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Sample records for specific activity measurement

  1. Evaluating bacterial activity from cell-specific ribosomal RNA content measured with oligonucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Lee, S.; LaRoche, J.

    1992-10-01

    We describe a procedure for measuring the cell-specific quantity of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and DNA in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of activity among cells. The procedure is inherently quantitative, does not require sample incubation and potentially can be taxon-specific. Fluorescently-labelled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the complementary 16S rRNA sequences in preserved, intact cells. The resulting cell fluorescence is proportional to cellular rRNA content and can be measured with a microscope-mounted photometer system, by image analysis, or by flow cytometry. Similarly, DNA content is measured as fluorescence of cells stained with the DNA specific fluorochrome DAPI. These are either prepared as separate samples for purposes of enumeration and DNA measurements, or are dual-labelled cells which are also hybridized with oligonucleotide probes.

  2. Evaluating bacterial activity from cell-specific ribosomal RNA content measured with oligonucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Lee, S.; LaRoche, J.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a procedure for measuring the cell-specific quantity of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and DNA in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of activity among cells. The procedure is inherently quantitative, does not require sample incubation and potentially can be taxon-specific. Fluorescently-labelled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the complementary 16S rRNA sequences in preserved, intact cells. The resulting cell fluorescence is proportional to cellular rRNA content and can be measured with a microscope-mounted photometer system, by image analysis, or by flow cytometry. Similarly, DNA content is measured as fluorescence of cells stained with the DNA specific fluorochrome DAPI. These are either prepared as separate samples for purposes of enumeration and DNA measurements, or are dual-labelled cells which are also hybridized with oligonucleotide probes.

  3. Specific activity measurement of ⁶⁴Cu: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Mastren, Tara; Guthrie, James; Eisenbeis, Paul; Voller, Tom; Mebrahtu, Efrem; Robertson, J David; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2014-08-01

    Effective specific activity of (64)Cu (amount of radioactivity per µmol metal) is important in order to determine purity of a particular (64)Cu lot and to assist in optimization of the purification process. Metal impurities can affect effective specific activity and therefore it is important to have a simple method that can measure trace amounts of metals. This work shows that ion chromatography (IC) yields similar results to ICP mass spectrometry for copper, nickel and iron contaminants in (64)Cu production solutions. PMID:24709610

  4. Measurement of General and Specific Approaches to Physical Activity Parenting: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Samantha; Cohen, Alysia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents play a significant role in shaping youth physical activity (PA). However, interventions targeting PA parenting have been ineffective. Methodological inconsistencies related to the measurement of parental influences may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this article is to review the extant peer-reviewed literature related to the measurement of general and specific parental influences on youth PA. Methods A systematic review of studies measuring constructs of PA parenting was conducted. Computerized searches were completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Reference lists of the identified articles were manually reviewed as well as the authors' personal collections. Articles were selected on the basis of strict inclusion criteria and details regarding the measurement protocols were extracted. A total of 117 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Methodological articles that evaluated the validity and reliability of PA parenting measures (n=10) were reviewed separately from parental influence articles (n=107). Results A significant percentage of studies used measures with indeterminate validity and reliability. A significant percentage of articles did not provide sample items, describe the response format, or report the possible range of scores. No studies were located that evaluated sensitivity to change. Conclusion The reporting of measurement properties and the use of valid and reliable measurement scales need to be improved considerably. PMID:23944923

  5. The roadmap for estimation of cell-type-specific neuronal activity from non-invasive measurements.

    PubMed

    Uhlirova, Hana; Kılıç, Kıvılcım; Tian, Peifang; Sakadžić, Sava; Gagnon, Louis; Thunemann, Martin; Desjardins, Michèle; Saisan, Payam A; Nizar, Krystal; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Hagler, Donald J; Vandenberghe, Matthieu; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Silva, Gabriel A; Masliah, Eliezer; Kleinfeld, David; Vinogradov, Sergei; Buxton, Richard B; Einevoll, Gaute T; Boas, David A; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The computational properties of the human brain arise from an intricate interplay between billions of neurons connected in complex networks. However, our ability to study these networks in healthy human brain is limited by the necessity to use non-invasive technologies. This is in contrast to animal models where a rich, detailed view of cellular-level brain function with cell-type-specific molecular identity has become available due to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics. Thus, a central challenge facing neuroscience today is leveraging these mechanistic insights from animal studies to accurately draw physiological inferences from non-invasive signals in humans. On the essential path towards this goal is the development of a detailed 'bottom-up' forward model bridging neuronal activity at the level of cell-type-specific populations to non-invasive imaging signals. The general idea is that specific neuronal cell types have identifiable signatures in the way they drive changes in cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (measurable with quantitative functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and electrical currents/potentials (measurable with magneto/electroencephalography). This forward model would then provide the 'ground truth' for the development of new tools for tackling the inverse problem-estimation of neuronal activity from multimodal non-invasive imaging data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574309

  6. Deep brain optical measurements of cell type–specific neural activity in behaving mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guohong; Jun, Sang Beom; Jin, Xin; Luo, Guoxiang; Pham, Michael D; Lovinger, David M; Vogel, Steven S; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetically encoded fluorescent sensors enable the monitoring of cellular events from genetically defined groups of neurons in vivo. In this protocol, we describe how to use a time-correlated single-photon counting (tcspc)–based fiber optics system to measure the intensity, emission spectra and lifetime of fluorescent biosensors expressed in deep brain structures in freely moving mice. When combined with cre-dependent selective expression of genetically encoded ca2+ indicators (GecIs), this system can be used to measure the average neural activity from a specific population of cells in mice performing complex behavioral tasks. as an example, we used viral expression of GcaMps in striatal projection neurons (spns) and recorded the fluorescence changes associated with calcium spikes from mice performing a lever-pressing operant task. the whole procedure, consisting of virus injection, behavior training and optical recording, takes 3–4 weeks to complete. With minor adaptations, this protocol can also be applied to recording cellular events from other cell types in deep brain regions, such as dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. the simultaneously recorded fluorescence signals and behavior events can be used to explore the relationship between the neural activity of specific brain circuits and behavior. PMID:24784819

  7. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70–71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions. PMID:27333203

  8. Comparison of measured and calculated concrete and rebar specific activity during decommissioning of the Dalhousie SLOWPOKE-2 reactor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip G; Everall, Dave; Ariani, Imelda; Tsang, Kwok

    2013-07-01

    Following the defuelling and dismantling of the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) in 2011, the reactor pool concrete and rebar were sampled to support the unconditional free release of the material such that the facility could be classified for unrestricted use. A detailed MCNP5 model of the critical core assembly was simulated to calculate the thermal, intermediate and fast neutron flux profile below the reactor pool floor. The neutron fluxes were used to calculate the specific activity of significant radionuclides in the concrete and rebar. The calculated specific activity and consequently the calculated neutron fluxes were validated at a number of sample locations. The calculated concrete and rebar specific activity were found to be in good agreement with the measured specific activity at the sample locations. The unrestricted use of the facility was granted through the approval of the licence to abandon the facility in August 2011. PMID:23658212

  9. Ultrasensitive and specific measurement of protease activity using functionalized photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bakul; Mai, Kelly; Lowe, Stuart B; Wakefield, Denis; Di Girolamo, Nick; Gaus, Katharina; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2015-10-01

    Herein is presented a microsensor technology as a diagnostic tool for detecting specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at very low concentrations. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are detected using label free porous silicon (PSi) photonic crystals that have been made selective for a given MMP by filling the nanopores with synthetic polymeric substrates containing a peptide sequence for that MMP. Proteolytic cleavage of the peptide sequence results in a shift in wavelength of the main peak in the reflectivity spectrum of the PSi device, which is dependent on the amount of MMP present. The ability to detect picogram amounts of MMP-2 and MMP-9 released by primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is demonstrated. It was found that both cell types secrete higher amounts of MMP-2 than MMP-9 in their stimulated state, with RPE cells producing higher amounts of MMPs than IPE cells. The microsensor performance was compared to conventional protease detection systems, including gelatin zymography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It was found that the PSi microsensors were more sensitive than gelatin zymography; PSi microsensors detected the presence of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 while zymography could only detect MMP-2. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 quantification correlated well with the ELISA. This new method of detecting protease activity shows superior performance to conventional protease assays and has the potential for translation to high-throughput multiplexed analysis. PMID:26312479

  10. Laboratory Measurement of the Anticoagulant Activity of the Target-specific Oral Anticoagulant Agents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cuker, Adam; Siegal, Deborah M.; Crowther, Mark A.; Garcia, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The target-specific oral anticoagulant agents (TSOACs) do not require routine laboratory monitoring. However, laboratory measurement may be desirable in special situations and populations. Objectives This study’s objective is to systematically review and summarize current evidence regarding laboratory measurement of the anticoagulant activity of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Methods We searched PubMed and Web of Science for studies that reported a relationship between drug levels of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban and coagulation assay results. Study quality was evaluated using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). Results We identified 17 eligible studies for dabigatran, 15 for rivaroxaban, and 4 for apixaban. For dabigatran, a normal thrombin time excludes clinically relevant drug concentrations. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) are less sensitive and may be normal at trough drug levels. The dilute thrombin time (R2 0.92–0.99) and ecarin-based assays (R2 0.92–1.00) show excellent linearity across on-therapy drug concentrations and may be used for drug quantification. In terms of rivaroxaban and apixaban, anti-Xa activity is linear (R2 0.89–1.00) over a wide range of drug levels and may be used for drug quantification. Undetectable anti-Xa activity likely excludes clinically relevant drug concentrations. The PT is less sensitive (especially for apixaban); a normal PT may not exclude clinically relevant levels. The APTT demonstrates insufficient sensitivity and linearity for quantification. Conclusions Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban exhibit variable effects on coagulation assays. Understanding these effects facilitates interpretation of test results in TSOAC-treated patients. More information on the relationship between drug levels and clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25212648

  11. Measurement of transformation temperatures and specific heat capacity of tungsten added reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, S.; Jeya Ganesh, B.; Rai, Arun Kumar; Mythili, R.; Saroja, S.; Mohandas, E.; Vijayalakshmi, M.; Rao, K. B. S.; Raj, Baldev

    2009-06-01

    The on-heating phase transformation temperatures up to the melting regime and the specific heat capacity of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel (RAFM) with a nominal composition (wt%): 9Cr-0.09C-0.56Mn-0.23V-1W-0.063Ta-0.02N, have been measured using high temperature differential scanning calorimetry. The α -ferrite + carbides → γ-austenite transformation start and finish temperatures, namely A c1, and A c3, are found to be 1104 and 1144 K, respectively for a typical normalized and tempered microstructure. It is also observed that the martensite start ( MS) and finish ( Mf) temperatures are sensitive to the austenitising conditions. Typical MS and Mf values for the 1273 K normalized and 1033 K tempered samples are of the order 714 and 614 K, respectively. The heat capacity CP of the RAFM steel has been measured in the temperature range 473-1273 K, for different normalized and tempered samples. In essence, it is found that the CP of the fully martensitic microstructure is found to be lower than that of its tempered counterpart, and this difference begins to increase in an appreciable manner from about 800 K. The heat capacity of the normalized microstructure is found to vary from 480 to 500 J kg -1 K -1 at 500 K, where as that of the tempered steel is found to be higher by about, 150 J kg -1 K -1.

  12. An update on laboratory measurements of Dabigatran: Smart specific and calibrated dedicated assays for measuring anti-IIa activity in plasma.

    PubMed

    Amiral, Jean; Dunois, Claire; Amiral, Cédric; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-06-01

    Use of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) is continuously increasing for clinical application. The first product released was Dabigatran, which was proposed for many preventive and curative applications, especially for prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Although measurement of Dabigatran Anti-IIa activity in plasma is not requested on a routine basis, in some situations its measurement is clinically useful. Especially, before an emergency surgery in treated patients, where its presence at high concentrations, which will expose the patient at an increased bleeding risk, has to be excluded. Hence, smart, specific, rapid and accurate quantitative assays are warranted as an essential required. Hemoclot™ Thrombin Inhibitors and Biophen® DTI were specifically designed for these applications, and can be used on all automated instruments with a standard range protocol for measuring concentrations at peak, or with a low range protocol for testing residual concentrations. Both functional assays have a good correlation with the reference LC-MS/MS method, and concentrations measured are similar. Performances of these assays and interferences of various substances or drugs are discussed. Some differences in variations of clotting times are observed between mechanical or optical clot detection instruments, which could be explained by the fibrin clot structure, altered by direct Factor Xa inhibitors, and more especially Rivaroxaban. Both clotting and chromogenic assays offer a safe and accurate quantitative measurement of Dabigatran in plasma in all situations where this determination is requested. In short this manuscript provides an in depth update on current opinions on laboratory aspects of measuring Dabigatran concentrations in plasma, when required. PMID:27216543

  13. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass.more » It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.« less

  14. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  15. Frequency specific interactions of MEG resting state activity within and across brain networks as revealed by the multivariate interaction measure.

    PubMed

    Marzetti, L; Della Penna, S; Snyder, A Z; Pizzella, V; Nolte, G; de Pasquale, F; Romani, G L; Corbetta, M

    2013-10-01

    Resting state networks (RSNs) are sets of brain regions exhibiting temporally coherent activity fluctuations in the absence of imposed task structure. RSNs have been extensively studied with fMRI in the infra-slow frequency range (nominally <10(-1)Hz). The topography of fMRI RSNs reflects stationary temporal correlation over minutes. However, neuronal communication occurs on a much faster time scale, at frequencies nominally in the range of 10(0)-10(2)Hz. We examined phase-shifted interactions in the delta (2-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequency bands of resting-state source space MEG signals. These analyses were conducted between nodes of the dorsal attention network (DAN), one of the most robust RSNs, and between the DAN and other networks. Phase shifted interactions were mapped by the multivariate interaction measure (MIM), a measure of true interaction constructed from the maximization of imaginary coherency in the virtual channels comprised of voxel signals in source space. Non-zero-phase interactions occurred between homologous left and right hemisphere regions of the DAN in the delta and alpha frequency bands. Even stronger non-zero-phase interactions were detected between networks. Visual regions bilaterally showed phase-shifted interactions in the alpha band with regions of the DAN. Bilateral somatomotor regions interacted with DAN nodes in the beta band. These results demonstrate the existence of consistent, frequency specific phase-shifted interactions on a millisecond time scale between cortical regions within RSN as well as across RSNs. PMID:23631996

  16. Effect of heavy metals on nitrification activity as measured by RNA- and DNA-based function-specific assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals can inhibit nitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. The transcriptional responses of functional genes (amoA, hao, nirK and norB) were measured in conjunction with specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) for nitrifying enrichment cultures...

  17. Measurement of HCV-Specific CD8(+) Cytotoxic T-Cell Activities in the Peripheral Blood by Europium Release Assay.

    PubMed

    Imawari, M

    1999-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) contain NK cells, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), helper T-cells, and B-cells that respond to viral infection and act to eliminate the virus from infected individuals. CTLs are not only thought to be a major host defense against viral infection, but are also implicated in the immunopathogenesis. Classical CTLs are CD8(+) and recognize endogenously synthesized and processed antigen in association with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule. The antigens are usually 8-10 amino acids long. HCV-specific CTLs have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of some of patients with HCV infection by stimulating PBMC with the HCV synthetic peptides (1). The peptides were synthesized as overlapping peptides to encompass a certain region of the HCV antigen (1), on the basis of antigenicity prediction from the amino acid composition of HCV (2), or on the basis of the HLA binding motifs in the HCV antigen (3). Several minimal and optimal epitopes in the HCV antigen and their HLA restriction of recognition by CTLs have been defined. Recently, it has been reported that HCV-specific CTLs may suppress the outgrowth of HCV (4). In this chapter, methods will be discussed that demonstrate HCV-specific CTLs in the peripheral blood of patients with HCV infection. We use nonradioisotope europium (Eu) for assay of CTL activities. PMID:21374383

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people’s ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people’s use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments. PMID:19285214

  19. Analysing specificity of a bipolar EEG measurement.

    PubMed

    Vaisanen, Juho; Ryynanen, Outi; Hyttinen, Jari; Malmivuo, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    The objective in bioelectric measurements such as ECG and EEG is to register the signal arising from sources in the region of interest. It is also desired that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a measurement is high. The sensitivity of an ideal measurement should focus on and be greater on the target areas in comparison to other areas of the volume conductor. Previously the half-sensitivity volume (HSV) has been applied to describe how focused the measurement is. In this paper we introduce a concept of the half-sensitivity ratio (HSR) which describes how well the sensitivity is concentrated in HSV compared to other source regions i.e. how specific the measurement is to the sources in HSV. Further we may have different region of interests (ROI) to which the measurements are wanted to be specific. Then the concept is called region of interest sensitivity ratio (ROISR). We present here an application of the HSR in analysing sensitivity distributions of bioelectric measurements. We studied the effects of interelectrode distance and the scalp/skull/brain resistivity ratio on the HSR of a bipolar EEG measurement with a three-layer spherical head model. The results indicate that when the focus of interest is on cortical activity more specified and concentrated sensitivity distributions are achieved with smaller interelectrode distances. Further a preliminary measurement with visual evoked potentials provides evidence of the relationship between HSR and SNR of a measurement. PMID:17945619

  20. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent Km and kcat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  1. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent K m and k cat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  2. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  3. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  4. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  5. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  6. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  7. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  8. Enzyme Specific Activity in Functionalized Nanoporous Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2008-03-26

    Enzyme specific activity can be increased or decreased to a large extent by changing protein loading density in functionalized nanoporous support, where organophosphorus hydrolase can display a constructive orientation and thus leave a completely open entrance for substrate even at higher protein loading density, but glucose oxidase can not.

