on AF and gANI. Using these cutoffs, we generated stable species-level clusters of organisms, which enabled the identification of several species mis-assignments and facilitated the assignment of species for organisms without species definitions.

  2. Genomic definition of species. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1993-03-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.

  3. Genomic definition of species. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Dramanac, R.

    1992-06-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called (species) genome. The definition of species based on chromosomes, genes, or genome common to its member organisms has been implied or mentioned in passing numerous times. Some population biologists think that members of species have similar ``homeostatic genotypes,`` which are to a degree resistant to mutation or environmental change in the production of a basic phenotype.

  4. STRAW: Species TRee Analysis Web server

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Timothy I.; Ruan, Zheng; Glenn, Travis C.; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The coalescent methods for species tree reconstruction are increasingly popular because they can accommodate coalescence and multilocus data sets. Herein, we present STRAW, a web server that offers workflows for reconstruction of phylogenies of species using three species tree methods—MP-EST, STAR and NJst. The input data are a collection of rooted gene trees (for STAR and MP-EST methods) or unrooted gene trees (for NJst). The output includes the estimated species tree, modified Robinson-Foulds distances between gene trees and the estimated species tree and visualization of trees to compare gene trees with the estimated species tree. The web sever is available at http://bioinformatics.publichealth.uga.edu/SpeciesTreeAnalysis/. PMID:23661681

  5. Species concepts and biodiversity in Trichoderma and Hypocrea: from aggregate species to species clusters?*

    PubMed Central

    Druzhinina, Irina; Kubicek, Christian P

    2005-01-01

    Trichoderma/Hypocrea is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans. Species identification, while essential in view of the controversial properties of taxa of this genus, has been problematic by traditional methods. Here we will present a critical survey of the various identification methods in use. In addition, we will present an update on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the 88 taxa (which occur as 14 holomorphs, 49 teleomorphs and 25 anamorphs in nature) of Trichoderma/Hypocrea that have been confirmed by a combination of morphological, physiological and genetic approaches. PMID:15633245

  6. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Species Codes-Non-FMP Species 2d Table 2d to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 2d Table 2d to Part 679—Species Codes—Non-FMP Species General use...

  7. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Species Codes-Non-FMP Species 2d Table 2d to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 2d Table 2d to Part 679—Species Codes—Non-FMP Species General use...

  8. Dominant species constrain effects of species diversity on temporal variability in biomass production of tallgrass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity is thought to stabilize functioning of plant communities, although diversity-stability studies have focused on species richness to the neglect of the second component of diversity, species evenness (equitability with which biomass or abundances are distributed among species). An a...

  9. Effect of species pool size on species occurrence frequencies: Musical chairs on islands.

    PubMed

    Diamond, J

    1982-04-01

    If species interactions affect species distributions, then species occurrence frequencies (nu(i)), defined as the fraction of an archipelago's islands that species i inhabits, should vary with species pool size. A "natural experiment" approximating this test is provided by the Bismarck, Solomon, and New Hebrides archipelagoes, whose bird species pools decrease in that order, the species of each archipelago being mostly a subset of those of the next richer archipelago. The average nu for an archipelago's species decreases with archipelago pool size. In the archipelago with the largest pool, most species are on few islands and few species are on most islands, whereas the reverse is true in the archipelago with the smallest pool. For species shared between two or more archipelagoes, nu(i) decreases with pool size or number of species in the same guild. These interarchipelagal differences in nu(i) or average nu reflect differences in level of interspecific competition, which reduces nus in species-rich archipelagoes in two ways: usually, by reducing a species' incidence on small islands and restricting the species to larger islands; less often (for so-called supertramps), by restricting a species to small islands. PMID:16578762

  10. Two new species of the Stenochinus amplus species-group from China (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiini)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Cai-Xia; Ren, Guo-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the Stenochinus amplus species-group are described, S. apiciconcavus sp. n. (CHINA: Shaanxi) and S. xinyicus sp. n. (CHINA: Guangdong). Also, some new distribution data are provided for S. cylindricus (Gebien, 1914), and a key to the seven species of the S. amplus species-group from China is given. PMID:25061347