  9. Measurement of phenotype and absolute number of circulating heparin-binding hemagglutinin, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and purified protein derivative antigen-specific CD4 T cells can discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Paul; Barkham, Timothy M S; Tang, Wenying; Kemeny, David M; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Wang, Yee T

    2015-02-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used as adjunctive tests for the evaluation of suspected cases of active tuberculosis (TB). However, a positive test does not differentiate latent from active TB. We investigated whether flow cytometric measurement of novel combinations of intracellular cytokines and surface makers on CD4 T cells could differentiate between active and latent TB after stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific proteins. Blood samples from 60 patients referred to the Singapore Tuberculosis Control Unit for evaluation for active TB or as TB contacts were stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD), ESAT-6 and CFP-10, or heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA). The CD4 T cell cytokine response (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 [IL-2], interleukin-17A [IL-17A], interleukin-22 [IL-22], granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and surface marker expression (CD27, CXCR3, and CD154) were then measured. We found that the proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T cells, defined as CD154(+) TNF-α(+) cells that were negative for CD27 and positive for GM-CSF, gave the strongest discrimination between subjects with latent and those with active TB (area under the receiver operator characteristic [ROC] curve of 0.9277; P < 0.0001). Also, the proportions and absolute numbers of HBHA-specific CD4 T cells were significantly higher in those with latent TB infection, particularly CD154(+) TNF-α(+) IFN-γ(+) IL-2(+) and CD154(+) TNF-α(+) CXCR3(+). Finally, we found that the ratio of ESAT-6- and CFP-10-responding to HBHA-responding CD4 T cells was significantly different between the two study populations. In conclusion, we found novel markers of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 cells which differentiate between active and latent TB. PMID:25520147

  10. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  11. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie C. Frankle; Judith F. Briesmeister

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k{sub eff} measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a {sup 252}Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented.

  12. Active site specificity of plasmepsin II.

    PubMed Central

    Westling, J.; Cipullo, P.; Hung, S. H.; Saft, H.; Dame, J. B.; Dunn, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Members of the aspartic proteinase family of enzymes have very similar three-dimensional structures and catalytic mechanisms. Each, however, has unique substrate specificity. These distinctions arise from variations in amino acid residues that line the active site subsites and interact with the side chains of the amino acids of the peptides that bind to the active site. To understand the unique binding preferences of plasmepsin II, an enzyme of the aspartic proteinase class from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, chromogenic octapeptides having systematic substitutions at various positions in the sequence were analyzed. This enabled the design of new, improved substrates for this enzyme (Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe*Nph-Ala/Glu-Leu-Lys, where * indicates the cleavage point). Additionally, the crystal structure of plasmepsin II was analyzed to explain the binding characteristics. Specific amino acids (Met13, Ser77, and Ile287) that were suspected of contributing to active site binding and specificity were chosen for site-directed mutagenesis experiments. The Met13Glu and Ile287Glu single mutants and the Met13Glu/Ile287Glu double mutant gain the ability to cleave substrates containing Lys residues. PMID:10548045

  13. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  14. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  15. High specific activity platinum-195m

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-10-12

    A new composition of matter includes .sup.195m Pt characterized by a specific activity of at least 30 mCi/mg Pt, generally made by method that includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  16. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  17. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate measurement... parameters are the elapsed time measurement of the event and the weight or volume measurement....

  18. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate measurement... parameters are the elapsed time measurement of the event and the weight or volume measurement....

  19. 40 CFR 86.314-79 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... percent of the measuring weight. (3) If the mass of fuel consumed is measured electronically (load cell... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications....314-79 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have...

  20. Mechanisms of Specificity for Hox Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zandvakili, Arya; Gebelein, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Metazoans encode clusters of paralogous Hox genes that are critical for proper development of the body plan. However, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding how paralogous Hox factors achieve specificity to control distinct cell fates. First, how do Hox paralogs, which have very similar DNA binding preferences in vitro, drive different transcriptional programs in vivo? Second, the number of potential Hox binding sites within the genome is vast compared to the number of sites bound. Hence, what determines where in the genome Hox factors bind? Third, what determines whether a Hox factor will activate or repress a specific target gene? Here, we review the current evidence that is beginning to shed light onto these questions. In particular, we highlight how cooperative interactions with other transcription factors (especially PBC and HMP proteins) and the sequences of cis-regulatory modules provide a basis for the mechanisms of Hox specificity. We conclude by integrating a number of the concepts described throughout the review in a case study of a highly interrogated Drosophila cis-regulatory module named “The Distal-less Conserved Regulatory Element” (DCRE). PMID:27583210

  1. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  2. 40 CFR 91.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Procedures § 91.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow measurement is required only for raw testing but is allowed for dilute testing. (b) The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have...

  3. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Air flow measurement specifications. 89... Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method used... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...

  4. 40 CFR 91.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Procedures § 91.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow measurement is required only for raw testing but is allowed for dilute testing. (b) The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have...

  5. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...

  6. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...

  7. 40 CFR 91.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Procedures § 91.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow measurement is required only for raw testing but is allowed for dilute testing. (b) The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have...

  8. 40 CFR 91.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Procedures § 91.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow measurement is required only for raw testing but is allowed for dilute testing. (b) The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have...

  9. 40 CFR 86.314-79 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications....314-79 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have a... period of the clock. (2) For Diesel engines only, if the mass of fuel consumed is measured by...

  10. 40 CFR 86.314-79 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications....314-79 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have a... period of the clock. (2) For Diesel engines only, if the mass of fuel consumed is measured by...

  11. The measurement of specific dynamic action in fishes.

    PubMed

    Chabot, D; Koenker, R; Farrell, A P

    2016-01-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the postprandial increase in oxygen uptake. Whereas it is easy to measure in fishes that remain calm and motionless during the entire digestion period, spontaneous locomotor activity is a frequent problem that leads to overestimation of SDA amplitude and magnitude (area under the curve, bound by the standard metabolic rate, SMR). Few studies have attempted to remove the effect of fish activity on SDA. A new method, non-parametric quantile regression, is described to estimate SDA even when pronounced circadian activity cycles are present. Data from juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua are used to demonstrate its use and advantages compared with traditional techniques. Software (scripts in the R language) is provided to facilitate its use. PMID:26768974

  12. Photodynamic effect on specific antitumor immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Foultier, Marie-Therese; Morlet, Laurent; de Brito, Leonor X.; Patrice, Thierry

    1995-03-01

    In this study the effect of PDT on the antitumoral specific immunologic response was evaluated. We compared the specific cytolytic activity (CLA) by a chromium release assay of primed mouse spleen T lymphocytes sensitized against syngeneic mastocytoma P511 cells. P511 cells, or lymphocytes, or both cells were treated or not with photofrin and/or light (514 nm). Photofrin II alone (1 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 59% when P511 were treated. Photofrin II (1 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 35%. Photofrin II alone (0.5 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 8% when only lymphocytes were treated. And Photofrin II (0.5 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 45%. When both cells were treated with Photofrin II alone or followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) the CLA was also reduced respectively 19, 41%.

  13. Quantitative measurement of cytomegalovirus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in relation to cytomegalovirus antigenaemia and disease activity in kidney recipients with an active cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Giessen, M; van den Berg, A P; van der Bij, W; Postma, S; van Son, W J; The, T H

    1990-01-01

    In a longitudinal investigation 103 kidney recipients were studied with respect to the development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific antibodies of the IgG and IgM class, in relation to the detection of CMV antigenaemia (immediate early antigen, IEA), in weekly obtained blood samples during the first 3 months after transplantation. In 15 out of 49 (31%) seronegative patients a primary infection occurred, which was characterized by a quick rise in IgM antibody followed by a slower production of IgG antibody, high maximum numbers of IEA+ cells, and a CMV syndrome in 11 patients. In 35 out of 54 (65%) seropositive patients a secondary infection occurred. After a post-operative fall in the IgG antibody, which was also found in patients without an active infection and which was accompanied by a similar drop in serum albumin and IgG, a second dip in IgG antibody was found 6 days before the first IEA+ leucocyte appeared in the blood. This was followed by a significant increase, indicative of an active immune response in consequence of the infection, 18 days later. In 31 of these 35 patients an IgM response was found. This could be ascribed to the presence of rheumatoid factor activity in 20 of them. Eight patients who showed a transient rise in IgG antibody between the two dips could be distinguished from the remaining ones by a lower maximum number of IEA+ cells and less severe disease symptoms. The described results suggest that (i) an adequate humoral immune system may prevent symptomatic CMV disease in secondary infections; and (ii) CMV-specific antibodies may be removed from the circulation by antigens present in infected tissues before CMV antigenaemia becomes detectable. PMID:2157567

  14. ACTIVITIES: Centimeter and Millimeter Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolster, L. Carey

    1974-01-01

    An activity is suggested which will give junior high school students practice in estimating and measuring in centimeters and millimeters. Three worksheets are given, one of which is a model for making a metric caliper. (LS)

  15. 40 CFR 90.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, instead of those in this paragraph (b). ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow...

  16. 40 CFR 90.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, instead of those in this paragraph (b). ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow...

  17. 40 CFR 90.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, instead of those in this paragraph (b). ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow...

  18. 40 CFR 90.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, instead of those in this paragraph (b). ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.417 Fuel flow measurement specifications. (a) Fuel flow...

  19. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  20. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have a minimum accuracy of 2 percent of the engine maximum fuel flow rate. The...

  1. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have a minimum accuracy of 2 percent of the engine maximum fuel flow rate. The...

  2. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  3. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  4. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1994-09-13

    A process for the preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  5. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...

  6. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...

  7. Measuring Offence-Specific Forgiveness in Marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleari, F. Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies involving 328 married couples were conducted to validate the Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale, a new measure assessing offence-specific forgiveness for marital transgressions. The studies examined the dimensionality; internal consistency; and discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the new measure. The final…

  8. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities requiring specific authorization. 810.8 Section 810.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.8 Activities requiring specific authorization. Unless generally authorized by § 810.7, a person requires specific authorization by the Secretary of Energy...

  9. Stage-specific fucosyltransferase activity during mouse spermatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cardullo, R.A.; Armant, D.R.; Millette, C.F.

    1986-05-01

    This laboratory is involved in the biochemical characterization of developing spermatogenic cells. The authors have measured the in vitro activity of fucosyltransferase (FT) in germ cells. FT activity was assayed with a procedure modified from Letts et al. using GDP-(/sup 14/C)-fucose and asialofetuin as substrates. After incubation for 15 minutes at 33/sup 0/C, the reaction was stopped by adding cold 500 mM EDTA. Radiolabeled asialofetuin was isolated using Bio-Gel P-10 chromatography. The FT activity of germ cells purified from seminiferous tubules was 18.5 +/- 1.7 pmol/mg protein-min. To see if this activity varied at different stages of development, germ cells were further separated in a STAPUT chamber using a 2-4% BSA gradient. Pachytene spermatocytes or round spermatids were purified to at least 87%. The FT activity in isolated pachytene spermatocytes was 24.4 +/- 1.2 pmol/mg protein-min while the activity in isolated round spermatids was 49.0 +/- 7.2 pmol/mg protein-min. These results suggest that the highest FT activity is in developing spermatogenic cells with round spermatids having nearly twice the FT activity as pachytene spermatocytes. This increase in FT activity may be biologically significant since it occurs at a time when the Golgi apparatus is undergoing differentiation and when stage-specific fucosylated proteins appear.

  10. Site–Specific Monoubiquitination Activates Ras by Impeding GTPase Activating Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachael; Lewis, Steven M.; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Wilkerson, Emily M.; Locasale, Jason W.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kuhlman, Brian; Dohlman, Henrik G.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell growth and differentiation are controlled by growth factor receptors coupled to the GTPase Ras. Oncogenic mutations disrupt GTPase activity leading to persistent Ras signaling and cancer progression. Recent evidence indicates that monoubiquitination of Ras leads to Ras activation. Mutation of the primary site of monoubiquitination impairs the ability of activated K–Ras to promote tumor growth. To determine the mechanism of human Ras activation we chemically ubiquitinated the protein and analyzed its function by NMR, computational modeling, and biochemical activity measurements. We established that monoubiquitination has little effect on Ras GTP binding, GTP hydrolysis, or exchange factor activation, but severely abrogates the response to GTPase activating proteins in a site–specific manner. These findings reveal a new mechanism by which Ras can trigger persistent signaling in the absence of receptor activation or an oncogenic mutation. PMID:23178454

  11. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities requiring specific authorization. 810.8 Section 810.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.8 Activities requiring specific authorization. Unless generally authorized by § 810.7, a person requires...

  12. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities requiring specific authorization. 810.8 Section 810.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.8 Activities requiring specific authorization. Unless generally authorized by § 810.7, a person requires...

  13. 40 CFR 90.417 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, instead of those in this paragraph (b). ... measurement instrument must have a minimum accuracy of one percent of full-scale flow rate for each... ±five percent of full-scale flow rate for the measurement range used. The controlling parameters are...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  18. Slice-Based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing slice-based measures can reasonably be mapped to the field of state-based specification languages. By making use of Z specifications this contribution renews the idea of slice-profiles and derives coupling and cohesion measures for them. The measures are then assessed by taking a critical look at their sensitiveness in respect to modifications on the specification source. The presented study shows that slice-based coupling and cohesion measures have the potential to be used as quality indicators for specifications as they reflect the changes in the structure of a specification as accustomed from their program-related pendants.

  19. Simultaneous specific heat and thermal conductivity measurement of individual nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianlin; Wingert, Matthew C.; Moon, Jaeyun; Chen, Renkun

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental phonon transport properties in semiconductor nanostructures are important for their applications in energy conversion and storage, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Thermal conductivity measurements of semiconductor nanostructures have been extensively pursued and have enhanced our understanding of phonon transport physics. Specific heat of individual nanostructures, despite being an important thermophysical parameter that reflects the thermodynamics of solids, has remained difficult to characterize. Prior measurements were limited to ensembles of nanostructures in which coupling and sample inhomogeneity could play a role. Herein we report the first simultaneous specific heat and thermal conductivity measurements of individual rod-like nanostructures such as nanowires and nanofibers. This technique is demonstrated by measuring the specific heat and thermal conductivity of single ∼600–700 nm diameter Nylon-11 nanofibers (NFs). The results show that the thermal conductivity of the NF is increased by 50% over the bulk value, while the specific heat of the NFs exhibits bulk-like behavior. We find that the thermal diffusivity obtained from the measurement, which is related to the phonon mean free path (MFP), decreases with temperature, indicating that the intrinsic phonon Umklapp scattering plays a role in the NFs. This platform can also be applied to one- and two- dimensional semiconductor nanostructures to probe size effects on the phonon spectra and other transport physics.

  20. Status of LDEF activation measurements and archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. Alan; Parnell, Thomas A.; Laird, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of induced radioactivity measurements for the LDEF spacecraft which includes studies of the nuclide, target, directional and depth dependences of the activation. Analysis of the data has focused on extraction of the specific activities for many materials to develop a global picture of the low Earth orbital environment to which the LDEF was subjected. Preliminary comparisons of data in a previous review showed that it was possible to make meaningful intercomparisons between results obtained at different facilities. Generally these comparisons were good and gave results to within 10-20 percent, although some analysis remains. These results clearly provide constraints for recent calculations being performed of the radiation environment of the LDEF. We are not anticipating a period of production of final activation results. An archive is being prepared jointly between NASA/Marshall and Eastern Kentucky University which will include gamma ray spectra and other intermediate results.

  1. 50 CFR 660.370 - Specifications and management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications and management measures. 660.370 Section 660.370 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries §...

  2. 50 CFR 660.60 - Specifications and management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specifications and management measures. 660.60 Section 660.60 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries §...

  3. 50 CFR 660.60 - Specifications and management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations at 50 CFR part § 600.745 for limited testing, public display, data collection, exploratory, health.... 660.60 Section 660.60 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.60 Specifications and management measures. (a) General. NMFS will establish...

  4. 50 CFR 660.60 - Specifications and management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations at 50 CFR part § 600.745 for limited testing, public display, data collection, exploratory, health.... 660.60 Section 660.60 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.60 Specifications and management measures. (a) General. NMFS will establish...

  5. 50 CFR 660.60 - Specifications and management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prohibited for retention. (2) The Regional Administrator may also issue EFPs under regulations at 50 CFR part.... 660.60 Section 660.60 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.60 Specifications and management measures. (a) General. NMFS will establish...

  6. 50 CFR 660.60 - Specifications and management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prohibited for retention. (2) The Regional Administrator may also issue EFPs under regulations at 50 CFR part.... 660.60 Section 660.60 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.60 Specifications and management measures. (a) General. NMFS will establish...

  7. Measurement of glutathione in activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Dziurla, M A; Leroy, P; Strünkmann, G W; Salhi, M; Lee, D U; Camacho, P; Heinz, V; Müller, J A; Paul, E; Ginestet, Ph; Audic, J M; Block, J C

    2004-01-01

    Thermal, electric, mechanical or oxidative stress seem a promising way to reduce the production of excess activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment. However, the adaptation and the resistance of the sludge microbial ecosystem to stress conditions is a major question as it may definitively limit the effect of some treatments. Defence mechanisms developed by aerobic organisms, in particular, in response to oxidative stress involve various antioxidant activities and compounds such as glutathione. An HPLC method was developed for measuring reduced and total glutathione (GSH and GSHt) in perchloric acid sludge extracts. The method was sensitive, highly specific and validated for linearity, precision and recovery. Considering the extraction yield and the oxidation of GSH during extract storage, the measured GSH concentration was estimated to represent 60% of the GSH content from activated sludges. GSHt ranged from 0.32 to 3.34micromolg(-1) volatile solids and the GSH/GSHt ratio ranged from 32% to 91%. Measurements performed on sludges stressed in precise conditions selected to reach a reduction of sludge production showed a decrease of GSH and GSHt concentrations with thermal, mechanical, electric and ozone stress. PMID:14630122

  8. Suppression of Antigen-Specific Lymphocyte Activation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David; Pride, Michael W.; Brown, Eric L.; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in astronauts during and after spaceflight, and in isolated immune cells in true and simulated microgravity. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T cells is severely suppressed in true and simulated microgravity. These recent findings with various polyclonal activators suggests a suppression of oligoclonal lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors that simulate aspects of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR), as a model for a primary immune response; a tetanus toxoid (TT) response and a B. burgdorferi (Bb) response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  9. An evaluation of the effect of age and the peri-parturient period on bone metabolism in dairy cows as measured by serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Reiichiro; Onda, Ken; Kato, Hajime; Ochiai, Hideharu; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Iriki, Tsunenori; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Yamazaki, Yukio; Wada, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    Various biochemical markers help to evaluate the state of bone turnover in humans and could be used during the peri-parturient period in dairy cows when calcium (Ca) metabolism changes dramatically. To investigate this, the peri-partum characteristics of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were investigated. Both serum BAP activity and urinary DPD concentrations were increased and demonstrated wide variability in younger animals, and these findings were consistent with other bone turnover markers. Around the time of parturition, serum Ca concentration and serum BAP activity in multiparous cows were significantly lower than in primiparous cows, but urinary DPD concentration was unchanged. The use of BAP as a bone formation marker appears to be valuable for evaluating bone remodelling status in cows, but the specificity of the test needs to be confirmed. The DPD/BAP ratio around parturition demonstrated a clear difference in bone turnover status between the two parity groups with multiparous cows demonstrating increased signs of bone resorption compared with primiparous cows, corresponding to the Ca requirement for milk production. In future studies, the applicability of the ratio of bone resorption marker to bone formation marker should be evaluated for bone turnover assessment. PMID:23422881

  10. Activities-Specific Balance Confidence in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nilsagård, Ylva; Carling, Anna; Forsberg, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the validity of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Design. A multicentre, cross-sectional study. Setting. Six rural and urban Swedish sites, including specialized units at hospitals and primary care centers. Participants. A sample of 84 PwMS with subjective gait and balance impairment but still able to walk 100 m (comparable with EDSS 1–6). Outcome Measures. Timed Up and Go, Timed Up and Gocog, 25-foot Timed Walk Test, Four Square Step Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Chair Stand Test, 12-item MS Walking Scale, self-reported falls, and use of assistive walking device were used for validation. Results. The concurrent convergent validity was moderate to good (0.50 to −0.75) with the highest correlation found for the 12-item MS Walking Scale. The ABC discriminated between multiple fallers and nonfallers but not between men and women. Ecological validity is suggested since ABC discriminated between users of assistive walking device and nonusers. The internal consistency was high at α = 0.95, and interitem correlations were between 0.30 and 0.83. Conclusion. This study supports the validity of the ABC for persons with mild-to-moderate MS. The participants lacked balance confidence in many everyday activities, likely restricting their participation in society. PMID:22919491

  11. A specific, transmembrane interface regulates fibroblast activation protein (FAP) homodimerization, trafficking and exopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Wonganu, Benjamaporn; Berger, Bryan W

    2016-08-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a cell-surface serine protease which promotes invasiveness of certain epithelial cancers and is therefore a potential target for cancer drug development and delivery. Unlike dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), FAP exhibits prolyl endopeptidase activity and is active as a homodimer with specificity for type I collagen. The mechanism that regulates FAP homodimerization and its relation to prolyl endopeptidase activity is not completely understood. Here, we investigate key residues in the FAP TM domain that may be significant for FAP homodimerization. Mutations to predicted TM interfacial residues (G10L, S14L, and A18L) comprising a small-X3-small motif reduced FAP TM-CYTO dimerization relative to wild type as measured using the AraTM assay, whereas predicted off-interface residues showed no significant change from wild type. The results implied that the predicted small-X3-small dimer interface affect stabilization of FAP TM-CYTO homodimerization. Compared with FAPwild-type, the interfacial TM residue G10L significantly decreased FAP endopeptidase activity more than 25%, and also reduced cell-surface versus intracellular expression relative to other interfacial residues S14L and A18L. Thus, our results suggest FAP dimerization is important for both trafficking and protease activity, and is dependent on a specific TM interface. PMID:27155568

  12. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Carol L.; Shera, David M.; Lustig, Robert A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18-69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT damage.

  13. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  14. Mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity of DYRK1A.

    PubMed

    Walte, Agnes; Rüben, Katharina; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Preisinger, Christian; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Hilz, Nikolaus; Bracher, Franz; Becker, Walter

    2013-09-01

    The function of many protein kinases is controlled by the phosphorylation of a critical tyrosine residue in the activation loop. Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) autophosphorylate on this tyrosine residue but phosphorylate substrates on aliphatic amino acids. This study addresses the mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity in DYRK1A and related kinases. Tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1A occurred rapidly during in vitro translation and did not depend on the non-catalytic domains or other proteins. Expression in bacteria as well as in mammalian cells revealed that tyrosine kinase activity of DYRK1A is not restricted to the co-translational autophosphorylation in the activation loop. Moreover, mature DYRK1A was still capable of tyrosine autophosphorylation. Point mutants of DYRK1A and DYRK2 lacking the activation loop tyrosine showed enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. A series of structurally diverse DYRK1A inhibitors was used to pharmacologically distinguish different conformational states of the catalytic domain that are hypothesized to account for the dual specificity kinase activity. All tested compounds inhibited substrate phosphorylation with higher potency than autophosphorylation but none of the tested inhibitors differentially inhibited threonine and tyrosine kinase activity. Finally, the related cyclin-dependent kinase-like kinases (CLKs), which lack the activation loop tyrosine, autophosphorylated on tyrosine both in vitro and in living cells. We propose a model of DYRK autoactivation in which tyrosine autophosphorylation in the activation loop stabilizes a conformation of the catalytic domain with enhanced serine/threonine kinase activity without disabling tyrosine phosphorylation. The mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity probably applies to related serine/threonine kinases that depend on tyrosine autophosphorylation for maturation. PMID:23809146

  15. Specific activation of the thyrotropin receptor by trypsin.

    PubMed

    Van Sande, J; Massart, C; Costagliola, S; Allgeier, A; Cetani, F; Vassart, G; Dumont, J E

    1996-05-31

    The identification of 16 different activating mutations in the TSH receptor, found in patients suffering from toxic autonomous adenomas or congenital hyperthyroidism, leads to the concept that this receptor is in a constrained conformation in its wild-type form. We used mild trypsin treatment of CHO-K1 cells or COS-7 cells, stably or transiently transfected with the human TSH receptor, respectively, and measured its consequences on the TSH receptor coupled cascades, i.e. cyclic AMP and inositol-phosphates accumulation. A 2-min, 0.01% trypsin treatment increased stably cyclic AMP but not inositol-phosphates formation. This was not observed after chymotrypsin, thrombin and endoproteinase glu C treatment. The TSH action on cyclic AMP was decreased by only 25%. The effect was also observed in cells expressing the dog TSH receptor. It was not observed in MSH receptor, LH receptor expressing or mock transfected cells (vector alone). It is therefore specific for the TSH receptor, for its action on the Gs/adenylate cyclase cascade, and for the proteolytic cleavage caused by trypsin. Using monoclonal (A. Johnstone and P. Shepherd, personal communication) and polyclonal antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor, it was shown that treatment by trypsin removes or destroys a VFFEEQ epitope (residues 354-359) from the receptor. The effect mimics the action of TSH as it activates Gs alpha and enhances the action of forskolin. It is not reversible in 1 h. The results support the concept that activation of the receptor (by hormone, autoantibodies, mutations or mild proteolysis) might involve the relief of a built-in negative constrain. They suggest that the C-terminal portion of the large extracellular domain plays a role in the maintenance of this constrain. PMID:8807635

  16. Measuring the specific contact resistance of contacts to semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohney, S. E.; Wang, Y.; Cabassi, M. A.; Lew, K. K.; Dey, S.; Redwing, J. M.; Mayer, T. S.

    2005-02-01

    Ohmic contacts to semiconductor nanowires are essential components of many new nanoscale electronic devices. Equations for extracting specific contact resistance (or contact resistivity) from several different test structures have been developed by modeling the metal/semiconductor contact as a transmission line, leading to the development of equations analogous to those used for planar contacts. The advantages and disadvantages of various test structures are discussed. To fabricate test structures using a convenient four-point approach, silicon nanowires have been aligned using field-assisted assembly and contacts fabricated. Finally, specific contact resistances near 5 × 10 -4 Ω cm 2 have been measured for Ti/Au contacts to p-type Si nanowires with diameters of 78 and 104 nm.

  17. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  18. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  19. Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity Using Differential Scanning Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Daw

    2008-11-01

    This document describes the process used at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) for measuring specific heat capacity using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The document is divided into four sections: Approach, in which the technique is described; Setup, in which the physical system is described; Procedure, in which the testing steps are listed and detailed; and Example Test, in which a typical test is outlined following the steps listed in the Procedure section. Example data, results, photos, and curves are provided throughout the document to assist other users of this system.

  20. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  1. Energy Landscape Topography Reveals the Underlying Link Between Binding Specificity and Activity of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wen-Ting; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme activity (often quantified by kcat/Km) is the main function of enzyme when it is active against the specific substrate. Higher or lower activities are highly desired for the design of novel enzyme and drug resistance. However, it is difficult to measure the activities of all possible variants and find the "hot-spot" within the limit of experimental time. In this study, we explore the underlying energy landscape of enzyme-substrate interactions and introduce the intrinsic specificity ratio (ISR), which reflects the landscape topography. By studying two concrete systems, we uncover the statistical correlation between the intrinsic specificity and the enzyme activity kcat/Km. This physics-based concept and method show that the energy landscape topography is valuable for understanding the relationship between enzyme specificity and activity. In addition, it can reveal the underlying mechanism of enzyme-substrate actions and has potential applications on enzyme design. PMID:27298067

  2. Energy Landscape Topography Reveals the Underlying Link Between Binding Specificity and Activity of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wen-Ting; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme activity (often quantified by kcat/Km) is the main function of enzyme when it is active against the specific substrate. Higher or lower activities are highly desired for the design of novel enzyme and drug resistance. However, it is difficult to measure the activities of all possible variants and find the “hot-spot” within the limit of experimental time. In this study, we explore the underlying energy landscape of enzyme-substrate interactions and introduce the intrinsic specificity ratio (ISR), which reflects the landscape topography. By studying two concrete systems, we uncover the statistical correlation between the intrinsic specificity and the enzyme activity kcat/Km. This physics-based concept and method show that the energy landscape topography is valuable for understanding the relationship between enzyme specificity and activity. In addition, it can reveal the underlying mechanism of enzyme-substrate actions and has potential applications on enzyme design. PMID:27298067

  3. Energy Landscape Topography Reveals the Underlying Link Between Binding Specificity and Activity of Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wen-Ting; Wang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Enzyme activity (often quantified by kcat/Km) is the main function of enzyme when it is active against the specific substrate. Higher or lower activities are highly desired for the design of novel enzyme and drug resistance. However, it is difficult to measure the activities of all possible variants and find the “hot-spot” within the limit of experimental time. In this study, we explore the underlying energy landscape of enzyme-substrate interactions and introduce the intrinsic specificity ratio (ISR), which reflects the landscape topography. By studying two concrete systems, we uncover the statistical correlation between the intrinsic specificity and the enzyme activity kcat/Km. This physics-based concept and method show that the energy landscape topography is valuable for understanding the relationship between enzyme specificity and activity. In addition, it can reveal the underlying mechanism of enzyme-substrate actions and has potential applications on enzyme design.

  4. Measurement of the Specific Heat Using a Gravity Cancellation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Fang

    2003-01-01

    The specific heat at constant volume C(sob V) of a simple fluid diverges near its liquid-vapor critical point. However, gravity-induced density stratification due to the divergence of isothermal susceptibility hinders the direct comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of renormalization group theory. In the past, a microgravity environment has been considered essential to eliminate the density stratification. We propose to perform specific heat measurements of He-3 on the ground using a method to cancel the density stratification. A He-3 fluid layer will be heated from below, using the thermal expansion of the fluid to cancel the hydrostatic compression. A 6% density stratification at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) can be cancelled to better than 0.1% with a steady 1.7 micro K temperature difference across a 0.05 cm thick fluid layer. A conventional AC calorimetry technique will be used to determine the heat capacity. The minimized bulk density stratification with a relaxation time 6500 sec at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) will stay unchanged during 1 Hz AC heating. The smear of the specific heat divergence due to the temperature difference across the cell is about 0.1% at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6). The combination of using High Resolution Thermometry with a 0.5 n K temperature resolution in the AC technique and the cancellation of the density stratification will enable C(sub V) to be measured down to a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6) with less than a 1% systematic error.

  5. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  6. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  7. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  8. Development of a Trauma-Specific Quality of Life Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, John Paul; deRoon-Cassini, Terri; Kodadek, Lisa; Brasel, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex, disease-specific factors help to determine post-traumatic quality of life, but current practice utilizes outcome measures generated from the general population. Trauma survivorship has grown rapidly while defining the factors that influence post-traumatic quality of life has lagged. This study sought to develop a valid and reliable trauma-specific quality of life measure to help guide future post-traumatic research and clinical care. Methods Qualitative data were collected from adult trauma patients and their caregivers (Phase 1). Subsequent analysis of these data resulted in the development of a 59-item quality of life (QoL) questionnaire. The 59-item trauma-specific QoL questionnaire (T-QoL) was then administered to adult trauma patients (n=394) and a factor analysis was conducted. The validity of the final TQoL measurement tool was assessed (n=111) using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey version 2 and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (Phase 2). Results A 5-component structure using 43 items appeared to best represent the data. The 5 components included: Emotional Well-Being, Functional Engagement, Recovery/Resilience, Peri-Traumatic Experience, Physical Well-Being. Four of the five components were found to have strong Cronbach's alpha scores (>0.7), demonstrating consistent inter-item reliability. All subscales of the T-QoL correlated negatively with the PCL-C (p<.01), demonstrating that as the T-QoL increases, the likelihood of PTSD decreases. The physical well-being subscale of the T-QoL correlated significantly with the SF-36v2 PCS as did the emotional well-being subscale with the SF-36v2 MCS (p<.05). Conclusions This study utilized the experiences of trauma victims and their informal caregivers to develop a five-component, 43-item questionnaire with domains that are unique to trauma populations. Its accuracy and validity was confirmed using the PCL-C and the SF-36v2. We believe that the TQoL represents a novel

  9. Unconscious Semantic Activation Depends on Feature-Specific Attention Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan; Everaert, Tom; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether semantic activation by subliminally presented stimuli is dependent upon the extent to which participants assign attention to specific semantic stimulus features and stimulus dimensions. Participants pronounced visible target words that were preceded by briefly presented, masked prime words. Both affective and non-affective…

  10. Internet Content-Based Activities for English for Specific Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Maria Jose Luzon

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of a content-based approach to English for specific purposes, (ESP) examines how WebQuests can be integrated into a content-based ESP syllabus, analyze the different types of WebQuests suitable for ESP teaching, and discuses the limitations of this type of activity and the factors that should be considered when using…

  11. Essentials of specifications for activated alumina in defluoridation technology.

    PubMed

    Misra, S K

    2006-10-01

    Worldwide, fluoride occurs naturally in some aquifers at concentrations above the WHO guideline values or Bureau of Indian Standards or CPHEEO - MUD - GOI parametric values. Fluoride in excess of the permissible limits in drinking water causes a number of endemic conditions referred to collectively as "fluorosis". Endemic fluorosis remains a challenging national health problem in India and Rajasthan is one of the worst affected states in India though a wide range of chemical and physical defluoridation systems were evolved and tried. Still activated alumina is one of the most widely used and liked defluoridation material currently available. Boom in the advanced and versatile alumina technology has opened new vistas to avail the strong potential of selective alumina adsorbents which are application-specific. Non-regenerable and specialty alumina offer tremendous scope to defluoridate drinking water. Indian industries are manufacturing regenerable activated alumina for defluoridation of drinking water. In order to ensure application of an adsorbent, which caters the desired results with minimum interferences, health risks and long service life span, it is inevitable to draw out dimensions which define precisely the attributes of activated alumina. Specifications for activated alumina intended for defluoridation of drinking water, specific operating and performance requirements, and limitations expressed by critical analysis of cardinal characteristics pave way for adoption of acceptable specifications and code of practice at national level. PMID:18179116

  12. Measuring fluctuations in shear stretched DNAs using site specific labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Allen; Graham, Thomas; Loparo, Joseph; Eaves, Joel

    2012-02-01

    We report a new technique for measuring the internal dynamics of surface tethered DNAs in shear flow. Previous studies have used end labeling or intercolating dyes which label the entire length of the DNA. Neither prior method can resolve the internal longitudinal fluctuations of the DNA. Our technique accomplishes this by site specific labeling of five sites in lambda phage DNA using EcoRI labeled with fluorescent quantum dots. We used our technique to determine the two point cross correlation functions of the longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the DNA under shear flow. Our technique allows us to test current models of the non-equilibrium fluctuations of DNA in shear flow in a way previously inaccessible.