  11. Proctolaelaps species (Acari: Mesostigmata: Melicharidae) from Egypt, with description of a new species and complementary descriptions of other five species.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shnaf, Reham I A; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a taxonomic appraisal of the melicharids from Egypt, based on specimens previously collected by different authors and on specimens newly collected by the first author of this paper, all belonging to the genus Proctolaelaps Berlese. A new species, Proctolaelaps gizaensis n. sp., is described, thus raising to six the number of Proctolaelaps species recorded from Egypt. Complementary descriptions of the following species are also provided: Proctolaelaps aegyptiacus Nasr, 1986; Proctolaelaps holoventris Moraes, Britto, Mineiro & Halliday, 2016; Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Müller, 1859); Proctolaelaps drosophilae Karg, Baker & Jenkinson, 1995 and Proctolaelaps regalis De Leon, 1963. The latter two species were not found in Egypt, but they are related to the new species described here. They were re-described based on the type specimens from Europe and North America. A dichotomous key is given to help the separation of the Proctolaelaps species concluded to be found in Egypt. PMID:27615986

  12. Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia species.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-09-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27620956

  13. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  14. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Cristina; Eisenhut, Michael; Krausse, Rea; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Pellati, Donatella; Armanini, Decio; Bielenberg, Jens

    2008-02-01

    Historical sources for the use of Glycyrrhiza species include ancient manuscripts from China, India and Greece. They all mention its use for symptoms of viral respiratory tract infections and hepatitis. Randomized controlled trials confirmed that the Glycyrrhiza glabra derived compound glycyrrhizin and its derivatives reduced hepatocellular damage in chronic hepatitis B and C. In hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was reduced. Animal studies demonstrated a reduction of mortality and viral activity in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and influenza A virus pneumonia. In vitro studies revealed antiviral activity against HIV-1, SARS related coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, arboviruses, vaccinia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Mechanisms for antiviral activity of Glycyrrhiza spp. include reduced transport to the membrane and sialylation of hepatitis B virus surface antigen, reduction of membrane fluidity leading to inhibition of fusion of the viral membrane of HIV-1 with the cell, induction of interferon gamma in T-cells, inhibition of phosphorylating enzymes in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and reduction of viral latency. Future research needs to explore the potency of compounds derived from licorice in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus pneumonia and as an adjuvant treatment in patients infected with HIV resistant to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:17886224

  15. Secondary metabolites from Rubiaceae species.

    PubMed

    Martins, Daiane; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica

    2015-01-01

    This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psychotria, Hedyotis, Ophiorrhiza and Morinda. The occurrence and distribution of iridoids, alkaloids and anthraquinones point out their chemotaxonomic correlation among tribes and subfamilies. From an evolutionary point of view, Rubioideae is the most ancient subfamily, followed by Ixoroideae and finally Cinchonoideae. The chemical biosynthetic pathway, which is not so specific in Rubioideae, can explain this and large amounts of both iridoids and indole alkaloids are produced. In Ixoroideae, the most active biosysthetic pathway is the one that produces iridoids; while in Cinchonoideae, it produces indole alkaloids together with other alkaloids. The chemical biosynthetic pathway now supports this botanical conclusion. PMID:26205062

  16. Pathogenic properties of Edwardsiella species.

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J M; Abbott, S L; Kroske-Bystrom, S; Cheung, W K; Powers, C; Kokka, R P; Tamura, K

    1991-01-01

    The pathogenic characteristics of 35 Edwardsiella strains from clinical and environmental sources were investigated. Overall, most Edwardsiella tarda strains were invasive in HEp-2 cell monolayers, produced a cell-associated hemolysin and siderophores, and bound Congo red; many strains also expressed mannose-resistant hemagglutination against guinea pig erythrocytes. Edwardsiella hoshinae strains bound Congo red and were variable in their invasive and hemolytic capabilities while Edwardsiella ictaluri strains did not produce either factor; neither E. hoshinae nor E. ictaluri expressed mannose-resistant hemagglutination nor elaborated siderophores under the tested conditions. Selected strains of each species tested for mouse lethality indicated strain variability in pathogenic potential, with E. tarda strains being the most virulent; 50% lethal doses in individual strains did not correlate with plasmid content, chemotactic motility, serum resistance, or expression of selected enzyme activities. The results suggest some potential important differences in pathogenic properties that may help explain their environmental distribution and ability to cause disease in humans. Images PMID:1774326