  13. Mechanisms of specificity in neuronal activity-regulated gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Michelle R.; West, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    The brain is a highly adaptable organ that is capable of converting sensory information into changes in neuronal function. This plasticity allows behavior to be accommodated to the environment, providing an important evolutionary advantage. Neurons convert environmental stimuli into long-lasting changes in their physiology in part through the synaptic activity-regulated transcription of new gene products. Since the neurotransmitter-dependent regulation of Fos transcription was first discovered nearly 25 years ago, a wealth of studies have enriched our understanding of the molecular pathways that mediate activity-regulated changes in gene transcription. These findings show that a broad range of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators can be engaged by neuronal activity to sculpt complex programs of stimulus-regulated gene transcription. However, the shear scope of the transcriptional pathways engaged by neuronal activity raises the question of how specificity in the nature of the transcriptional response is achieved in order to encode physiologically relevant responses to divergent stimuli. Here we summarize the general paradigms by which neuronal activity regulates transcription while focusing on the molecular mechanisms that confer differential stimulus-, cell-type-, and developmental-specificity upon activity-regulated programs of neuronal gene transcription. In addition, we preview some of the new technologies that will advance our future understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of activity-regulated gene transcription in the brain. PMID:21620929

  14. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs☆

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Fiona M.; Yao, Tsun-Wen; Seelk, Stefanie; Gall, Margaret G.; Chowdhury, Sumaiya; Poplawski, Sarah E.; Lai, Jack H.; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Farrell, Penny; Vieira de Ribeiro, Ana Julia; Osborne, Brenna; Yu, Denise M.T.; Seth, Devanshi; Rahman, Khairunnessa; Haber, Paul; Topaloglu, A. Kemal; Wang, Chuanmin; Thomson, Sally; Hennessy, Annemarie; Prins, John; Twigg, Stephen M.; McLennan, Susan V.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Bachovchin, William W.; Gorrell, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis. PMID:24371721

  15. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs.

    PubMed

    Keane, Fiona M; Yao, Tsun-Wen; Seelk, Stefanie; Gall, Margaret G; Chowdhury, Sumaiya; Poplawski, Sarah E; Lai, Jack H; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Farrell, Penny; Vieira de Ribeiro, Ana Julia; Osborne, Brenna; Yu, Denise M T; Seth, Devanshi; Rahman, Khairunnessa; Haber, Paul; Topaloglu, A Kemal; Wang, Chuanmin; Thomson, Sally; Hennessy, Annemarie; Prins, John; Twigg, Stephen M; McLennan, Susan V; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Bachovchin, William W; Gorrell, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis. PMID:24371721

  16. A specific measurement matrix in compressive imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fen; Wei, Ping; Ke, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Compressed sensing or compressive sampling (CS) is a new framework for simultaneous data sampling and compression which was proposed by Candes, Donoho, and Tao several years ago. Ever since the advent of a single-pixel camera, one of the CS applications - compressive imaging (CI, also referred as feature-specific imaging) has aroused more interest of numerous researchers. However, it is still a challenging problem to choose a simple and efficient measurement matrix in such a hardware system, especially for large scale image. In this paper, we propose a new measurement matrix whose rows are the odd rows of N order Hadamard matrix and discuss the validity of the matrix theoretically. The advantage of the matrix is its universality and easy implementation in the optical domain owing to its integer-valued elements. In addition, we demonstrate the validity of the matrix through the reconstruction of natural images using Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm. Due to the limitation of the memory of the hardware system and personal computer which is used to simulate the process, it is impossible to create such a large matrix that is used to conduct large scale images. In order to solve the problem, the block-wise notion is introduced to conduct large scale images and the experiments results present the validity of this method.

  17. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  18. Stress causes tissue-specific changes in the sialyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Dabelic, Sanja; Flögel, Mirna; Maravić, Gordana; Lauc, Gordan

    2004-01-01

    Numerous pathological conditions are associated with specific changes in glycosylation. Recent studies clearly demonstrated a link between stress and the development and course of many diseases. Biochemical mechanisms that link stress and diseases are still not fully understood, but there are some indications that changes in glycosylation are involved in this process. Influence of acute and chronic psychological stress on protein sialylation as well as the activity of sialyltransferases, enzymes that synthesize sialoglycoproteins, has been studied on Fischer rats. Liver, spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, adrenal gland, serum, cerebellum, hippocampus, medulla oblongata and cortex have been analyzed. Statistically significant tissue- and type of stress-specific changes in total sialyltransferase (ST) activity were observed. Acute stress resulted in 39% increase of ST activity in liver and spleen, while at the same time there was 43% decrease in ST activity in cerebellum. In chronic stress, ST activity increased in spleen (93%) and decreased in liver (17%), cerebellum (38%) and hippocampus (64%). Western-blot analysis using Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra lectins did not reveal any difference in protein sialylation. The results of serum corticosterone analysis indicate that showed increase in acute stress and decrease in chronic stress are in good accordance with the hypothesis that corticosterone has a role in the regulation of liver ST activity. PMID:15241940

  19. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  20. Chemically sulfated natural galactomannans with specific antiviral and anticoagulant activities.

    PubMed

    Muschin, Tegshi; Budragchaa, Davaanyam; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Ichiyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shuqin, Han; Yoshida, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Naturally occurring galactomannans were sulfated to give sulfated galactomannans with degrees of substitution of 0.7-1.4 per sugar unit and molecular weights of M¯n=0.6×10(4)-2.4×10(4). Sulfated galactomannans were found to have specific biological activities in vitro such as anticoagulant, anti-HIV and anti-Dengue virus activities. The biological activities were compared with those of standard dextran and curdlan sulfates, which are polysaccharides with potent antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity. It was found that sulfated galactomannans had moderate to high anticoagulant activity, 13.4-36.6unit/mg, compared to that of dextran and curdlan sulfates, 22.7 and 10.0unit/mg, and high anti-HIV and anti-Dengue virus activities, 0.04-0.8μg/mL and 0.2-1.1μg/mL, compared to those curdlan sulfates, 0.1μg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxicity on MT-4 and LCC-MK2 cells was low. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of sulfated galactomannans revealed strong interaction with poly-l-lysine as a model compound of virus proteins, and suggested that the specific biological activities might originate in the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged sulfate groups of sulfated galactomannans and positively charged amino groups of surface proteins of viruses. These results suggest that sulfated galactomannans effectively prevented the infection of cells by viruses and the degree of substitution and molecular weights played important roles in the biological activities. PMID:27154517

  1. Novel strategies for ultrahigh specific activity targeted nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dong

    2012-12-13

    We have developed novel strategies optimized for preparing high specific activity radiolabeled nanoparticles, targeting nuclear imaging of low abundance biomarkers. Several compounds have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64 for radiolabeling of SCK-nanoparticles via Copper(I) catalyzed or copper-free alkyne-azide cyclolization. Novel strategies have been developed to achieve ultrahigh specific activity with administrable amount of dose for human study using copper-free chemistry. Ligands for carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12), a low abundance extracellular biomarker for the responsiveness of breast cancer to endocrine therapie, have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64, and one of them has been evaluated in animal models. The results of this project will lead to major improvements in the use of nanoparticles in nuclear imaging and will significantly advance their potential for detecting low abundance biomarkers of medical importance.

  2. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  3. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  4. Measuring layer-specific depth-of-focus requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liegl, Bernhard; Gabor, Allen; Brodsky, Colin; Cotte, John; Krishnan, Mahadevaiyer

    2008-03-01

    As the Rayleigh equations already tell us, improvements in imaging resolution often come at the price of a depth-offocus loss. Often we balance the resolution versus DoF dilemma without regard of the imaging layers location in the overall film stack. E.g. often several via or metal layers are processed with the same optical settings despite facing different amount of depth-of-focus requirements. In actuality, however, substrate induced focus variation can vary greatly from layers at the bottom of a film stack to the layers higher up in the film stack. In the age of super-low k1 lithography this variance needs to be taken into account on a layer specific basis when evaluating the resolution versus DoF tradeoff. We have studied substrate induced focus variation for a 45nm technology test-site as function of film stack sequence and spatial frequency, combining various measurement techniques into an overall topography spectrum. These techniques include data extraction from the exposure tools optical leveling sensor, a mechanical air gauge to calibrate the former and interferometric profiling tools. As a result, we can quantify our DoF requirement for a given layer and product and use this information to optimize our process design on a layer-by-layer basis. This work was performed by the Research Alliance Teams at various IBM Research and Development Facilities

  5. Measurement of bone specific alkaline phosphatase in the horse: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B; Eastell, R; Russell, R G; Lanyon, L E; Price, J S

    1996-09-01

    For many years total alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in serum has been used to monitor bone metabolism in different species. However, total AP lacks bone specificity because the total activity in serum is made up of several isoenzymes, of which the liver and bone isoforms predominate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an immunoradiometric assay for measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in horses. BAP, a specific marker of bone formation, was measured in sera from thoroughbred horses by using a previously characterised wheat germ lectin (WGL) precipitation assay and an immunoradiometric assay. The levels of immunoreactive BAP (iBAP) and WGL precipitated BAP (wBAP) were related to the serum levels of total AP and another marker of bone formation, the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (PICP). In horses over one year old, iBAP correlated at least as strongly with total AP as with wBAP, which suggests that the immunoradiometric assay may partially cross-react with liver alkaline phosphatase in horse serum. This possibility was supported by the observation that there was a weaker correlation between iBAP and PICP than between wBAP and PICP. These data indicate that WGL precipitation is currently the most specific method for measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase in horses. PMID:8880988

  6. Measurement of Larval Activity in the Drosophila Activity Monitor

    PubMed Central

    McParland, Aidan L.; Follansbee, Taylor L.; Ganter, Geoffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larvae are used in many behavioral studies, yet a simple device for measuring basic parameters of larval activity has not been available. This protocol repurposes an instrument often used to measure adult activity, the TriKinetics Drosophila activity monitor (MB5 Multi-Beam Activity Monitor) to study larval activity. The instrument can monitor the movements of animals in 16 individual 8 cm glass assay tubes, using 17 infrared detection beams per tube. Logging software automatically saves data to a computer, recording parameters such as number of moves, times sensors were triggered, and animals’ positions within the tubes. The data can then be analyzed to represent overall locomotion and/or position preference as well as other measurements. All data are easily accessible and compatible with basic graphing and data manipulation software. This protocol will discuss how to use the apparatus, how to operate the software and how to run a larval activity assay from start to finish. PMID:25993121

  7. Cell-specific activity of neprilysin 2 isoforms and enzymic specificity compared with neprilysin.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Christiane; Voisin, Stéphanie; Gros, Claude; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Ouimet, Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) 2 is a recently cloned glycoprotein displaying a high degree of sequence identity with neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11), the prototypical member of the M13 subfamily of metalloproteases. Whereas NEP is involved in the metabolism of several bioactive peptides by plasma membranes of various cells, the enzymic properties and physiological functions of NEP2 are unknown. Here we characterize the cell-expression modalities and enzymic specificity of two alternatively spliced isoforms of NEP2 in Chinese hamster ovary and AtT20 cells. In the two cell lines, both isoforms are type II glycoproteins inserted in the endoplasmic reticulum as inactive precursors. Maturation detected by Western-blot analysis of glycosidase digests was cell-specific and more efficient in the endocrine cell line. The enzymic activity of both isoforms semi-purified from AtT20 cells reveals comparable specificities in terms of model substrates, pH optima and inhibitory patterns. NEP2 activity was compared with that of NEP regarding potencies of transition-state inhibitors, modes of hydrolysis, maximal hydrolysis rates and apparent affinities of bioactive peptides. Although all transition-state inhibitors of NEP inhibited NEP2 activity, albeit with different potencies, and many peptides were cleaved at the same amide bond by both peptidases, differences could be observed, i.e. in the hydrolysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cholecystokinin, which occurred at different sites and more efficiently in the case of NEP2. Differences in cleavage of bioactive peptides, in cell-trafficking patterns and in tissue distribution indicate that NEP and NEP2 play distinct physiological roles in spite of their high degree of sequence identity. PMID:11964170

  8. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  9. Self-Specific Stimuli Interact Differently than Non-Self-Specific Stimuli with Eyes-Open Versus Eyes-Closed Spontaneous Activity in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Pengmin; Grimm, Simone; Duncan, Niall W.; Holland, Giles; Guo, Jia shen; Fan, Yan; Weigand, Anne; Baudewig, Juergen; Bajbouj, Malek; Northoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there may be a distinct relationship between spontaneous neural activity and subsequent or concurrent self-specific stimulus-induced activity. This study aims to test the impact of spontaneous activity as recorded in an eyes-open (EO) resting state as opposed to eyes-closed (EC) on self-specific versus non-self-specific auditory stimulus-induced activity in fMRI. In our first experiment we used self-specific stimuli comprised of the subject’s own name and non-self-specific stimuli comprised of a friend’s name and an unknown name, presented during EO versus EC baselines in a 3 name condition × 2 baseline design. In Experiment 2 we directly measured spontaneous activity in the absence of stimuli during EO versus EC to confirm a modulatory effect of the two baseline conditions in the regions found to show an interaction effect in Experiment 1. Spontaneous activity during EO was significantly higher than during EC in bilateral auditory cortex and non-self-specific names yielded stronger signal changes relative to EO baseline than to EC. In contrast, there was no difference in response to self-specific names relative to EO baseline than to EC despite the difference between spontaneous activity levels. These results support an impact of spontaneous activity on stimulus-induced activity, moreover an impact that depends on the high-level stimulus characteristic of self-specificity. PMID:23908625

  10. Impact of dewatering technologies on specific methanogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Batstone, Damien J; Lu, Yang; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    Dewatering methods for recuperative thickening and final dewatering can potentially impact methanogenic activity and microbial community. This influences both the feasibility of recuperative thickening to increase solids residence time within a digester, and the utilisation of dewatered digestate as inoculum for new digesters. Thickening technology can reduce methanogenic activity through either air contact (rotary drum, DAF, or belt filter press), or by lysing cells through shear (centrifuge). To assess this, two plants with recuperative thickening (rotary drum) in their anaerobic digester, and five without recuperative thickening, had specific methanogenic activity tested in all related streams, including dewatering feed, thickened return, final cake, and centrate. All plants had high speed centrifuges for final dewatering. The digester microbial community was also assessed through 16s pyrotag sequencing and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA). The specific methanogenic activity of all samples was in the expected range of 0.2-0.4 gCOD gVS(-1)d(-1). Plants with recuperative thickening did not have lower digester activity. Centrifuge based dewatering had a significant and variable impact on methanogenic activity in all samples, ranging between 20% and 90% decrease but averaging 54%. Rotary drum based recuperative thickening had a far smaller impact on activity, with a 0% per-pass drop in activity in one plant, and a 20% drop in another. However, the presence of recuperative thickening was a major predictor of overall microbial community (PC1, p = 0.0024). Microbial community PC3 (mainly driven by a shift in methanogens) was a strong predictor for sensitivity in activity to shear (p = 0.0005, p = 0.00001 without outlier). The one outlier was related to a plant producing the wettest cake (17% solids). This indicates that high solids is a potential driver of sensitivity to shear, but that a resilient microbial community can also bestow resilience

  11. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent of full-scale value of the measurement device for all modes except the idle mode. For the idle mode, the measurement accuracy must be ±five percent or less of the full-scale value. The...

  12. Cyclotron production of ``very high specific activity'' platinum radiotracers in No Carrier Added form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M.; Groppi, F.; Gini, L.; Gallorini, M.; Sabbioni, E.; Stroosnijder, M. F.

    2001-12-01

    At the "Radiochemistry Laboratory" of Accelerators and Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, LASA, several production and quality assurance methods for short-lived and high specific activity radionuclides, have been developed. Presently, the irradiations are carried out at the Scanditronix MC40 cyclotron (K=38; p, d, He-4 and He-3) of JRC-Ispra, Italy, of the European Community, while both chemical purity and specific activity determination are carried out at the TRIGA MARK II research reactor of University of Pavia and at LASA itself. In order to optimize the irradiation conditions for platinum radiotracer production, both thin- and thick-target excitation function of natOs(α,xn) nuclear reactions were measured. A very selective radiochemical separation to obtain Pt radiotracers in No Carrier Added form, has been developed. Both real specific activity and chemical purity of radiotracer, have been determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. An Isotopic Dilution Factor (IDF) of the order of 50 is achieved.

  13. SITE-SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL RADON PROTECTION CATEGORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of benchmark measurements of soil radon potential at seven Florida sites and compares the measurements with regional estimates of radon potential from the Florida radon protection map. The measurements and map were developed under the Florida Radon R...

  14. Detection of Telomerase Activity Using Capacitance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bong Keun; Lee, Ri Mi; Choi, Ahmi; Jung, Hyo-Il; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2007-03-01

    Telomerase activity has been found in about 85% cancer cells, while no activity observed in normal cells, so that telomerase has been proposed as a marker for cancer detection. Here, we describe electrical detection of telomerase activity using capacitance measurements. We have investigated the length dependence of capacitance on DNA solutions and found that the capacitance of DNA solutions were dependent on the DNA length. In addition, upon adding telomerase into the solution of telomeric substrate primer, the capacitance was observed to change as a function of time due to the telomeric elongation. These results suggest that this novel nanosensor may be used for rapid detection of telomerase activity.

  15. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  16. Sensitivity and Specificity of Hypnosis Effects on Gastric Myoelectrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Weimer, Katja; Muth, Eric R.; Zipfel, Stephan; Martens, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. Design Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrogastrogram (EGG) was recorded. At the end of the session, participants drank water until they felt full, in order to detect EGG-signal changes after ingestion of a true gastric load. During both conditions participants reported their subjective well-being, hunger and disgust at several time points. Results Imagining eating food induced subjective feelings of hunger and disgust as well as changes in the EGG similar to, but more pronounced than those seen with a real gastric water load during both hypnosis and relaxation conditions. These effects were more pronounced when imagining an appetizing meal than with an unappetizing meal. There was no significant difference between the hypnosis and relaxation conditions. Conclusion Imagination with and without hypnosis exhibits similar changes in subjective and objective measures in response to imagining an appetizing and an unappetizing food, indicating high sensitivity but low specificity. PMID:24358287

  17. Selecting Level-Specific Specialized Vocabulary Using Statistical Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chujo, Kiyomi; Utiyama, Masao

    2006-01-01

    To find an easy-to-use, automated tool to identify technical vocabulary applicable to learners at various levels, nine statistical measures were applied to the 7.3-million-word "commerce and finance" component of the British National Corpus. The resulting word lists showed that each statistical measure extracted a different level of specialized…

  18. Differential Reovirus-Specific and Herpesvirus-Specific Activator Protein 1 Activation of Secretogranin II Leads to Altered Virus Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Berard, Alicia R.; Severini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses utilize host cell machinery for propagation and manage to evade cellular host defense mechanisms in the process. Much remains unknown regarding how the host responds to viral infection. We recently performed global proteomic screens of mammalian reovirus TIL- and T3D-infected and herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1])-infected HEK293 cells. The nonenveloped RNA reoviruses caused an upregulation, whereas the enveloped DNA HSV-1 caused a downregulation, of cellular secretogranin II (SCG2). SCG2, a member of the granin family that functions in hormonal peptide sorting into secretory vesicles, has not been linked to virus infections previously. We confirmed SCG2 upregulation and found SCG2 phosphorylation by 18 h postinfection (hpi) in reovirus-infected cells. We also found a decrease in the amount of reovirus secretion from SCG2 knockdown cells. Similar analyses of cells infected with HSV-1 showed an increase in the amount of secreted virus. Analysis of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway indicated that each virus activates different pathways leading to activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation, which is the known SCG2 transcription activator. We conclude from these experiments that the negative correlation between SCG2 quantity and virus secretion for both viruses indicates a virus-specific role for SCG2 during infection. IMPORTANCE Mammalian reoviruses affect the gastrointestinal system or cause respiratory infections in humans. Recent work has shown that all mammalian reovirus strains (most specifically T3D) may be useful oncolytic agents. The ubiquitous herpes simplex viruses cause common sores in mucosal areas of their host and have coevolved with hosts over many years. Both of these virus species are prototypical representatives of their viral families, and investigation of these viruses can lead to further knowledge of how they and the other more pathogenic members of their respective

  19. Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2010-01-01

    This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

  20. Preparation and immunoreactivity of high specific activity indium-111-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) using ultrapure indium-111

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of high-specific activity /sup 111/In-DTPA-MoAb without increasing the number of DTPA molecules per Ab was investigated. Instant thin layer chromatography was used to assay the relationship between labeling efficiencies and specific activities. With ultrapurified /sup 111/In, the specific activity of the radiolabeled MoAb approached the expected theoretic maximum of 100 muCi/microgram. The bioactivity of such high-specific activity preparation showed no degradation as measured by in vitro cell binding assay.

  1. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  2. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operating range during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ±2 percent of full-scale value of the... percent or less of the full-scale value. The Administrator must be advised of the method used prior...

  3. 40 CFR 86.314-79 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... volume flow and density, the error in the actual volume consumed must not be greater than ±1 percent of... (electronic weight, volume, density, etc.), measurements may not be used for calculations if the...

  4. Performance evaluation of quantitative adiabatic (13)C NMR pulse sequences for site-specific isotopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Thibaudeau, Christophe; Remaud, Gérald; Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge

    2010-07-01

    (2)H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C site-specific isotope ratios determined by NMR spectroscopy may be used to discriminate pharmaceutically active ingredients based on the synthetic process used in production. Extending the Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation NMR (SNIF-NMR) method to (13)C is highly beneficial for complex organic molecules when measurements of (2)H/(1)H ratios lead to poorly defined molecular fingerprints. The current NMR methodology to determine (13)C/(12)C site-specific isotope ratios suffers from poor sensitivity and long experimental times. In this work, several NMR pulse sequences based on polarization transfer were evaluated and optimized to measure precise quantitative (13)C NMR spectra within a short time. Adiabatic 180 degrees (1)H and (13)C pulses were incorporated into distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT) and refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) to minimize the influence of 180 degrees pulse imperfections and of off-resonance effects on the precision of the measured (13)C peak areas. The adiabatic DEPT sequence was applied to draw up a precise site-specific (13)C isotope profile of ibuprofen. A modified heteronuclear cross-polarization (HCP) experiment featuring (1)H and (13)C spin-locks with adiabatic 180 degrees pulses is also introduced. This sequence enables efficient magnetization transfer across a wide (13)C frequency range although not enough for an application in quantitative (13)C isotopic analysis. PMID:20527737

  5. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  6. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  7. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelezniak, Michal; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; Degerli, Yavuz; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Deveaux, Michael; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Fourches, Nicolas; Goffe, Mathieu; Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice; Heini, Sebastien; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne; Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc

    2006-11-01

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e -, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  8. Measurements of thermospheric response to auroral activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okano, S.; Kim, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Joule heating produced by auroral electrojets and its thermospheric response can be studied by monitoring the thermospheric temperatures by optical methods; simultaneously, the concurrent auroral electrojet activities can be investigated by using geomagnetic records obtained from stations along a meridian close to the observation site of optical measurements. The measurements are reported of thermospheric response to auroral activities which were made at Albany (42.68 deg N, 73.82 deg W), New York on September 2, 1978 (UT) when an isolated substorm occured. The thermospheric temperatures were measured by using a high resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer that determines the line profiles of the (OI) 6300A line emission. The intensities and latitudinal positions of auroral electrojets were obtained by the analysis of magnetograms from the IMS Fort Churchill meridian chain stations.

  9. Site-specific PEGylation of lidamycin and its antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Shang, Boyang; Hu, Lei; Shao, Rongguang; Zhen, Yongsu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, N-terminal site-specific mono-PEGylation of the recombinant lidamycin apoprotein (rLDP) of lidamycin (LDM) was prepared using a polyethyleneglycol (PEG) derivative (M w 20 kDa) through a reactive terminal aldehyde group under weak acidic conditions (pH 5.5). The biochemical properties of mPEG-rLDP-AE, an enediyne-integrated conjugate, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC, SEC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of mPEG-rLDP-AE was evaluated by MTT assays and in xenograft model. The results indicated that mPEG-rLDP-AE showed significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. After PEGylation, mPEG-rLDP still retained the binding capability to the enediyne AE and presented the physicochemical characteristics similar to that of native LDP. It is of interest that the PEGylation did not diminish the antitumor efficacy of LDM, implying the possibility that this derivative may function as a payload to deliver novel tumor-targeted drugs. PMID:26579455

  10. Assessing General and Specific Attitudes in Human Learning Behavior: An Activity Perspective and a Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jun; Willson, Victor L.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a multilevel modeling approach to study the general and specific attitudes formed in human learning behavior. Based on the premises of activity theory, it conceptualizes the unit of analysis for attitude measurement as a scalable and evolving activity system rather than a single action. Measurement issues related to this…

  11. Measuring the Specific Heat of Metals by Cooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Three in one? Yes, three standard undergraduate thermodynamics experiments in one, not an oval can of lubricating oil. Previously it has been shown that the PASCO scientific apparatus for measuring coefficients of thermal expansion of metals can also be used to illustrate Newton's law of cooling in the same experiment. Now it will be shown that by…

  12. Functional specification of the Performance Measurement (PM) module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berliner, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the Performance Measurement Module is described with emphasis on what the PM Module would do, and what it would look like to the user. The PM Module as described could take several man-years to develop. An evolutionary approach to the implementation of the PM Module is presented which would provide an operational baseline PM Module within a few months.

  13. Task Specific Frequencies of Neck Motion Measured in Healthy Young Adults over a 5 Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Cobian, Daniel G.; Sterling, Andrew C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Observational cohort design. Objective To quantify the frequencies and magnitudes of neck motion during daily activities in healthy subjects. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have measured the maximum excursions during re-created ADLs in lab settings, but there is a lack of information available on frequencies and excursions of neck motion with ADLs in non-artificial settings. Methods Ten healthy young adults were fitted with a portable motion measurement device that recorded movement about each primary axis. Participants were instructed to wear the unit continuously over a 5-day period and record their daily activities with corresponding times. After the collection period, subjects' activity logs were analyzed and data were partitioned into five categories which provided the most primary representation of ADLs: athletics, work, travel, sleep, and miscellaneous. Each category was further divided into increasingly specific activities (e.g. running and walking). Frequency of motions within 5° increments was determined and an hourly rate was calculated for each activity. Median motion about each axis for each activity was also determined. Results The total number of movements per hour for all axes, regardless of amplitude, was highest during athletic activity and lowest during sleeping. The majority of movements (92% of athletic activity, 90% of work) required less than 25° of lateral bending, while greater range of movement requirements were observed for flexion-extension and axial rotation. The median range of motion along all axes was highest for athletic activity and lowest for sleeping. Conclusions The results of this study provide a baseline of the frequency and magnitude of neck motion during normal ADLs for the specified population. These findings can assist physicians and physical therapists in determining the extent of disability and identifying activities that will likely be problematic for patients with limited cervical motion

  14. Enhancer-specific modulation of E protein activity.

    PubMed

    Markus, Maurice; Du, Zhimei; Benezra, Robert

    2002-02-22

    Homodimeric complexes of members of the E protein family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are important for tissue-specific activation of genes in B lymphocytes (Bain, G., Gruenwald, S., and Murre, C. (1993) Mol. Cell Biol. 13, 3522-3529; Shen, C. P., and Kadesch, T. (1995) Mol. Cell Biol. 15, 4518-4524; Jacobs, Y., et al. (1994) Mol. Cell Biol. 14, 4087-4096; Wilson, R. B., et al. (1991) Mol. Cell Biol. 11, 6185-6191). These homodimers, however, have little activity on myogenic enhancers (Weintraub, H., Genetta, T., and Kadesch, T. (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 2203-2211). We report here the identification of a novel cis-acting transcriptional repression domain in the E protein family of bHLH transcription factors. This domain, the Rep domain, is present in each of the known vertebrate E proteins. Extensive mapping analysis demonstrates that this domain is an acidic region of 30 amino acids with a predicted loop structure. Fusion studies indicate that the Rep domain can repress both of the E protein transactivation domains (AD1 and AD2). Physiologically, the Rep domain plays a key role in maintaining E protein homodimers in an inactive state on myogenic enhancers. In addition, we demonstrate that Rep domain mediated repression of AD1 is a necessary for the function of MyoD-E protein heterodimeric complexes. These studies demonstrate that the Rep domain is important for modulating the transcriptional activity of E proteins and provide key insights into both the selectivity and mechanism of action of E protein containing bHLH protein complexes. PMID:11724804

  15. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). PMID:22280793

  16. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance... or 0.2% of max K 0.2% of pt. K or 0.1% of max K 0.1% of max. Dewpoint sensor for intake air, PM.... Dilution air, inlet air, exhaust, and sample flow meters c n 1 s 1 Hz means of 5 Hz samples 2.5% of pt....

  17. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1986-08-29

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  18. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  19. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David W. S.; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Specific Measurement Categories

    DOE Data Explorer

    The ARM Program gathers a wide variety of measurements from many different sources. Each day, the Data Archive stores and distributes large quantities of data collected from these sources. Scientists then use these data to research atmospheric radiation balance and cloud feedback processes, which are critical elements of global climate change. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by measurement categories into six "collections:" Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties, Radiometric, and Surface Properties. Clicking on one of the measurement categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Aerosols" is broken down into Microphysical and Chemical Properties (with 9 subsets) and Optical and Radiative Properties (with 7 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Recognition of military-specific physical activities with body-fixed sensors.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Thomas; Mäder, Urs

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an algorithm for recognizing military-specific, physically demanding activities using body-fixed sensors. To develop the algorithm, the first group of study participants (n = 15) wore body-fixed sensors capable of measuring acceleration, step frequency, and heart rate while completing six military-specific activities: walking, marching with backpack, lifting and lowering loads, lifting and carrying loads, digging, and running. The accuracy of the algorithm was tested in these isolated activities in a laboratory setting (n = 18) and in the context of daily military training routine (n = 24). The overall recognition rates during isolated activities and during daily military routine activities were 87.5% and 85.5%, respectively. We conclude that the algorithm adequately recognized six military-specific physical activities based on sensor data alone both in a laboratory setting and in the military training environment. By recognizing type of physical activities this objective method provides additional information on military-job descriptions. PMID:21121495

  2. General and Food-Specific Parenting: Measures and Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Sleddens, Ester; Gerards, Sanne; Gubbels, Jessica; Rodenburg, Gerda; Gevers, Dorus; van Assema, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels—parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article is to provide insights into contents and explanatory value of instruments that have been applied to assess food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. Methods Measures of food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style were reviewed, compared, and contrasted with regard to contents, explanatory value, and interrelationships. Results Measures that are used in the field often fail to cover the full scope and complexity of food parenting. Healthy parenting dimensions have generally been found to be positively associated with child food intake (i.e., healthier dietary intake and less intake of energy-dense food products and sugar-sweetened beverages), but effect sizes are low. Evidence for the operation of higher-order moderation has been found, in which the impact of proximal parental influences is moderated by more distal levels of parenting. Conclusions Operationalizing parenting at different levels, while applying a contextual higher-order moderation approach, is advocated to have surplus value in understanding the complex process of parent–child interactions in the area of food intake. A research paradigm is presented that may guide future work regarding the conceptualization and modeling of parental influences on child dietary behavior. PMID:23944921

  3. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  4. Direct measurement of specific membrane capacitance in neurons.