  17. Species Delimitation--a Geneious plugin for the exploration of species boundaries.

    PubMed

    Masters, Bradley C; Fan, Vicky; Ross, Howard A

    2011-01-01

    Species Delimitation is a plugin to the Geneious software to support the exploration of species boundaries in a gene tree. The user assigns taxa to putative species and the plugin computes statistics relating to the probability of the observed monophyly or exclusivity having occurred by chance in a coalescent process. It also assesses the within and between species genetic distances to infer the probability with which members of a putative species might be identified successfully with tree-based methods. PMID:21429114

  18. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. PMID:25236413

  19. Can natural selection favour altruism between species?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A

    2013-09-01

    Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species. PMID:23848844

  20. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    PubMed

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  1. The taxonomy of the Tarentola mauritanica species complex (Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae): Bayesian species delimitation supports six candidate species.

    PubMed

    Rato, Catarina; Harris, David James; Carranza, Salvador; Machado, Luís; Perera, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The lack of morphological diagnosable characters typical of cryptic species, poses a particular problem to taxonomists. This is especially true when taxa are closely related, sharing considerable amounts of ancestral polymorphism. Phylogenetic studies on the Moorish gecko species-complex, Tarentola mauritanica, uncovered extremely high levels of mtDNA diversity with six identified clades, including one from the Canary Islands identified as T. angustimentalis. Because of the conserved morphology of this species and its paraphyletic status with respect to T. angustimentalis, it was suggested that T. mauritanica is a cryptic species complex. Nevertheless, none of the nuclear loci used were reciprocally monophyletic regarding the mitochondrial lineages due to retention of ancestral polymorphism. In this study, we added three new intron markers to the already available dataset and used additional tools, namely phylogenetic gene trees, species tree and species limits within a Bayesian coalescent framework to confirm the support of the main lineages. Bayesian clustering analysis supports all six mtDNA lineages as independent groups, despite showing signs of ancestral polymorphism or possibly gene flow between the Maghreb/South Iberia and Central Morocco clades. The species tree recovered two major groups; one clustering taxa from Europe and Northern Maghreb and another one encompassing the lineages from Central/Southern Morocco, Central Morocco and Canary Islands, indicating that the ancestor of T. angustimentalis came from the Central/Southern Morocco region. Finally, Bayesian coalescent species delimitation analysis supports all six mitochondrial clades as "unconfirmed candidate species", pending morphological data to define them. PMID:26391222

  2. Weighted species richness outperforms species richness as predictor of biotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Anna; Yu, Jun; Wardle, David A; Trygg, Johan; Englund, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The species richness hypothesis, which predicts that species-rich communities should be better at resisting invasions than species-poor communities, has been empirically tested many times and is often poorly supported. In this study, we contrast the species richness hypothesis with four alternative hypotheses with the aim of finding better descriptors of invasion resistance. These alternative hypotheses state that resistance to invasions is determined by abiotic conditions, community saturation (i.e., the number of resident species relative to the maximum number of species that can be supported), presence/absence of key species, or weighted species richness. Weighted species richness is a weighted sum of the number of species, where each species' weight describes its contribution to resistance. We tested these hypotheses using data on the success of 571 introductions of four freshwater fish species into lakes throughout Sweden, i.e., Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), tench (Tinca tinca), zander (Sander lucioperca), and whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). We found that weighted species richness best predicted invasion success. The weights describing the contribution of each resident species to community resistance varied considerably in both strength and sign. Positive resistance weights, which indicate that species repel invaders, were as common as negative resistance weights, which indicate facilitative interactions. This result can be contrasted with the implicit assumption of the original species richness hypothesis, that all resident species have negative effects on invader success. We argue that this assumption is unlikely to be true in natural communities, and thus that we expect that weighted species richness is a better predictor of invader success than the actual number of resident species. PMID:27008794

  3. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  4. On the failure of modern species concepts.