    PubMed

    Gentet, L J; Stuart, G J; Clements, J D

    2000-07-01

    The specific membrane capacitance (C(m)) of a neuron influences synaptic efficacy and determines the speed with which electrical signals propagate along dendrites and unmyelinated axons. The value of this important parameter remains controversial. In this study, C(m) was estimated for the somatic membrane of cortical pyramidal neurons, spinal cord neurons, and hippocampal neurons. A nucleated patch was pulled and a voltage-clamp step was applied. The exponential decay of the capacitative charging current was analyzed to give the total membrane capacitance, which was then divided by the observed surface area of the patch. C(m) was 0.9 microF/cm(2) for each class of neuron. To test the possibility that membrane proteins may alter C(m), embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) were studied before and after transfection with a plasmid coding for glycine receptor/channels. The value of C(m) was indistinguishable in untransfected cells and in transfected cells expressing a high level of glycine channels, indicating that differences in transmembrane protein content do not significantly affect C(m). Thus, to a first approximation, C(m) may be treated as a "biological constant" across many classes of neuron. PMID:10866957

  5. Context-Specific Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognition in Children.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Daniel; Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. Activity levels were also measured objectively. Cognition was assessed using the British Ability Scales. General linear models were used to assess longitudinal associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior, measured both objectively and via self-report, with cognition. Analyses were adjusted for prespecified covariates. Sports/physical activity club attendance (B = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.1), doing homework (B = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.9), and objectively measured sedentary time (B = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) at age 7 years were positively associated with cognition at age 11 years in final the models. Television viewing was negatively associated with cognition (B = -1.7, 95% CI: -2.4, -1.0), although the association was attenuated to the null after adjustments for baseline cognition. Objectively measured light physical activity was inversely associated with cognition (B = -0.7, 95% CI: -1.3, -0.1). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was also inversely associated with cognition in girls only (B = -1.1, 95% CI: -2.0, -0.3). Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with cognition appear to be context-specific in young people. PMID:27226249

  6. Context-Specific Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Aggio, Daniel; Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. Activity levels were also measured objectively. Cognition was assessed using the British Ability Scales. General linear models were used to assess longitudinal associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior, measured both objectively and via self-report, with cognition. Analyses were adjusted for prespecified covariates. Sports/physical activity club attendance (B = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.1), doing homework (B = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.9), and objectively measured sedentary time (B = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) at age 7 years were positively associated with cognition at age 11 years in final the models. Television viewing was negatively associated with cognition (B = −1.7, 95% CI: −2.4, −1.0), although the association was attenuated to the null after adjustments for baseline cognition. Objectively measured light physical activity was inversely associated with cognition (B = −0.7, 95% CI: −1.3, −0.1). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was also inversely associated with cognition in girls only (B = −1.1, 95% CI: −2.0, −0.3). Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with cognition appear to be context-specific in young people. PMID:27226249

  7. Organ- and species-specific biological activity of rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Iswandana, R; Pham, B T; van Haaften, W T; Luangmonkong, T; Oosterhuis, D; Mutsaers, H A M; Olinga, P

    2016-04-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a compound found in several plant species, has beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. We investigated the toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects of RA using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from human, mouse, and rat tissue. PCLS and PCIS were cultured up to 48h in the absence or presence of RA. Gene expression of the inflammatory markers: IL-6, IL-8/CXCL1/KC, and IL-1β, as well as the fibrosis markers: pro-collagen 1a1, heat shock protein 47, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin (Fn2) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were evaluated by qPCR. RA was only toxic in murine PCIS. RA failed to mitigate the inflammatory response in most models, while it clearly reduced IL-6 and CXCL1/KC gene expression in murine PCIS at non-toxic concentrations. With regard to fibrosis, RA decreased the gene levels of Fn2 and PAI-1 in murine PCLS, and Fn2 in murine PCIS. Yet, no effect was observed on the gene expression of fibrosis markers in human and rat PCIS. In conclusion, we observed clear organ- and species-specific effects of RA. RA had little influence on inflammation. However, our study further establishes RA as a potential candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:26804033

  8. Sequence-specific DNA primer effects on telomerase polymerization activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M S; Blackburn, E H

    1993-01-01

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes one strand of telomeric DNA by copying a template sequence within the RNA moiety of the enzyme. Kinetic studies of this polymerization reaction were used to analyze the mechanism and properties of the telomerase from Tetrahymena thermophila. This enzyme synthesizes TTGGGG repeats, the telomeric DNA sequence of this species, by elongating a DNA primer whose 3' end base pairs with the template-forming domain of the RNA. The enzyme was found to act nonprocessively with short (10- to 12-nucleotide) primers but to become processive as TTGGGG repeats were added. Variation of the 5' sequences of short primers with a common 3' end identified sequence-specific effects which are distinct from those involving base pairing of the 3' end of the primer with the RNA template and which can markedly induce enzyme activity by increasing the catalytic rate of the telomerase polymerization reaction. These results identify an additional mechanistic basis for telomere and DNA end recognition by telomerase in vivo. Images PMID:8413255

  9. Specific beta-adrenergic receptor binding of carazolol measured with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, M.S.; Nelson, A.D.; Zheng, L.

    1994-10-01

    Carazolol is a promising high-affinity beta-adrenergic receptor ligand for the noninvasive determination of beta receptor status using PET> Earlier investigations demonstrated specific receptor binding of carazolol in mice. These PET studies with S(-)-[2{double_prime}-{sup 11}C]carazolol in pigs were performed to explore the utility of the tracer for PET receptor studies. Tracer uptake in the heart and lung was measured by PET as a function of time. Receptors were blocked with propranolol and different doses of ICI 118,551 to estimate specific binding. Fluorine-18-1{double_prime}-Fluorocarazolol and the less active R-enantiomer of [{sup 11}C]-carazolol were also studied. Specific receptor binding was 75% of the total uptake in the heart, preventable and displaceable by propranolol. Dose-dependent competition showed that carazolol binds in vivo to {beta}{sub 1} and to {beta}{sub 2} subtypes. Uptake of the labeled R(=) enantiomer of carazolol was not receptor-specific. Carazolol labeled with {sup 11}C or {sup 18}F is a strong candidate for use in receptor estimation with PET. The in vivo observations were consistent with its known high affinity and slow receptor dissociation rate. Its high specific receptor uptake and low metabolism allow existing kinetic models to be applied for receptor measurements. The {sup 11}C label is convenient for repeated administrations, though {sup 13}F allowed the long observation periods necessary for measurement of the receptor dissociation rate. If needed, nonspecific uptake can be estimated without pharmacologic intervention by using the labeled R enantiomer. 32 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Neutron and proton activation measurements from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by high-energy protons and secondary neutrons (from nuclear interactions) in various samples returned from different locations in Skylab was measured directly by gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of decay gamma rays from the samples. Incident fluxes were derived from the activation measurements, using known nuclear cross-section. Neutron and proton flux values were found to range from 0.2 to 5 particles/sq cm-sec, depending on the energy range and location in Skylab. The thermal neutron flux was less than 0.07 neutrons/sq cm-sec. The results are useful for data analysis and planning of future high-energy astronomy experiments.

  11. Specific tension measurements in single soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle fibers of the cat.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S M; Ruff, R L; Binder, M D

    1987-01-01

    Direct measurements of the sizes of and forces produced by single fibers of the cat soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles were made to determine whether or not different fiber types have characteristically distinct specific tensions. Single fibers (5-mm lengths), whose sarcolemmas had been chemically removed using a 5-mM EGTA "skinning" solution, were attached to a photodiode force transducer. Each single fiber was first placed in "relaxing" solution (22 +/- 1 degrees C, pH 7.0, pCa 8), its sarcomere length set at 2.7 micron using its laser diffraction pattern, and its diameter measured using the calibrated graticule of a microscope eyepiece (+/- 2 micron). Subsequently, each fiber was transferred to an activating bathing solution (pCa 3.6) in which the fiber produced its maximum tension. The specific tension values for single soleus muscle fibers displayed a threefold range (1.19 to 3.53 kg/cm2) with a mean value of 2.30 +/- 0.61 (SD) kg/cm2 (N = 42). The medial gastrocnemius fibers studied had a fourfold range in specific tensions (1.05 to 4.47 kg/cm2) and a mean value of 2.42 +/- 0.61 (SD) kg/cm2 (N = 104). Many medial gastrocnemius fibers (N = 64) were type-identified using a standard actomyosin ATPase histochemical assay. Type I medial gastrocnemius fibers had mean specific tension values of 2.45 +/- 0.47 kg/cm2 (N = 18), whereas, type II single fibers had mean specific tension values of 2.43 +/- 0.67 kg/cm2 (N = 46). Our results suggest that there is no significant difference between the specific tensions of the different muscle fiber types within the cat medial gastrocnemius muscle. PMID:2947808

  12. Narration and Vividness as Measures of Event-Specificity in Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kristin L.; Moskovitz, Damian J.; Steiner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The event specificity of autobiographical memories refers to the degree to which retold memories include specific details about a unique personal experience from a variety of representational systems supported by different brain areas. This article proposes 2 text measures as indicators of event specificity: (a) a measure of temporal sequence in…

  13. Pyrimidine-specific 5' nucleotidase activity in bovine erythrocytes: effect of phlebotomy and lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.W.; Duncan, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Erythrocyte pyrimidine-specific 5' nucleotidase (PY5'N) (E.C. 3.1.3.5) was measured in healthy, anemic, and lead-poisoned calves to determine whether low activity of PY5'N is associated with the propensity of cattle to develop basophilic stippling of erythrocytes. Low activity of PY5'N has been associated with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes in persons with inherited hemolytic anemia and with lead poisoning. A radiometric technique, using (/sup 14/C)cytidine monophosphate as the substrate, was used to measured PY5'N activity. The erythrocytes from 4 healthy calves had much lower activity (mean of 7.1 +/- 1.6 nmols of (/sup 14/C)cytidine monophosphate hydrolyzed/min/g of hemoglobin) than has been reported for human erythrocytes. The pH response curve of bovine PY5'N was similar to that of the human enzyme, with maximal activity around pH 7. Experimental hemorrhagic anemia in these calves increased PY5'N activity 6-to 7-fold, with peak activity occurring concomitantly with maximum reticulocytosis. Two of the calves were then given lead per os, and the PY5'N activity decreased within 24 hours to base-line values. In the 2 other calves not given lead, the PY5'N activity declined slowly, but did not reach base-line values after 14 days.

  14. Patient specific proteolytic activity of monocyte-derived macrophages and osteoclasts predicted with temporal kinase activation states during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keon-Young; Li, Weiwei A.; Platt, Manu O.

    2012-01-01

    Patient-to-patient variability in disease progression continues to complicate clinical decisions of treatment regimens for cardiovascular diseases, metastatic cancers and osteoporosis. Here, we investigated if monocytes, circulating white blood cells that enter tissues and contribute to disease progression by differentiating into macrophages or osteoclasts, could be useful in understanding this variability. Monocyte-derived macrophages and osteoclasts produce cysteine cathepsins, powerful extracellular matrix proteases which have been mechanistically linked to accelerated atherosclerotic, osteoporotic, and tumor progression. We hypothesized that multivariate analysis of temporal kinase activation states during monocyte differentiation could predict cathepsin proteolytic responses of monocyte-derived macrophages and osteoclasts in a patient-specific manner. Freshly isolated primary monocytes were differentiated with M-CSF or RANKL into macrophages or osteoclasts, respectively, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, c-jun, and IκB-α were measured at days 1, 3, 6, and 9. In parallel, cell diameters and numbers of nuclei were measured, and multiplex cathepsin zymography was used to quantify cathepsins K, L, S, and V activity from cell extracts and conditioned media. There was extensive patient-to-patient variability in temporal kinase activation states, cell morphologies, and cathepsin K, L, S, and V proteolytic activity. Partial least squares regression models trained with temporal kinase activation states successfully predicted patient-specific morphological characteristics (mean cell diameter and number of nuclei) and patient-specific cathepsin proteolytic activity with predictability as high as 95%, even with the challenge of incorporating the complex, unknown cues from individual patients’ unique genetic and biochemical backgrounds. This personalized medicine approach considers patient variability in kinase signals to predict cathepsin activity

  15. Roles of s3 site residues of nattokinase on its activity and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuming; Feng, Chi; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong

    2007-09-01

    Nattokinase (Subtilisin NAT, NK) is a bacterial serine protease with high fibrinolytic activity. To probe their roles on protease activity and substrate specificity, three residues of S3 site (Gly(100), Ser(101) and Leu(126)) were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetics parameters of 20 mutants were measured using tetrapeptides as substrates, and their fibrinolytic activities were determined by fibrin plate method. Results of mutation analysis showed that Gly(100) and Ser(101) had reverse steric and electrostatic effects. Residues with bulky or positively charged side chains at position 100 decreased the substrate binding and catalytic activity drastically, while residues with the same characters at position 101 could obviously enhance protease and fibrinolytic activity of NK. Mutation of Leu(126) might impair the structure of the active cleft and drastically decreased the activity of NK. Kinetics studies of the mutants showed that S3 residues were crucial to keep protease activity while they moderately affected substrate specificity of NK. The present study provided some original insight into the P3-S3 interaction in NK and other subtilisins, as well as showed successful protein engineering cases to improve NK as a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:17673485

  16. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  17. Utilizing Electroencephalography Measurements for Comparison of Task-Specific Neural Efficiencies: Spatial Intelligence Tasks.

    PubMed

    Call, Benjamin J; Goodridge, Wade; Villanueva, Idalis; Wan, Nicholas; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Spatial intelligence is often linked to success in engineering education and engineering professions. The use of electroencephalography enables comparative calculation of individuals' neural efficiency as they perform successive tasks requiring spatial ability to derive solutions. Neural efficiency here is defined as having less beta activation, and therefore expending fewer neural resources, to perform a task in comparison to other groups or other tasks. For inter-task comparisons of tasks with similar durations, these measurements may enable a comparison of task type difficulty. For intra-participant and inter-participant comparisons, these measurements provide potential insight into the participant's level of spatial ability and different engineering problem solving tasks. Performance on the selected tasks can be analyzed and correlated with beta activities. This work presents a detailed research protocol studying the neural efficiency of students engaged in the solving of typical spatial ability and Statics problems. Students completed problems specific to the Mental Cutting Test (MCT), Purdue Spatial Visualization test of Rotations (PSVT:R), and Statics. While engaged in solving these problems, participants' brain waves were measured with EEG allowing data to be collected regarding alpha and beta brain wave activation and use. The work looks to correlate functional performance on pure spatial tasks with spatially intensive engineering tasks to identify the pathways to successful performance in engineering and the resulting improvements in engineering education that may follow. PMID:27584838

  18. Tissue-specific inhibition and recovery of esterase activities in Lumbricus terrestris experimentally exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Vejares, Sandra González; Sabat, Pablo; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

    2010-04-01

    Exposure and effect assessment of organophosphate (OP) pesticides generally involves the use of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. In earthworm, this enzyme activity is often measured in homogenates from the whole organism. Here we examine the tissue-specific response of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in Lumbricus terrestris experimentally exposed to chlorpyrifos-spiked field soils. Esterases were measured in different gut segments and in the seminal vesicles of earthworms following acute exposure (2 d) to the OP and during 35d of a recovery period. We found that inhibition of both esterase activities was dependent on the tissue. Cholinesterase activity decreased in the pharynx, crop, foregut and seminal vesicles in a concentration-dependent way, whereas CE activity (4-nitrophenyl valerate) was strongly inhibited in these tissues. Gizzard CE activity was not inhibited by the OP, even an increase of enzyme activity was evident during the recovery period. These results suggest that both esterases should be determined jointly in selected tissues of earthworms. Moreover, the high levels of gut CE activity and its inhibition and recovery dynamic following OP exposure suggest that this esterase could play an important role as an enzymatic barrier against OP uptake from the ingested contaminated soil. PMID:20045489

  19. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R; Martínez, E; Varela, C

    2003-01-01

    The correct administration to a patient of the prescribed activity of a radiopharmaceutical is an important factor to ensure the confidence in the diagnosis or the therapeutic efficiency, while at the same time keeping the unnecessary human exposure as low as possible. Comparisons of activity measurements for 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc with radionuclide calibrators were organized the first time in Cuba during 2002 with the aim of obtaining information about the quality of administration of radiopharmaceuticals. Ten Cuban nuclear medicine departments and the laboratories involved in the production of these kinds of compounds participated in the comparison runs. The results presented in this paper facilitated the identification of several problems and initiated corrective actions. In addition, they indicate the necessity of establishing Quality Systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba. PMID:14622940

  20. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  1. Regulation of platelet activating factor receptor coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. ({sup 3}H)PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 {mu}M. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF or thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRP{gamma}S and GDP{beta}S, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  2. Electrochemical assay of active prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using ferrocene-functionalized peptide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Ning; He, Yuqing; Mao, Xun; Sun, Yuhan; Zhang, Xibao; Li, Chen-Zhong; Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Guodong

    2010-03-24

    This paper presents a novel approach to electrochemically determine enzymatically active PSA using ferrocene-functionalized helix peptide (CHSSLKQK). The principle of electrochemical measurement is based on the specific proteolytic cleavage events of the FC-peptide on the gold electrode surface in the presence of PSA, resulting the change of the current signal of the electrode. The percentage of the decreased current is linear with the concentration of active PSA at the range of 0.5-40 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL. The direct transduction of peptide cleavage events into an electrical signal provides a simple, sensitive method for detecting the enzymatic activity of PSA and determining the active PSA concentration.