    PubMed

    Hey, Jody

    2006-08-01

    The modern age of species concepts began in 1942, when Ernst Mayr gave concept names to several different approaches to species identification. A long list of species concepts then followed, as well as a complex literature on their merits, motivations and uses. Some of these complexities arose as a consequence of the semantic shift that Mayr introduced, in which procedures for identifying species were elevated to concepts. Much of the debate in recent decades over concepts, and over pluralism versus monism, can be seen as an unnecessary consequence of treating species identification criteria as if they were more fundamental concepts. Recently, biologists have begun to recognize both the shortcomings of a lexicon of multiple species concepts and a common evolutionary idea that underlies them. PMID:16762447

  5. Inter-species comparisons of carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.

    1980-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of 250 chemicals in 2 species, usually the rat and the mouse, was obtained from the published literature through 3 independent sources. Of the 250 compounds listed, 38% were non-carcinogenic in both rats and mice, and 44% were carcinogenic in both species. A total of 43 compounds had different results in the two species, 21 (8%) being carcinogenic in mice only, 17 (7%) in rats only and 5 (2%) having differing results from other species. A comparison of the major target organs affected by chemicals carcinogenic in both species revealed that 64% of the chemicals studied produced cancer at the same site. This comparison of carcinogenic activity in 2 species suggests that extrapolation from results in a single-animal study to man may be subject to substantial errors. PMID:7387835

  6. The Species Problem in Myxomycetes Revisited.

    PubMed

    Walker, Laura M; Stephenson, Steven L

    2016-08-01

    Species identification in the myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) poses particular challenges to researchers as a result of their morphological plasticity and frequent alteration between sexual and asexual life strategies. Traditionally, myxomycete morphology has been used as the primary method of species delimitation. However, with the increasing availability of genetic information, traditional myxomycete taxonomy is being increasingly challenged, and new hypotheses continue to emerge. Due to conflicts that sometimes occur between traditional and more modern species concepts that are based largely on molecular data, there is a pressing need to revisit the discussion surrounding the species concept used for myxomycetes. Biological diversity is being increasingly studied with molecular methods and data accumulates at ever-faster rates, making resolution of this matter urgent. In this review, currently used and potentially useful species concepts (biological, morphological, phylogenetic and ecological) are reviewed, and an integrated approach to resolve the myxomycete species problem is discussed. PMID:27351595

  7. Self-localized states in species competition.

    PubMed

    Paulau, Pavel V; Gomila, Damià; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2014-03-01

    We study the conditions under which species interaction, as described by continuous versions of the competitive Lotka-Volterra model (namely the nonlocal Kolmogorov-Fisher model, and its differential approximation), can support the existence of localized states, i.e., patches of species with enhanced population surrounded in niche space by species at smaller densities. These states would arise from species interaction, and not by any preferred niche location or better fitness. In contrast to previous works we include only quadratic nonlinearities, so that the localized patches appear on a background of homogeneously distributed species coexistence, instead of on top of the no-species empty state. For the differential model we find and describe in detail the stable localized states. For the full nonlocal model, however, competitive interactions alone do not allow the conditions for the observation of self-localized states, and we show how the inclusion of additional facilitative interactions leads to the appearance of them. PMID:24730891

  8. Self-localized states in species competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulau, Pavel V.; Gomila, DamiÃ; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2014-03-01

    We study the conditions under which species interaction, as described by continuous versions of the competitive Lotka-Volterra model (namely the nonlocal Kolmogorov-Fisher model, and its differential approximation), can support the existence of localized states, i.e., patches of species with enhanced population surrounded in niche space by species at smaller densities. These states would arise from species interaction, and not by any preferred niche location or better fitness. In contrast to previous works we include only quadratic nonlinearities, so that the localized patches appear on a background of homogeneously distributed species coexistence, instead of on top of the no-species empty state. For the differential model we find and describe in detail the stable localized states. For the full nonlocal model, however, competitive interactions alone do not allow the conditions for the observation of self-localized states, and we show how the inclusion of additional facilitative interactions leads to the appearance of them.

  9. Thresholds for impaired species recovery.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-22

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, r(realized), a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (N(max)), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals.Articulation of a 'recovering population paradigm' would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  10. Thresholds for impaired species recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, rrealized, a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (Nmax), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals. Articulation of a ‘recovering population paradigm’ would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739