  3. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Georg; Szellas, Tanjef; Riordan, John R.; Friedrich, Thomas; Hartung, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of 22Na+ through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride channels. Voltage– and patch–clamp measurements, however, showed neither stimulation nor inhibition of ENaC-mediated conductance by activated CFTR. We conclude that the observed modulation of 22Na+ uptake by activated CFTR is due to the effect of CFTR-mediated chloride conductance on the membrane potential. These findings argue against the notion of a specific influence of CFTR on ENaC and emphasize the chloride channel function of CFTR. PMID:11266369

  4. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Nagel, G; Szellas, T; Riordan, J R; Friedrich, T; Hartung, K

    2001-03-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of (22)Na(+) through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride channels. Voltage- and patch-clamp measurements, however, showed neither stimulation nor inhibition of ENaC-mediated conductance by activated CFTR. We conclude that the observed modulation of (22)Na(+) uptake by activated CFTR is due to the effect of CFTR-mediated chloride conductance on the membrane potential. These findings argue against the notion of a specific influence of CFTR on ENaC and emphasize the chloride channel function of CFTR. PMID:11266369

  5. Synthesis of a high specific activity methyl sulfone tritium isotopologue of fevipiprant (NVP-QAW039).

    PubMed

    Luu, Van T; Goujon, Jean-Yves; Meisterhans, Christian; Frommherz, Matthias; Bauer, Carsten

    2015-05-15

    The synthesis of a triple tritiated isotopologue of the CRTh2 antagonist NVP-QAW039 (fevipiprant) with a specific activity >3 TBq/mmol is described. Key to the high specific activity is the methylation of a bench-stable dimeric disulfide precursor that is in situ reduced to the corresponding thiol monomer and methylated with [(3)H3]MeONos having per se a high specific activity. The high specific activity of the tritiated active pharmaceutical ingredient obtained by a build-up approach is discussed in the light of the specific activity usually to be expected if hydrogen tritium exchange methods were applied. PMID:25881897

  6. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session. PMID:20562324

  7. 50 CFR 654.27 - Specifically authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management... acquisition of information and data, activities otherwise prohibited by the regulations in this part....

  8. 50 CFR 654.27 - Specifically authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management... acquisition of information and data, activities otherwise prohibited by the regulations in this part....

  9. Toward a Cultural Competence Measure for Social Work with Specific Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, David P.; Springer, Alyson

    2001-01-01

    Four measures of cultural competency in the social work profession are analyzed and found to measure global constructs that may not be applicable to specific cultures. The development of culture-specific instruments is proposed, from which a general cultural competence instrument can be distilled. (Contains 32 references.) (TD)

  10. Comparing Beginning Teachers' Instructional Quality Growth on Subject-Specific and Global Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neergaard, Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Observation measures of instructional quality tend to fall into two broad categories--those for use across subject areas and those intended for use in specific subject areas. The move toward content-specific measures is a result of research suggesting that effective teaching looks different across subject areas and that both content knowledge and…

  11. Activity of increased specific and non-specific esterases and glutathione transferases associated with resistance to permethrin in pediculus humanus capitis (phthiraptera: pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Silvia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, Maria I; Audino, Paola Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced metabolism by oxidative enzymes is a major cause of pyrethroid resistance in insects. In this work, we evaluated the role of specific and non-specific esterases in head louse populations from Buenos Aires with different levels of resistance to permethrin. As esterase activity is substrate-dependent, four different esters were used as unspecific substrates in order to obtain a better characterization of the possible role of these enzymes in the resistance phenomenon. The unspecific substrates were phenylthioacetate, 1- and 2-naphtyl-acetate, and p-nitrophenyl acetate. A 7-coumaryl permethrate was synthesized and used as a specific substrate to measure pyrethroid esterases by a very sensitive microfluorometric method. The results on pyrethroid esterase activity obtained with this substrate showed that these enzymes contribute to the detoxifying activity in resistant populations, although no correlation was found between pyrethroid esterase activity and resistance ratios. In this study, we established that the activity of esterase against specific and non-specific substrates is increased in pyrethroid-resistant populations of head lice from Buenos Aires. Also, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance values demonstrated that there is a DDT cross-resistance phenomenon in pyrethroid-resistant head louse populations and suggested that an alteration in the receptor of the nervous system (kdr gen) is a key factor of the resistance phenomena in these head louse populations. PMID:19921258

  12. Specification of High Activity Gamma-Ray Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The report is concerned with making recommendations for the specifications of gamma ray sources, which relate to the quantity of radioactive material and the radiation emitted. Primary consideration is given to sources in teletherapy and to a lesser extent those used in industrial radiography and in irradiation units used in industry and research.…

  13. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... technology for an activity in any foreign country. (c) Engaging in or providing assistance or training in any... plutonium, or the production of heavy water; (2) Constructing, fabricating, operating, or maintaining...

  14. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... technology for an activity in any foreign country. (c) Engaging in or providing assistance or training in any... plutonium, or the production of heavy water; (2) Constructing, fabricating, operating, or maintaining...

  15. Measuring Cysteine Cathepsin Activity to Detect Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Česen, Maruša Hafner; Turk, Boris

    2016-01-01

    During lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), lysosomal lumenal contents can be released into the cytosol. Small molecules are more likely to be released, and cysteine cathepsins, with mature forms possessing a mass of 25-30 kDa, are among the smallest lumenal lysosomal enzymes. In addition, specific substrates for cysteine cathepsins are available to investigators, and therefore the measurement of the cathepsin activity as a hallmark of LMP works well. Here, we present a protocol for measuring the activity of these enzymes after selective plasma membrane permeabilization with a low concentration of digitonin and after total cell membrane lysis with a high concentration of digitonin. A fluorogenic substrate can be added either directly to the well with lysed cells to show LMP or to the cell-free extract to show that the lysosomal membrane has been sufficiently destabilized to allow the translocation of lysosomal enzymes. Although the content of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins differs between cell lines, this method has general applicability, is sensitive, and has high throughput. The presented protocol shows how to measure cysteine cathepsin activity in the presence of lysed cells and also in cell-free extracts. Depending on the aim of the study, one or both types of measurements can be performed. PMID:27140915

  16. Assessing specific deterrence effects of increased speeding penalties using four measures of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Watson, B; Siskind, V; Fleiter, J J; Watson, A; Soole, D

    2015-11-01

    Traffic law enforcement sanctions can impact on road user behaviour through general and specific deterrence mechanisms. The manner in which specific deterrence can influence recidivist behaviour can be conceptualised in different ways. While any reduction in speeding will have road safety benefits, the ways in which a 'reduction' is determined deserves greater methodological attention and has implications for countermeasure evaluation more generally. The primary aim of this research was to assess the specific deterrent impact of penalty increases for speeding offences in Queensland, Australia, in 2003 on two cohorts of drivers detected for speeding prior to and after the penalty changes were investigated. Since the literature is relatively silent on how to assess recidivism in the speeding context, the secondary research aim was to contribute to the literature regarding ways to conceptualise and measure specific deterrence in the speeding context. We propose a novel way of operationalising four measures which reflect different ways in which a specific deterrence effect could be conceptualised: (1) the proportion of offenders who re-offended in the follow up period; (2) the overall frequency of re-offending in the follow up period; (3) the length of delay to re-offence among those who re-offended; and (4) the average number of re-offences during the follow up period among those who re-offended. Consistent with expectations, results suggested an absolute deterrent effect of penalty changes, as evidenced by significant reductions in the proportion of drivers who re-offended and the overall frequency of re-offending, although effect sizes were small. Contrary to expectations, however, there was no evidence of a marginal specific deterrent effect among those who re-offended, with a significant reduction in the length of time to re-offence and no significant change in the average number of offences committed. Additional exploratory analyses investigating potential

  17. Protein Translation Activity: A New Measure of Host Immune Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Seedhom, Mina O; Hickman, Heather D; Wei, Jiajie; David, Alexandre; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2016-08-15

    We describe the in vivo ribopuromycylation (RPM) method, which uses a puromycin-specific Ab to fluorescently label ribosome-bound puromycylated nascent chains, enabling measurement of translational activity via immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry. Tissue staining provides a unique view of virus-induced activation of adaptive, innate, and stromal immune cells. RPM flow precisely quantitates virus-induced activation of lymphocytes and innate immune cells, and it provides a unique measure of immune cell deactivation and quiescence. Using RPM we find that high endothelial cells in draining lymph nodes rapidly increase translation in the first day of vaccinia virus infection. We also find a population of constitutively activated splenic T cells in naive mice and further that most bone marrow T cells activate 3 d after vaccinia virus infection. Bone marrow T cell activation is nonspecific, IL-12-dependent, and induces innate memory T cell phenotypic markers. Thus, RPM measures translational activity to uniquely identify cell populations that participate in the immune response to pathogens, other foreign substances, and autoantigens. PMID:27385780

  18. How to produce high specific activity tin-117m using alpha particle beam.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, C; Essayan, M; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2016-09-01

    Tin-117m is an interesting radionuclide for both diagnosis and therapy, thanks to the gamma-ray and electron emissions, respectively, resulting from its decay to tin-117g. The high specific activity of tin-117m is required in many medical applications, and it can be obtained using a high energy alpha particle beam and a cadmium target. The experiments performed at the ARRONAX cyclotron (Nantes, France) using an alpha particle beam delivered at 67.4MeV provide a measurement of the excitation function of the Cd-nat(α,x)Sn-117m reaction and the produced contaminants. The Cd-116(α,3n)Sn-117m production cross section has been deduced from these experimental results using natural cadmium. Both production yield and specific activity as a function of the projectile energy have been calculated. These informations help to optimize the irradiation conditions to produce tin-117m with the required specific activity using α particles with a cadmium target. PMID:27344526

  19. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  20. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  1. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  2. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  3. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  4. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  5. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

  7. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  8. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  9. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    PubMed Central

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  10. Physiotherapy treatment for atraumatic recurrent shoulder instability: early results of a specific exercise protocol using pathology-specific outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin E; Osborne, Sally E; Wilkes, Sally R

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent shoulder instability is usually caused by a traumatic event resulting in structural pathology, although a small subgroup of patients experience symptomatic recurrent shoulder instability without trauma. These patients are usually treated non-operatively but limited evidence exists regarding effective conservative management. In particular, there is a lack of reproducible exercise regimes and none that have been tested with condition-specific outcome measures. Methods A service evaluation was conducted over a 15-month period to assess our current treatment protocol used in the management of patients with atraumatic recurrent shoulder instability. The regime is reproducible with target-led progression milestones. Oxford Instability Shoulder Scores (OISS) and Western Ontario Shoulder Index (WOSI) scores were compared between baseline and final follow-up. Results Eighteen consecutive patients were included with mean follow-up of 4.5 months (range 1.35 months to 11.77 months). A statistically significant improvement was seen in both outcome measures. Mean OISS improved by 16.67 points (confidence interval: 12.34 to 20.99; p < 0.001). Mean WOSI improved by 36.76% (confidence interval: 28.46 to 45.06; p < 0.001). Conclusions For this small group of patients with recurrent atraumatic shoulder instability, the Derby Shoulder Instability Programme produced significant improvements over the short term, with a high level of patient compliance. This is the first study to include pathology-specific patient-reported outcome measures to assess outcomes from a specific and reproducible exercise regime in this group of patients. The findings support further research to evaluate the exercise protocol in a larger group of patients over the longer term.

  11. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  12. Wobble Pairs of the HDV Ribozyme Play Specific Roles in Stabilization of Active Site Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, Kamali N.; Banáš, Pavel; Reblova, Kamila; Šponer, Jiři; Otyepka, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the only known human pathogen whose genome contains a catalytic RNA motif (ribozyme). The overall architecture of the HDV ribozyme is that of a double-nested pseudoknot, with two GU pairs flanking the active site. Although extensive studies have shown that mutation of either wobble results in decreased catalytic activity, little work has focused on linking these mutations to specific structural effects on catalytic fitness. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations based on an activated structure to probe the active site dynamics as a result of wobble pair mutations. In both wild-type and mutant ribozymes, the in-line fitness of the active site (as a measure of catalytic proficiency) strongly depends on the presence of a C75(N3H3+)N1(O5′) hydrogen bond, which positions C75 as the general acid for the reaction. Our mutational analyses show that each GU wobble supports catalytically fit conformations in distinct ways; the reverse G25U20 wobble promotes high in-line fitness, high occupancy of the C75(N3H3+)G1(O5′) general-acid hydrogen bond and stabilization of the G1U37 wobble, while the G1U37 wobble acts more locally by stabilizing high in-line fitness and the C75(N3H3+)G1(O5′) hydrogen bond. We also find that stable type I A-minor and P1.1 hydrogen bonding above and below the active site, respectively, prevent local structural disorder from spreading and disrupting global conformation. Taken together, our results define specific, often redundant architectural roles for several structural motifs of the HDV ribozyme active site, expanding the known roles of these motifs within all HDV-like ribozymes and other structured RNAs. PMID:25631765

  13. Context-specific behavioral surprise is differentially correlated with activity in anterior and posterior brain systems.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Michael J; Gläscher, Jan; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-06-15

    This experiment investigated whether behavioral surprise, an information-theoretic measure of the amount of memory and information integration associated with a response, is correlated with neural activity during decision making. A total of 30 participants (age 18-30) were scanned with functional MRI while completing 240 trials of a sequential decision-making task in which they selected an amount to wager from four possible values on each trial. Behavioral surprise was computed trial by trial using both context-free and context-specific formulations, and was used as a parametric modulator in functional MRI analyses. Whereas context-free surprise was not significantly correlated, two sets of clusters (P<0.005; cluster size>156 voxels) were differentially modulated by context-specific behavioral surprise. An anterior system comprised of the inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate (each bilaterally), and left caudate, was positively modulated. A posterior system comprised of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus (each bilaterally), and left angular gyrus, was negatively modulated. These anticorrelated systems indicate that more surprising (resource demanding) actions recruit greater activity from the anterior system and less activity from the posterior system and less surprising actions (memory-guided) recruit greater activity from the posterior system and less activity from the anterior system. These results show that context-specific behavioral surprise is a unique neural signal and may be related to mechanisms for both cognitive control and memory-guided behavior, and support contemporary theories that the brain is a statistical observer of external and internal events. PMID:27110868

  14. Novel antimicrobial peptide specifically active against Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Suwandecha, T; Srichana, T; Balekar, N; Nakpheng, T; Pangsomboon, K

    2015-09-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, the major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, produces a broad spectrum of virulence factors, including outer membrane vesicles, lipopolysaccharides, hemolysins and proteinases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including bacteriocins have been found to inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis; however, these peptides are relatively large molecules. Hence, it is difficult to synthesize them by a scale-up production. Therefore, this study aimed to synthesize a shorter AMP that was still active against P. gingivalis. A peptide that contained three cationic amino acids (Arg, His and Lys), two anionic amino acids (Glu and Asp), hydrophobic amino acids residues (Leu, Ile, Val, Ala and Pro) and hydrophilic residues (Ser and Gly) was obtained and named Pep-7. Its bioactivity and stability were tested after various treatments. The mechanism of action of Pep-7 and its toxicity to human red blood cells were investigated. The Pep-7 inhibited two pathogenic P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and P. gingivalis ATCC 53978 (wp50) strains at a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.7 µM, but was ineffective against other oral microorganisms (P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus sanguinis). From transmission electron microscopy studies, Pep-7 caused pore formation at the poles of the cytoplasmic membranes of P. gingivalis. A concentration of Pep-7 at four times that of its MBC induced some hemolysis but only at 0.3%. The Pep-7 was heat stable under pressure (autoclave at 110 and 121 °C) and possessed activity over a pH range of 6.8-8.5. It was not toxic to periodontal cells over a range of 70.8-4.4 μM and did not induce toxic pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Pep-7 showed selective activity against Porphyromonas sp. by altering the permeability barriers of P. gingivalis. The Pep-7 was not mutagenic in vitro. This work highlighted the potential for the use of this synthetic Pep-7 against P. gingivalis. PMID:26041027

  15. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  16. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-01

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (˜1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  17. Target cell-specific modulation of neuronal activity by astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. S.; Angulo, M. C.; Audinat, E.; Charpak, S.

    2006-06-01

    Interaction between astrocytes and neurons enriches the behavior of brain circuits. By releasing glutamate and ATP, astrocytes can directly excite neurons and modulate synaptic transmission. In the rat olfactory bulb, we demonstrate that the release of GABA by astrocytes causes long-lasting and synchronous inhibition of mitral and granule cells. In addition, astrocytes release glutamate, leading to a selective activation of granule-cell NMDA receptors. Thus, by releasing excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, astrocytes exert a complex modulatory control on the olfactory network. glutamate | GABA | inhibition | olfactory bulb | synchronization

  18. Are the correlates of active school transport context-specific?

    PubMed Central

    Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research consistently indicates that children who engage in active school transport (AST) are more active than their peers who use motorized modes (car or bus). However, studies of the correlates of AST have been conducted predominantly in high-income countries and have yielded mixed findings. Using data from a heterogeneous sample of 12 country sites across the world, we investigated the correlates of AST in 9–11-year olds. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised 6555 children (53.8% girls), who reported their main travel mode to school and the duration of their school trip. Potential individual and neighborhood correlates of AST were assessed with a parent questionnaire adapted from previously validated instruments. Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood variables and the odds of engaging in AST while controlling for the child's school. Site moderated the relationship of seven of these variables with AST; therefore we present analyses stratified by site. RESULTS: The prevalence of AST varied from 5.2 to 79.4% across sites and the school-level intra-class correlation ranged from 0.00 to 0.56. For each site, the final GLMM included a different set of correlates of AST. Longer trip duration (that is, ⩾16 min versus ⩽15 min) was associated with lower odds of AST in eight sites. Other individual and neighborhood factors were associated with AST in three sites or less. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate wide variability in the prevalence and correlates of AST in a large sample of children from twelve geographically, economically and culturally diverse country sites. This suggests that AST interventions should not adopt a ‘one size fits all' approach. Future research should also explore the association between psychosocial factors and AST in different countries. PMID:27152191

  19. A METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SITE-SPECIFIC TAUTOMERIC AND ZWITTERIONIC MICROSPECIES EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a method for the individual measurement of simultaneously occurring, unimolecular, site-specific "microequilibrium" constants as in, for example, prototropic tautomerism and zwitterionic equilibria. Our method represents an elaboration of that of Nygren et al. (Anal. ...

  20. METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SITE-SPECIFIC TAUTOMERIC AND ZWITTERIONIC MICROSPECIES EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a method for the individual measurement of simultaneously occurring, unimolecular, site-specific “microequilibrium” constants as in, for example, prototropic tautomerism and zwitterionic equilibria. Our method represents an elaboration of that of Nygren et al. (Anal. ...

  1. 12 CFR 217.210 - Standardized measurement method for specific risk

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... deal-specific definitions of default; (B) Relevant information regarding the performance of the... measures of creditworthiness; average loan-to-value ratio; and industry and geographic diversification data... resecuritization positions, performance information on the underlying securitization exposures, for example,...

  2. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  3. Testing Time-Invariance of Variable Specificity in Repeated Measure Designs Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Amemiya, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    A structural equation modeling method for examining time-invariance of variable specificity in longitudinal studies with multiple measures is outlined, which is developed within a confirmatory factor-analytic framework. The approach represents a likelihood ratio test for the hypothesis of stability in the specificity part of the residual term…

  4. A Comparison of a Subject-Specific and a General Measure of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Robert D.; Murray, Harry G.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies reporting gains in college students' critical thinking due to instructional process variables measured critical thinking with subject-specific questions rather than general or decontextualized questions. However, it is uncertain whether these gains were attributable to the use of subject-specific questions or to other…

  5. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  6. Fluorescence of prostate-specific antigen as measured with a portable 1D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong C.; Jeong, Jin H.; Jeong, Dong S.; Kim, Young M.; Oh, Sang W.; Choi, Eui Y.; Kim, Jae H.; Nahm, Kie B.

    2005-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an androgen-dependent glycoprotein protease (M.W. 33 kDa) and a member of kallikrein super-family of serine protease, and has chymotrypsin-like enzymatic activity. It is synthesized by the prostate epithelial cells and found in the prostate gland and seminal plasma as a major protein. It is widely used as a clinical marker for diagnosis, screening, monitoring and prognosis of prostate cancer. In normal male adults, the concentration of PSA in the blood is below 4 ng/ml and this value increases in patients with the prostate cancer or the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) due to its leakage into the circulatory system. As such, systematic monitoring of the PSA level in the blood can provide critical information about the progress of the prostatic disease. We have developed a compact integral system that can quantitatively measure the concentration of total PSA in human blood. This system utilizes the fluorescence emitted from the dye molecules attached to PSA molecules after appropriate immunoassay-based processing. Developed for the purpose of providing an affordable means of fast point-of-care testing of the prostate cancer, this system proved to be able to detect the presence of the PSA at the level of 0.18 ng/ml in less than 12 minutes, with the actual measurement taking less than 2 minutes. The design concept for this system is presented together with the result for a few representative samples.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  8. Pain Inhibition by Optogenetic Activation of Specific Anterior Cingulate Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ling; Uhelski, Megan L.; Anand, Sanjay; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Kim, Young-tae; Fuchs, Perry N.; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative evidence from both humans and animals suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for pain-related perception, and thus a likely target for pain relief therapy. However, use of existing electrode based ACC stimulation has not significantly reduced pain, at least in part due to the lack of specificity and likely co-activation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Herein, we report a dramatic reduction of pain behavior in transgenic mice by optogenetic stimulation of the inhibitory neural circuitry of the ACC expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Electrophysiological measurements confirmed that stimulation of ACC inhibitory neurons is associated with decreased neural activity in the ACC. Further, a distinct optogenetic stimulation intensity and frequency-dependent inhibition of spiking activity in the ACC was observed. Moreover, we confirmed specific electrophysiological responses from different neuronal units in the thalamus, in response to particular types of painful stimuli (i,e., formalin injection, pinch), which we found to be modulated by optogenetic control of the ACC inhibitory neurons. These results underscore the inhibition of the ACC as a clinical alternative in inhibiting chronic pain, and leads to a better understanding of the pain processing circuitry of the cingulate cortex. PMID:25714399

  9. The Amino Acid Specificity for Activation of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Matches the Specificity for Stabilization of Regulatory Domain Dimers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Liver phenylalanine hydroxylase is allosterically activated by phenylalanine. The structural changes that accompany activation have not been identified, but recent studies of the effects of phenylalanine on the isolated regulatory domain of the enzyme support a model in which phenylalanine binding promotes regulatory domain dimerization. Such a model predicts that compounds that stabilize the regulatory domain dimer will also activate the enzyme. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation were used to determine the ability of different amino acids and phenylalanine analogues to stabilize the regulatory domain dimer. The abilities of these compounds to activate the enzyme were analyzed by measuring their effects on the fluorescence change that accompanies activation and on the activity directly. At concentrations of 10–50 mM, d-phenylalanine, l-methionine, l-norleucine, and (S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-1-propanol were able to activate the enzyme to the same extent as 1 mM l-phenylalanine. Lower levels of activation were seen with l-4-aminophenylalanine, l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and 3-phenylpropionate. The ability of these compounds to stabilize the regulatory domain dimer agreed with their ability to activate the enzyme. These results support a model in which allosteric activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase is linked to dimerization of regulatory domains. PMID:26252467

  10. A Method to Measure Hydrolytic Activity of Adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases)

    PubMed Central

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The detection of small amounts (nanomoles) of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases), that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis) to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening. PMID:23472215

  11. The Measurement of the Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice: Two Improved Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, S. Y.; Chun, C. K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two methods for measuring the specific latent heat of ice fusion for high school physics laboratories. The first method is an ice calorimeter which is made from simple materials. The second method improves the thermal contact and allows for a more accurate measurement. Lists instructions for both methods. (Author/YDS)

  12. Specifics of the hail parameter measurements using the optical precipitation gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchikhin, V. V.; Kobzev, A. A.; Korolkov, V. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    There are specifics of use of the obtaining and analyzing precipitation particle shadow images method for the hail precipitation investigations. Descriptions of the method and operation of the new optical rain gauge measuring system are presented. There are estimations of the device capabilities and prospects of its use for measurement of hail characteristics.

  13. Evaluation and management of measurement uncertainty in the new generation Geometrical Product Specification (GPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Heping; Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Zhengao

    2006-11-01

    Because of measurement errors objectively existing, measurement results always deviate from the "true value" of the measurand. Measurement uncertainty, as a quality index characterizing measurement results, attracts more attention worldwide. Its evaluation and expression will help understand measurement results, and promote international technical and commercial communication. According to the International Organization for Standardization ISO/BIPM "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" - usually referred to as the GUM, this paper deals with the way of evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainties, describes the Procedure for Uncertainty of Measurement MAnagement (PUMA) in the new generation Geometrical Product Specification (GPS). An example of uncertainty evaluation with the PUMA method is given to illustrate the validity of PUMA. Since the concept of uncertainty in the new generation GPS has been expanded beyond just measurement uncertainty, the new way of evaluation and management of uncertainty throughout the whole GPS system remains to be developed.

  14. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  15. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  16. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  17. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  18. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  19. Specific conductance measurements in central and western New York streams - A retrospective characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Sinclair, Gaylen J.; Reddy, James E.; Eckhardt, David A.; deVries, M. Peter; Phillips, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Rescue Program funds were used to recover data from paper records for 139 streamgages across central and western New York State; 6,133 different streamflow measurement forms, collected between 1970-80, contained field water-quality measurements. The water-quality data were entered, reviewed, and uploaded into the USGS National Water Information System. In total, 4,285 unique site visits were added to the database. The new values represent baseline water quality from which to measure change and will lead to a comparison of water-quality change over the last 40 years and into the future. Specific conductance was one of the measured properties and represents a simple way to determine if ambient inorganic water quality has been altered by anthropogenic (road salt runoff, wastewater discharges, or natural gas development) or natural sources. The objective of this report is to describe ambient specific conductance characteristics of surface water across the central and western part of New York. This report presents median specific conductance of stream discharge for the period 1970-80 and a description of the relation between specific conductance and concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) retrieved from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database from 1955 to present. The data descriptions provide a baseline of surface-water specific conductance data that can used for comparison to current and future measurements in New York streams.

  20. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  1. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  2. Peptide biosensors for the electrochemical measurement of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Kagan; Song, Haifeng; Duncan, James S; Litchfield, David W; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2008-12-15

    The kinase activities are elucidated using the novel redox-active cosubstrate adenosine 5'-[gamma-ferrocene] triphosphate (Fc-ATP), which enables the kinase-catalyzed transfer of a redox active gamma-phosphate-Fc to a hydroxyamino acid. In this report, a versatile electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring the activity and inhibition of a serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein tyrosine kinases, Abl1-T315I and HER2, in buffered solutions and in cell lysates. The method is based on the labeling of a specific phosphorylation event with Fc, followed by electrochemical detection. The electrochemical response obtained from the "ferrocenylated" peptides enables monitoring the activity of the kinase and its substrate, as well as the inhibition of small molecule inhibitors on protein phosphorylation. Kinetic information was extracted from the electrochemical measurements for the determination of K(m) and V(m) values, which were in agreement with those previously reported. Kinase reactions were also performed in the presence of well-defined inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole, and E-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid as well as the nonspecific kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and N-benzoylstaurosporine. On the basis of the dependency of the Fc signal on inhibitor concentration, K(i) of the inhibitors was estimated, which were also in agreement with the literature values. The performance of the biosensor was optimized including the kinase reaction, incubation with Fc-ATP, and the small molecule inhibitors. Peptide modified electrochemical biosensors are promising candidates for cost-effective in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening assays. PMID:18989981

  3. Effects of active vs. passive recovery on repeated rugby-specific exercises.

    PubMed

    Jougla, A; Micallef, J P; Mottet, D

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of active vs. passive recovery on performance of a rugby-specific intermittent test in rugby union players. Seven male rugby players (20.6+/-0.5 yrs; 181.9+/-10.0 cm; 94.5+/-12.8 kg) performed in random order, over two separate sessions, a specific repeated-sprint rugby test, the Narbonne test (6 x 4 consecutive actions: 1, scrummaging; 2, agility sprinting; 3, tackling; 4, straight sprinting) with 30s of passive or active recovery (running at 50% of maximal aerobic speed). The Narbonne tests were completed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 30-min rugby match. During the Narbonne test, scrum forces, agility and sprint times, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were measured. Scrum forces were lower in active (74.9+/-13.4 kg) than in passive recovery (90.4+/-20.9 kg), only during the post-test (p<0.05). Fatigue index (%) (p<0.05) and total sprint time (s) (p<0.01) were significantly greater in active than in passive recovery, both during the pre-test (11.5+/-5.7% vs. 6.7+/-4.5% and 18.1+/-1.3s vs. 16.9+/-0.9s) and the post-test (7.3+/-3.3% vs. 4.3+/-1.5% and 18.3+/-1.6s vs. 16.9+/-1.1s). Consequently, the results indicated that passive recovery enabled better performance during the Narbonne test. However, it is obviously impractical to suggest that players should stand still during and following repeated-sprint bouts: the players have to move to ensure they have taken an optimal position. PMID:19560972

  4. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  5. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  6. The protein structures that shape caspase activity, specificity, activation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Salvesen, Guy S.

    2004-01-01

    The death morphology commonly known as apoptosis results from a post-translational pathway driven largely by specific limited proteolysis. In the last decade the structural basis for apoptosis regulation has moved from nothing to ‘quite good’, and we now know the fundamental structures of examples from the initiator phase, the pre-mitochondrial regulator phase, the executioner phase, inhibitors and their antagonists, and even the structures of some substrates. The field is as well advanced as the best known of proteolytic pathways, the coagulation cascade. Fundamentally new mechanisms in protease regulation have been disclosed. Structural evidence suggests that caspases have an unusual catalytic mechanism, and that they are activated by apparently unrelated events, depending on which position in the apoptotic pathway they occupy. Some naturally occurring caspase inhibitors have adopted classic inhibition strategies, but other have revealed completely novel mechanisms. All of the structural and mechanistic information can, and is, being applied to drive therapeutic strategies to combat overactivation of apoptosis in degenerative disease, and underactivation in neoplasia. We present a comprehensive review of the caspases, their regulators and inhibitors from a structural and mechanistic point of view, and with an aim to consolidate the many threads that define the rapid growth of this field. PMID:15450003

  7. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation.

    PubMed

    Phelps, E A; O'Connor, K J; Cunningham, W A; Funayama, E S; Gatenby, J C; Gore, J C; Banaji, M R

    2000-09-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. PMID:11054916

  8. The National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database Qualified Clinical Data Registry: 2015 measure specifications and rationale.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; McGirt, Matthew J; Bekelis, Kimon; Holland, Christopher M; Davies, Jason; Devin, Clinton J; Atkins, Tyler; Knightly, Jack; Groman, Rachel; Zyung, Irene; Asher, Anthony L

    2015-12-01

    Meaningful quality measurement and public reporting have the potential to facilitate targeted outcome improvement, practice-based learning, shared decision making, and effective resource utilization. Recent developments in national quality reporting programs, such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Qualified Clinical Data Registry (QCDR) reporting option, have enhanced the ability of specialty groups to develop relevant quality measures of the care they deliver. QCDRs will complete the collection and submission of Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) quality measures data on behalf of individual eligible professionals. The National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD) offers 21 non-PQRS measures, initially focused on spine procedures, which are the first specialty-specific measures for neurosurgery. Securing QCDR status for N(2)QOD is a tremendously important accomplishment for our specialty. This program will ensure that data collected through our registries and used for PQRS is meaningful for neurosurgeons, related spine care practitioners, their patients, and other stakeholders. The 2015 N(2)QOD QCDR is further evidence of neurosurgery's commitment to substantively advancing the health care quality paradigm. The following manuscript outlines the measures now approved for use in the 2015 N(2)QOD QCDR. Measure specifications (measure type and descriptions, related measures, if any, as well as relevant National Quality Strategy domain[s]) along with rationale are provided for each measure. PMID:26621418

  9. Low temperature specific heat measurement of a carbon-carbon composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Migone, A. D.

    A.c. calorimetry was used to determine the value of the specific heat at low temperatures for a sample of Textron's fine weave pierced fabric (FWPF) composite, a three-directional carbon-carbon composite with orthogonal fibre orientation. The heat capacity measurements were performed from 30 to 100 K at nearly 1 K intervals. The specific heat values for the composite are similar to those reported in the literature for graphite in the same temperature range.

  10. Structural basis of specific inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator by plasminogen activators inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lihu; Liu, Min; Zeng, Tu; Shi, Xiaoli; Yuan, Cai; Andreasen, Peter A.; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of death worldwide [1]. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the FDA-approved thrombolytic drug for ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. tPA is a multi-domain serine protease of the trypsin-family [2] and catalyses the critical step in fibrinolysis [3], converting the zymogen plasminogen to the active serine protease plasmin, which degrades the fibrin network of thrombi and blood clots. tPA is rapidly inactivated by endogenous plasminogen activators inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) [4] (Fig. 1). Engineering on tPA to reduce its inhibition by PAI-1 without compromising its thrombolytic effect is a continuous effort [5]. Tenecteplase (TNK-tPA) is a newer generation of tPA variant showing slower inhibition by PAI-1 [6]. Extensive studies to understand the molecular interactions between tPA and PAI-1 have been carried out [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], however, the precise details at atomic resolution remain unknown. We report the crystal structure of tPA·PAI-1 complex here. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1) recombinant expression and purification of a PAI-1 variant (14-1B) containing four mutations (N150H, K154T, Q319L, and M354I), and a tPA serine protease domain (tPA-SPD) variant with three mutations (C122A, N173Q, and S195A, in the chymotrypsin numbering) [19]; (2) formation of a tPA-SPD·PAI-1 Michaëlis complex in vitro [19]; and (3) solving the three-dimensional structure for this complex by X-ray crystallography [deposited in the PDB database as 5BRR]. The data explain the specificity of PAI-1 for tPA and uPA [19], [20], and provide structural basis to design newer generation of PAI-1-resistant tPA variants as thrombolytic agents [19]. PMID:26909366